FOAKES - JACKSON, FREDERICK JOHN Church of England; b. at Ipswich, Suffolk, Aug* 10, 1855. He studied at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1879), and was ordered deacon in 1879 and ordained priest in 1880. In 1882 he was appointed divinity lecturer' in Jesus College, Cambridge, and was elected fellow in 1886. Since 1895 he has been dean in the same college, as well as assistant tutor since 1896. He was curate of Ottershaw, Surrey, 1879-81, of St: Giles, Cambridge, 1882-84, and St. Botolph, Cambridge, 1884-90. He has been examining chaplain to the bishop of Peterborough since 1897 and honorary canon of Peterborough since 1901. He was also select preacher at Cambridge in 1885, 1887, and 1902, and Hulsean Lecturer in 1902 and has written: History of the Christian Church to A.D. 337 (London, 1891); Christian Difficulties in the Second and Twentieth Centuries (Hulsean Lectures for 1902; 1903); A Biblical History of the Hebrews (Cambridge, 1903); and Christ in the Church (London, 1905).

FOLMAR OF TRIEFENSTEIN: Provost of the chapter of Sts. Peter and Paul at Triefenstein (on the Main below W├╝rzburg) from the middle of the twelfth century; d., according .to Kattner, 1181. Belonging to the dialectic school in theology, he had his own opinions on the dogma of the Lord's Supper.

They proceeded from the prevalent view that after the ascension of the Lord .his body is locally circumscribed in heaven. From this Folmar logically concluded that Christ had never since been on earth and furthermore, as regards the Lord's Supper, that he is not corporaliter in the sacrament. But far from being another Berengar (see Berengar of Tours), for Folmar the doctrine of transubstantiation is rather the presupposition of his theory. The peculiarity of his view consisted only in his belief that the Christian drinks the blood simply and purely without the flesh,. and eats the flesh of Christ simply and purely without the bones and limbs of the body. It is evident that there is taught here on the one side the transformation into the substance of the body and blood and repudiated on the other aide the transformation into the historical body of Christ. Folmar was vehemently opposed by his Bavarian brethren, especially by Gerhoh of Reichersberg (q.v.). Bishop Eberhard of Bamberg convoked a conference: at Bamberg where be convinced him of his heterodoxy.

Gerhoh attacked also Folmar's Christology, and the latter defended himself by a treatise, De carne et anima verbi Dei, which unfortunately is lost. Folmar made a sharp distinction between the two natures of Christ, teaching that Christ in so far as he is man is not the proper and natural son of God. Only in so far is Christ equal to the Father as he is one with him in essence. Folmar's treatise excited the wrath of the Salzburg theologians. It was just before .the great papal schism. Gerhoh as a follower of Alexander III. attempted .to secure Folmar's condemnation at the .papal court, but Alexander wished to hear both parties. That, however, was impossible because Eberhard of Bamberg and, in all probability, Folmar also, recognized Victor IV. as pope. But Alexander had no desire to make matters worse by a dogmatic dispute. So he urged Gerhoh to be silent.

A. Hauck.

Bibliography: Letters by and to Folmar are in MPL, exciv. 1481-90. Consult: Gerhob's letters, v., vii., xiii., xv., xx., in MPL, cxciii. 494-575, and De 9loria e! honors, xiii. 1 sqq., in MPL, exciii. 1117-1125: the ApolopeEicus of Arno of Reiehersberg; J. Bash, Dogmenpeaeh%chte des Mittelalters, i. 398, ii. 431, Vienna, 1873-?5.


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