FRANKFORT, SYNOD OF, 794: A gathering convened by Charlemagne at Frankfort, attended, according to later writers, by 300 bishops from Germany, Gaul, England, Spain, and Italy, and two delegates of the pope. Fifty-six canons are ascribed to it, the most important being the first, condemning Felix and Elipandus, the leaders of the Adoptionists; and the second, condemning the decisions of the Second Council of Nicaea (787) concerning image-worship, which had.been accepted by Pope Adrian I. See Adoptionism; Caroline Books; Images and Image-worship, II.
Bibliography: Hefele, Conoiliengeschichte, iii. 678-693; Mansx, Concilia, vol. xiii.
FRANKINCENSE: An aromatic substance made
of the resin secured from the bark of different trees,
The Hebrew term is
and the Arabic
frankincense means "free (-burning) incense." The
gum is a product of South Arabia and was known to
commerce as early at least as the seventeenth century B.C.; it was never cultivated in Palestine, and
the word. for the so-called dark frankincense from
Lebanon is usually translated by the word "myrrh."
The trade in frankincense was important; there was
a deity whose significance was due to his function
as a protector of the industry and the growth of
the material; it is believed that the name
comes from the word meaning "collector of frankincense." The gathering of the raw material was
associated with peculiar customs, the product being
regarded as the blood of a tree the soul of which
was a divinity. The beat kind was that known as
masculine frankincense (Pliny, Hist. mat., xii. 32).
The substance became an article of luxury; wine
was spiced with it, it figured in the presents to kings
Bibliography: G. E. Post, Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, Beirut, 1896; atade, in ZATW, iii (1883), 143 sqq., 168 sqq.; F. Hommel, Altisraelitische Ueberlieferungen, pp. 279 sqq., Munich, 1897; idem, Aufsatze and Abhandlungen, vol. ii. passim, ib. 1900; idem, Die Insel der Seligen, pp. 12, 18, ib. 1901; DB, 1 65, 469; EB, 1 1563-64; JE, v. 494-495.
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