4. Salvation Army, Minor Denominations, Roman Catholics

bar of officers, cadets, and employees Army, was 20,077, of corps and outposts Minor De- 7,680, and of local officers 45,320. nomina- Connected with the Salvation Armytions, are numerous philanthropic institutions Roman under various denominations, inclu- Catholice. ding 110 rescue houses for fallen women,

132 slum posts, fifteen prison-gate homes, 183 shelters and cheap food depots for the homeless, 102 workshops and factories, forty-five labor bureaus, thirteen farms, etc. Among the minor denominations the moat important are the Unitarians with about 350 ministers and 345 chapels and other places of worship. Society of Friends (q.v.) has 18,466 members in Great Britain, 424 recorded ministers, including over 150 women, and 421 places of worship. The Churches of Christ have 13,844 members and 179 churches in the British Isles, with 153 Sunday Schools, 1,583 teachers, and 16,041 scholars. The Moravians (q.v.) have about fifty congregations and preaching stations. Church of England (q.v.) has twenty-four ministers, twenty-seven churches, 1,352 communicants, 8,140 sittings, 361 Sunday School teachers, and 4,196 Sunday School scholars. The Reformed Episcopal Church has twenty-eight ministers, 1,990 communicants, 6,000 sittings, 250 Sunday School teachers, and 2,600 Sunday School scholars (see Reformed Episcopal Church). Apostolic Church (q.v.) has about eighty churches; the Jerusalem Church (q.v.) has seventy-five societies, with 6,063 registered members; the Mormons (q.v.) have eighty-two churches; and the Plymouth Brethren (q.v.) have twenty-three places of worship in London and its suburbs. In the United $Ingdoin there are about 196,000 Jews, mainly in London and other large, towns. They have 200 synagogues, with about


200 ministers and readers. The Jews support their own poor and raise about £150,000 annually for religious and benevolent purposes. The Mohammedans have a mosque. The Greeks have churches in London, Manchester, and Liverpool; the Armenians possess churches in London and Manchester; and the French, Dutch, Swedes, and Swiss have places of worship in London, Norwich, and Canterbury. The Roman Catholic Church has in the British Empire thirty archiepiscopal and 106 episcopal sees, thirty-four vicariatea, and twelve prefectures apostolic. Including two delegates apostolic, seven coadjutors and seven auxiliary bishops, the archbishops and bishops now holding office in the British Empire number 180.

There are in the British Isles fifty theological schools, divided as follows: Church of England

twenty-one, i.e., sixteen theological

5. Theo- colleges, Aberdare (founded in 1892), logical Cambridge (Ridley Hall, 1881), ChiSchools. cheater (1839), GSlddeadon (1854), Edinburgh (1845), Ely (1876), Isle of Man (Bishop Wilson Theological School, 1897), Leeds Clergy School (1876), Lichfield (1857), Lincoln (1874), Oxford (Wycliffe Hall, 1876, and St. Stephen's House, 1876), St. Aidan's (1846), Highbury (St. John's Hall, University of London, 1863), Salisbury (1861), and Wells (1840--and five missionary colleges,-St. Augustine's (Canterbury), Islington, Burgh (Lincolnshire), Dorchester (Oxfordshire), and St. Boniface (Warminster). The Methodists have eight colleges, i.e., the Wesleyan Methodists five, Richmond, Didsbury (Manchester), Headingley (Leeds), Handsworth (Birmingham), and Belfast; the Primitive Methodists and the Free Methodists one each at Manchester; and the Methodist New Connexion one at Ranmoor (Sheffield). The Congregationalists have nine,New (London, 1696), Western (Bristol, 1752), Yorkshire United (Bradford, 1758), Hampstead (1803), Lancashire (Manchester, 1816), Mansfield (Oxford, 1886), Nottingham (1863), Memorial (Breton, 1755), and Bangor (1841). The Baptists have seven, Bristol (1680), Bangor (1862), Rawdon (Yorkshire, 1804), Regent's Park (London, 1810), Pastors' (1856), Manchester (1866), and Cardiff (1807). The Presbyterians have a college at Cambridge (Westminster), the Calvinistic Methodists two at Bala and Aberystwyth, and the Unitarians one at Oxford (Manchester), while an undenominational theological school is located at Carmarthen (founded in 1689).

Bibliography: For the statistics and details concerning the Church of England there are available the annuals: The Churchman's Annual; The Official Year-Book of the Church; Nye's Illustrated Church Annual; The National Church Almanac_ and Crockford'a Clerical Directory. For the other communions recourse moat be had to the year-books of the separate bodies; to the Free Church Year Book; The Review of the Churches; The Proceedings of the National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches; The Nonconformist and Independent (a weekly, 1881-1900, continued as The Examiner, 1900 sqq.). Consult further, besides the literature under England, Church of, and that under the articles on the individual bodies: R. Wins low, Law Relating to Protestant Nonconformists, London, 1888; J. G. Rogers, Church Systems of England in the 19th Century, ib. 1891; A. S. Dyer, Comparative Table of English Nonconformity and the English Church, ib. 1893; H. S. Skeate, History of the Free Churches of England, ib. 1894; 140

W. Lloyd The Story of Protestant Dissent, ib. 1899; C. S. Horns. History of the Free Churches, ib. 1903; H. R. Haggard, The Poor and the Land: a Report on the Salvation Army Colonise, ib. 1905. Consult also The States. man's Year Book.


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