FRANKFORT RECESS (or AGREEMENT; called also Frankfort Book, Formula pacis Francofor diance): A document signed Mar. 18, 1558, aim ing to compose the disputes between the strictly orthodox Lutherans with Matthias Flacius (q.v.) as their leader and the Philippists (q.v.) who adhered to Melanchthon. The gulf between the two parties had been widened by personal quarrels between the two Saxon lines, the Ernestine line as protector of Flacius and the Albertine line as protector of Melanchthon, also by the rivalry of the University of Wittenberg and the newly founded University of Jena, which took side with Flacius. The Evan gelical estates tried to settle the conflict by appoint ingaconvention at Frankfort in June 1557, but it did notcomeabout. The Consultationof Worms (Aug. Dec.1557; see Woftma) proved ineffectual since the princes did not appear. When Ferdinand I. was proclaimed emperor in Frankfort in Mar., 1558, the Electors Ottheinrich of the Palatinate, August of Saxony and Joachim II. of Brandenburg in duced Count Palatine Wolfgang of Zweibr├╝cken, Duke Christopher of W frttemberg, and Land grave Philip of Hesse, to take a personal part in consultations over the settlement of the disputes.

The negotiations took place on the basis of a recommendation of Melanchthon, which was approved and made the basis of an agreement signed by the abovementioned estates. The introduction of the recess attempts to refute the reproaches of the Roman Catholics that the Evangelicals disagreed among themselves. It was stated that they did not intend to set up a new confession, but rather'to adhere to the pure doctrine as laid down in the Bible, the three principal creeds, and the Augsburg Confession with the Apology. They thought it advisable, however, to discuss some points of controversy on the. basis of the Augsburg Confession: (1) justification; man is justified by faith alone. (2) Good works; new obedience is necessary in the justified. (3) The sacrament of the body and blood of Christ; Christ is really present in the Lord's Supper. (4) Adiaphora; minor ceremonies may be used or omitted without sin and detriment. Then follows a number of resolutions upon which the princes had agreed; new controversies should not be divulged, but examined by the consiatories and superintendents; no theological treatises should be printed without having gone through the hands of the censor; the publication of libelous treatises should be strictly prohibited; consiatoriea and superintendents should be instructed to depose from his office any one who taught or acted in disagreement with the confession; the old differences should be forgiven and forgotten to make possible an agreement of all Evangelical estates on the basis of this recess; the other estates fahould be invited to join the recess.

The recess was received differently in various places. For some the real presence of Christ ,was not taught with sufficient emphasis. Others censured the recess because heresies were not specially noted and condemned. Others again complained because secular princes had assumed the right to decide on ecclesiastical doctrines without the consultation of theologians. But the strongest opposition came from Jena and Weimar. In Weimar Amsdorf at the order of John Frederick of Saxony attacked the recess, and in Jena Flacius wrote two replies, which seem to have been circulated in manuscript only-Refzctcttio Sdmctritani interim, in quo uses religio cum sectis et corrupts lis scelerate et Perrticiose confunditur, and Grund and Ursach, warum das Frankfurter Interim in keinem Weg snzunehmen. The same arguments' were used by the theologians whom John Frederick of Saxony asked in 1558 to reply to the invitation of the six princes to join the recess. They were answered by Melanchthon at the order of the electoral court, in a treatise entitled Resporesum Melsnchthonis de cerasura formuke pads Frsncofordiance, scripts a Theologis Wimariensibus (Sept. 24, 1558, in CR, ix. 617 sqq.). John Frederick did not succeed in gathering the opponents of the recess in Magdeburg; but on the other hand, the purpose of the recess to settle the controversies was not attained.

(C. Enders.)

Bibliography: The document is best preserved in CR, ix. 499 sqq. A monograph is J. F. Lebret, De recesau Franeo- lurti, 1668, T├╝bingen, 1796. C. A. Fslig, Haatorie der

augaburpeachen Confession, iii. 363 sqq., Hulls, 1745; G. J. Planck, Geschichte . . . unsers protestantxachen Lehr-


begriffs, vi. 174 sqq.i Leipsic, 1800; W. Preger, Matthias Fladus Illyricus und seine Zeit, ii. 70, Erlangen, 1861; J. C. L. Gieseler, Church History, ed. H. B. Smith, iv. 444 sqq., New York, 1868 (valuable as' a summary).


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