DU HALDE, dii h>ild', JEAN BAPTISTE: French Jesuit; b. in Paris Feb. 1, 1674; d. there Aug. 18, 1743. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1708, and succeeded Father Legobien as editor of the letters written by the foreign missionaries of the order. He edited vols. ix.-xxvi., inclusive, and published an excellent r6sum4 of letters from China under the title, Description gdographique, historique . . . de l'empire de la Chine . . . (4 vols., Paris, 1735, Eng. transl., 'The General History of China, 4 vols., London, 1736).

DUHM, duhm, BERNARD LAWARD: German Protestant; b. at Bingum, East Frisia, Holland, Oct. 10, 1847. He studied in Göttingen (Ph.D., 1870), where he was tutor in the theological seminary.,1,871-72, and privet-docent for Old Testament theology, 1873-77- From 1877 to 1889 he was associate professor of Old Testament theology in Göttingen, end since 1889 hag been professor of the same subject at Basel and instructor in Hebrew at the gymnasium of Basel. He has written Pauli apostoli de legs iudicia dijudicata (Göttingen, 1873); Theologre der Propheten (Bonn, 1875); Ueber Ziel and Methods der theologischen Wissenschaft (Basel, 1889); Kosrnologie and Religion (1892); Das Buch Jesa9a übersetzt and erklitrt (Göttingen, 1892); Das Geheimniss in der Religion (Freiburg, 1890; Die Entstehung des Altert Testaments (1897); Das Bush Hiob übersetzt (1897); Des Buch Hiob erkltirt (1897); Die Psalmen übersetzt (1899); Die Psalmert erkhirt (1899); Des Buch Jeremia. erkhlrt (1901); and Das Buck Jeremia 9lbersetzt (1903).

DUKHOBORS: A Russian sect, first heard of in the latter half of the eighteenth century, when they attracted attention by their rejection of the Church, the priesthood, and the sacraments. They proclaimed the equality and

Tenets and brotherhood of man. The Czar and Early all his officials, as well as the priests

History. and metropolitans, were regarded as usurping a power to which they had no moral right. War and taxation, as well as law courts and all police regulation, were condemned. The Bible was mystically interpreted, and not regarded as having so high an authority as the "Living Book" (which may be taken to mean either "the Voice Within" or the ores traditions taught by the leaders of the sect). Wealth and commerce were condemned. The laborious, agri cultural life of a Russian peasant in his village commune was considered to be the only good life. None of these ideas was peculiar to the Dukhobors. They had all previously found expression among one or other of allied religious groups-Lollarda, Husaitea, Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Ana baptists, Quakers, or the Eastern Paulicians and Bogomiles.

The history of the Dukhobors, however, differentiated them from other sects because, after much persecution, in the reign of Alexander I. (1801-25) they were allowed to come together from all parts of Russia sad form a clan. Their place of settlement was "Milky Waters," near the Sea of Azov. Here they had to face the problem of arranging their practical affairs as a group, under their new conditions. The need of a government to regulate both their civil and religious affairs, as well as to negotiate with the Russian authorities (whom they regarded as the Hebrews in Egypt regarded Pharaoh), was at once urgently felt; and without altering the phraseology of their old anarchist beliefs, or being conscious of inconsistency, they instinctively proceeded to establish, and submit to, one of the moat absolute despotisms on record.

Their first leader at "Milky Waters" was a former non-commissioned officer named KapoSstin, a man of ability and force of character. He managed the sect-clan with remarkable

Sapotiatin. success; but he taught that he was a reincarnation of Christ, and that his divine authority would descend to his heirs and successors. His. followers, however, were never, in conversation with officials or other "Gentiles," to acknowledge that they had any earthly leader.


This curious secretiveness, the outcome of much persecution, still remains characteristic of the clan. They systematically throw dust in the eyes of all inquirers as to the nature of their internal government; and this has led to endless confusion and misunderstandings among those who, lacking the real clue to the situation, have attempted to study the sect. KapoGstin established community of property, and maintained that system for many years; but ultimately he terminated it in a manner which left him and his family in control of large communal estates. His immediate successors, his son and grandson, supported by an oligarchy of thirty eldeis, grossly misbehaved and appear to have terrorized their opponents by a series of secret assassinations carried on under the maxim: "Whoso denies his God shall perish by the sword."

In 1841-44 the Russian Government, after s prolonged investigation into these crimes, banished the sect to the Caucasus. Here they lived quiet,

industrious lives till the death of Peter L. V. Kahnik6va, who had succeeded

Verigin. to power on the death of her husband,

Peter, the great-grandson of Kapoustin. Thin woman had shown favorto a young man, Peter Verfgin, who belonged to the ruling family, and whom she probably intended to appoint as her successor. However, after a quarrel with him she died suddenly, without having made the appointment, and strife broke out in the sect. The majority acknowledged Peter Verfgin as leader, but an influential minority (including those who had managed affairs under KalmikGva) refused to do so. The Russian authorities, in 1887, banished Verfgin to Archangel for five years, and at the end of that time sent him to Siberia. In exile Verigin became acquainted with Leo Tolatoy'e teaching; and, recognizing in it much that corresponded to the original Dukhobor doctrines, he "advised" (his advice amounting to a command) his followers to rename themselves " The Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood "; further (1) to refuse military service; (2) to divide up their property equally; (3) to cease killing animals for food, and abstain from intoxicants and tobacco; (4) to refrain from sexual relations during their time of tribulation (i.e., during the persecution which arose in connection with his leadership). About this time Tolstoy made the acquaintance of some of Verfgin's adherents; and, being misled by them as to the real state of the case, wrote a series of articles which ignored the fact of Verfgin's theocratic authority, and represented the Dukhobora as an example of a sect of peaceful anarchists, who conducted their affairs without a government of any kind, except that of their own reason and conscience. Vertgin's advice led to a fresh split in the sect. Nearly half his followers, finding his demands too severe, seceded, while the rest accepted them and entered on a campaign of passive resistance against conscription for army-service.

In 1898 the loyal Verfginite Dukhobors were allowed to migrate to Canada, and, having secured from the Canadian government a pledge that they should be exempt from all forms of conscription,

7,363 of them arrived there in 1899. Verfgin being still in exile, and they being unwilling or unable

without him to decide on what lines The Du- the new life should be arranged, great khobors in confusion arose, leading ultimately to

Canada a strange pilgrimage which set out to meet Verfgin when the news of his release from Siberia was at last- received. After his arrival in Canada, in 1902, the clan gave the government less difficulty; but owing to their un willingness to own allegiance to any one but Verigin, and their consequent reluctance to become British subjects, there was still some friction. More than 1,000 Dukhobora have now broken away from Verfgin's community, and the superstitious rever ence for him has much decreased. It is only the more ignorant members, especially some of the women and children, who still regard him as a superman.

The Dukhobors are remarkably honest, sober, temperate, and frugal, and they are also generally industrious, well-mannered, self-respecting, and hospitable to strangers. Their differences with the Canadian government have all pivoted on the question of Verfgin's leadership, and have been increased by the extraordinary duplicity and mendacity which they never scruple to practise in order to screen their leader from responsibility for the consequences of actions they take at his prompting. Allowance should, however, be made for the difficulties experienced by members of a sect-clan who had always been accustomed to a communal or semicommunal way of life in which public affairs were managed for them, and who suddenly found themselves in a land of individual enterprise and democratic institutions, the laws and language of which they did not understand.

Aylmer Maude.

Bibliography: he only full account yet published is by A. Maude, A Peculiar People: the Doukhobora, New York, 1904. Further references are: Stepaiak, The Russian Peasantry, London, 1894; Christian Martyrdom in Russia, ed. V. Tchertkoff, with chapter by L. Tolatoy, ib. 1897; L. Toletoy, in London Daily Chronicle, Apr. 29, 1898; idem, Essays and Letters, in World's Classics Series, ib. 1903; J. Elkiaton, The Doukhobara, their Hist. in Russia, their Migration to Canada, Philadelphia, 1903 (better on the Canadian episode than in the other part). Materiel is also to be found in: Life . . of William Allen, London, 1847; Life . . . of Stephen G reiletl, ed. $eebohm, ib. 1882; Canadian Magazine, xx (1903), 211 sqq. The fully authoritative work on the sect in Russia will be K. K. Gram, Die rusrischen 3ektea, voL iii., Leip_ sie, not yet out. Consult also the literature under Roeam.


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