GAUTAMA. See Buddhism.

GAUTIER,: go"ty6', CHARLES LUCIEN: Swiss Reformed; b. at Cologny (2 m. n.e. of Geneva), Switzerland, Aug. 17, 1850. He studied in Geneva (B.Lit.,1867; B. Théol., 1874), Tübingen, and Leipsic (Ph.D., 1877), and was professor of Old Testament exegesis and theology at Lausanne (Free Church of the Canton of Vaud) from 1877 to 1898, when he retired as honorary professor. He was president of the synod of the Free Church of the Canton of Vaud in 1885, 1886, 1891, and 1892. In theology he is Evangelical in his sympathies, although not an enemy of the critical school. He has written Le Sacerdoce dams l'Ancien Testament (Geneva, 1874); Ad-Dourra al-Fdkhira, la perle precieuse de Ghazali: traits d'eschatologie musulmane (1878); La Mission du prophUe Ez4chiel (Lausanne, 1891); Au del& du Jourdain (Geneva,

1895); Souvenirs de Terre-Sainte (Lausanne, 1898); Vocations des prophdes (1901); Autour de la Mer Morte (Geneva, 1901); and Introduction & l'Ancien Testament (2 vols., Lausanne, 1906).

GAVAZZI,: ga-vat'si, ALESSANDRO: One of the founders of the "Free Church of Italy" (see Italy); b. at Bologna Mar. 21, 1809; d. at Rome Jan. 9, 1889. He entered the Order of Barnabites in 1825, and four years later became professor of rhetoric at Naples. His radical views soon attracted unfavorable notice, and in 1840 he was transferred to a subordinate position in the States of the Church. He welcomed the election of Pius IX. and enthusiastically supported the liberal movement which marked the beginning of the new régime. Appointed chaplain of the Roman troops sent to Lombardy, he assisted in inciting resistance to Austria, but was arrested at Vicenza and confined at Corneto until released by the inhabitants of Viterbo. The change in the papal policy, however, filled him with hatred of the pope, and on the capture of Rome and the reinstatement of Pius in 1849, he fled to England and renounced his faith. He then became pastor of a Protestant Italian congregation in London, and lectured in England, Scotland, and Ireland against his former religion. In 1860 he joined the army of Garibaldi as a chaplain, and after the establishment of the kingdom of Italy resided in Rome, where in 1877 he started a theological seminary for the "Free Church," of which he was the principal founder (see Italy), and officiated as professor of dogmatics, apologetics, and polemics. Among his numerous works special mention may be made of the following: Memoirs (London, 1851); Orations (1851); Lectures in New York (New York, 1853); Recollections of the Last Four Popes (London, 1858); Records of Two Years' Christian Work in Italy (1865); La Bibbia regola di fede degli evangelici (Florence, 1868); Dei Con cilt ecumenici (1869); No Union with Rome (London, 1871); and The Priest in Absolution (1877).

Bibliography: G. M. Campanella and G. B. Nicolini, Biography of Father Gavazzi, New York, 1853 (prefixed to the Lectures); J. w. King, Alessandro Gavazzi: a Biography, London, 1860.


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