- The Source of Knowledge(ý 1).
- Life and Translation (ý 2).
- Similar Legends (ý 3)
- Enoch in Tradition (ý 4).
Enoch is the .name in the Hebrew text of the
eldest son of Reuben
(Gen. xlvi. 9;
Ex, vi. 14); a son of Midian
(Gen. xxv. 4);
a eon of Cain
after whom the latter r. The named the first city; and, in the line
Source of of Seth, of the seventh patriarch as
Knowledge. reckoned from Adam
(Gen. v. 18).
Since the name Lamech also occurs in
the lines of both Cain and Seth, and as there is a
striking similarity between other names of the two
lines, it has been customary since Buttmann
(Mythologus, i., Berlin, 1828, pp. 170 sqq.) to regard the two genealogies of Gen. iv. and v. (which
furthermore belong to different sources, J and
P) as variants of a single account. The resemblance becomes still closer if it be assumed that in
Gen. v. Enoch and Mahalalel (= Mehujael of Gen.
iv.) have become transposed. Also a relation with
list of the ten primitive Babylonian kings in
Berosus can not be denied. Enoch there has his
parallel in the seventh king, Enmeduranki, in the
sun-city Sippara. That Enoch also stands in
some relation to the sun, is indicated by the 365
years of his life.
This patriarch, in Gen. v., has a thoroughly
ethical distinction; "he walked with God" (cf.
Gen. vi. 9).
This indicates a 2. Life and constant community of life, an unTranslatioa. disturbed, familiar intercourse with
God. Herewith is intimately
connected the most momentous matter
that is still extant about Enoch in the ancient
source. After a comparatively brief term of life,
365 years, "he was not; for God took
him." Obviously something
extraordinary is thus recorded. Enoch had suddenly vanished, was no more seen.
The expression corresponds to the one used in a
similar connection by Livy~ (i. 16) of Romulus,
" he was not thenceforth on earth "; the event
itself, to the seeking after vanished Elijah
(II Kings ii. 16-17
But the reason is not indefinite;
God intervened contrary to the
usual course of
nature and removed his favored one from the
world of appearances. Except for this extraor-
dinary case, an early departure from life was considered a token of divine disfavor.
Comparisons have been adduced with heathen
myths and legends, which relate of the translation
of illustrious men (Hercules, Romu3. Similar lus, etc.). But the brief mysterious
Legends. Biblical notice is essentially different
in that here the ethical community
of life on earth with God (the "faith" of
Heb. xi. 5
is the manifest reason for the "taking" to God;
whereas the legends are based on a physical conception of divinity, whereby the same coalesces
with the highest product
of nature. There is a
parallel in the translation *of Xisuthros in Berosus,
inasmuch as this devout worthy after the Flood
is translated to the gods as reward for his piety.
But this hero corresponds to the Biblical Noah.
While here an account is extant which is independent of the Biblical narrative but akin to it,
on the other hand the legend adduced by E. Bochart (in
Phaleg et Canaan
, Caen, 1646), with reference to the ancient king Annakos or Nannakos in
the city of Iconium, is questionable on the score of
originality. This king is said to have lived upward of 300 years before Deucalion's flood; he is
supposed to have predicted the same, and to have
tearfully bewailed the lot of men, since after his
death they were to be overtaken with destruction.
The story is first found in Zenobius
, vi. 10), that is, about 200
A.D.; Jewish influence is not improbable.
Concerning the manner of the translation, and
the abode and condition of Enoch after it, which
the theologians have sought to define more closely,
the Bible gives no clue. The context merely stands
for the fact that he was taken away from the world
of sin and death, and received into closer communion with God, without dying. The view prevalent with the rabbis and in the primitive Church,
designates Paradise as his place of abode; others
indicate heaven; the Ascension of Isaiah (ix. 9),
the seventh heaven. The Arab theologians waver
according to the indefinite expression of the Koran
xlx. 58 (cf. the Book of
Enoch lxxxvii. 3).
The New Testament also recognizes a transformation
(I Thess. iv. 17;
I Cor. xv. 51).
Tradition has been all the busier for the meagerness of actual data. By analogy with Noah, it
was assumed that Enoch was a preacher of
repentance and herald of judgment.
4. Enoch in
(Ecclus. xliv. 16;
cf. xlix. 14; Book of
Enoch i. 9
Jude 14 sqq.
an age of speculation concerning
nature and history, people thought to find in Enoch
conversing so intimately with God the .actual first
divinely influenced human discernment,
gnosis instilled by good spirits, in contradistinction to the knowledge conveyed by demons. His name (from the Heb.
hanakh, " to
consecrate ") seemed to denote the " consecrated "
one, from whom authentic solutions were to be
expected touching the secrets of this world and
the one beyond. Hence he was esteemed no less
as the inventor of writing and the sciences, especially
starcraft (Eusebius, Praparatio evangelica
, ix. 17; cf. the number 305), than as apocalyptic
seer (cf. A. Dillinann, Das Bticlt Henorh
Leipsic, 1853, pp. xxvi. sqq.). In the last centuries
before Christ, Enoch was accredited with the entire treasure of contemporary knowledge about
God, nature, and history; as was done in the theologically important Book of Enoch (see
Pseudepigrapha, Old Testament, II., 4-5
). With the
Arabs, Enoch, or, as they more commonly call
him, Idris (" the learned, expert one ") plays predominantly the
part of the mediator of higher wisdom and science (cf. d'Herbelot,
, Germ. transl., i., Halle, 1785, pp. 624-825;
G. Weil, Biblische Legendert der Muaelmdrtner
Frankfort, 1846, pp. 62-87); for rabbinic legends
cf. J. A. Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Juderethum
KÃ¶nigsberg, 1711, pp. 396 sqq.).
Besides the literature given in the text,
consult: H. Polsno. Selections from the Talmud. DP. 3437, Philadelphia, 1876; H. E. Ryle, Early
Genesis, pp. 90-91, London, 1892 idem, in
Expository Times, iii. (1892) 355; DB, i. 7~4-708; EB, ii. 129496; JE, v. 178-179; and Commentaries on Genesis and