DURAND OF TROARN: Roman Catholic abbot of Troarn; b. at Neubourg (13 m. n.w. of Evreux) apparently in the early part of the eleventh century; d. at Troarn (5 m. e. of Caen) Feb. 11, 1088. He entered a monastery in early youth, and in 1059 was appointed abbot of Troarn, an office which he held for the remainder of his life. He is noteworthy for his share in the second eucharistic controversy, his De eorpore et sanguine Christi dating apparently from about 1054. In his opinion the entire controversy centered about the question whether in the Sacrament there was a symbol or a true substance, he himself maintaining the latter teaching as the belief of the entire Catholic Church. His book is noteworthy, as showing the feeling that the attacks of Berengar on the doctrines of Paschasius Radbertus imperiled the truth of Christianity, and as indicating the opposition of the older traditionalistic theologians to any explanation of controverted problems. In conformity with his theory that all difficulties may be solved by the statements of the Church Fathers, a large portion of his work consists of compilations from such predecessors as Hilary, Ambrose, Augustine, Jerome, Cassiodorus, Bede, Amalarius, Hincmar, and Fulbert. Noteworthy also are his data concerning the course of the Berengarian controversy from 1050 to 1054.

(A. Hauck.)

Bibliography: The work of Durand is appended to L. i d'Achery's edition of Lanfranc, Paris, 1745, and in MPL, exlix. Consult: Hist. litreraira de France, viii. 239; H. $udendorf, Berengarius Turoneasia, pp. 25 sqq., Gotha,


1850; C. Warner, Gerbert won Aurillac, pp. 171 sqq., Vienna. 1878; J. Schnitzer, Bereregur Ton Tours, pp. 328 sqq., Stuttgart. 1892.

DURANDUS, GULIELMUS: French canonists.

1. Called "Speculator" after his chief work; b. at Puimisson, near B6ziers, 1237; d. in Rome Nov. 1, 1296. Clement IV. made him his auditor-general, subdeacon, and chaplain; Gregory X., his secretary at the council of Lyons (1274); Nicholas III. sent him into the Romagna and to Bologna to receive their homage in his name (1278) ; Martin IV. made him spiritual legate in the Romagna (1281), and in 1283 rector-general. In 1286 he became bishop of Mends, southern France. His chief book was the Speculum iudiciale [Rome, 1474; latest ed., Frankfort, 1668]. Another useful book was his Rationale divinorum officim-um, Augsburg, 1470 (Eng. transl. of the first book, The Symbolism of Churches and Church Ornaments, London, 1906).

2. His nephew succeeded him as bishop of Mendea, Dec. 18, 1296; d. there 1331. His book, De modo celebrandi concwlii et corruptelis in ecclesia reformandia (in Trtactatus illustrium Juris conaulforum, XIII., I. 159 sqq., Venice, 1584), made quite a sensation in the Middle Ages.

Bibliography: J. F. von Schulte, l3eachirh;e der Quellen and Literatur lee carwniaclaen Rechla, ii. lbb-158, Stuttgart, 1877; KL, iv. 45-48; and preface to the Eng. transl. of the Rationale, 1908.


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