FAIRBAIRN, PATRICK: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Hallyburton (32 m. s.e. of Edinburgh), 6, 1874. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh, was licensed to preach in 1826, and from 1830 to 1836 was located in the Orkney Islands. In 1836 he was transferred to Bridgeton, Glasgow, and in 1840 to Salton, in East Lothian. In 1843 he left the Established Church, but re mained in Salton as pastor of the Free Church. In 1853 he was appointed professor of divinity in the theological college of the Free Church at Aber deen, and in 1856 he was transferred to the Free Church college at Glasgow. He was appointed principal of the institution on Nov. 4 of the same year and held this position till his death. In 1865 he was moderator of the General Assembly, and in 1867 a member of the Scotch delegation ap pointed to visit Presbyterian churches in the Unite States. He was also one of the company for re vising the Old Testament. His principal works are The Typology of Scripture (2 guide in the 1~7;new od.,New York, 1900; a gu lain at Markirch 1 Ezekiel and the Book of his Prophecy (1 Prophecy Viewed ,in its Distinctive Nature, its Special Function its Proper interpretation (1856); Herica ual (1858); and Pastoral Theology, with Bio graphical Sketch of the Author, He also edited, The Imperial Bible Dictionary vols., London, 1866) and translated several theo logical works from the German.

Bibliography: Besides ,the sketch by J. Dodds, ut s consult DNB, xviii.122.

FAIRCHILD, JAMES HARRIS: Congregation alist; b. at Stockbridge, Mass., Nov. 25, 1817; d. Oberlin, O., Mar. 19, 1902. He was graduated at Oberlin College in 1838, and in it was successively tutor (1838), professor of Latin and Greek (1842), of mathematics (1847), moral philosophy and sys tematic theology (1858), and president (1866,89). From 1889 till becoming emeritus professor (1895) h taught systematic theology in Oberlin Theological Seminary. As a teacher he was clear, philosophical, and impressive. As a theologian he succeeded Charles Grandison Finney, with whom he agreed in general, though not without differences springin from his strong individuality. He taught a "new school" Calvinism, in which the freedom of the will was emphasized to the essential modification o the system. The general cast of his system was practical and concrete rather than metaphysical; but he maintained the divinity of Christ and the trinity, the atonement (governmental theory), and the endless future punishment of the incorrigibly wicked. He maintained also the ethical doctrine to which earlier Oberlin had given prominence, the sim plicity of moral action, but minimized the doctrine of perfection which had been associated with it, teaching the possibility of perfection in this life though laying no emphasis upon it, and not assertin its probability. The foundation of moral obligation he found in the essential worth of sentient being i immediate perception of this, and in the intuitive affirmation of obligation to promote universal well being, by conscience. But his greatest service to


his college was as an administrator, being distin guished for his business capacity and good sense, his urbanity and patience, his entire unselfishness, his reliability, his interest in individuals, his extraordinary skill in handling men, and his power to bring things to pass, so under him the institution throve greatly. He edited the memoirs of President Finney (New York, 1876), and the latter's Systematic Theology (Oberlin, 1878). His other publications include Moral Philosophy; or, The Science of Obligation (New York, 1869); Woman's Right to the Ballot (1870; an affirmative statement); Oberlin, the Colony and the College (Oberlin, 1883); Elements of Theology, Natural and Revealed (1892).

Bibliography: A. T. Swing, Life of James Harris Fairchild, New York, 1907.


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