8. Later History

The nineteenth century was characterized by earnest philanthropic movements, by the rise of the Oxford Movement, which profoundly influenced the Church (see Tractarianism), and by the close affiliation with the Episcopal churches in the United States and the English colonies. The British and Foreign Bible Society united Church men and dissenters in a common enterprise, and the Evangelical Alliance, in 1846, again sought to unify them in spirit and prayer. No preceding period was distinguished for piety at once more practical and more liberal. However, the Church received a blow which, in the eyes of her opponents, threatened to crush her, when John Henry Newman, Henry Edward Manning, Frederick W. Faker, and other men of eminence among both the clergy and the laity became converts to the Roman Catholic communion. A far different school, equally devo ted to the Church of England, but adhering to Reformation rather than to Anglo-Catholic tenets, included ouch men as the Hares, F. D. Maurice, and Archbishop Whateley. In the last half of the century Biblical scholarship was earned on to a high point by such men as Archbishop Trench, Dean Alford, Bishops Lightfoot and Weatcott of Durham, Bishop Ellicott, Dean Stanley, and Pro fessors Hatch and Hort, not to mention the living. These Biblical studies culminated in the movement to revise the English translation of the Bible (see Bible Versions, B, IV., ยง?). The High-church party lays emphasis upon the exclusive right of episcopacy and apostolic succession, and main tains an advanced ritual, together with insistence on the doctrines of the Real Presence and baptismal regeneration. The extreme wing has reintroduced practises abrogated under Lutheran and Calvinistic influence, such as veneration of the Blessed Sacrament, auricular confession, communion in one kind for the laity, and the establishment of monastic orders. They are distinguished for the elaborate and reverent character of their services, for the frequent celebration of the Eucharist, which is held to be sacrificial, and for their great zeal and devotion in benevolent church work. Occupying oppo site ground is the Low-church party, which holds strictly to the natural interpretation of the Thirtynine Articles (q.v.), denies episcopacy to be of the essence of the Church, and ~ denounces so-called ritualistic practises. Between these two schools a third has grown up since the middle of the nine teenth century. Its combination of tolerant, and sometimes latitudinarian, sympathies with loyalty to the Church has secured for it the name of the Broad-church party. Among its more prominent representatives have been Arnold, Julius Hare,


Maurice, Kingsley, and Stanley. During the nineteenth century the vigorous life of the Church was further shown by the restoration of cathedrals and the construction of churches, in the creation of new episcopal sees at home and the rapid extension of the Church and episcopate in the colonies. In addition to the Parliamentary acts bearing on the rights of Churchmen were the Compulsory Church Rate Abolition Act (1868) relieving dissenters of church taxation, and the University Teat Act (1871) throwing open the universities to all irrespective of creed.


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