ELWERT, el'värt, EDUARD: Lutheran theologian; b. at Cannatadt (4 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), Württemberg, Feb. 22, 1805; d. there June 9, 1866. He studied at Maulbronn and Tübingen. In 1830 he became repetent at Tübingen and lectured on the history of Protestant doctrines, publishing at the same time several of his most impotent essays in theological periodicals. From 1832 to 1836 he was deacon at Nagold. In 1836 he became professor of theology at Zurich where he lectured on church history and the history of dogmas. His delicate health soon compelled him to give up this position and live in retirement as country pastor in Mötzingen. Here he remained twelve years (1838-50) with the exception of two years which he spent as professor of theology at Tübingen (1839-41). He was superintendent of the seminary of Schönthal, 1850-64, teaching New-Testament exegesis, Biblical history, dogmatics, ethics, and church history. In 1865 his health again forced him to resign. Elwert was spiritually related to Schleiermacher, as may be seen especially from his union of a sincere inward piety with a clear perception of the practical conditions of life, from his union of regard for each individual with love of fellow men, and of a thorough classical education with a simple Christian faith. He was saved from Schleier. macher's dualism between faith and knowledge by his faithfulness to the Biblical record, and subjectivism was counterbalanced in him by a firm grasp of the objective revelation of God as an actual fact. Of his literary works, his Zurich dissertation, De arUinomia Johannia Agricolm (1836), is a not


unimportant work in the sphere of historical theology Important in exegesis are his Annotationes in Lamm Gal. ii. 1-YO (SchBnthaler Programm, 1852) and Quceationes et observatitmea tad philologiarn aacrarn Nevi Teatamenti pertinent" (Tübingen, lsso).

(Robert Kübel.)

ELY: A small town of England in Cambridge shire (18 m. n.n.e. of Cambridge). It is the seat of an important bishopric, erected in 1107, which for a long time, owing to its remote situation amid the marsh-lands of East England, enjoyed a quasi palatine authority second only to that of the see of Durham (q.v.). A convent was founded on the Island of Ely in 673 by Etheldreda, queen of Northumbria (see Etheldreda, Saint), who Con tinued abbess till her death. In 1070 Ethel wold, bishop of Winchester, restored the buildings after the ravages of the Danes and filled them with monks instead of nuns. In 1083 Abbot Simeon commenced the conventual church, which Henry VIII. made the cathedral. The present buildings date from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries, affording examples of every period of English Gothic, and especially as restored in the nineteenth century, with the beautiful painting executed as a labor of love by Mr. Gambier Parry, are among the principal attractions of English ecclesiastical architecture.

Bibliography: W. E. Dickson, Ely Cathedral, London, 1897; C. W. Stubbs, Historical Memorial* of Ely Cathe dral, ib. 1897; Handbook to the Cathedral, Ely, 1898; Ely Diocesan Remsmlmanar. Cambridge . 1898 sqq.; W. D. Bweeting, Cathedral Church of Ely, London, 1901.


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