EUHEMERUS, yfi-hf'mer-us (EUEMERUS): Greek philosopher; flourished about 316-300 B. C. He was possibly a native of Mesaene, though Agri gentum, Tegea in Arcadia, and the island of Coo all claimed him. In philosophy he was allied to the school of Ariatippus of Cyrene. He lived at the court of Caesander of Macedon, by whom he was sent on a journey into the region of the Indian Ocean. On his return he wrote a " Sacred His tory," the method of which made him famous. In this work he claimed to have found in Panara?a, the capital of the (fabulous) island PanchEea, a temple to Zeus where was a column bearing the register of the births and deaths of many of the gods. He professed to take this as a clue and interpreted myth as history, regarding the gods as eminent men posthumously deified, thus anticipating the Spencerian school and giving his name to that type of interpretation of history and myth called Euhemerism. The book was attractive in style and matter, and was translated by the Latin poet Enniue (Cieero, De natura deorum, i. 42). Only a few fragments remain, collected in Diodorus Sicu lus, Bibhothecce historicce, ed. P. Weaseling (Am sterdam, 1746), in I. P. Cory, Ancient Fragments (London, 1876), and G. N. Remethy (Budapest, 1889). The work was a subtle attack on pagan ism, and its method was taken up by the Christian Apologists (cf. Lactantius, "Institutes," i. 11, Eng. transl. ANF, vii. 20-24-founded on Eu hemerus), and continued to be in favor until very recent times.

Geo. W. Gilmore.

Bibliography: Gauss, Quwstionea Eeahernerece, Kemper, 1880; R. de Block, Euhbmre: son live et as doctrine, Mons, 1878; valuable notes are to be found in Mémoires de 1'academ%e des inscriptions, vols. viii.. P. xv., xativ. 453. 482. xxv. 1.

EULALIUS, yu-1611t-us: Antipope 418-19. For his election and expulsion, see Boniface I. He was banished to Campania, where he remained quiet during the pontificate of his successful opponent, after whose death some were found to support again the choice of Eulalius. He died the

year after Boniface, in 423.

(A. Hauck.)


Bibliography: Bower, Popes i. 182-18T Milman, Latin Christianity, i. 198-199. See also the literature under Boniface I.


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