FISTULA: A tube, usually of gold or silver, through which the consecrated wine of the Eucharist was administered to the communicant. Its use came up in the sixth century, when the particularly holy character of this wine was generally recognized. The priests had never used it themselves, and so, when the cup was withdrawn from the laity, the fistula. was entirely laid aside, except in the papal masses, where to-day the pope receives the Eucharistic wine through a go

FITZGERALD, JAMES NEWBURY: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Newark, N. J., July 27, 1837; d. at Hongkong, China, Apr. 3, 1907. He was admitted to the New Jersey bar in 1858, but in 1862 gave up his practise and entered the Methodist ministry. After holding various pastorates in the Newark Conference he was recording secretary of the Missionary Society of-the Methodist Episcopal Church, from 1880 till in 1888 he was elected bishop. Besides being presiding elder of the Newton, New-


ark, and Jersey City districts and secretary of the Newark Conference for eleven years, he was a member of the General Conference in 1876, 1880, 1884, and 1888.

FIVE MILE ACT: An Act of Parliament passed in 1665, and completing the system of measures intended to repress the non-conformists known as the Clarendon Code. By its provisions no clergyman who had been expelled from his living by the Act of Uniformity of 1662 was to come within five miles of a city or corporate town, or of any parish where he had formally preached, unless he declared that he would not "at any time attempt any alteration of government either in Church or State," under a penalty of forty pounds; and no one who had not taken the oath of passive obedience and conformed was to teach in any school or take pupils in his house. As the Puritan congregations were mainly in the towns, this act cut them off from the ministrations of their chosen leaders and in most cases from even private education, and hastened the decline of Puritanism throughout England.

Bibliography: The text is printed in Gee and Hardy, Documents, pp. 6211-623. Consult: D. Neal, History of the Puritans, ii. 255 sqq. of Harper's ed., New York, n.d.; J. H. Overton, Church %n England, ii. 143, London, 1897.

FIVE POINTS OF CALVINISM: The five characteristic tenets of Calvinism as opposed to Arminianism, defended by the Synod of Dort (1618-19) in answer to the Five Articles of the Arminians or Remonstrants, put forth in 1610. They are particular predestination, limited atonement, natural inability, irresistible grace, and the perseverance of saints. See Arminius, Jacobus, and Arminianism; Calvinism; Remonstrants.


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