FENN, WILLIAM WALLACE: Unitarian; b. at Boston, Mass., Feb. 12, 1862. He was graduated at Harvard in 1884 and Harvard Divinity School in 1887. He was minister of Unity Church, Pittsfield, Mass., 1887-91 and of the First Unitarian Society of Chicago 1891-1901. Since 1901 he has been Bussey professor of systematic theology in Harvard Divinity School, of which he bas been dean since 1906. He was Shaw Lecturer on Biblical literature in Meadville Theological School 1892-1901 and preacher to Harvard University 1896-1898 and again since 1902. He has been American editor of the Hibbert Journal since 1902, and has written Lessons on Luke (in collaboration with H. G. Spaulding; Boston, 1890); Lessons on the Acts (1894); The Flowering of the Hebrew Religion (Chicago, 1894); and Lessons On the Psalms (Boston, 1900).
FENTON, FERRAR: Church of England layman; b. at Waltham (18 m. s.e. Of Hull), Lincolnshire, Dec. 4, 1832. He was educated privately, and until the age of twenty-eight lived the life of a student. Financial reverses then compelled him to become an operator in a factory, where he eventually rose to be manager and overseer. He undertook various commercial enterprises, and amassed a fortune as the promoter of the De Beers Company for the development of the South African diamond mines after the panic of 1882, but in 1893 lost heavily through the dishonesty of a legal adviser. Since then, however, he has recovered much of his wealth. In theology he holds to the authenticity and divine origin of the Bible, and regards "the so-called ` higher criticism' as either wild delusion or deliberate swindle." He has a knowledge of many languages and has written various pamphlets, linguistic works, and biographies, but his chief work is his Bible in Modern English witty Critical Notes (London, 1903; published first fn parts, 1883-1903), an independent translation from the original languages.
FERDINAND II. AND THE COUNTERREFORMATION IN AUSTRIA.
The culminating poin Counterreformation 0, cu in the Austrian crown lan elsewhere in German,; t curs generation Hap-burp
to the Reformation, does not appear before the first third of the Thirty Years' War, under the rule
of Emperor Ferdinand II. When in r. Early 1564 the Austrian lands passed from
progress of the hand of Ferdinand I. into the the Refor- hands of his three sons, Maximilian, motion. Ferdinand, and Charles, the Reforma-
tion had made nearly equal progress in all these jurisdictions; on all sides it had been tacitly tolerated, and had accordingly gained such accretions that the complete transition to Protestantism appeared to depend only on its recognition by law and the creation of a church organization. The majority of all classes of society had adopted the new ideas. In Bohemia and Moravia, in Silesia and Lusatia, in Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and GbritZ, nearly the entire population was filled with the new spirit. In Tyrol alone did the Roman Church continue securely predominant.
Maximilian II., in Bohemia (with its dependencies, Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia) and Upper and Lower Austria, and Archduke Charles in Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gdrita) continued at first in the tolerant disposition of their father. There soon followed most important concessions to the Protestant territorial estates. In
Lower Austria, from 1568 to 1571, Maximilian granted religious freedom for the nobility and their subjects; the same concession was straightway claimed for themselves by the Upper Austrians, and it was not denied them, although it was never formally extended to them. The Bohemian nobility obtained the like religious freedom in 1575. In Inner Austria, from 1572 to 1578, Charles accorded the so-called religious pacification, which allowed the lords and knighthood to profess the Augsburg Confession and tolerated Protestant schools and churches already existent; only for the crown cities and towns and for his own estates did the archduke retain express control of religion. Charles made these concessions with the utmost reluctance; nothing but need of money and the threatening danger from the Turks constrained him to do so. Indeed a similar external pressure was operative in the case of Maximilian II.; but his religious sensibilities suffered less by the concession, as he had considerable sympathy with the new views.The first lawful foundations for the development of a Protestant Church were won through these concessions but under the impulse of an energetic reaction that was developing with new force in Romanism, the successors of these princes, supported by the Jesuits and the Roman Catholic s. Reaction remnant of the nobility, ,q,tl'OVe t0 under set the concessions aside. In 1578, Rudolph IL Rudolph II. (eon of Maximilian II., emperor 1576-1612) been to expel all
the Protestant preaches from Vienna; but when he encountered strong opposition to his designs in). and be set to work t of the Reformation Upper Austria, more Prudently, a full Nevertheless he achieved a good deal during the later following decade,- by legs[ proceedings, one church ds of the than after another was taken away from the Protestant he decisive issue, adversely nobles of Lower Austria and restored to the Roman
Church had gained internal strength; the Jesuits had founded settlements and schools in all the important centers, exerting an influenceΒΆ: Forces over the coming generation; the uni-
Working versity at Graz belonged to them outfor the right, and Vienna was transferred to Roman them in 1617; the Capuchins likewiseCatholics. exerted a fruitful activity. And still tenser than formerly had grown the op position between the government and the Protestant estates; ecclesiastical and political points of contention had become inseparably interwoven, and Prot estantism and "estatism" belonged together like Catholicism and imperialism. The more the power of the estates increased, and the more distinctly the nobility strove for a federation of all the Bohe mian and Austrian estates, just so much the more hostile became the attitude of the monarchy toward all rights and strivings of the estates. Matthias at first allowed things to take their course; but when he contrived, in 1617, to induce the estates to "accept" Ferdinand of Styria as prospective successor to the royal dignity, his courage rose in the direction of Counterreformation measures. The consequence was the Bohemian uprising, and Bohemia's assertion of independence of the Hapsburg dynasty; a Protestant prince, Frederick V. of the Palatinate, was elected king. But with the suppression of the Bohemian insurrection, came likewise the final, decisive defeat of Austrian Prot estantism. Ferdinand II., the successor of Matthias, became the restorer of Roman Catholicism for all Austria, just as Matthias had been for Inner Austria two decades previously (see Inner Austria, the Reformation in).
Ferdinand (b. at Graz July 9, 1578; d. in Vienna Feb. 15, 1637) had received a strictly ecclesiastical education, first at Graz, then at the University of Ingolstadt; his favorite reading, thanks to the influence of the Jesuits, was edifying tracts and legends of the saints. He succeeded his father, the Archduke Charles, in 1590 and began to reign actively in 1595, with the firm resolve to
Bibliography: F. von Hurter, Geschichte Ferdinands ll.. 4 vols., Schaffhausen, 1850-64; F. Stieve, Politik Baierns, vol. i., Munich, 1878; idem, Der ober6sterreichische Bauernaufstand des . . 16,26, ib. 1891; T. Wiedemann, Reformation and Gegenreformation im Lande unter der Enns, i.-v., Prague, 1879-86; J. Him, Erzherzog Ferdinand 11. von Tirol, Innsbruck, 1885; H. Ziegler, Die Gegen re(ormation in Schlesien. Halle, 1888; F. Scheiehl, Bilder ausderZeilderGegenre(ormation, Gotha, 1890; A. Gindely, GegenreformationinBohmen, Leipsic, 1894; J. Loserth, Die steirische Religionepaziflkation, Graz, 1896; idem, Reformation and Gegenre/ormation in den innerbsterreichischen Landern, Stuttgart, 1898; L. Schuster, Farattischof Mar tin Brenner, Graz, 1898; A. R. Pennington, The CounterRe/ormalion in Europe, London, 1899; Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii., Wars of Religion, pp. 568-569, 572-573, 575, 687, 689. 702, 714 sqq., 723 sqq., New York, 1905.
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