FOWLER, EDWARD: An English clergyman connected with the liberal school in the Church of England and with the "Cambridge Platonists" (q.v.); b. at Westerleigh (8 m. e.n.e. of Bristol), Gloucestershire, 1632; d. at Chelsea Aug. 26, 1714. He studied at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (B.A., 1653), and then migrated to Trinity, Cambridge (M.A., 1655). He was for a while Presbyterian chaplain to the Dowager Countess of Kent, and rector of Norhill, Bedfordshire, from 1656. On the passing of the Act of Uniformity, he hesitated for a while, but finally conformed, and, besides two London livings, received a prebend at Gloucester in 1676, and became bishop of that see in 1691. He is related with the Cambridge school by his correspondence with More, especially on ghost stories, from 1678 to 1681, and by his defense of their doctrines, published anonymously as a "Free Discourse" on the Principles and Practice of certain Moderate Divines . . . called Latitudinarians (London, 1670). Its better-known sequel, The Design of Christianity (1671), vigorously attacked by Bunyan, and the Libertas Evangelica (1680), may also be mentioned. Influenced as he was by the Platonic school, he yet does not strictly belong to their ranks. His type of latitude was that characteristic of the Revolution period, when the movement had largely ceased to occupy itself with higher philosophy and had become practical, political, and ambitious.
Bibliography: A. a Wood, Athenae Oxonienses, ii. 780, 790, 888, London, 1692; E. Calamy, Historical Account of my Own life, pp. 90, 95, 330, 494, ib. 1713; Biographia Britannica, iii. 2012, ib. 1784; J. Tulloch, Rational Theology . . . in 17th Century, ii. 35, 437 sqq., Edinburgh, 1882; DNB, xx. 84-86 (contains list of his works and full reference to sources).
FOWLER, JOSEPH THOMAS: Church of England; b. at Winterton (12 m. s.w. of Hull), Lincolnshire, June 9, 1833. He was educated at St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School, London (M.R.C.S., L.S.A., 1856), and Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham (B.A., 1861), and was house surgeon at St. Thomas' Hospital 1856-57 and at the Bradford Infirmary 1857-58. After the completion of his theological studies he was curate of Houghton-le-Spring, Durham, 1861-63, chaplain and precentor at St. John's College, Hurstpierpoint, 1864-1869, and curate of North Kelsey, Lincolnshire, 1870. Since 1870 he has been vice-principal of Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham, and university lecturer in Hebrew since 1871, as well as university librarian from 1873 to 1901. He was public examiner in theology 1874-75, senior proctor 1876-77 and 1899-1901, and junior proctor 1882-87. He was keeper of Bishop Cosin's library in 1889 and has been honorary canon of Durham since 1897. He has been for many years local secretary for Durham of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of London, and vice-president of the Surtees Society since 1873. In theology he is an orthodox Churchman, inclining neither to Protestantism nor Roman Catholicism. He has edited for the Surtees Society Acts of the Chapter of Ripon (Newcastle, 1875); The Newminster Cartulary (1878); Memorials of Ripon (3 vols., 1882-88); Metrical Life of St. Cuthbert (1891); Durham Account Rolls (3 vols., 1898-1901); and Rites of Durham (1903); for the Yorkshire Archaeological Society Cistercian Statutes (London, 1890); for the Yorkshire Record Society Coucher Book of Selby (2 vols., Worksop, 1891-93); and also Adamnani Vita Sancti Columbae (Oxford, 1894). He has written Life and Letters of John Bacchus Dykes (London, 1897); Durham Cathedral (1898), and Durham University (1904).
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