GAUDEN, g8'den, JOHN: Bishop of Worcester; b. at Mayland (35 m. e.n.e. of London) 1605; d. at Worcester Sept. 20, 1662. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A..1623; M.A., 1626), and at Wadham College, Oxford (B.D., 1635; D.D., 1641). In 1640 he became vicar of Chippenham and chaplain to the earl of Warwick, through whose influence he was nominated to the deanery of Bocking in 1641. On Nov. 29,1640, he preached before the House of Commons. He was a member of the Westminster Assembly in 1643, but on account of his conservative views on episcopacy was soon removed from that body. Although he opposed the policy of Cromwell and published a number of books in behalf of the Church of England, he conformed to Presbyterianism and continued to hold his preferments throughout the Protectorate. At the Restoration in 1660 he was made chaplain to the king and bishop of Exeter, and in 1662 he was translated to the see of Worcester. He was a member of the Savoy Conference (q.v.); and according to Baxter, if all had possessed his moderation the Episcopalians and Presbyterians would have been quickly reconciled. Gauden was probably the author of Eik6n Basilik8; the Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitudes and Sufferings (1648), an ostensible work of Charles I. that quickly passed through twenty-seven editions. The book was translated into Latin and was attacked by Milton in his Eikonoclastes (1649). It is a defense of the king'P conduct and an account of his misfortunes from 1640 to 1648, interpolated with prayers and meditations.
Bibliography: On the authorship of Rikbn Basilika consult C. Wordsworth, Who wrote Etwor PaouA4eqt Cambridge, 1824; idem, King Charks 1., Author of Icon Basilike, ib. 1828; H. J. Todd, A Letter . . . concerning the Authorship, 1825. On Gauden consult: A. A Wood, Athmas Osonienese, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 612-618, 4 vols., London, 1813-20; T. Baker, Hist. of CoUsps of Bt. John.
Oliver, Lives of the Bishops of Exeter, pp. 150-151, London, 1861; DNB, xxi. 69-72.
GAUDENTIUS: Bishop of Brixia (the present Brescia); b. probably at Brixia c. 360; d. probably soon after 410. He was a.pupil of Philastrius (q.v.) and may have been consecrated by him. He was absent oa a journey to Jerusalem and Cappadocia when Philastrius died, and clergy and people unanimously chose him bishop and asked for his return. Gaudentius accepted the position reluctantly, entering on his duties about 387. Little. is known of his further activity. With two other deputies of the Emperor Honorius and of the Roman Bishop Innocent I. he went to Greece to intercede for Chrysostom (q.v.) before the Emperor Arcadius; the mission was unsuccessful, but Gaudentius won Chrysostom's gratitude by his act of love. Gaudentius must have been still alive in 410, in. which year Rufinus dedicated to him his translation of the Recognitiones of Clement.
Gaudentius wrote a number of small treatises, among them ten sermons on Easter (c. 390), which are dedicated to a certain Benevolus who was prevented by sickness from attending service in the church. The first sermon is addressed to candidates for baptism and treats of the celebration of Easter on the basis of Ex. xii.; the others were delivered before baptized persons. Six of them treat of Christ, the true paschal lamb, and the Lord's Supper; the eighth and ninth, of the wedding-feast at Cana and virginity; the tenth, of Easter in particular and of Sunday in general. With these ten sermons go eleven addresses on miscellaneous subjects, and two letters. The addresses are plain and simple and by no means deficient in beautiful thoughts. Like his contemporaries he shows an inclination to allegorical interpretation of Scripture.
Bibliography: An excellent edition of the sermons in by P. Gagliardi. Padua, 1720, reproduced essentially in MPL, xx. 827-1002. On the life of Gaudentius consult: ASB, Oct., xi. 587-604; MPL, xx. 791-826; G. Brunati, Lepgendario o.vite di sang Bresaani, pp. 73-104, Brescia, 1834; J. Nirsehl, Lehrbuch der Patrologie and Patrsatik, ii. X93, Mainz, 1883.
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