1. The First Period, 1798-1830
Systematic exploration and excavation and study of the monuments of Egypt began with the Egyptian military campaign of Napoleon in 1798, which was accompanied by a number of competent scientists, artists, and savants, among whom were MM. Jollois and Devilliers, who examined the monuments then accessible. The results were published in memorable form under the auspices of the 1. The First French Academy in Description de

Period, tigypte, ou reeueil des observations qui

1798-1830. out Ete faites en Jgypte pendant l'expedition de l'armWe française (37 vols., Paris, 1820-1830). These magnificent volumes first acquainted the world with the existing remains of the past civilization of the Nile land. Prosper Jollois' Journal d'uning �nieur attache a l'expedition

. . 1798-I802, is published by G. Masp6ro in BibliothEque egyptologique (Paris, 1894) and throws a definite light upon the work of these scientists, since most of the sites since excavated with so large results are mentioned in the Journal. Memorable among the material results of the expedition was the Rosette Stone discovered in Aug., 1799, at Rosette, east of Alexandria, i4acribed in hieroglyphic, hieratic, and Greek, which enabled Champollion to begin decipherment and make the first great contributions to Egyptology (see Inscriptions). Another expedition, under the Tuscan government supported by Charles X. of France and led by the French Champollion and the Italian Rosellini, the latter a professor at Pisa, went out in 1828, studied anew the monuments in the light of Champollion's achievements with the materials of the first expedition, and carried their researches as far as Nubia. Champollion died in 1832, but Roaellini stayed some years, and the results were published in Monuments dell' Egitto a dells Nubia (3 vols. of plates, 8 of text, Pisa, 1832 sqq. ), the French equivalents in Monuments de l'ggypte et de Nubie (4 and 8 vols., Paris, 1835 sqq.).

The next period began in 1832, at first under private enterprise, no great official efforts being made. Among the most notable and useful labors were those of the English engineer F. E. Perring and his associate Col. Howard Vyse, who took accurate measurements of the pyramids, especially those of Gizeh, and ]aid the foundations for all subsequent



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