FINTAN, SAINT, known also as Munnu: Irish saint; d. at Taghmon, County Wexford (10 m. w. of Wexford), 635. He was a disciple of Comgall of Bangor. Having finished his studies, he applied for admission at Iona, but was rejected by the abbot, Baithene, who said he was acting as directed by Columba. Fintan then lived at many places in Ireland, but finally settled at Taghmon, where he became the leader of the opposition in South Ireland -to the Roman Easter and other Roman customs. At the second of the two synods held to consider the matter he proposed to submit the question to the ordeal by fire and water or to a contest in miraculous power, and, when this was refused, suggested, it is said, that every one should follow hiss own conscience. Many stories are told illustrating his rugged character. He was impulsive, wilful, and combative, but also generous and faithful, and was highly venerated in Ireland and Scotland. His day is Oct. 21.

Bibliography: ASB, Oct., ix. 325-342; C. de Smedt and J. de Backer. Ads sanctarum Hibernia, pp. 393-414, 489-504, Edinburgh, 1888; Lanigan, Beet. Hist., ii. 404-409; DNB, xix. 42-43; DCB, ii. 520.

FIRE-WORSHIPERS. See Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism.

FIRMICUS. See Maternus, Julius Firmicus.

FIRMILIAN: Bishop of Cmsarea in Cappar docia; d. at Tarsus in GSlicia 264, while on the way to the synod in Antioch against Paul of Samosata He became bishop of Cæsarea in 232 (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., vi. 26), and with Dionysius of Alexandria (q.v.) ranked as one of the most eminent churchmen of his time in the East. He was a friend of Origen (Eusebius, vi. 27), and an opponent of the Novatians (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., VI., xlvi. 3; cf. VII., v. 1). He is especially known for his antagonism to Pope Stephen I. in the strife over baptism by heretics (see Heretic Baptism). In a long letter to Cyprian of Carthage, preserved in Latin translation among Cyprian's letters Oxxv. [lxxiv]; Eng. transl. in ANF, v. 390-397), he emphatically maintains that heresy lacks the Spirit, and that a heretic baptism is invalid. He also speaks of the °"audacity, insolence," and " pride" of the Roman bishop, and, under cover of reference to the paschal controversies, deduces the conclusion that Rome by no means invariably appeared as the custodian


of true tradition. This letter is his only extant work. Of its genuineness, once contested in Roman Catholic quarters, there should be no doubt; and Ritschl's assumption of interpolations is to be rejected. Firmilian is celebrated in the Oriental Church on Oct. 28.

G. Krüger.

Bibliography: O. Ritschl, Cvprian von Karthavo, pp. 126- 134, Göttingen, 1885; Harnack, Litteratur, i. 407 sqq.; J. Ernst, in ZKT, xviii (1894), 2DD-259 (On the genuine- new of the letter); E. w. Benson, Cupr:on, his L:t°. Timeeand Work, pp. 387-398, London, 1897; DCB, ii. 621-522.


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