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FREPPEL, frep"gel', CHARLES EMILE: French Roman Catholic prelate; b. at Ehnheim (14 m. n. of Schlettstadt), Alsace, June 1, 1827; d. at Paris Dec. 22, 1891. He studied at Strasburg and was ordained priest in 1849. After teaching philoso phy at a Carmelite school in Paris and being di rector of the episcopal college at Strasburg, he be came one of the staff of Ste. Geneviave at Paris in 1853 and dean in 1867. From 1854 to 1870 he was professor of sacred eloquence in the faculty of Roman Catholic theology at Paris. In 1869 he was called to Rome to assist in the preliminary ar-

rangements for the Vatican Council, and was a pronounced adherent of the dogma of papal infallibility. He was consecrated bishop of Angers in 1870, and was s vigorous prelate, being active in organizing pilgrimages to Paray-le-Monial, Puy, and elsewhere, and in founding a Catholic university at Angers. In 1880 he was returned as deputy from Brest, and became the leader of the clerical party. He attracted great notice by his opposition to the government, and by his outspoken ultramontanism, as well as by his antiGerman sentiments. He favored the expeditions to Tunis (1881), Tonkin (1883), and Madagascar (1885), but his interference in Prussian ecclesiastical affairs was so active that it was suppressed by the French government. His numerous works include: Les Pyres apostoliqtsea et leur 6poque (Paris, 1859); Les Apologiates chrEtierta au dear xii'me sie'cle (1860); St. Irdttde (1861); Examen critique de la vie de Jdatts-Christ par M. Renart (1863); ConfErencea our la divinitk do Jesus-Christ (1863); Tertullien (2 vols., 1864); St. Cyprien (1865); Cldmettt d'Alezandrie (1865); Examen critique des apStres de M. Reran (1866); Orighne (2 vols., 1888); (Euvres pastorales et oratoires (9 vols., 1869-94); (Euvres polkntiques (9 vols., 1874-88); L'9gliae et les outriers (1876); Les devoirs du ehr6tiert dens la vie eivile (1876); and La Vie ehrdierane (1879). After his death appeared his Bossuet et t'doquzrtce sacr6e au dix-aeptihrrte side (2 vols., 1893); Sermons in6dits (2 vols., 1895), and Les 0┬╗gitnea du christictnisme (2 vols., 1903).

Bibliography: J. Subilesu, Cinquante am do ministers paroiaaial et d'autoritd dpiscopale an Anjou. Mgr. Anpe bault et Mgr. Freppal, 2 parts, Paris, 1894; A. Ramrd, Monseigneur Fmpped, i6,. 1892; E. Cotnut, Mgr. Freppsl d'aprpa tea documents authantiquea at in&lite, i6,. 1893; E. Lesur sad F. Bournand, Un grand duEque: Mgr. Freppei , i6,. 1893. '

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