FULLONIUS, GULIELMUS (Gulielmus Gnapheus, Willem van de Voldersgraft,WillemdeVolder): Protestant theologian; b. at The Hague, Holland, 1493; d. at Norden (75 m. n.w. of Bremen), Hanover, 1568. He received a humanistic education and became at an early age teacher in his native city, but had to flee after various persecutions on account of his faith. From 1535 to 1541 he was rector of the gymnasium in Elbing, then went to Königsberg as counselor of Duke Albert and was active there from 1544 to 1547 as rector of the academy. Expelled also from there he went to East Frisia, where he died. On his theological conflicts see Briessmann, Johann; Staphylus, Fridericus.

(A. Hauck.)

Bibliography: Studied en Biidrapen op't gebied der historiechs Theologie verzameld door . . . J. G. de Hoop-Scheffer, Amsterdam, 1868; P. Tschackert, Urkundenbuch z ur Reformataonegeschichte des Herzopthums Preussen, i. 254 sqq., Leipsic, 1890; ADB, ix. 278-280.

FULTON, JOHN: Protestant Episcopalian; b. in Glasgow, Scotland, Apr. 2, 1834; d. in Philadelphia Apr. 24, 1907. He studied in Aberdeen, and at the age of sixteen left Scotland for the United States. In 1857 he was ordained priest in New Orleans and after serving as rector and journalist Was appointed in 1892 professor of canon law in the Divinity School of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. He wrote Letters an Christian Unity (New York, 1868); Index Canonum (1872); Laius of Marriage (1883); The Beautiful Land: Palestine, Historical, Geographical, and Pictorial (3891); The Chalcedonian Decree: or, Historical Christianity Misrepresented by Modern Theology Confirmed by Modern Science, and Untouched by Modern Criticism (Slocum lectures; 1892); and Memoirs of Frederic A. P. Barnard (1896). He also edited Ten Epochs of Church History (New York, 1897-99).

FUNCK, JOHANN: Lutheran divine; b. at Wdhrd (a suburb of Nuremberg), Germany, Feb. 7, 1518; beheaded at Königsberg Oct. 28, 1566. After obtaining the master's degree at Wittenberg, and after preaching in several places, he was recommended to Duke Albert of Prussia by Veit Dietrich, and accordingly went to Königsberg in 1547, where the duke was so pleased with the young clergyman that he made him his court preacher (1549). On the outbreak of the Osiandrian controversy, Funck sided with Osiander and his son-in-law Andreas Aurifaber (q.v.), physician in ordinary to the duke; when Osiander died (Oct. 17, 1552), Funck delivered the eulogy. Joachim Morlin (q.v.), his principal opponent, was obliged to leave Prussia in 1553, and Funck was then considered the dominant theological representative of Osiander's teaching. Duke John Albert of Mecklenburg, the Lutheran son-in-law of Duke Albert of Prussia, long tried to influence his father-in-law against his protfe, and Funek was obliged to retract certain "heresies" at a synod held at Riesenburg in 1556 and to promise to abide by the Augsburg Confession and the Loci of Melanchthon. The duke still showed him great favor, however, but after his marriage to Osiander's daughter, the widow of Aurifaber, who died Dec. 12, 1559, the wrath of Osiander's opponents now turned upon Funek, who was both the confessor and counselor of the duke and treasurer of the duchess. The dissension was increased by alien adventurers like Paul Skalich, who took advantage of the senile duke, while councilors belonging to the highest nobility were pushed aside. The estates, feeling that their rights were infringed, appealed to the suzerain of the country, King Sigismund II. of Poland, who sent a commission in Aug., 1566, to Königsberg to investigate the matter. Funek, together with the councilors Horst, Schell, and Steinbach, was charged with opposition to the ecclesiastical and political governance of the state, and the Polish commission directed that the case be tried by the court in the Kneiphof, Königsberg, thus putting the accused at the mercy of their enemies. While it was true that Funek's position rendered him partly liable for the measures of the duke, Albert gave the final decision and was, therefore, personally responsible. Little value can be attached to the confession extorted from the prisoner by threats of torture, and there is, therefore, no tangible evidence of guilt. Nevertheless, Funck, Horst, and Schnell were condemned and executed in the Kneiphof market-place at Königsberg; Steinbach had to leave the country; and Paul Skalich, the real cause of the mischief, had the good fortune to escape.


The works of Funck are as follows: Chronologia ab urbe condita (2 vols., Königsberg, 1545-52); expositions of Psalms xlvi. (1548), ciii. (1549), and ix. (1551); Auszug and kurzer Bericht von der Ge rechtigkeit der Christen für Gott (1552); Wahrhaftiger and grundlicher Berieht wie and was Gestalt die drgerliche Spaltung van der Gerechtigkeit des Glaubens sich anfdinglich im Lande Preussen erhoben (1553); Der Patriarehen Lehre and Glauben (1554); Vier Predigten von der Reekdfertigung des Sunders durch den Glauben für Gott. Item: Kurtze Bekenntnis (1563).

Paul Tschackert.

Bibliography: K. A. Hase, Herzog AlbrecUvon Preussen uxd rein Hofprediger, Leipsic, 1789 (really a biography of Funck); P. Techaekert, Urkundenbuch zur Reformataona geschichte des Herzogthums Preussen, i. iii., Leipsic, 1890 (contains essays on Funek's life up to 1551); idem, Un gedruckte Briefs zur allgemeinen Refomeationageschichte, Göttingen, 1894.


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