FAUSTINUS: Presbyter at Rome under Pope Liberius (352-366), prominent in the Luciferian agitation (see Lucifer of Calaris and the Luciferians). Conjointly with the otherwise unknown presbyter Marcellinus, he delivered to the emperor Theodosius at Constantinople in 383 or 384 a document (Libellus precum ad imperatores) entitled De confessions verse fidei et ostentatione sacrte communionis et persecutions adversantium veritatis (MPL, xiii. .83-107; CSEL, xxxv. 5-44), wherein he defended the Luciferians and entreated the emperor for protection against their adversaries. His deductions are largely overdrawn and partizan. The prtefatso to this memorial is not the work of Faustinus, but of an Ursinian (see Ursinus, Antipope). Another work by Faustinus is the unimportant tract, De trinitate sive fidei adversus Arianos (MPL, xiii. 37-80).

(G. Krüger.)

Bibliography: Gennadius, De vir. ill., chap. xvi.; Isidore

of Spain, De vir. ill., chap. xiv.; G. Krüger, Lucifer von

Calaris, pp. 62-63, 82-86, 94 sqq., Leipsic, 1886; G.

Rauschen, Jahrbücher der chrdetlichen Kirche unter . . Theodosius, pp. 140, 199-200, Freiburg, 1897; DCB, ii. 466.

FAUSTUS OF MILEVE. See Manicheans, § 14.

FAUSTUS OF RIEZ (Lat. Reji; Faustus Rejenais):

Prominent representative of Semi-Pelagianism in the south of Gaul; b. between 405 and 410; d. toward the end of the fifth century. He was probably of British origin, according to the posi tive assertions of Avitus and Sidonius; against this there is nothing but the description of him as a Gaul by men at a distance like

Life. Possessor and Facundus. He re ceived a good philosophical education, and knew not a little of the Scriptures, but he was neither an original thinker nor a thorough theolo gian. At an early age he entered the monastery of L6rins (q.v.), then in a very flourishing state under Abbot Maximus, whom he succeeded in 433.

He kept his monks in strict discipline, and defended the interests of his monastery against the bishop of the diocese, Theodore of Frtjus, winning his case when it came before a synod held by the metro politan Ravennius (the Third Synod of Arles, probably in 456). He was subsequently chosen bishop of Riez (in Basses Alpes, 50 m. n.e. of Mar

seilles), not later than 46:?, in which year he appears in Rome as a bishop; the date of his election is probably between 458 and 460. He continued to distinguish himself by his ascetic life, and became known as a preacher. A synod was held at Arles c. 475 to deal with the case of Lucidus, a teacher of thoroughgoing predestinarianism, and another one soon after at Lyons. Acting at the request of these synods, Faustus succeeded in inducing Lucidus to sign a fairly complete retractation, and also wrote a large work De gratia in which be took a Semi-Pelagian position. He was also a prominent figure in the Christological and Pneumatological controversies of his day. In 474, with other bishops, be conducted negotiations in the emperor's name with Euric, king of the Visigoths, and later, probably by Euric's conquests, was driven into an exile which apparently terminated in the year of Euric's death, 485. His own death probably followed from five to ten years later. The Church of his province


honored him as a saint, although the title was not sanctioned by the wider body on account of his Semi-Pelagian teachings.

In his catalogue of authors Gennadius gives a list, avowedly incomplete, of the writings of Faustus [NPNF, 2 ser., iii. 399]. This in cludes first a treatise in two books De Spiritu sancto, defending the divinity of the Writings. Holy Ghost against Macedonius, and the two books De gratis, in the ex tant text of which there are evident gaps; and Bergmann brings forward, though unconvincingly, the theory that it has suffered from interpolations of an Augustinian tendency. Gennadius further mentions " a small book against the Arians and the Macedonians," which, in spite of various at tempts at identification, may be taken as lost; another " against those who say that there is something incorporeal in creatures, affirming by Scriptural and patristic testimony that there is nothing incorporeal except God," which is extant as the fourth epistle of Faustus- a letter addressed " to a certain deacon named Graecus who leaving the Catholic faith, went over to the Nestorian impiety"; and " a religious epistle to Felix, the pretorian prefect, exhorting to the fear of God," given by Engelbrecht as Epist. vi., and related to his Epist. ix. Besides those mentioned by Genna dius, there are other letters undeniably authentic that to Paulinus of Burdegala (Epist. v. in Engel brecht), that to Lucidus (Epist. i.), and five to Ruricius (viii.-xii.). Of special interest are the two homilies on the baptismal symbol, which since Cas pari's investigations have been generally attributed to Faustus, although more recently W. Bergmann, Studien zu einer kritischen Sichtung der siidgallischen Predigtlitteratur der 5. and 6. Jahrhunderten, Leipsic, 1898, has contested this attribution, on grounds which are worthy of notice if not conclusive. It remains to mention a large number of sermons which are said to have been current, although the obscurity which still rests upon the whole question of early Latin homiletical literature prevents the determination of the exact extent of this activity. Engelbrecht, indeed, asserts that there are extant two collections of the sermons of Faustus, one of twenty-two in the ninth or tenth century manuscript known a Durlach 36 (now Carlsruhe 340), and seventy-fou originally attributed to Eusebius (printed in th Bibliotheca maxima,. VI. 618 sqq.). But this assumption is hazardous. In the Durlach codex, nine sermons bear the name of Faustinus, but it i both uncertain whether this name points to Faustu and whether the remaining sermons are even b the same author, while both here and in the othe collection certain sections may be certainly identified as the work of Cxsarius. The historical position of Faustus is conditioned by, his support of the Semi-Pelagian theology (see Semi-Pelagianism). According to him, all men are born in original sin; but although Theology. the freedom of the human will is weakened by sin, it yet remains an integral part of human nature even in the sinner. Grace cooperates with free will to establish good in man; but man, through his freedom, takes the s r s y r

_ e initial step. In Faustus' mind grace connotes practically preaching with its promises and warnings; grace as an adjutorium divinum, in the Augustinian conception, an interior transforming power, is unknown to him. The passages which seem to recognize such a power are to be explained by the fact that Faustus regards the natural power of the will ae a gift of grace, or looks upon the leadinga of the circumstances of life in something of the same light, as in his treatment of the parable of the prodigal son. In spite of a casual mention (in the same sense) of gratis cooPerans or cooperans adjutorium, and of his strong condemnation. of Pelagius, he really takes a Pelagian position, further removed than Cassian from Auguatine. Predestination is made dependent on foreknowledge. God wills only what is just and right, but permits freedom to terminate in evil. In Trinitarian and

Christological questions Faustus adheres to the orthodox Augustinian formulas.

R. Seeberg.

Bibliography: he handiest ed. of the writings of Faustus is by Engelbrecht, in CSEL, xxi., Vienna, 1891; the most important are in MPL, Iviii. 783 sqq.; the letters of Faustus and Ruricius, ed. Kruach, are in MGM, Auct. ant., viii (1887). 265 sqq., cf. pp. liv. sqq.; for his exposition of the creed consult C. P. Caspari, Ungedruckte . Quetlen zur Geschichte sea TaufeZlmbols, ii. 183 sqq., Christiania, 1889; idem, Anecdota, i. 315 aq4., ib. 1883;

and the tract De aymbolo, ed. Caspari, is in Atte and Neue Quelten, ib. 1879. Consult: A. Koch, Der heiliga Fauatvs, Stuttgart, 1895: Tillemont, Mémoires, xvi. 408 sqq.; Histoire 1itoraire de la France, ii. 585 sqq.; Ceillier, Auteurs sacrés, x. 420-437; A. Engelbreeht, Studien über die Schriften sea Biacho/a v on ReTa, Faustus, Vienna, 1889; Zeitschrift für die dsterreichischen Gymnasien. 1890. pp. 289 s44.. '181 sqq., 677 sqq.; Morin, in Revue Unedietine, ix (1892), 49 sqq., cf. viii (1891). 97 sqq.; C. F. Arnold, Cdaarius von Arelate, pp. 324 sq4.. Leipsic, 1894; Neander, Christian Church, ii. 706-707 et passim; Harnack, Dogma, iv. 314, v. 252 sqq. et passim; KL, iv. 1279-81.


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