FLAVIAN OF CONSTANTINOPLE: Bishop of Ccnstantinople; b. in the second half of the fourth century; d. at Hypepe in Lydia, 449. Little is known concerning him except his part in the Eutychian controversy (See Eutychianism)


although Theophanes and Nicephorus, apparently basing their statements on reliable tradition, say that before his consecration he was a presbyter and skmophylax in Constantinople. Where he received his education is unknown, nor is his theological position absolutely determined either by the attacks made on him by Dioscurus of Alexandria, which were not necessarily theological in origin, or by his own opposition to Eutyches, which seems to have been inspired by Eusebius of Dorylseum. He was apparently Antiochian in his dogmatics, thus explaining the hostility of Chrysa phius, the Alexandrine favorite of the emperor. Flavian was finally condemned and deposed for his share in the Eutychian controversy by the "Rob ber Synod" of Ephesus in 449 and died shortly afterward. There is no evidence, however, that his death was other than natural, although the Greek Church reckons him a martyr, and celebrates his festival on Feb. 18.

(F. Loofs.)

Bibliography: : Two of Flavisn'e letters again-t Eutychee are printed in the Acts of the Synod of Ephesus. Consult: ASB, Feb., iii. 71-79; DCB, ii. 532; AL, iv. 1642-1544; Ceillier, Auteurs sacrés, vol. x., passim.

FLECHIER, ESPRIT: Bishop of Nimes; b. at Pernes (10 m. n.e. of Avignon), in the county of Avignon, June 10, 1632; d. at Montpellier Feb. 16, 1710. His uncle, the learned monk Hercule Audiffret, educated him from 1648 to 1658 in the college of the Congr6gation des Doctrinaires, of which he was director. After the death of his uncle Fldchier went to Paris and devoted himself to the art of poetry. He attracted some attention by a Latin poem on a grand tournament held by Louis XIV., but the lack of an influential patron forced him to take the position of a teacher in the country. Later he returned to Paris where he was active as pulpit orator and author. He attracted the attention of Louis XIV. and won his permanent favor. He became a rival of Bossuet, but his orations were at times too artificial and lacked great and high thoughts. He won lasting fame only by his funeral orations, that on Marshal Turenne (1676) being his masterpiece. In 1673 he became a member of the Academy, together with Racine. In 1685 he was made bishop of Lavaur, and in 1687 of Nimes. As bishop he was greatly beloved, eve by the Protestants who hid i* his diocese, on accoun of his mildness and great benevolence. Besid his funeral oration on Turenne may be mentioned those on Lamoignon, president of the chamber (1679), on Queen Maria Theresia (1682), on Chan cellor Le Tellier (1686), on Marie Anna, Dauphine of France (1690), and on his friend the Duke of Montausier (1690). He also wrote biographies of the Emperor Theodosius (Paris, 1679) and of Car dinal Ximenes (1693). Inferior in value are twenty-five orations on Advent and eight mission ary and synodical speeches. His (Euvres comylUes were published in ten volumes at Nimes, 1782, and at Paris, 1828.

(C. Pfender.)

Bibliography: A. Delacroix, Hist. da Plichier, Paris. 1865: Lichtenberger. RSR, iv. 767-773 (elaborate): valuable material is found in the prefaoee to his (Suvras complNes·


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