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ENGELHARDT, JOHANN GEORG VEIT: German theologian and church historian; b. at Neustadt-an-der-Aisch (20 m. n.n.e. of Anspach) Nov. 12, 1791; d. at Erlangen Sept. 13, 1855. He was educated in his native town, in Baireuth, and at the University of Erlangen, and became deacon at the Altstddter Kirche and professor at the gymnasium in 1817. Three years later he entered the faculty of the university as privet-docent, was appointed associate professor of theology in 1821 and

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full professor in the following year, holding this position until his death. From 1845 to 1848 he represented his university in the House of Deputies. Engelhardt's early plan of preparing a history of mystical theology was never carried out, although he made thorough preliminary studies of Plotinus, Dionysius the Areopagite, and Richard of St. Victor. He also devoted himself to Irenaeus, Tertullian, the entire field of patristica, and to ecclesiastical and dogmatic history. In addition to numerous programs and studies in the ZHT, his principal works were as follows: Dissertatio de viortysio plotinixante (Erlangen, 1820); Die angeb lichen Schriften des Areopagiten Dionysius (2 parts, 1823); LeitfadenzuYorleaungentlberPatristik (1823 ); Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen (1832 ); Hand buch der Kirchengeschichte (4 vols.,1833-34); Richard von St. ViktorundJohannRuysbroek (1838); Ausleg ung des apekulativert?'sirs des Evaregeliuma Johannis durch einen deutschen mystischen Theologen des trier zehnten Jahrhunderts, aus einer deutschen Handschril t der königlichen Bibliothek in Mitachen (Neuatadt-an derAieeh,1839);andDogmengeschichte (2 vols.,1839).

(J. J. Herzogt.)

ENGLAND, CHURCH OF

.
I. Pre-Reformation Period.
British and Saxon Periods ( 1).
The Norman Period ( 2).
Pre-Reformation Resistance to Rome ( 3).
II. History From the Reformation.
Henry VIII. ( 1).
Edward VI. and Mary ( 2).
Elizabeth ( 3).
Struggle Between Anglicanism and Puritanism ( 4).
Triumph of High-church Principles Under Stuarts ( 5)
The Commonwealth, the Restoration, the House of Hanover ( 6).
Deism, Rise of Methodism ( 7).
Later History ( 8).
III. Theology, Liturgy, Clergy, Government.
Theology ( 1).
Liturgy ( 2).
The Clergy ( 3).
Government ( 4).
Relation of Church and State ( 5).

The Church of England, the national Church of England as by law established, may be regarded as a product of the Protestant Reformation; and from this point of view its history is held to begin with the refusal of Henry VIII. to own further allegiance to the pope, and the resultant declaration that the king was the head of the Church in his dominions. In theology it is in general harmony with Protestantism, but in government it claims to have retained in unbroken succession from the Apostles, and hence from Christ himself, the three major orders of bishop, priest, and deacon. In ritual and worship it maintains a uniform order of church service, parts of which are derived immediately from ancient and medieval rituals. It occupies an intermediate position between the Latin communion and the churches of the Reformation. Many Anglican writers regard the Reformation as merely an incident in the history of the Church of England, which did not interrupt its historic continuity, which is held to date from Augustine, and even from the old Celtic Church. A considerable number, particularly in the High-church party, look upon the Reformation as a serious mistake, if not as a crime.

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