EBERHARD, e'ber-hard, OF BÉTHUNE: French grammarian sad theologian; b. at Bbtbune (20 m. s.w. of Lille); flourished between 1100 and 1200. Of his life almost nothing is known, except that he was the author of two important works.

The first of these is his Grcecismus de figuris et octo loartibus orationis, a poem of more than 2,000 verses, treating of rhetoric, prosody, grammar, and syntax, the whole without any logical arrangement. It was first edited by J. H. Metulinua (Paris, 1487). As a theologian Eberhard distinguished himself by his Liber antihceresis, in which he assailed the Cathari, then numerous in Flanders. Thin work is important as a source for the teachings of this sect. It was first edited by J. Gretser in his Tries scriptorum contra Waldenses (Ingolstadt, 1814), and contains two appendices, one a catalogue of older heresies, drawn from the Origines of Isidore of Seville, and the other a polemic against the Jews. A number of unimportant treatises, including the Labarintus, a poem on poetry, rhetoric, and grammar, are erroneously ascribed to this Eberhard.

(C. Schmidt.)

Bibliography: Sources of information are indicated in U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources historiques du moyen dpe, Paris, 1883. Consult J. A. Fabneme, Biblmtheca Latina, ii. 218, Hamburg, 1734; Histoire.littérnira de la

France, xpii. 129.

EBERLIN, JOHANN: One of the most important popular writers of the time of the Reformation; b. at Gilnzburg (30 m. w.n.w. of Augsburg), Bavaria, c. 1485; d. at Wertheim (20 m. w. of Würzburg), Baden, c. 1530. His youth is obscure. He was already priest of the diocese of Augsburg when he was matriculated at Basel in 1489. Here he became master of arts, and later entered the monastery of the Franciscans at Heilbronn. In the second decade of the sixteenth century he entered the monastery of Tübingen, developing a remarkable activity as a preacher in the town and its neighborhood, where he became involved in disputes with the theologians of the University of Tübingen. Subsequently he went to Ulm and in 1520 seems to have been in the monastery of the Franciscans at Freiburg in the Breisgau where he became acquainted with Luther's works, which he studied with great zeal. The result of his studies showed itself in his Lent-sermons, preached in Ulm after his return to that city, as a consequence of which he was persecuted and compelled to leave (1521). At this time he conceived the plan of writing a cycle of popular works under the title Funfzehn Bundesgenoasen, in which fifteen prominent people should give utterance to the wrongs of the nation, one after the other expressing his opinion in a special treatise. The work appeared at Basel, 1521, and shows the influence of Luther. Eberlin's propositions of reform were moat radical; his main attacks were directed against monastic affairs, but he touches almost every question of ecclesiastical, religious and social life. In the later Bundesgetwsaen Eberlin was influenced by the radical tendencies of Carlstadt, and his ideas undoubtedly contributed to the revolutionary tendencies of the lower classes which found expression in the Peasants' War. Eberlin shows himself in this work a popular writer of the first rank, original and striking in his way of treating matters in popular and blunt language. Friend and foe testify to the great sensation caused by this collection of treatises. In the mean time Eberlin had gone north. After a short stay at Leipsic he went to Wittenberg


where like many older men he became a student at the University (1522). Under the immediate influence of Luther and Mehwchthon his radicalism sobered down, as appears from his treatise Vom Misbrauch christlieleer Freiheit (1522) and from later writings in which he recalled not a few of his former demands. In 1523 he visited the South and preached at Basel, Rheinfelden, Rottenburgon-the-Neckar and Ulm, returning before the close of the year to Wittenberg. In the spring of 1524 he went to Erfurt where he received a position as preacher, but lost it in the following year in the disturbances caused by the Peasants' War. Afterward he found a permanent position as first preacher of Count George II. of Wertheim, which he held until his death. Besides the works mentioned Eberlin wrote a famous tract entitled Mich toundert, dass kein Geld im Lands iat in which he tried to show the causes of impoverishment and advocated honest and dignified labor, and Wie sick sin Diener Gotten Worts in all seirtem Thun halter soil . .

(1525), a kind of pastoral theology highly esteemed by August Hermann Francke.

(T. Kolde.)

Bibliography: Selected writings of Eberlin, ed. L. Enders, are in Neudrucke deutscher Litemtururerkt, roe. 139-141, Halle,1898. Consult: B. Riggenbach, J. Eberiin . . . and esin Refmmpropromm, Tübingen, 1874 (d. W. Sohum,; in GGA, 1875, pp. 801-802); M. Radlkofer, J. Eberlin . . . and . . . Hans Jacob Wshs, Nördlingen, 1887.


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