ESDRAELON. See Jezreel.

ESDRAS: Books of Old Testament Apocrypsa. For I (or III) Esdras, see Apocrypha, A, IV., 1; for II (or IV) Eadras, see Pseudepigrapha, Old Testament, II., 7; for the pseudepigraphic V and VI Esdras, see Pseudepigrapha, Old Testament, II., 8.

ESKIL: Archbishop of Lund; b. about 1102; d. at Clairvaux Sept. 6, 1181 (or 1182). He studied at the cathedral school of Hildesheim, was appointed canon, and later head keeper, at the cathedral in Lund, and in 1134 bishop of Roskilde. There he allied himself with Peder Bodilsen, a powerful lord, and succeeded in forcing King Erik Emune to flee Zealand. The king mustered fresh troops in Jutland, invaded Zealand, and forced the allies to surrender. Eskil escaped with a fine, but when, in 1137, he was elected archbishop of Lund by popular vote, the king refused to sanction his appointment, and the archbishopric remained vacant until the king's death (Sept. 18, 1137), when Eskil was finally invested with the dignity. As archbishop ha took prominent part in the strife for the throne, and on one occasion was compelled to flee after breaking his oath of allegiance to one of the contestants. In 1139 he convened at Lund a provincial synod which was attended by bishops from Sweden, Norway, and the Faros Islands; and during the following years he founded a Cistercian monastery at Herisvad, Sweden (1143), and a Benedictine cloister at Esrom (1144). After having taken part in a crusade against the Wends he visited his friend Bernard at Clairvaux (1152). Upon his return he was met by Cardinal Nicholas Breakspear (afterward Pope Adrian IV.), who had brought the pallium for an archbishop of Sweden, but as no archiepiscopal seat could be agreed upon the pa,llium was left with Eskil. He held it until 1164, when he transferred it to the first archbishop of Upeala. According to the pope's decision the archbishops of Lund were to retain the primacy of Sweden. In 1154, after the death of Bernard, EsIIiI again traveled to Clairvaux, later visiting Rome. On his way horse he was imprisoned by some German knights, and as Emperor Frederick I. refused to intervene a rupture resulted between the em peror and the papal delegates. Eskil reached Denmark in time for the coronation of Waldemar I (1157). He took part in another crusade against the Wends, but in 1159 lost favor with the king, was forced to flee Denmark, and spent seven years at Clairvaux, at length receiving the king's permission to return to his archbishopric. In 1174 the pore refused him permission to retire to a monastery, but in 1177 he renewed his petition with success, and spent his last days at Clairvaux.

(F. Nielsen.)

Bibliography: Sources are: Saao Grammaticus, Hist.

Dağioa, book aii., ed. G. Waits in MGH, Script, xea, (1892), 43-181; J. Langebek, Script. rer. Danicarum, consult the Index, ix.' 194-195, Copenhagen, 1772-1878. Consult: H. Reuter, Geschichte Alexander des Dritten, Leipsic. 1880 -84; C. F. W. I. Karup, Geschichte der katholischen Kirche in DBnernark, Münster, 1883; RL, iv. 902-904.


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