EVANGELICAL COUNSELS. See Consilia Evangelica.

EVANGELICAL SOCIETY OF GENEVA (SOCIETE EVANGELIQUE DE GENEVE ): The oldest of the Continental Evangelical societies; founded in 1831 for the diffusion of sound doctrine throughout Switzerland and France. It has a theo logical school at Geneva, supports numerous mis sionaries, pastors, and colporteurs, and is dependent upon voluntary contributions derived not only from Switzerland, but also from other parts of Europe and even from the United States, which produce an annual income of about 260,000 franca. It is undenomina,tional, having as its confession of faith substantially the creed of the Evangelical Alliance (q.v.). It is the product of the revival attending the labors of Robert Haldane (see Haldane, James Alexander, and Robert).

Bibliography: R6citaetaouveniradequalqusa·unaduouroritra (published on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary, 1881); and the "Annual Reports."

EVANGELICAL UNION: 1. The Evangelical Union of Scotland: A religious body formed at Kilmarnock, Scotland, May 16, 1843, at a meeting attended by four ministers, one evangelist, and eight elders, representing three churches and two preaching stations. The ministers-James Morison of Kilmarnock, his father Robert Morison of Bathgate, John Guthrie of Kendal, and Alexander C. Rutherford of Falkirk-had been virtually expelled from the Secession Church for holding the doctrine of an unlimited atonement and protesting against the condemnation of James Morison (q.v.) by the Secession Synod. The distinctive doctrines affirmed were " the universality of the atonement, the universality and moral nature of the influences of the Holy Spirit, and the simplicity of faith, which, by means of its object, Jesus Christ, as made known in the Gospel, brings peace to the conscience and purity to the heart." The Independent ecclesiastical polity was adopted, each church to be complete in itself. The membership of the union was soon increased and an impetus was given to its work by a number of churches, ministers, and etudentsJohn Kirk, Fergus Ferguson, Peter Mather, William Bathgate, and others-who were dissociated from the Congregational Union of Scotland for holding views similar to those of James Mormon (see Ferguson, Fergus). It was not intended originally to be a sect or a separate denomination,


but revival meetings held over the whole country and the wide preaching of the doctrines of the Union led to the formation of churches and this necessitated organization. A theological academy was instituted with James Morison as first professor, and John Guthrie was added as colleague in a few years; other professors were appointed later and the classes were comparatively large. The business of the Union was carried on by an Annual Conference and the committees it appointed.

The influence of the Union was far in excess of what might have been expected from its members. Ministers and laymen zealously expounded their views in opposition to the Calvinistic doctrines of the Westminster Confession, and numerous tracts, pamphlets, and books were issued from the pub lishing house and circulated widely. The Christian News (weekly) was started in 1846 and continued for sixty years. The Evangelical Repository (quar terly) was commenced in 1854 and continued for thirty-four years. A monthly Forward existed for seven years and the Day Star and Dew Drop had a large circulation for half a century. The members of the Union were among the pioneers of the tem perance movement in Scotland. All of its clergy and ninety per cent of its members were total abstainers and no liquor dealer was allowed to join any of the churches. In 1896 the churches of the Union-more than ninety in number united with the Congregational Union of Scotland, securing their historical position by a prefatory note placed at the head of the constitution of the united body which states, among other things, that they were moved and encouraged to seek union "in order to effective cooperation in extending the Kingdom of God and proclaiming the Gos pel of Jesus Christ, through whose person and work as God Incarnate, and the saving and sanctifying grace of God, the Holy Spirit, God the Father in his love has made provision for, and is seeking the salvation of all men." A few small and unim portant churches still retain the name Evangelical Union.

William Adamson.

2. For the German "Evangelical Union for the Preservation of German Protestant Interests," see Bund, Evangelischer.

Bibliography: F. Ferguson, Hist. of the Evangelical Union, Glasgow, 1876; Evangelical Union Jubilee, ib. 1892; J. Ross, H%at. of Congregational Independence in Scotland, ib. 1900.


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