Foundation and Constitution (§ 1).
Branch Alliances (§ 2).
The Week of Prayer (§ 3).
Conferences, National and General (§ 4).
Appeals for Religious Liberty (§ 5).

The Evangelical Alliance is a voluntary asso- ciation of Evangelical Christians of different churches and countries to manifest and promote the union of Christian believers and advance the cause of religious liberty. It was founded, after several preparatory meetings and conferences, espe cially one at Liverpool in 1845, in an enthusiastic gathering held in Freemason's Hall

1. Founds- in London, Aug. 19-23, 1846. Eight tion and hundred Christians were present


Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Inde pendents, Methodists, Baptists, Lu therans, Reformed, Moravians, and others, including, from Great Britain, Edward

Bickersteth and Lord Wriothesley Russell (Angli can), Jabez Bunting and William Arthur (Wea leyan), Drs. Chalmers, Candlish, Norman McLeod, and Thomas Guthrie (Presbyterian), Drs.. Steane, and Baptist W. Noel (Baptist), Thomas Binney,

John Angell James, and Dr. Leifchild (Independ ent); from France, Adolphe Monod and G. Fisch; from Germany F. W. Krummacher and Prof.

Tholuck; from Switzerland, Prof. La Harps; and from the United States, Samuel H. Cox and Will iam Patton. Sir Culling E. Eardly presided, and became the first president of the British branch.

Nine doctrinal articles were adopted, as follows:

1. The divine inspiration, authority, and sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures.

2. The right and duty of private judgment in the interpretation of the Holy Scriptures.

3. The Unity of the Godhead, and the Trinity of the Persons therein.

4. The utter depravity of human nature in consequence of the Fall.

b. The incarnation of the Son of God, his work of atonement for the sins of mankind, and his mediatoriel intercession and reign.

8. The justification of the sinner by faith alone.

7. The work of the Holy Spirit in the conversion and sanctification of the sinner.

8. The immortality of the soul the resurrection of the body, the judgment of the world by our Lord Jesus Christ, with the eternal blessedness of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked.

9. The divine institution of the Christian ministry, and the obligation and perpetuity of the ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper.

These articles were not intended to be a binding creed or confession, but simply as expression of the essential agreement of Evangelical Christians whom it seemed desirable to embrace in the Alliance. Some have regarded the statement as too liberal, others as too narrow (art. 9 excluding the Quakers), while still others would have preferred no doctrinal statement, or at beat only the Apostles' Creed. The American branch, at its organization (1867; see below, § 2), adopted the nine London


articles, with the following explanatory and quali fying preamble: Resolved, That in forming an Evangelical Alliance for the United States in cooperative union with other branches of the Alliance, we have no intention to give rise to s new denomination; or to effect an amalgamation of Churches, except in the way of facilitating personal Christian inter course and a mutual good understanding; or to interfere in any way whatever with the internal affairs of the various denominations; but simply to bring individual Christians into closer fellowship and cooperation, on the basis of the spiritual union which already exists in the vital relation of Christ to the members of his body in all ages and countries. Resolved, That in the same spirit we propose no new creed, but taking broad, historical, and Evangelical catholic ground, we solemnly reaffirm and profess our faith in all the doctrines of the inspired word of God, and in the con aensua of doctrines as held by all true Christians from the beginning. And we do more especially affirm our belief in the divine-human person and atoning work of our Lord aged Savior Jesus Christ as the only and sufficient source of sal vation, as the heart and soul of Christianity, and as the center of all true Christian union and fellowship. Resolved, That, with this explanation, and in the spirit of a just Christian liberality in regard to the minor differ ences of theological schools and religious denominations, we also adopt, as a summary of the consensus of the various Evangelical Confessions of Faith, the Articles and Explanatory Statement set forth and agreed on by the Evangelical Alliance at its formation in London, 1848, and approved by the separate European organisations. Branch Alliances have been formed in Great Britain, Germany, France, Holland, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Greece, and 2. Breach ernong the missionaries in Turkey, Alliances. Egypt, and India; also in the United States, Canada, Australia, Brazil, Mexico, and among the Protestant missionaries in Japan and China. There is no central organization with controlling authority; and the General Alliance appears in active operation only as it has met in its general conferences (see below, § 4). The various national branches are related to each other as members of a confederation with equal rights. The British organization, being the oldest and largest, and having a house and salaried officers who devote their whole time to the work, has been the most influential; the Continental branches are more elastic, and confine themselves to occasional work. The " Evangelical Alliance for the United States " or the American branch, was organized at the Bible House, lyew York, Jan. 30, 1867 (a previous attempt having failed on account of the antislavery agitation before the Civil War), with William E. Dodge as president. Its first official communication was made to the Fifth General Con ference of the Alliance, meeting at Amsterdam, Aug., 1867, and was a report on the " State of Religion in the United States of America " prepared by Prof. Henry B. Smith, of Union Theological Semi nary, New York, chairman of the executive com mittee of the American branch. Mr. Dodge re mained president till his death (1883) when he was succeeded by his son William E. Dodge, Jr. Drs. S. Irenaeus Prime and Philip Schaff were the first corresponding secretaries. The American branch at once became a vigorous organization and pre sented an invitation to the Alliance in session in .Amsterdam to hold its next meeting (1873) in New York, which was accepted. The Alliance has sought to accomplish its work in three ways, by means of the annual Week of Prayer, by conferences and by appeals for those oppressed by religious persecution. At a conference at Manchester, 1846, a resolution was adopted urging the "members and 3. The friends of the Alliance throughout the

Week of world to observe the week beginning Prayer. with the first Lord's day of January in each year as a season for concert in prayer on behalf of the objects contemplated by the Alliance." Later the scope was widened in answer to an appeal from the English and American missionaries in India. It has become a fruitful means for promoting Christian union and the spread of the Gospel at home and abroad. A program is issued several months in advance of the date by the British organization, and sent to the branch Alliances for their revision and adoption. Each branch adapts it to the conditions and wants of the country which it represents, and gives it publicity. Fifty-nine programs have thus far been issued. In more recent years the American branch has acted independently in preparing a program of its own. The subjects chosen for prayer have included union with Christ, home and foreign missions, the nations and their rulers, the home, and Christian institutions such as the Young Men's Christian Association, schools and Sunday Schools.


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