DUNCAN, JOHN: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Aberdeen 1796; d. at Edinburgh Feb. 26, 1870. He was graduated from the University of Aberdeen in 1814, then studied theology at Edinburgh and was licensed to preach in 1825. In 1836 he was ordained to the charge of Milton Church, Glasgow. In 1841 he was appointed the first missionary of the committee of the Church of Scotland for the conversion of the Jews. After spending two years in Budapest he returned to Scotland to become professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages at New College, Edinburgh. He published an edition of E. Robinson's Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament (Edinburgh, 1838) and a few lectures.

Bibliography: w. Knight, Colloquia Peripatetiea by the late John Duncan, Edinburgh, 1879; A. M. Stuart, Reeolkctiona of the late John Duncan, ib. 1872; D. Brown, Life of the late John Duncan, ib. 1872; idem, John Dunoan in the Pulpit and at as Communion Table, ib. 1874.

DUNGAL: The name of several ecclesiastics of the early Middle Ages. A Celtic bishop Dungal is mentioned by Alcuin, but is scarcely identical with the monk Dungal of St. Denis, who is never termed a bishop. Thin monk was the author of a number of letters and poems. Of the former the first is dated in 811, the next five during the reign of Charlemagne, the seventh after the death of that monarch, and the eighth either in his reign or in that of Louis the Pious. Dungal is named in only two of the poems, but he has been regarded as the chief author of the poems emanating from St. Denis. His writings show him to have been a man of unusual attainments and a scion of a wealthy Scotch-Irish family, although on the Continent he lived in needy circumstances. He apparently left hia.home about 784 or 787, since the twelfth St. Denis poem was written at the earliest in the former year, and the second in or shortly after the latter date. Charlemagne valued Dungal's learning highly, and requested him to explain the eclipse of the sun in 810 and to criticize the De substantia nihili et tenebris an sint of Fridugis. Dungal was thus naturally an enthusiastic panegyrist of the emperor.

It is uncertain whether this Dungal was the author of the Reaponsa contra pernersas Claudii sentential, written at the request of Lothair in 827. It seems more probable, however, that this work was composed by a third Dungal, whom Lothair mentions in 825 as a teacher of the school of Pavia,

though so little is known regarding this teacher that the question can not be decided. Despite their polemics against Claudius of Turin, the Re sponses adhere in the main to the Carolingian theology. A fourth Dungal, of somewhat later date, was the author of another poem from St. Denis, while a fifth, who seems to belong to the eleventh century, presented numerous books to Bobbio.

(A. Hauck.)

Bibliography: The Epistola, ed. E. D├╝mmler, are in M(iH, Epist. ao3c. xiii., iv (1892), 568 sqq.; the Carmina, ed. E. DGynmler, in M(iH, Poetca Latini asoi Caroiini, i (1881), [393 sqq., ii (1884), 884-8&5: of. wattenbach, D(IQ, i (1893), 153, and Traube. AMA, philosophische Clasae, tea. 332 sqq.


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