5. Relation of Church and State

supreme governor, and Parliament its highest legislature. The arch aad State. bishop of Canterbury is the first peer in the realm and crowns the king.

The bishops (see Episcopacy, IV.) have their

"palaces," and seats in the House of Lords, except the bishop of Sodor and Man. As for the rest, ex cepting the bishops of London, Winchester, and

Durham (who always sit), they have seats only after their appointment to the House of Lords. The

Church does not legislate for itself independently or directly; it is subject to Parliament. The convocations of Canterbury and York are the two highest official church bodies. Convocation is assembled by the king's writ, and can not proceed to make new canons without his license, nor are its decisions valid till confirmed by his sanction (see Convocation). Judicial business is transacted in three courts. The lowest is the diocesan Conaistory Court, presided over by the bishop's chancellor. Appealed cases go up to the Court. of Arches, the official head of which is styled Dean of the Arches (see Arches, Court Of). The last tribunal of appeal is the king in council, or the judicial com mittee of the Privy Council. There are three church censures: suspension (for the neglect of parish duties), deprivation, and degradation. The two latter follow upon the disuse of the Prayer-Book, teachings subversive of the Thirty-nine Articles, simony, or conviction in a civil court. The Court of Arches alone exercises the right of deprivation. In 1888 the first Lambeth Synod was held which included the bishops of the Church of England and the Colonies and all the Protestant Episcopal churches of America (see Lambeth Conference; Lambeth Articles). As in America, it should be noted, the opposition of a wing of the Low-church party to the Oxford Movement led to the formation of the Church of England (q.v.) as well as to the introduction into England of the Episcopal Church (q.v.).

D. S. Schaff.

Bibliography: For a comprehensive list of the literature the fullest treatment is in the British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books, in six parts, under the entry "England." The titles of the moat important recent works (1889-1905) are collected in the Subject Indez issued by the trustees of the British Museum, under the entry "England," in which a section is devoted to the Church of England. A very necessary volume is C, Gross, Sources and Literature of English History , , to About 1.§86, London, 1900. The reader is referred also to the bibliographies appended to the articles on the individual worthies of that communion in this work, and to each articles as Common Prayer, Books of; Thirty-Nine Articles; and Westminster Assembly.

For general treatment the pertinent works of the English historians Lingard (Roman Catholic; able), Freeman, Fronde, Green, Ranks, H. D. Train (Social England, 0 vols., London, 1893-97, 3d ed. in progress), Gardiner, and Lecky are to be consulted, as well as the monumental Dictionary of National Biography. As sources the superlatively important Rolls Series may not be overlooked, as well se the publications of the Camden and Suttees Societies. Bohn'a Antiquarian Library, 41 vols., London, 1848 sqq, contains the medieval English chroniclers and other valuable works. On the Reformation the publications of the Parker Society are to be noted; also Foxe's Acts and Monuments best ed., 8 vols., London, 1843; J. Strype, Annals of the Reformation (and other works),


27 vols., Oxford, 1822-28; G. Burnet, Hist. of the Reformation, 7 vols., xford 1865; D. Neal, Hist. of the Puritans, new ad., 2 vols., London, 1843; cf. also F. Seebohm, Oxford Reformers 3d ed., London, 1887; and the general works upon the Reformation.

On the general history consult: the Opera of Bede; J. Ussher, Ecclesiarum Britannicarum antiquitates, in the Works, ad. C. R. Elrington, 16 vols., Dublin, 1847-82; E. Stilling9eet, Origines Bridannscae, ed. Pantin, 2 vols., Oxford, 1842; T. Fuller, Church Hist. of Britain, ad. J. Nichols, 3 vols., London, 1888; J. Inett, Origines Angli cana·, ad. J. Griffiths, 3 vols., Oxford, 1855 (in continuation of Stillingfleet); J. Collier, Eed. Hist. of Great Britain, bested., 9 vols., London, 1840 (goes through the reign of Charles II.); J. Grant, Hist. of the English Church and of the Sects. . math Answers to Each Dissenting Body, 4 vols., London, 1811-25 (goes through the reign of George III.); E. Cardwell, Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church of England, 16/,8-1718, 2 vols., Oxford, 1844; G. Weber, Geschichte der akatholischen Ifsrchen and Sekten von Groaabritannien, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1846-53; J. 8. M. Anderson, Hist. of the Church of England in the Colonies, 3 vols., London, 1858; G. G. Parry, Hist. of the Church of England, 3 vols., ib. 1882-84; R. W. Dixon, History of the Church of England from the Abolition of the Roman Jurisdiction, 4 vols., ib. 1878-91; A. Martineau, Church H%at, in England . to the Reformation ib. 1878; R. Barclay, Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Common wealth, 2 vols., ib. 1879; E. Churton, The Early English Church, ib. 1879; J. Stoughton, Hist. of Religion %n Eng land, iBl,O-1800, 8 vols., ib. 1881; idem, Religion in England during the First Half of the Present Century, 2 vols., ib. 1884; C. J. Abbey sad J. H. Overton, The Eng lish Church in the 18Th Century, 2 vols., ib. 1887; W. Stubbs, Regiatrum sacrum Anplicanum, Oxford, 1897; a new ad. of Stubbs' Lectures on Early English Church Hist., ed. A. Haseall, appeared, ib. 1908; W. A. Shaw , Hist. of the English Church, iB,#0-1880, 2 vols., ib. 1900; J. H. Overton, The Church in England, 2 vols., ib. 1903. Convenient handbooks are: G. G. Parry, Student's Church Hist. of England, 3 vols., ib. 1878-87; A. C. Jennings, Ec cTeaia Anglicans, ib. 1882; H. Gee, The Elizabethan Clergy and the Settlement of Religion, Oxford, 1898; H. C. G. Moule, Evangelical School in the Church of Eng land; its Men and its Work in the 19th Century, London, 1901; A. Plummer, English Church Hist., 1609 170.8 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1904-07; T. Allison, Lectures on English Church Hist.. . . 1708, London, 1908; A. GaequeL, Henry VIII and the English Monasteries, ib. 1908 (Roman Catholic); S. R. Maitland, The Reformation in England, New York, 1908; H. N. Birt, The Elizabethan Religious settlement, a Study of Contemporary Document, London, 1907 (Roman Catholic); J. H. Overton, The Angli can Revival, New York, 1907; W. B. Carpenter, Popular Hist. of the Church of England, London, 1908; G. R. Bal leine, A Hint of the Evangelical party in the Church of England, ib. 1908.

On coundils and church law: D. Wilkins, Concilia Mapnos Britannia, 4 vols., London, 1737; E. Cardwell, Syrwdalia, a Collection of Articka of Religious Canons and Proceedings of Convocation in the Province of Canterbury, 2 vols., Oxford, 1842; F. Makower, The Constitutional Hist. and Constitution of the Church of England, London. 1895; R. J. Phillimore, The Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of England, ad. W. G. F. Phiitimore and C. F. Jemmett. 2 vols., London, 1895; W. Stubbs, The Constitutional Hist. of Englan, 3 vols., Oxford, 1897; idem, Select Charters of English Court Hist., ib. 1900; F. W. Maitland, Roman Canon Lam %n the Church of England, London, 1898; H. H. Henson, The National Church; Essays. on its Hist. and Constitution, ib., 1908; Gee and Hardy, Documents.


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