EDWARDS, JOHN: English Calvinist; b. at Hertford Feb. 26, 1637; d. at Cambridge Apr. 16, 1716. He studied at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A., 1657, M.A., 1661, D.D., 1699). In 1664 he took charge of Trinity Church, Cambridge, but a few years later had to give up his work on account of his Calvinistic views. After having had several charges elsewhere he retired from the ministry in 1687, to devote himself to authorship, and returned to Cambridge in 1697, apparently for the use of the library. Though overestimated by his contemporaries, some of them calling him the St. Paul, or the St. Augustine, or the Calvin of his age, still he deserves high rank as a Calvinist theologian. Of the forty or more works that he published may be mentioned The Socinidn Creed (London, 1697); The Preacher (3 vols., 1705-07); Theologila reformats (2 vols., 1713).

Bibliography: BiograPhia Bri#annica; DNB, avii. 121- 123 (contains full list of Edwards' works).

EDWARDS, JONATHAN (THE ELDER): The founder of the New England theology as a distinct type of doctrine, considered by many the greatest theologian America has produced; b. at Windsor

Farms (now East Windsor), Conn., Oct. Ancestry. b, 1703; d. at Princeton, N. J., Mar. 22, 1758. His father, Rev. Timothy Edwards, was born at Hartford, in May, 1669, was graduated with honor at Harvard in 1691, and


was ordained pastor of the Congregational Church in Windsor Farms, in 1894. He remained pastor of this church more than sixty-three years, and

died Jan. 27, 1758. The mother of Jonathan Edwards was Esther Stoddard, daughter of Solomon Stoddard, who from 1672 to 1'T29 was pastor of the Congregational Church in Northampton, Mesa. She was a woman of queenly presence and admirable character, was born in 1672, married in 1894, became the mother of eleven children, and died in 1770.

In his early years Jonathan Edwards was instructed chiefly at home. He began the study of Latin at the age of six, and before he was thirteen had acquired a good knowledge of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. In his childhood be was taught to think with his pen in hand, and thus learned to think definitely, and

to express his thoughts clearly. When Early he was about nine he wrote an inter Studies. eating letter on materialism, and when College. he was about twelve he wrote some

remarkable papers on questions in natural philosophy. One month before he was thirteen he entered Yale College, and was graduated, with the highest honors of his class, in 1720. At the age of fourteen, one of his college studies was Locks on the Human Understanding. Not long before his death, he remarked to certain friends that he was beyond expression entertained and pleased with this book when he read it in his youth at college; that he "was as much engaged, and had more satisfaction and pleasure in studying it, than the most greedy miser in gathering up handfuls of silver and gold from some new-discovered treasure."

As a child, his sensibilities were, often aroused by the truths of religion. He united with the Church, probably at East Windsor, about the time of his graduation at college. After graduation he

pursued his theological studies for

Theological nearly two years in New Haven. He studies. was "approbated" as a preacher in

Early June or July 1722, several months Pastorate. before he was nineteen. From Aug.,

1722, until Apr., 1723, he preached to a small Presbyterian church in. New York City. From 1724 to 1726 he was tutor at Yale. On Feb. 15, 1727, when in his twenty-fourth year, he was ordained as colleague with his grandfather, Solomon Stoddard, and pastor of the Congregational Church at Northampton, Mass. On July 27 of that year he married Sarah Pierpont, daughter of Rev. James Pierpont of New Haven. At the time of her marriage, she was in the eighteenth year of her age, was distinguished by her graceful and expressive features, her vigorous mind, fine culture, and fervent piety. During her married life she relieved her husband of many burdens which are commonly laid upon a parish minister, and thus enabled him to pursue his studies with comparatively few interruptions. As a youthful preacher Edwards was eminent for his weighty thought and fervid utterance. His voice was. not commanding, his gestures were few, but many of his sermons were overwhelming. Ire wrote some of them in full. Often he spoke extempore, oftener from brief but suggestive notes. The traditions relating to their power and influence appear well-nigh fabulous In 1734-3b there occurred in his parish a "great awakening" of religious feeling; in 1740-41

occurred another, which extended The Great through a large part of New England Awakening. (see Revivals Of Religion). At

Ejected at this time he became associated with Iforthamp- George Whitefield (q.v.). During ton. these exciting scenes, Edwards man ifested the rare comprehensiveness of his mind. He did not favor the extravagance attending the new measures of, the revivalists. He did more, perhaps, than any other American clergyman to promote the doctrinal purity, at the same time quickening the seal, of the churches. In process of time he became convinced that his grand father, Solomon Stoddard, was wrong in permitting unconverted persona to partake of the Lord's Sup per. A prolonged controversy with the North amrpton church followed, and Edwards was ejected in 1750 from the pastorate which he had adorned for more than twenty-three years.

In Aug., 1751, he was installed pastor of the small Congregational church in Stockbridge, Maw., and missionary of the Housatonic Indians at that

place whom he served with fidelity. At Stock- On Sept. 28, 1757, he was elected bridge, president of the college at Princeton, President of N. J. He was reluctant to accept the

Princeton. office, but finally yielded to the advice

of others, and was dismissed from his Stockbridge pastorate Jan. 4, 1758. He spent a part of January and all of February at Princeton, performing some duties at-the college, but was not inaugurated until Feb..18, 1758. One week after his inauguration he was inoculated for the smallpox. After the ordinary effects of the inoculation had nearly subsided, a secondary fever supervened, and he died five weeks after his inauguration.

The more important works of President Edwards are the following: A Divine and Supernatural Light Imparted to the Said by the Spirit of Goal (Boston, 1734), a sermon noted for its spiritual philosophy; the hearers of it at Northampton requested it for the press; A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of many Hundred Souls in Northampton, edc. (Boston and London, 1737); Five Discourses on Juatifiearion by Faith (Boston, 1738); Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (Boston, 1741), one of his most terrific ser-

mons; frequently republished; eeWorks. verely criticised by some who fail to

regard the character and condition of the persons to whom it was preached; Distinguishing -Marks of a Work of the Spirit of God (1741); Some Thoughts concerning the Pteesnt Rbvr'roal of Religion in New-England (1742); A Treatist con cerning Religious Affections (1748), one of his most spiritual and analytical works; An Humble Atlsmpt to promote Explicit Agreement anal Visible Union of God's People in Extraordinary Prayer (1747); An Account of the Life of the Late Revsrend Mr. David Brainerd . . . chiefly taken froth has om Diary (1749); An Humble Inquiry into the Rules of the Word of God, concerning the Qualifications requisite to a Complete Standing and full Communion in the Visible Chrlstiarc Church (1749). His more im-


portent works were published after he had left his first pastorate, some of them not until after his death, viz.: A Careful and Strict Enquiry into the Modern Prevailing Notions of that Freedom of Will which is Supposed to be Essential to Moral Agency (1754); The Great Christian Doctrine of Original Sin Defended (1758); History of Redemption (1772); Dissertation concerning the End for which God created the World, and Dissertation concerning the Nature of True Virtue (1788).

The published works of President Edwards were printed in eight volumes, at Worcester, Mass., 1808-09 (reprinted, New York). A larger edition of his writings, in ten volumes, including a new memoir and much new material, was published at New York, in 1829, by Rev. Dr. Sereno Edwards Dwight.

(Edwards A. Park) F. H. Foster.

Bibliography: The life has been written by 8. Hopkins, Boston, 1765; J. Hawkaley, London, 1815; 9. E. Dwight, 1829 ut sup.; J. Iverach, in The Evangelical Succession. Edinburgh, 1882; A. V. G. Allen, Boston, 1889; H. N. Gardiner, ib. 1901; and W. Walker, in Tea New England Leaders, pp. 217 sqq., New York, 1901. Consult further: J. Sparks, The Library of Americas Biography, vol. viii., 10 vols., New York, 1848-51; W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, i. 329-336, ib. 1859; H. M. Dexter, The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years as seen in ate Literature, ib. 1880; G. P. Fisher, Diacwaiona is History and Theology, ib. 1880; J. A. Stoughton, Winaor Farmea, Hartford, 1883; W. Walker, Creeds and Platform of Congregationalism, pp. 283-285, New York, 1893; idem, in American Church History Series, vol. iii. passim, ib. 1894; A. E. Dunning, Congregationaliate is America, passim, ib. 1894; E. C. Smyth, in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 1895, pp. 212-238; L. W. Bacon, The Congregationalists, passim, New York, 1904; Jonathan Edward& Bicentenary, Memorial Volume of the Proceedirypa of the Andover Celebration, Oct. 1908, Andover, 1904; I. W. Riley, American Philosophy; the early Schools, pp. 126-191, New York, 1907; F. H. Foster, New England Theology, Chicago, 1907.


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