EICHHORN, KARL FRIEDRICH: German jurist; son of Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, b. at Jena Nov' 20, 1781; d. at Cologne July 5, 1854. He studied law at Göttingen, Wetzlar and Vienna. In 1803 he commenced his academic activity at Göttingen, was appointed professor of law at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1805, and was called in 1811 to Berlin. He served in the war of 1813, and four years later, at the wish of his father, accepted 8 call to Göttingen. He retired on account of illhealth~ in 1829, but in 1831 returned to Berlin, lectured for a year, then devoted his time partly to his high offices in civil administration, and partly to literary pursuits. He withdrew entirely from public life in 1847, and, after residing four years on his estate at Ammern (near Tübingen), removed to Cologne, where he spent the remainder of his life. Eichhorn was regarded as the foremost of the historical school of German jurists, and wrote a number of legal works which still take high rank. In the domain of canon law he wrote Grundsatze des Kirchenrechts der katholischen und der evange-


lisclten Religionspartei in Deutschland (2 vols., Göttingen, 1831-33); Gutachten für die Domgemeinde zu Bremen (Hanover, 1831); and Ueber die spanische Sammlung der Quellen des Kirchenrechts in the Abhandlungen der Berliner Akademie (Berlin, 1833-34) and in the Zeitschrift für geschichtliche Rachtsurissensclutft, xi.

(C. T. G. von Scheurl.)

Bibliography: F. von Schulte, Karl Friedrich EidtMrx, sein Leben and yVirken, Stuttgart, 1884; J. C. Blunteehli and K. Bracer, Stoats-Wlirterburh, iii. 237 sqq., ib. 1858; Preuasische Jahrbücher, xxavi (1575), 22 sqq.; ADB, vp. 469 sqq.

EICHSTAETT, aia'stat, BISHOPRIC OF: A German bishopric named from a city of Germany, 42 m. w.s.w. of Regensburg. The diocese was estab lished by St. Boniface, and in 740 had a monastery on the wooded height above the Altmiihl. On Oct. 22, 741, the Anglo-Saxon Willibald (q.v.), who was the abbot of this cloister, was consecrated bishop by Boniface, primarily for missionary work among the neighboring Wends. The actual diocese, how ever, first came into existence two years later, when Odilo of Bavaria was obliged to cede the northern portion of his domains to Karlman and Pepin, whereupon, to secure the incorporation of the new possession in Frankish territory, the Frankish dis trict of Suala was united with it to form a bishopric. The diocese lost a small portion of its territory when the see of Bamberg was established (1015), but the modern diocese practically corresponds to the ancient.


Bishop Gebhard I. (1042-57) became first an imperial minister of great force, and then pope as Victor II., still, however, retaining his German bishopric and for a time, as administrator of the Empire after the death of Henry Ill., uniting the highest temporal and spiritual power. Few events of general interest occurred until the episcopate of William of Reichenau (1464-96), whose achievements in statesmanship, economic and intellectual improvements, and building were notable; the University of Ingolatadt was now founded, with William for its first chancellor. The Reformation made marked headway in the diocese in spite of the stalwart opposition of Bishop Martin of Schaumberg (1560-90), who founded at Eichstatt the first seminary in Germany as prescribed by the Council of Trent. A period of great prosperity for the diocese was the episcopate of Conrad of Gemmingen (1593-1612), but the Swedish army laid it in ruins and burned the see city in 1634. The secularization of 1802 divided the diocese between Bavaria, Prussia and Duke Ferdinand of Tuscany, until in 1805 the fragments were reunited under Bavarian rule. Bishop Joseph von Stubenberg (1790-1824), though no longer a temporal magnate, recovered the full extent of his diocese in the Concordat of 1817, and many evidences of spiritual life were shown during the remainder of the nineteenth century.

Bibliography: Sources for history are: Gundechari Liber pontificalis Eichatetetts%a, 9¢1-107l,, ed. L. C. Bethmann in MGH, Script., vii (1846), 239 sqq.; the same volume, pp. 253 sqq., contains Anonymua Haaerenaia de epiacopia Eichatetenaibua 7k1-1063; Geata. epiacoPm·um Eichatetenaium 1,99-1/,l6, MGH, Script., xxv (1880), 590-609. Consult: M. Lead, Regeaten der Biachtife von Eichatlitt

..:;;`::sa;,:.~."': , . Mia_' `~A ~ . _~. . ' ., 98

7/,1-1897 Eiehatatt, 1871-74; J. Sax, Geschichte des Hochatifta und der Stadt Eichattitt, ib. 1858; Hauck, KD, i. 518-519.


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