FISCH, GEORGES: Swiss Protestant; b. at Nyon (14 m. n. of Geneva), Switzerland, July 6, 1814; d. at Vallorbe (30 m. n.w. of Lausanne) July 3, 1881. After finishing his theological studies at Lausanne he was pastor of a small German church at V6vay for five years. In 1846 he went to Lyons, France, as assistant to Adolphe Monod (q.v.) of the Free Church, whom he suc ceeded. In 1855 he was called to Paris to succeed Louis Bridel. He was warmly attached to the cause of the Free Churches, took part in the con stitutional synod of 1849, and was president of the Synodal Commission from 1863 till his death. He was the chief support of the Evangelical Alliance in France and attended the conferences at London, Paris, Berlin, Geneva, Amsterdam and New York.


He was an active member of various home and foreign missionary societies. His principal publications are, Union d es 6glises dvangdliques de France (Paris, 1882); and Les Mats-Unis en 1861 (1802).

FISCHER, ANTON HUBERT: Cardinal; b. at Rilich (15 m. n.e. of Aachen), Germany, May 30, 1840. He studied in Bonn and Münster, and was ordained to the priesthood at Cologne in 18&3. After being instructor in religion at the gymnasium of Essen 1864-88, he was consecrated titular bishop of Juliopolis and suffragan bishop of Cologne. In 1903 he became archbishop of Cologne, and in the same year was created cardinal priest of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo, Rome. He has also been canon of Cologne Cathedral since 1888 and dean of the chapter since 1894, while in 1904 he was nominated to the Prussian House of Lords. Among his writings mention may be made of his De salute in fidelium, (Essen, 1886).

FISH.-1. In the Old Testament: In the Old Testament fish are not named by species. The large aquatic animals, including the crocodile, are designated as tannin (see Dragon). The food-law (Lev. xi.9-12), aiming ostensibly at a classification of fish, divides all things that move in the water into those that have scales and fins and those that have not, the former being clean, the latter unclean. Almost all fish belong to the first class. In Palestine fish abound in the Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, and in perennial brooks. The Sea of Galilee has a few varieties not found elsewhere, except in tropical waters like the Nile.

There is seldom mention of fish as food in early Biblical times. After the Exile, and with the advance of the art of cooking, fish became a mole important article of diet. The Tyrians marketed their fish, dried and salted, in Jerusalem (Neh. xiii. 16), where a city-gate near the fish-market was called the "fish-gate" (Neh. iii. 3, and elsewhere). Salt fish (Gk. tarichE) was imported from Egypt. The name of the town Tarichese on the Sea of Galilee and the frequent mention of brine in the Mishnah show that the custom of pickling fish obtained in Palestine. In the time of Jesus fish was a common article of food (Matt. vii. 10, xiv. 17, xv. 34; Luke xxiv. 42).

No account of the catching of fish has come down from the older Biblical period; but figures of speech employed by the prophets show that fishing was generally known (Amos iv. 2; Jer. xvi. 16; Ezek. xxix. 4; and elsewhere). In the New Testament professional fishers lived near the Sea of Galilee (Luke v. 1-2, and elsewhere). As regards fishing tackle, various nets are mentioned in the New Testament; the large drag-net (saglne, Matt. xiii. 47), as well as the casting-net (diktyon -the small, amphiblestron=ethe large casting-net, Matt. iv. 18-20) were certainly in use in the older period (Is. xix. 8; Hab. i. 15). Fishing-hooks (Job xli. 1; Amos iv. 2; Matt. xvii. 27) and spears or harpoons are also mentioned (Job xli. 7). Fishing was carried on chiefly by night.

I. Benzinger.

2. As a Symbol and in Christian Art see Symbolism.

Bibliography: The best treatment is in H. B. Tristram, Survey of Western Palestine, Lhe Fauna and Flora, London, 1884. A comprehensive discussion may be found in EB, ii. 1528-31, of. i. 519-523 (on " Behemoth and' Leviathan "). Consult also: DB, ii. 11-12; J. (3. Wood, Bible Animals, New York, 1883; Benzinger, Archäologie, pp. 39, 91, 9A, 205.


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