EDWARDS, JUSTIN: American Congregationalist; b. in Westhampton, Mass., Apr. 25, 1787; d. at Bath Alum Springs, Va., July 24, 1853. He was graduated at Williams College in 1810 and studied one year at Andover Theological Seminary. He was ordained Dec. 2, 1812 and preached in Andover 1812-27. In 1821 he became the corresponding secretary of the New England Tract Society. He was one of the founders of the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance in 1825, and as its secretary from 1829 to 1836 he traveled and lectured extensively in the interest of temperance reform. From 1836 to 1842 he was president of Andover Theological Seminary. In the latter year he became secretary of the American and Foreign Sabbath Union, and until 1849 he worked for the observance of the Sabbath as he had formerly done for the cause of temperance. He published numerous sermons and tracts, including a Sabbath Manual (New York, 1845), and a Temperance Manual (1847). The last years of his life were spent at Andover in the preparation of a compendious Bible commentary, which was left unfinished.

Bibliography: W. B. Sprague, Annals of the American Pulpit, ii. 572-585, New York, 1859.

EDWIN (EADWINE): King of Northumbria; one of the greatest of the kings of Anglo-Saxon England and an earnest champion of Christianity; b. 585; slain in battle at Heathfield (probably Hatfield Chase, 7 m. n.e. of Doncaster, Yorkshire) Oct. 12, 633. He was born a heathen, son of Ella, king of Deira, who died when Edwin was three years old, whereupon the Bernician king, Ethelric, seized his kingdom. Edwin, during his boyhood and early manhood, was a wanderer, often in danger from the unrelenting pursuit of Ethelric and his son, Ethelfrid. In 616 or 617 he was at the court of Redwald, king of East Anglia, and may have met there with the Roman missionary Paulinus (q.v.). Redwald refused to deliver him up at the bidding of the Northumbrian king, attacked the latter, and defeated and slew him. Edwin now regained his kingdom. He established his capital at York and extendod his dominions northward to the city which bears his name (Edinburgh), westward to the islands of Anglesea and Man, and southward over all England with the exception of Kent, with which he was in alliance. In 625 he married Ethelburga, Prince- of Kent, a Christian, and thus Paulinus gained admission to his court. For the story of Edwin's conversion see Paulinus of York. The king's greatness of mind is evident in his toleration of his wife's religion, in his reluctance to accept it himself without due deliberation and conviction, and in his conduct when once the decision was made. His first step was to announce his resolve to his witan and to ask if they would be baptized with him. The head priest is said to have been the first to give an affirmative answer, saying his service of the old gods had profited him nothing. After

a noble had spoken in favor of a trial of the new religion, the others gave their assent and the priest led the way in desecrating the heathen temples and altars. Edwin gave Paulinus full permission to preach and baptize, and began a stone church at York. He persuaded Eorpwald of East Anglia to become a Christian. He ruled so well, says Bede, that a woman with her newborn infant could cross his realm from sea to sea without harm. He had cups placed beside the springs along the highways for the use of travelers, and such was the love or the fear of him that no oneroarried them away. It was an evil day for England when he was slain by Penda, the heathen king of Mereia, with the help of the Britons of Wales, who, though Christians, could not forget the old animosity against the Saxons.

Bibliography: Sources to be consulted are: Bede, Hist. eecL., ii. b, 9-17, 20; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in Monuments historica Britannica, ad. H. Petrie, J. Sharps, and T. D. Hardy, London, 1848; Nennius, Eulogium Brir fannim, in Monuments hietariea Britannica, ut sup.; Alcuin, Carmen de pontifuibue, ed. J. Rains, "In Historiana of York, i. 349-398, cf. pp. lxi.-Ixv., London, 1879; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, i. 123, iii. 83 4fi. Consult: J. R. Green, Making of England, London, 1882; DNB, xvi. 132-134.


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