FLATT, JOHANN FRIEDRICH. See Tübingen School, The Older.

FLATTICH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH: Swabian preacher and pedagogue; b. at Beihingen near Ludwigsburg (8 m. n. of Stuttgart) Oct. 3, 1713;


d. at Manchingen (7 m. n.w. of Stuttgart) June 1, 1797. He went through the usual course of study of the Württemberg theologians, became preacher in Hohenasperg in 1742, in Metterzimmern in 1747, and in Manchingen in 1760. Though he always remained a simple country parson, he possessed a marked personality, an original wit ,and a clear perception which in its judgment of men and things was remarkably accurate. He was sincere, upright, and courageous enough to tell the truth to the reigning duke and his courtiers. His theological position was that of Bengel, whose disciple he was, and he was as mild as his teacher and avoided all theological Sad churchly extremes, both of Pietism and of rationalism.

He is chiefly known as a teacher. Even while a student he began to instruct young people from pure love, and continued this activity until his old age. He usually had fifteen to twenty pupils in his home, children and youths from every class and destined for the most different vocations. His methods of teaching were entirely original. By the influence of his vital Christian personality, by the power of his forbearing, active, supplicating love, he made efficient men even from the most cankerous material.

(H. Mosapp.)

Bibliography: K. F. Ledderhose, Leben and Schrsften room

J. F. Flattich, Heidelberg, 1873; idem, Z9pe Gus dam Lebm lee . . . J. F. Flattich, Stuttgart, 1873; C. Schäfer, Flatr"'s pddagopisches System, Frankfort, 1871; P. Paulus, J. F. Flattieh, sin Sokrates unserer Zeit, Stuttgart, 1875; G. Weitbreht, J. F. FlattdWs psydologische Beiträge aw Gymnasialpddapopik, ib. 1873.

FLAVEL, JOHN: English Presbyterian; b. At Bromsgrove (12 m. s.s.w. of Birmingham), Worcestershire, c. 1630; d. at Exeter, Devonshire, June 26, 1691. He studied at Oxford and in 1650 became curate of Diptford, in Devonshire. In 1656 he removed to Dartmouth. On being deprived of his living in 1662 by the Act of Uniformity, he continued to preach privately until the Five Mile Act (1665) drove him from Dartmouth. He then retired to Slapton, five miles away, where he continued to preach. bn the granting of the indulgence of 1671 he resumed his services at Dartmouth. Later the privilege of preaching was withdrawn from him and he was forced to seek safety in London. Afterward he returned to Dartmouth and met his people nightly at his own house, until in 1687, on the relaxation of the penal laws, they built a meeting-house for him. Flavel was a voluminous writer of popular works strongly Evangelical in sentiment, including, Husbandry Spiritualized (London, 1669); Navigation Spiritualized (1671); A Saint Indeed (1671); The Fountain of Life Opened (1672); The, Seaman's Companion (1676); and An Exposition of the Assembly's Catechism (1693). There have been several collected editions of his works (new ed., 6 vols., London, 1820), and some of his writings are still reprinted as tracts.

Bibliography: ; The Life is prefixed to the collected edition

of his Works. Consult: A. b Wood, Athena: Oxonisnaea, ed. P. Bliss, iv. 323-326, London, 1820; S. Palmer, Non. conformists' Memorial, ii. 18-22, London, 1778.


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