DRUTHMAR, CHRISTIAN: The name assigned to the author of an extensive commentary on Matthew, and two briefer ones on Luke and John. It has recently been shown, however, that the name Druthmar does not occur in the manuscripts, but is based on a statement of Trithemius (De scnptoribus ecclesiasticis, 280), and therefore must be given up. According to the prologue to the commentary on Matthew, Christian was a monk in the cloister of Stabulaus (the modern Stavelot, 24 m. s.e. of Liége), where he wrote his work on the basis of the lectures which he delivered in the school of the monastery. Sigibert of Gembloux (De scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, 72) states that Christian came from Aquitaine to Gaul, although certain passages in his own writings make plausible the conjecture that his native district was Burgundy. His date can only be conjectured, but his statement that the Bulgarians were in process of conversion to Christianity during his lifetime points approximately to 865. A deacon named Christian is known to have lived at Stavelot in 880, and it is not impossible that he was the exegete. The commentary on Matthew ranks above the average contribution of the ninth century. Though the author drew much from other sources, he did not content himself with mere excerpting, but proceeded with a considerable degree of independence. He was tolerably accurate in his judgment on literal and allegorical exegesis, preferring the former in cases of advantage, yet not disdaining


the latter. The other two commentaries are infe rior in value, and may have been merely notes for his lectures.

(A. Hauck.)

Bibliography: The tditio lorincepe of the Commentary was published Strasburg, 1514; the Commentary on Matthew was published separately by M. Molther at Hagenau, 1530, and in MPL, ovi. Consult E. Dümmler, Utber Christian von Stavelot, in Sitzunpaberichte der Berliner Akadsmie, 1891, p. 935.

DRYANDER, ERNST: German Protestant; b. at Halls Apr. 18, 1843. He studied in Halls and Tübingen (1860-64), and, after being assistant pastor at the Berlin Cathedral 1870-72, was pastor at Torgau 1872-74 and Bonn 187482, and superintendent and pastor of Trinity Church, Berlin, 1882-98. From 1890 to 1900 he was superintendent-general of the Kurmark, and has been chief court preacher since 1898. He was chosen a member of the Evangelical Church Council in 1900, and has been a member of the Prussian Upper House since 1901, and since 1905 canon of Brandenburg. He has written Evangelische Predigten (2 vols., Bonn, 1884-86); Das Evangelium Marci in Predigten (2 vols., Bremen, 1890-92); Der erste Brief Johdnnis in Predi~ (1898; Eng. transl. by W. O. E. Oeaterley, London, 1899); and Das Leben des Aloostels Paulus in Predigten (Halle, 1904).


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