ELECT, ELECTION. See Predestination.

ELEUTHERUS, el"iii-thA'rva: Pope, c. 174-189. He is first heard of as deacon to Pope Anicetus (c. 154-169); from his name it is probable that he was a Greek. During his pontificate the Church at Rome was little molested by the government, there being but one martyrdom (that of Apollonius, q.v.). It was much troubled, however, by heresy. Marcionitea, Valentinians, and other sectaries formed influential congregations by the aide of the true Church, and Eleutherua had to continue the struggle against the Montaniata begun by his predeoesaor, Soter. Gallic Christians about 178 sent him letters on the subject by the hand of Ireneus, then a presbyter of Lyons, whom they commend warmly. Their aim was probably to exhort the pope to be steadfast against Montaniam (cf. Salmon in DCB, iii. 937-J38), and their admonition may have had the more weight as the Churches of Lyons and Vienna were then undergoing severe persecution (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., v. 1-2). The Liber pontificalis gives much detailed but worthless information about Eleutherus. It includes the statement that he received a letter from a British king, Lucius by name, " that he might be made a Christian by his mandate," which is generally admitted to be a fabrication of the seventh century, devised to support the claims of the Roman party in England against the British Church (see Celtic Church In Britain And Ireland). Bede knew of the statement and refers to it in three places (De temporum rations, 331; Hist. eccl., i. 4, v. 24), and it was often repeated and much elaborated in later times.

The first mention of the Lucius legend is in the recension of the Liber Ponti:ficalia known as the Catalogue Falicianus, written about 530. It is not in the earlier Catalogue, written shortly after 353. Gildss knows nothing of it. The more important of Bede's references (Hist. eccl., i. 4) is se follows: "In the hundred and fifty-sixth year of the incarnation of the Lord, Marcus Antoninue Verna became emperor, the fourteenth from Augustus, with his brother, Aurelius Commodus. In their time, while Eleutherus, a holy man, held the pontificate of the Roman Church, Lucius, king of the Britons, sent to him a letter, asking that he might be made s Christian by his command. And presently he attained his pious request, and the Britons retained the faith which they received, uncorrupted end entire, in peace and tranquillity, until the time of the emperor Diocletian." The Historic Britouum (end of the eighth century; see Nennius) reads Euchariatua for Eleutherua and has all the chieftains of Britain baptised with Lucius. The Liber Landaveuede (twelfth century) names the messengers of Lucius and locates the narrative in Wales. At about the same time William of Malmeebury localises it at Glastonbury. Geoffrey of Monmouth names the mieeionsries sent and makes them found three archbishoprics and twenty-eight bishoprics. The Welsh triads (of uncertain date) connect the story with Llandaff. A compilation of the time of Edward II. gives a letter from Eleutherus to Lucius. Later Lucius became a benefactor to the Church and the schools, and, being confused with a continental teacher of the same name, was represented as missionary and martyr.

Bibliography: Eusebius, Hilt, eccl., iv. 22; v. proemium, 3-6. 22. Liber panliftdais, ed. Duchesne, i. 4-b, 138, Paris, 1888, cf. pp. cii.-civ.; J. Langen, Geschichte der römischen Kirche his sum Pont%fiTcate Leo's 1., i. lb7-1b9, Bonn, 1881; Harnsak, atur, II. i. 144-148; Bower, Popes, i. 1b-17. For the Lucius Legend, W. Bright, Chapters of Early English Church History, pp. 3-5, Oxford, 1897; Haddsn and Stubbs, Councils, i. 2b-28; L. Duahesne, in Rem Celdque, vi (1870), 491-493; Chronica minors, ed. T. Mommeen in M(3H, iii., Aud, ant., uii (1898), llb-118, 184; Plummer, note to Bede's Hist. mi., i. 4; H. Zimmer, Nennius virdicatua, pp. 141-1b4, Berlin, 1893.


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