DUEL. See Wager Of Battle.
DUESTERDIECK, dQ-"ester-dike, FRIEDRICH HERMANN CHRISTIAN: German Protestant; b. at Hanover July 14, 1822; d. there Apr. 23, 1906. He studied in Göttingen and Berlin and was lecturer at Göttingen 1846-48, director of studies at the theological seminary at Hanover 1848-54, pastor at Schwichelt 1854-58, and director of studies at Loccum 1858-65. In 1865 he was appointed consistorial councilor at Hanover, and became councilor of the supreme consietory seven years later, while from 1879 until his retirement from active life in 1900 he was general superintendent. He wrote Qua de Ignatianarum epistolarwm anthentia dtiorumque teztuum rations et dignitate hue uaque prolatca aunt sententim (Göttingen, 1843); De rei prophetieee nature ethics (1852); Die tueltliche Bildung des Geistlichen (Hanover, 1873); Die Revision der Luther'schen Bibeliibersetzung (1882); Kritisch-ezegetisches Handbuch abet die Offenbarung Johannes (Göttingen); and Inspiration and Kritik der heiligen Schrift (1896).
DUFF, ALEXANDER: First missionary of the Church of Scotland to India; b. at the farmhouse of Auchnahyle, Moulin (25 m. n.n.w. of Perth), Perthshire, Apr. 25, 1806; d. in Edinburgh Feb. 12, 1878. He studied at the grammar-school of Perth and the University of St. Andrews under Dr. Chalmers and others, and was licensed and sailed for Calcutta in 1829, lying all his books by shipwreck on the way. He resolved to make an educational institution a leading feature of his work in India, and had the valuable support of an enlightened Hindu for his school in Calcutta, which was conducted on two principles-first that the Christian Scriptures should be read in every class able to read them, and second that through the English language Western science should be taught, notwithstanding the revolution it must cause in many Hindu notions. Duff prepared various textbooks, including one on Christian ethics and the elements of political economy. His school rapidly became popular and influential. The teaching of English, however, roused opposition among the European residents, including some of the earlier missionaries, and his whole method brought him into conflict with the Hindu College, already established, which aimed to avoid offense to Indian sentiment by maintaining a secularist atmosphere. Duff won the confidence of the governor, Lord William Bentinck, and T. B. Macaulay (afterward Lord Macaulay) added his powerful advocacy to the cause of English education; eventually the neutrality of government guaranteed security for
Bibliography: Consult the biographies of George Smith, London, 1899; J. Marrat, in Too Standard Bearers in the
East, ib. 1882; Thomas Smith, in Men Worth Remembering, ib. 1883. Further: Lai Behari Day, Recollections of A. Duff, ib. 1879; W. P. Duff, Memorials of Alexander Duff, ib. 1890 (by his son).
Calvin College. Last modified on 08/11/06. Contact the CCEL.