EDDY, RICHARD: Universalist; b. at Providence, R. L, June 21, 1828; d. at Gloucester, Mass., Aug. 16, 1906. He was graduated at Clinton Theological Seminary, Clinton, N. Y., in 1849, became chaplain of the Sixtieth New York State Volunteers 1861-63, and was lecturer on the history of Universalism at Tuft's College 1882-83 and on the dogmatic history of Universalism at the same institution in 1902 and at St. Lawrence University, Canton, N.Y., in 1906. In theology he based his belief in universal salvation on the will, purpose, and pleasure of God and the mission of Christ, as well as on his acceptance of the doctrine of the remedial character of punishment and the ever-enduring freedom of the human will. He edited the Universalist Quarterly Review 1888--94 and the Universalist Register (the year-book of the denomination) after 1888, and wrote The History of the Sixtieth Regiment New York State Volunteers (Philadelphia, 1864); History of Universalism in America (2 vols., Boston, 1883-85); Alcohol in History (New York, 1888); Alcohol in Society (1890); Universalism in Gloucester, Mass. (Gloucester, Mass., 1894); History of Universalism (1894); and Life of Thomas J. Sawyer (Boston, 1904).

EDELMANN, 6'del-mdn, JOHANN CHRISTIAN: German rationalist; b. at Weisaenfels (20 m. s.w. of Leipsic) July 9, 1698; d. at Berlin Feb. 15, 1767. In 1720 he began the study of theology at Kiel, but even before his examination at Eisenach in 1724 he had secretly determined to renounce the ministry. His personal experiences among Roman Catholics and Pietists enlarged his views but turned him more and more from Christianity. Wherever he went


he antagonized those whom he had hoped to win, and he successively abandoned the Moravians, the mystic separatists of Berleburg, and the Huguenot Inspired at Homburghausen, finally living as an individualistic separatist. His interpretation of the Johannine " The Word was God" as " God is reason " made his way clear before him. Hence forth, financially aided by his friends, he began to write in propaganda of his convictions, his works including Moses mit aufgedecktem Angesicht (Berleburg, 1740); Die G6ttlichkeit der Vernunft (1741); Die Begierde each der verniinftigen lautern Milch (Hachenburg, 1744); Glaubensbekenntnis (Neuwied, 1746), and Das Evangelium St. Harenberga (Altona, 1748). Edehnann met with opposition everywhere, until Frederic II. allowed him to live at Berlin on condition that he publish nothing more. He accordingly engaged in private literary work, which he continued until his death. Denying the validity of the Bible as a source of religious knowledge, Edelmann sought to base religion on nature and human thought, claiming that the world is a copy of the supramundane deity. This divinity 'is not actually transcendental, but the " living God is simply the uninterrupted existence and essence of all things themselves." He regarded all positive religions as imperfect forms of man's concept of his relation to the universe and consequently to God.

Paul Tschackert..

Bibliography: Edelinann's autobiography was edited by C. R. W. Mom, Berlin, 1849. Consult: K. Guden, Johann Christian Edelmanu, Hanover, 1870; J. H. Pratje, Historiaelte Nachrichten von J. C. Ed.,.. . . Leben, Hamburg, 1755; F. MnokebergReimmrue and Edelmaun, ib. 1867; B. Bauer, Einftuea des engliadun Qud.kertuma au/ die deutsche %ultw, Berlin. 1878: ADB, v. 839-640.


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