II. The Progressive Dunkers:

1. Fundamental Cause of Separation

the United States. As the country increased in population, and new Cause of Sepa- means of speedy communication with ration. the world, with all that it implies, became available, the former isolation of the Dunkers in the wilderness was destroyed. Traditions and customs of the Church which could be defended neither by the Bible nor reason fell into disfavor, and dissatisfaction grew especially with the dogmatic type of mind characteristic of many of the older and more ignorant. The neces sity was felt of bringing the Church as rapidly as possible into line with the knowledge and culture of the times. On the other hand, congregations and individuals isolated from the influences which affected the more advanced communities were con trolled by traditional beliefs and usages, and aimed at uniformity on the basis of tradition all the more strenuously because they knew of differences which had grown naturally in widely separated parts of the Church. Thus the social conditions of the United States created two radically different tend encies in the bunker Church; and by 1880 these tendencies had come into open conflict which re sulted in the division.

The immediate cause of the separation was sympathy with Henry R. Holsinger, of Berlin, Pa., because of what his friends considered ill treatment by the Annual Meeting of 1882. He was a radical

"Progressive" and was expelled by the Annual Meeting, charged with speaking and writing dis respectfully of certain leading members of the Church and of the Annual Meeting. Large numbers of his sympathizers in many congrega-

2. Orgasiand

Lions went out with him, in some places the separation being made by Present mutual consent, in others the Progress- tatue, ives being expelled. The work of organ izing Progressive congregations went on rapidly under a committee appointed for the pur pose by a convention at Ashland, O., in 1882. Hope of a reconciliation with the Conservatives was finally dissipated by the failure of the Annual Meeting of 1883 to take steps looking to that end, and the Progressives then formally organized as the Brethren Church at a convention at Dayton, O., in June, 1883, representatives being present from about fifty congregations. In 1887 State organ izations were formed and a national Sisters' Society of Christian Endeavor was organized. ):n 1892 a denominational Young People's Society was formed, which later was affiliated with the Christian En deavor movement. In 1895 the General Mission Board was organized; it has city missions in Chi cago, Philadelphia, and Washington. About 1900 a Foreign Missionary Society was organized, which maintains stations in Montreal, Canada, and Urmia, Persia. Following the Dayton convention the college at Ashland, O., was turned over to the Progressives on condition that they assume its indebtedness. It now has an endowment of about $60,000 and in 1905-I16 had an enrolment of 150 students. The publishing house is at Ashland, O. In 1895 there were 138 congregations re ported with a membership of 10,031. In 1905 the membership was 14,117 in 144 congregations in eighteen Staten of the Union. The States having the largest membership are Pennsylvania, 3,357; Indiana, 3,275; Ohio, 2,443; Virginia, 880; and Iowa, 841. The church periodical is the Brethren Evangelist.

In doctrine the Progressive Dunkers differ from the Conservatives in but few points. They hold that the decisions of no conference are


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