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ZAANA'IM (removals), THE PLAIN OF, more accurately "the oak of," where Heber the Kenite pitched his tent. Jud 4:11. This has been identified with a plain some 2 or 8 miles north-west of the Waters of Merom (Lake Huleh), in the line of the hills which form the western boundary of the Jordan valley. The plain is about 2 miles long and 1 mile wide, and completely surrounded by hills. The hills are well wooded and have many "oaks." In the middle of the western side of this plain is the site of Kedesh-naphtali, or Kedesh. Conder says that Kedesh-naphtali is 30 miles from Tabor, over a difficult country. He suggests another Kedesh, and the identification of Zaanaim with Bessum, east of Tabor. See Zaananxim.

ZA'ANAN (place of flocks). Mic 1:11. Conder suggests for it Khurbet Sameh. See Zenan.

ZAANAN'NIM (removals), a place on the border of Naphtali, not far from Kedesh. Josh 19:33. Identical with Zaaxaim. which see.

ZA'AVAN (disquieted), a Horite chief. Gen 36:27; 1 Chr 1:42.

ZA'BAD (qift).

  1. One of David's mighty men. 1 Chr 2:36-37; 1 Chr 11:41.

  2. An Ephraimite slain by the Gathites. 1 Chr 7:21.

  3. One of the murderers of King Joash, 2 Chr 24:26 called Jozachar in 2 Kgs 12:21, probably the more correct form.

  4. 5, 6. Three who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:27, 1 Sam 15:33, Acts 2:43.

ZAB'BAI (pure).

  1. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:28.

  2. The father of a repairer of the wall. Neh 3:20.

ZAB'BUD (given), one who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:14.

ZAB'DI (gift of Jehovah).

  1. A Judite. Josh 7:1, 2 Sam 21:17, 1 Sam 30:18.

  2. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:19.

  3. The superintendent of David's vintage. 1 Chr 27:27.

  4. A musical Levite. Neh 11:17.

ZAB'DIEL (gift of God).

  1. The father of the chief of David's guard. 1 Chr 27:2.

  2. A prominent priest who returned. Neh 11:14.

ZA'BUD (given), "the friend" of Solomon. 1 Kgs 4:5.

ZAB'ULON, the Greek form of Zebulun, which see. Matt 4:13, 2 Sam 20:15; Rev 7:8.

ZACCAI (pure), the ancestor of seven hundred and sixty persons who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:9; Neh 7:14.

ZACCHAE'US (pure). The story of his conversion is related only by Luke 19:2-10. He was a rich Jew, resident in Jericho, and chief officer of the tax- or tribute-collectors in that place, and hence "a sinner," for the Jews regarded all publicans or tax gatherers in this light. The revenue in Jericho was doubtless considerable, and mainly derived from taxes on the balsam so abundantly produced in the neighborhood, all along the banks of the Jordan. His desire to see Christ was so much excited that he took pains to climb into a tree by the roadside that he might have a fair view of him as the crowd passed. Jesus, knowing his character and motives, proposed to spend the day with him, to which Zacchaeus gladly assented. His mind was probably brought at once under the influence of the Spirit of God, and on that very day he and his family became interested in the salvation of the gospel. He gave the best evidence of the sincerity of his conversion by declaring his intention to give half his goods to the poor and to restore fourfold for every illegal exaction he had made. Our Lord probably passed the night in his house, and on the next morning passed on with the Passover pilgrims to Jerusalem. The name Zacchaeus appears in the O.T. in the form "Zaccai."

ZACCHE'US. See Zacchaeus.

ZAC'CHUR (mindful), a Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:26.

ZAC'CUR (mindful).

  1. A Reubenite. the father of the spy from that tribe. Num 13:4.

  2. A Merarite Levite. 1 Chr 24:27.

  3. A son of Asaph, and head of a


course of singers. 1 Chr 25:2, 1 Chr 25:10; Neh 12:35.

  1. One who helped to build the wall. Neh 3:2.

  2. A Levite who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:12.

  3. A Levite, father of a treasurer under Nehemiah. Neh 13:13.

ZACHARI'AH (remembered by Jehovah). The name is the same in Hebrew as Zechariah, which also see.

  1. Son and successor of Jeroboam II., king of Israel, and the last of the house of Jehu. 2 Kgs 14:29. He reigned only six months, and then fell by the hand of Shallum, who took the throne. 2 Kgs 15:8-11; comp. Am 7:9.

  2. The father of Abi or Abijah, King Hezekiah's mother, 2 Kgs 18:2; called Zechariah in 2 Chr 29:1.

ZACHARI'AS, properly ZACHARI'AH (remembered by Jehovah).

  1. Our Lord mentions a Zacharias, son of Barachias, as having been slain between the "sanctuary " (not "altar," but the inner shrine) and the temple, Matt 23:35; Luke 11:51; probably the person of that name whose death under such circumstances is mentioned in 2 Chr 24:20-22. It is true that not this Zachariah, but Urijah, was the last O.T. martyr, Jer 26:23; but inasmuch as Second Chronicles was the last book of the canon according to the Jewish arrangement, our Lord took an instance from it, as he took Abel from Genesis, the first. The principal objection to this identification is that this Zacharias is stated to have been the son of Jehoiada, and not of Barachiah; but the word "son" may be used in its usual lax sense, and Barachiah may have been his grandfather.

  2. The father of John the Baptist, and husband of Elisabeth, which it is interesting to remark is the same name as "Elisheba," the name of the wife of Aaron. Ex 6:23. He was a priest of the course of Abia, which was the eighth of the twenty-four classes into which the descendants of Eleazar and Ithamar, the sons of Aaron, were divided. 1 Chr 24. Each of these ministered in the temple one week. But this fact does not enable us in any wise to determine the date of the occurrence mentioned in Luke 1. Of Zacharias and Elisabeth we read: "They were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless. And they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren, and they were both now well stricken in years." It was while Zacharias served one day in the temple that an angel appeared to him and prophesied the birth of a son. But, although for this he had long been praying, he did not believe that God would thus signally answer his prayer. He required a sign, and he received one - dumbness up to the time of the circumcision of the child. To the wonder of the attendant people he silently dismissed, but conveyed by action enough to let them know he had seen a vision, he was a deaf-mute until, in obedience to the angelic direction, he had named the infant born to him John. Then he not only spoke, but was filled with the Holy Ghost, and in a strain of the most devout gratitude and praise he poured out his soul. And, thus singing, he passes out of history.

ZA'CHER (memorial), a Benjamite, 1 Chr 8:31; called Zechariah in 1 Chr 9:37.

ZA'DOK (just).

  1. Son of Ahitub, of the family of Eleazar, and one of the two high priests in the time of David, Abiathar being the other. 2 Sam 8:17. He joined David at Hebron, 1 Chr 12:28, and was always faithful to him, staying behind in Jerusalem at his request during Absalom's rebellion, and subsequently anointed Solomon king, 1 Kgs 1:39, and was rewarded by Solomon for his faithful service by being made sole high priest. See Abiathar.

  2. A priest in the time of King Ahaziah. 1 Chr 6:12.

  3. The father of King Uzziah's wife. 2 Kgs 15:33; 2 Chr 27:1.

  4. One who repaired a part of the wall. Neh 3:4.

  5. 6, 7. Three other persons. Neh 3:29; Gen 10:21; Josh 13:13.

ZA'HAM (loathing), son of Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:19.

ZA'IR (small), a place in Idumaea where Joram overcame the Edomites. 2 Kgs 8:21. The name does not occur elsewhere. It has been regarded as equivalent to Zoar, and again to Seir, but more probably is identical with Zueirah, on the south-western side of the Dead Sea.

ZA'LAPH (bruise), the father of 913 one who helped to build the wall. Neh 3:30.

ZAL'MON (shady), one of David's guard, 2 Sam 23:28 called Ilai in 1 Chr 11:29.

ZAL'MON (shady), MOUNT, a hill near Shechem from which Abimelech cut boughs to burn the citadel. Jud 9:48. Possibly the same as Salmon. Ps 68:14. Mount Ebal is now called Jehel Sahimuyeh, in which some trace a resemblance to "Zalmon."

ZALMO'NAH (shady), A station of the Israelites in the wilderness. Num 33:41-42. It lay to the east of Edom. Palmer and Raumer suggest its identity with Ma'an, a short distance east of Petra. Another suggested site is in Wady el-Ithm.

ZALMUN'NA (shelter denied to one?), one of the two kings of Midian slain by Gideon. Jud 8:5-21; Ps 83:11.

ZAMZUM'MIMS. Deut 2:20. See Zuzims.

ZANO'AH. Jekuthiel is called, in the A.V. of 1 Chr 4:18, the father of Zanoah, but this means he was the founder of the village of that name. See Zanoah, 2.

ZANO'AH (marsh, bog), a name for two towns,

  1. A town in Judah, in the lowlands or "valley." Josh 15:34; Neh 3:13; Neh 11:30. Robinson fixed its site up the valley of Sorek, east of Beth-shemesh, at Zamu'a, on the slope of a hill, 14 miles west-south-west of Jerusalem. The Pal. Memoirs also accept this large ruin as the site of Zanoah.

  2. A town in the highlands of Judah. Josh 15:56. Robinson proposed Za'untah, 10 miles south-south-west of Hebron, and Conder, after proposing and abandoning another site, appears to accept Robinson's identification.

ZAPH'NATH-PAANE'AH, the name or title given by Pharaoh to Joseph immediately after his elevation. Gen 41:45. The etymology of the word is uncertain, some deriving it from a Hebrew root, "the revealer of mysteries," others from an Egyptian root, "the preserver of the age."

ZA'PHON (the north), a city of Gad, east of the Jordan. "in the valley." Josh 13:27. The word translated "northward" in Jud 12:1 is rendered in the Septuagint "to Zaphon." The Talmud identifies it as Amathus, and it is now represented by the ruined site Amateh, south-east of the Sea of Galilee.

ZA'RA (rising of light), the son of Judah. Matt 1:3. See below.

ZA'RAH (rising of light), a son of Judah by Tamar. Gen 38:30; Gen 46:12; called Zerah in Num 26:20; Josh 7:1, 1 Sam 30:18; Gen 22:20; 1 Chr 2:4, 1 Chr 2:6; 1 1 Chr 9:6; Neh 11:24, and Zara. Matt 1:3. The name is properly Zerah.

ZA'REAH (hornets' town). Neh 11:29. See Zokah.

ZA'REATHITES, the inhabitants of Zareah or Zorah. 1 Chr 2:53.

ZA'RED (exuberant growth). Num 21:12. See Zered, Valley or Brook of.

ZAR'EPHATH (smelting-house), and SAREP'TA. Luke 4:26. Zarephath was a town of Phoenicia, on the shore of the Mediterranean, between Tyre, which is 14 miles southward, and Sidon, which is 7 miles north.

Scripture History. - At Zarephath, Elijah found shelter with a widow-woman during the great famine in Israel. 1 Kgs 17:8-24. The prophet Obadiah mentions it as marking the limits of Israel's victory. Ob 20. Jesus made reference to this incident in Elijah's life. Luke 4:26.

Present Appearance. - Not a house now remains; only ruins mark the site. They extend for a mile along the seashore, and contain many fragments of columns. A little chapel, or uely. bears the name of El-Khuds, the Mohammedan title of Elijah, and possibly marks the site of the chapel erected by the Crusaders over the spot where the widow's house is supposed to have stood. There is no tomb within, because, as the Mussulmans say, Elijah is not yet dead: he "flies round and round the world." Tradition also claims this as the spot where our Lord rested when he visited these coasts.

On the slope of a hill more than a mile back from the coast is the modern village of Surafend, which represents the ancient Zarephath.

ZAR'ETAN (cooling?). Josh 3:16. See Zererath or Zereda.

ZA'RETH-SHA'HAR (splendour of the dawn), a city in Reuben, on a hill in a valley. Josh 13:19. About a mile and a half east of the Dead Sea, near 914 the mouth of the Wady Zerka Main, is a place called Zara, or Sara, a heap of stones in a little green plain, which may mark the site.

ZAR'HITES, THE, the descendants of Zarah, the son of Judah. Num 26:13, Ruth 4:20; Josh 7:17; 1 Chr 27:11, 1 Chr 27:13.

ZAR'TANAH (cooling), probably the present ruin Sarem, near Bethshean; but Drake would identify Sarem with Zarthan. 1 Kgs 4:12.

ZAR'THAN (cooling), a town in the Jordan valley. 1 Kgs 7:46. Between it and Succoth were the clay-grounds in which Solomon cast the brass utensils for the temple-services. Drake mentions a very conspicuous mound, 3 miles south of Bethshean, called Tell Sarem - a name identical with ?'lapa't?, which the Alexandrine Codex has for Zarthan. This may be the same as Zereda, which see.

ZAT'THU, or ZAT'TU (a sprout), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:8; Neh 7:13, and married foreign wives. Ezr 10:27.

ZA'VAN (disquieted). See Zaavan.

ZA'ZA (plenty), a son of Jonathan, and a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:33.

ZEAL'OTS, the name of a party among the Jews, half religious and half political, founded by Judas the Galilean or the Gaulanite, Acts 5:37, and, after the death of him and his sons, led by Eleazar, one of his descendants. Contending that God was the only king of Israel and refusing to pay the tribute to the Romans, they broke out into open rebellion under the lead of Judas, but were soon dispersed, and, while afterward attempting to maintain themselves by a kind of guerilla-warfare, they gradually sunk into mere bands of robbers and brigands, and -were called Sicarii, from the Latin sica, "a dagger."

ZEBADI'AH (gift of Jehovah).

1, 2, 3. Three Benjamites, sons of Beriah, 1 Chr 8:15, Elpaal, 1 Chr 8:17, and Jeroham of Gedor. 1 Chr 12:7.

  1. A Korhite Levite. 1 Chr 26:2.

  2. A Levite teaching the Law in the cities of Judah during the reign of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:8.

  3. A son of Asahel, the brother of Joab. 1 Chr 27:7.

  4. A son of Ishmael, of the house of Judah. 2 Chr 19:11.

  5. One who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:8.

  6. A priest who had married a foreign wife after the return from Babylon. Ezr 10:20.

ZE'BAH (sacrifice), a Midianite king captured and killed by Gideon. Jud 8:5-21; Ps 83:11.

ZEBA'IM (the gazelles). In Ezr 2:57; Neh 7:59 we read of a person named "Pochereth of Zebaim," Some, and Grove among them, suppose this name to be identical with "Zeboim." Others translate "Zebaim " as the plural of the Hebrew word signifying "antelope" or "gazelle," and render it "Pochereth-zebaim," "snaring the antelopes," as the name of some mighty hunter.

ZEB'EDEE (Jehovah's gift), the husband of Salome, Matt 27:56; Mark 15:40, and father of the apostles James the Great and John, Matt 4:21; lived as a fisherman in or near Bethsaida. When his two sons left him to follow Jesus, he made no objections. Matt 4:21-22; Mark 1:19-20, and his wife was one of the women who were in constant attendance on our Saviour, but he himself is not mentioned as being among the disciples, although doubtless friendly to Christ.

ZEBI'NA (bought), one who had taken a foreign wife after the return from Babylon. Ezr 10:43.

ZEBO'IM, and ZEBOI'IM (roes).

  1. One of the "five cities of the plain ;" grouped with Sodom and Gomorrah. Gen 10:19; Gen 14:2, Acts 14:8; Deut 29:23; Hos 11:8. The question of the site of these cities is more fully discussed under Siddim, Sodom, and Zoar, which see.

  2. A place inhabited by the Benjamites after the Captivity. Neh 11:34. Its site is unknown.

ZEBO'IM (valley of hyenas), THE VALLEY OF. It was a gorge or ravine apparently east of Michmash, and mentioned only in 1 Sam 13:18. The "wilderness" is the wild tract between the central hills and the valley of the Jordan. There are two ravines, 4 miles apart, near Jericho, called Shuk ed Dubba, "ravine of the hyaenas," which is the equivalent of the Hebrew.

ZEBU'DAH (given, bestowed), wife of Josiah and mother of Jehoiachim. 2 Kgs 23:36.


ZE'BUL (habitation), Abimelech's officer in the city of Sheehem during his contest with the Canaanites. Jud 9:28-41.

ZEB'ULONITE, Jud 12:11. or ZEB'ULUNITES, Num 26:27, the descendants of Zebulun.

ZEB'ULUN (habitation), Gen 30:20; Rev 7:8, the sixth son of Jacob and Leah, Gen 49:13, and the father of three sons who became the heads of large families.

ZEB'ULUN (a habitation), the territory possessed by the tribe of Israel descended from the sixth and last son of Leah and the tenth-born of Jacob, Gen 30:20; Gen 35:23, lay in the North of Canaan and between those of Issachar, Asher, and Naphtali. At the census of the wilderness Zebulun numbered 57,400. Num 1:30-31. In the encampment their position was to the east of the tabernacle. Num 2:7-8, and on the march they followed third under the standard of Judah. Num 10:14-16. At the second census their number was 60,500. Num 26:26. Zebulun was one of the six tribes stationed on Ebal to pronounce the curses. Deut 27:13. They joined Barak and Deborah against the army of Jabin. Jud 5:18.

Situation and Extent. - In the prophetic blessing upon Zebulun. Jacob declared that "his border should be unto Zidon." Gen 49:3. The boundaries of the tribe are given in Josh 19:10-16, but many of those landmarks cannot be traced, and hence the exact limits of Zebulun are hard to determine. Asher lay to the west and north-west. Naphtali to the north-east, the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan on the east, and Issachar on the south. Some writers suppose that Zebulun did not touch the Sea of Galilee at any point, but others are of the opposite opinion, and suppose the borders of Zebulun and Naphtali to have met on the Sea of Galilee, not far from Capernaum. Matt 4:13, Ex 17:16. The territory included the great plain of Esdraelon and Mount Carmel and the plain of Acre, thus bringing it into immediate connection with the trade of Phoenicia and fulfilling the prophecy of Jacob. Gen 49:13. The territory was rich and fertile. It belonged to the hill-country, but the hills are lower and the strips of plain more productive than in the district of Naphtali, to the north. The plains and ridges toward the north melt away into the great plain.

History. - Zebulun was one of the four northern tribes which bore little part in the great events of Jewish history, being comparatively isolated from Israel, and at the same time thrown into more intimate association with the adjoining heathen nations, especially with the Phoenicians. They did not drive out the natives. Jud 1:30. However. Zebulun bore a prominent part in the great victory celebrated by Deborah and Barak. Jud 5:14, 1 Sam 30:18; assisted Gideon, Jud 6:35. and David. 1 Chr 12:33, 1 Chr 12:40. This tribe became involved in gross idolatry, and some mocked the messengers of Hezekiah, although others united in the penitential services. 2 Chr 30:10-18. The territory of this tribe was depopulated in the captivity of Israel under Tiglath-pileser, 2 Kgs 15:20. and after that had no distinct tribal history. The tribe produced Elon, one of the judges, Jud 12:12, and also Jonah. 2 Kgs 14:25.

In N.T. times the territory once occupied by Zebulun was a part of Galilee and honored by the presence and works of Jesus. Within its limits were Nazareth, Capernaum, Cana, and Tiberias. The great prophecy of Isaiah, Isa 9:1-2. was fulfilled by Jesus. Matt 4:13-16. The tribe is mentioned in Rev 7:8.

ZEB'ULUN (habitation), a place named in tracing the southern boundary of Asher. Josh 19:27; according to Josephus, "city of men." Perhaps the modern Sha'ab.

ZECHARI'AH (Jehovah remembers).

  1. The eleventh of the twelve minor prophets, of priestly descent, and a contemporary of Haggai, returning from exile with Zerubbabel and the high priest Joshua. Ezr 6:1. He was the son of Berechiah, was born in Babylon, and was both a priest and a prophet. Scarcely anything is known of his life. His prophecies may be set down between b.c. 520 and 518.

The Book of Zechariah consists of two divisions: I. Chs. 1-8; II. Chs. 9-14. The first division contains visions and prophecies from the second year of the reign of Darius Hystaspes, while the temple was rebuilding, exhortations to turn to Jehovah, and warnings against 916 the enemies of the people of God. About the authorship of this part of the book there is no doubt. The second division gives a prophetic description of the future fortunes of the theocracy in conflict with the secular powers, the sufferings and death of the Messiah under the figure of the shepherd, the conversion of Israel to him, and the final glorification of the kingdom of God. About the authorship of this part of the book doubts have been raised, some ascribing it to Jeremiah because in Matt 27:9-10 a passage is quoted under the name of Jeremiah, while others have put it at a much earlier or much later period on account of the peculiarities of the style.

Of all the prophets, Zechariah is the most obscure, owing to the brevity and conciseness of the diction, the predominance of symbolical and figurative language, and the peculiar character of the subject - the suffering Messiah. But he has a profound insight both into the spiritual meaning and object of the Mosaic dispensation as a schoolmaster leading to Christ, and into the character of the Messiah and the universality of his kingdom. The book contains six specific references to Christ: Zech 3:8; Zech 6:12; Zech 9:9; Zech 11:12; Neh 12:10; 2 Kgs 13:7, representing him as a lowly servant, a priest and king building Jehovah's temple, the meek and peaceful but universal monarch, the shepherd betrayed for the price of a slave (thirty pieces of silver), the leader to repentance, and the Fellow of Jehovah smitten by Jehovah himself, at once the Redeemer and the Pattern of his flock.

Besides the prophet, twenty-seven other persons of the name Zechariah are mentioned in Scripture, among whom are -

  1. Seven Levites. 1 Chr 9:21; 1 Chr 15:18; 1 Chr 24:25; 1 Chr 26:11; 2 Chr 20:14; 2 Chr 29:13; 2 Chr 34:12.

  2. Four priests. 2 Chr 35:8; Neh 11:12; Neh 12:16, John 12:35, Ex 12:41.

  3. The son of the high priest Jehoiada, stoned in the court of the house of the Lord on the command of Joash, king of Judah. 2 Chr 24:20.

  4. Two chiefs who returned with Ezra from Babylon. Ezr 8:3, Rev 1:11.

  5. The father of Iddo, ruler of Manasseh in Gilead. 1 Chr 27:21.

  6. The son of Jeberechiah, whom the prophet Isaiah took as one of the faithful witnesses when he wrote about Maher-shalal-hash-baz. Isa 8:2.

ZE'DAD (mountain-side) , a city on the northern boundary of the Israelites, as described by Moses and Ezekiel. Num 34:8; Eze 47:15. It has been identified with the modern Sudud, some 70 miles north-east of Damascus, and 35 miles south-south-east of Hums, the ancient Emesa. Sudud is still a large village, though it does not contain any relics of antiquity except a few fragments of columns built into the mud walls of the modern houses. It is surrounded by gardens and cultivated fields. The inhabitants are all members of the Jacobite Church, and constitute the only remnant of that ancient sect in Syria.

ZEDEKI'AH (justice of Jehovah).

  1. The last king of Judah, the son of Josiah, and the uncle of Jehoiachin. His proper name was "Mattaniah," but Nebuchadnezzar changed it to "Zedekiah" when raising him to the throne. He commenced his reign at twenty-one, and reigned eleven years, 598-588 b.c. 2 Chr 36:11. He was a weak man, and the people were completely demoralized. He had not courage to vindicate Jeremiah, but allowed the people to be led astray by false prophets; and the consequence was disastrous. In the ninth year of his reign he revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, in consequence of which the Assyrian monarch marched his army into Judaea and took all the fortified places. In the eleventh year of his reign, on the ninth day of the fourth month (July), Jerusalem was taken. The king and his people endeavored to escape by night, but, the Chaldaean troops pursuing them, they were overtaken in the plain of Jericho. Zedekiah was seized and carried to Nebuchadnezzar, then at Riblah, in Syria, who reproached him with his perfidy, caused all his children to be slain before his face and his own eyes to be put out, and then, loading him with chains of brass, ordered him to be sent to Babylon. 2 Kgs 25:1-11; 2 Chr 36:12, 2 Chr 36:20. Thus the double prophecy concerning him - that he should be carried to Babylon, but never see it - was literally fulfilled. Jer 32:4-5; Jer 34:3; comp. Eze 12:13.

  2. A false prophet in the reign of Ahab. 1 Kgs 22:11, 1 Kgs 22:24-25; 2 Chr 18:10, 2 Chr 18:23-24.


3. A false prophet who was put to death by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 29:21-22.

  1. One of the princes at the court of Jehoiakim. Jer 36:12.

ZEEB (wolf), a Midianite prince who was slain by the Ephraimites after the great victory of Gideon. Jud 7:25; Ps 83:11.

ZEEB, THE WINE-PRESS OF, where Zeeb was slain. Jud 7:25. It was near a ford of the Jordan as one comes down from the mountains of Ephraim.

ZE'LAH (a rib), a city of Benjamin, Josh 18:28, the site of the family tomb of Kish, the father of Saul, 2 Sam 21:14, and probably Saul's birthplace. Conder suggests Kummua as its site. See also Zelzah.

ZE'LEK (fissure), one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:37; 1 Chr 11:39.

ZELO'PHEHAD (first-born), a descendant of Manasseh who died in the wilderness and left only daughters. It was then ordained that, in want of male heirs, females should succeed to the inheritance, but not be allowed to marry out of the tribe. Num 26:33; Deut 27:1, 1 Chr 27:7; Isa 36:2, Isa 36:6, Num 36:10-11; Josh 17:3; 1 Chr 7:15.

ZELO'TES. See Simon, Zealots.

ZEL'ZAH (shade from the sun), a place in Benjamin not far from Rachel's tomb. 1 Sam 10:2; identified by several writers (although Grove disputes the identification) with the little village of Biet Jala about a mile west of Rachel's tomb and 3 miles south-west of Jerusalem. Perhaps Zelah was the same place.

ZEMARA'IM (double mount?), a name of two places.

  1. A town in Benjamin. Josh 18:22. It has long been identified with Sunna, in the Jordan valley, 4 miles north of Jericho. The name is in the plural, and two ruins bearing the name of Sunna have been found close together.

  2. Mount Zemaraim, in the highlands of Ephraim, 2 Chr 13:4; possibly the name survives in the modern Tal'at esSumra.

ZEM'ARITES, THE, descendants of Canaan. Gen 10:18; 1 Chr 1:16.

ZEMI'RA (a song), a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr 7:8.

ZE'NAN (place of flocks), a place in the plain of Judah, apparently near the western coast, Josh 15:37; perhaps the same as the "Zaanan" of Micah 1:11. Among the suggested sites are Jem'a, a little village south-cast of Ascalon; Zanabra, 2 1/2 miles south-east of Mareshah (Schwartz); and Kerbetes Senat, a little north of Beit Jibrin (Knobel).

ZE'NAS, a Christian whom Paul wished Titus to bring along with him. Tit 3:13.

ZEPHANI'AH (Jehovah hides).

  1. The ninth of the minor prophets, was the son of Cushi, and lived in the days of Josiah. His prophecy was uttered in the early part of the ministry of Jeremiah, between b.c. 020 and 609. It is mainly designed to excite the Jewish nation to repentance, in view of threatened judgments, and to comfort the people of God with promises of the final triumph of righteousness. The description of the judgment in Zeph 1:14-15, "The great day of Jehovah is near" (in the Latin version Dies irae, dies illa), has furnished the keynote to the sublimest hymn of the Middle Ages, the Dies Irae of Thomas a Celano (1250) - so often translated, but never equalled - which brings before us, with most thrilling effect, the final judgment as an awful impending reality.

  2. A priest in the reign of Zedekiah. 2 Kgs 25:18-21; Jer 21:1; Jer 29:25-29; Job 37:3; Jer 52:24-27.

  3. A Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr 6:36.

  4. The father of Josiah. Zech 6:10.

ZE'PHATH (watch-tower), a city and tower in the mountains of the Amorites, near Kadesh, Judg 1:17; identified by Palmer and Drake with the ruins of a city called Sebaitah, in the midst of a fertile plain. It was the same as Hormah, which see.

ZEPH'ATHAH (watch-tower), VALLEY OF, near Mareshah. 2 Chr 14:10. A deep valley is found near the site of Mareshah, running down to Beit Jibriu (Eleutheropolis), and thence into the plain of Philistia, which Porter identified with Zepliathah. See Mareshah.

ZE'PHI. 1 Chr 1:36. See Zepho.

ZE'PHO (watch-tower). Gen 36:11, 2 Sam 20:15, or ZE'PHI, 1 Chr 1:36, a son of Kliphaz, the son of Esau.

ZE'PHON (a looking-out), a son of 918 Gad, Num 26:15; called Ziphion in Gen 46:16.

ZEPH'ONITES, the descendants of Zephon. Num 26:15.

ZER (flint), a place in Naphtali; probably near the Lake of Gennesaret. Josh 19:35.

ZE'RAH (a rising of light).

  1. An Ethiopian or Cushite king who with an immense army invaded the kingdom of Judah in the reign of Asa, but was completely routed at Mareshah, in the valley of Zephathah, 2 Chr 14:9; has by some been identified with Uraken I. or II. of the twenty-second dynasty of Egypt.

  2. A son of Reuel, and grandson of Esau. Gen 36:13, 2 Sam 21:17, 1 Sam 15:33; 1 Chr 1:37, 1 Chr 1:44.

  3. A son of Simeon, Num 26:13; 1 Chr 4:24; called Zohar in Gen 46:10.

  4. A Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 6:21, 1 Chr 6:41.

ZERAHI'AH (whom Jehovah caused to he born).

  1. A priest of the line of Eleazar. 1 Chr 6:6, 1 Chr 6:51; Ezr 7:4.

  2. One whose descendants returned from Babylon with Ezra. Ezr 8:4.

ZE'RED (exuberant growth - i.e., of trees), VALLEY or BROOK OF, a valley separating Moab from Edora. Deut 2:13-14; called "Zared" in Num 21:12. Robinson identified it with Wady el-Aksi; others, including Tristram, propose Wady Sidiyeh or the Seil Gharabi, a branch of the Sediyeh, down which runs a fine stream that empties into the south-eastern corner of the Dead Sea. This wady most likely constituted the boundary between Moab and Edom, as it is now the recognized boundary between Kerak and Petra.

ZER'EDA (cooling?), a place in Ephraim, in the plain of Jordan. 1 Kgs 11:26. Possibly it is the same as Zaretan. Josh 3:16; Zererath, Jud 7:22; Zartanah, 1 Kgs 4:12; Zeredathah, 2 Chr 4:17; and Zarthan. 1 Kgs 7:46. There seems to be much confusion about these names, but the Pal. Memoirs suggest as the site of Zereda, Siirdah, 2 1/2 miles north-west of Beitin (Bethel).

ZERED'ATHAH. 2 Chr 4:17. Conder identifies it with Zartanah and the modern Tell es Sarem, 3 miles south of Beisan.

ZER'ERATH. Jud 7:22. This would appear to be the name of a district, and is generally connected with the Zarthan and Zaretan of other passages of the O.T. Conder formerly placed it below Jezreel and near Beisan, but later investigations have afforded little confirmation of this identification of Zererath. See Zereda.

ZE'RESH, the wife of Haman, and his counsellor and instigator in iniquity. Esth 6:10.

ZE'RETH (splendor), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:7.

ZE'RI (built), a son of Jeduthun. 1 Chr 25:3.

ZE'ROR (a bundle), one of Saul's ancestors. 1 Sam 9:1.

ZERU'AH (leprous), the mother of Jeroboam I. 1 Kgs 9:26.

ZERUB'BABEL (begotten in Babylon), 1 Chr 3:19, or ZOROB'ABEL, Matt 1:12, was the leader of the first colony of Jews that returned from the captivity in Babylon, Ezr 2:2, and was of the family of David, a son of Salathiel or Shealtiel, Hag 1:1; Matt 1:12, but called a son of Pedaiah, the brother or son of Salathiel, in 1 Chr 3:17-19. To him Cyrus committed the sacred vessels that were returned to Jerusalem. He laid the foundations of the temple, Zech 4:6-10, and was chiefly instrumental in restoring the religious rites of the nation. The advances of the mixed population of Samaria, who wished to participate in the building of the temple, he refused, and their intrigues at the Persian court caused the work to be stopped, but only for a short time; finally, he succeeded in completing the building. Ezr 5:2; Hag 1:12, 2 Kgs 22:14; Gen 2:2, Hab 2:4; Zech 4:6, 1 Kgs 16:10. He was the governor of Judaea. Neh 12:47.

ZERUI'AH (cleft, wounded), a sister of David, and the mother of Joab. 1 Sam 26:6; 1 Chr 2:16.

ZE'THAM (olive tree), a Levite. 1 Chr 23:8; 1 Chr 26:22.

ZE'THAN, a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 7:10.

ZE'THAR (star?), a eunuch of Ahasuerus. Esth 1:10.

ZI'A (motion), a Gadite. 1 Chr 5:13.

ZI'BA (statue), a servant of Saul, 2 Sam 19:17, whom David appointed a sort of steward to Mephibosheth. 2 Sam 9:2-12.

ZIB'EON (dyed), a son of Seir the 919 Horite, but called a Hivite himself. Gen 36:2, 2 Kgs 22:14, Ruth 4:20, Jud 6:24, 1 Chr 2:29; 1 Chr 1:38.

ZIB'IA (a roe), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:9.

ZIB'IAH, the mother of Joash. 2 Kgs 12:1; 2 Chr 24:1.

ZICH'RI (remembered, renowned).

  1. A Levite. Ex 6:21.

2, 3, 4. Three Benjamite chiefs. 1 Chr 8:19, 1 Chr 8:23, 1 Chr 8:27.

  1. A Levite, 1 Chr 9:15; called Zabdi in Neh 11:17.

  2. A Levite who descended from Moses. 1 Chr 26:25.

  3. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 27:16.

  4. The father of one of Jehoshaphat's captains. 2 Chr 17:16.

  5. One instrumental in making Joash king. 2 Chr 23:1.

  6. An Ephraimite who distinguished himself in the war between Pekah and Ahaz. 2 Chr 28:7.

  7. A Benjamite. Neh 11:9.

  8. A priest during the reign of Joiakim. Neh 12:17.

ZID'DIM (the sides), a place in Naphtali, Josh 19:35; perhaps the village of Kefr-Hattin, 5 miles west of Tiberias.

ZIDKI'JAH (justice of Jehovah), one who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. Neh 10:1.

ZI'DON (hunting; Heb. Tsidon). "Sidon," the Greek form, is found in Gen 10:15, Acts 1:19, in the Apocrypha generally, and in the N.T. Zidon was a rich and ancient Phoenician city.

Situation. - It was situated on the Mediterranean coast, on the northern slope of a small promontory which juts out from a low plain, less than 2 miles broad, between the Lebanon and the sea. The city was 25 miles south of the modern Beirut, 25 miles north of Tyre, and 123 miles in a direct line north-west of Jerusalem. Its latitude is 33░ 34' north.

Scripture References. - Zidon is one of the most ancient cities of the world. The person after whom it is named was the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah. Gen 10:15; 1 Chr 1:13. This was b.c. 2218. In Joshua's time it was "great Zidon," Josh 11:8; Gen 19:28, and seems to have been the metropolis of Phoenicia. Zidon was one of the limits of the tribe of Asher, Josh 19:28, but was never possessed by the Israelites. Jud 1:31; Heb 3:3. In fact, the Zidonians oppressed Israel, Jud 10:12, seeming themselves to be secure from all attacks and living "careless." Jud 18:7, Acts 20:28.

Tyre was one of the colonies - a "virgin daughter." Isa 23:12 - of Zidon, but subsequently became the more important town. The two names frequently recur together as denoting not only the cities, but the adjacent country; but the name of Zidon alone was sometimes used to denote the Phoenicians in general. Jud 3:3. The Zidonians were famous for commerce, manufactures, and arts. Their sailors and workmen were noted. Zidonians assisted in the work of building the temple. 1 Chr 22:4; 1 Kgs 5:6; Eze 27:8. From Zidon also came idolatrous abominations to corrupt Israel. 1 Kgs 11:5, 1 Kgs 11:33; 2 Kgs 23:13. The city was mentioned frequently in prophetic threatenings. but with much less severity than Tyre. Isa 23:2, Ex 6:4, Jud 4:12; Jer 25:22; 1 Sam 27:3; Jer 47:4; Eze 27:8; Eze 28:21-22; Eze 32:30; Joel 3:4; Zech 9:2.

In N.T. times Zidon (called "Sidon") was visited by Jesus, Matt 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke 4:26, although the "coasts" of Tyre and Sidon denoted the adjacent region as well as the cities themselves, and some think that the Saviour did not enter the cities. Hearers from among those people were drawn to his preaching. Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17; comp. Matt 11:22; Luke 10:14. Herod's displeasure with this region is noted. Acts 12:20. The apostle Paul touched at Zidon on his way to Rome, and visited the Christians there. Acts 27:3.

Secular History. - Homer makes special mention of the skill of the Zidonian workmen. The embroidered robes of Andromache, the silver bowl given as a prize by Achilles at the games in honor of Patrocles, the bowl which Menelaus gave Telemachus, the purple of fierce Achilles, were specimens of Zidonian handicraft. Zidonian ships were present at the siege of Troy, and Herodotus declares that the Zidonian ships in the fleet of Xerxes were the best and the most renowned of the famous armada. Xerxes sat in a Zidonian ship, and the king of Zidon sat near to him in council. Zidon flourished under the Chaldiean and Persian dominion. It revolted against the Persians in the time


Zidon (After Cassas.) 921 of Artaxerxes III. Ochus, but was subdued, and 40,000 of its citizens perished in the conflagration of the city, the fire being kindled by the people themselves. The gates of the city were willingly opened to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus, b.c. 333. During the Roman period it had its own archons, senate, and national council. A bishop of Zidon attended the council of Nicea, a.d. 325. After the conquest of Syria by the Muslims, a.d. 636, Zidon surrendered to these new masters. During the crusades it experienced terrible vicissitudes. Baldwin I. took it, after a six weeks' siege, in a.d. 1111; Saladin razed the town and its fortifications in 1187; the Crusaders again gained possession of it in 1197, but could not retain the town, which was once more destroyed. It was rebuilt and razed, refortified and again devastated. In 1291 it became the permanent possession of the Muslims, and was destroyed. For several centuries it was neglected, but gradually revived in the seventeenth century, and still continues to exist.

Present Condition. - The site of ancient Zidon is occupied by the modern Saida, beautifully situated on a promontory in front of which lies an island. The northern harbor, protected by a ledge of rocks, is now used; the southern one is abandoned. The anchorage is bad, and the trade of the city is unimportant. Around the island are the remains of quays built of large hewn stones. The ruins of the ancient castle are approached by a causeway. The burying-grounds are extensive, and many curious sarcophagi have been discovered. One was the sarcophagus of King Ashmanezer; it has been placed in the Museum at Paris, and antiquarians fix its date at from b.c. 300 to b.c. 1000. The ancient ruins are few. There are fragments of marble and granite columns, mosaic pavement, pottery, etc.

In its situation and surroundings Zidon is one of the most picturesque cities in Syria. The gardens and orchards environing it are charming and afford a great variety of fruits, such as oranges, lemons, citrons, bananas, and dates. The oranges of Zidon are very famous and better than those of Jaffa. The population is estimated at 10,000, of whom about 7000 are Muslims and the rest Greeks, Catholics, Maronites, and Jews. There are nine mosques in the town. The American Presbyterian Board has established a flourishing Protestant mission there.

ZIDO'NIANS, the inhabitants of Zidon. Jud 10:12.

ZIF (bloom). 1 Kgs 6:1. See Month.

ZI'HA (dry).

  1. One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:43; Neh 7:46.

  2. A ruler among the Nethinim. Neh 11:21.

ZIK'LAG (outpouring of a fountain?), a city in the South of Judah, Josh 15:31; afterward given to Simeon. Isa 19:5. It was at times held by the Philistines. Achish, king of Gath, gave it to David, and it subsequently belonged to Judah. Its chief interest is in connection with the life of David. 1 Sam 27:6; 1 Sam 30:1, 1 Sam 30:14, 1 Sam 30:26; 2 Sam 1:1; 2 Sam 4:10; 1 Chr 4:30; 1 Chr 12:1-20. It was also inhabited after the return from the Captivity. Neh 11:28. Wilton suggested its identification with 'Aslaj, or Kanluj, in a deep valley among the hills of the south country, some 12 miles south of Beer-sheba. Conder suggested its identification with Zaheilikah, 11 miles south of east from Gaza, and 19 miles south-west of Neit Jibrin. The site is in the open, rolling plain, some distance from the low, open hills of the Shefalah. The ruins occur on three small hills, in the form of an equilateral triangle, nearly half a mile apart. There is a number of ancient ruined cisterns, of which the stones have been removed and the sites ploughed over. Neither of the above has been accepted as the site of Ziklag.

ZIL'LAH (shade), one of the wives of Laniech. Gen 4:19, Josh 11:22, Heb 12:23.

ZIL'PAH (dropping), the handmaid of Leah, and the mother of Gad and Asher. Gen 30:9.

ZIL'THAI (shade).

  1. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:20.

  2. A chieftain of Manasseh. 1 Chr 12:20.

ZIM'MAH (mischief), a Gorsbonite Levite. 1 Chr 6:20, 1 Chr 6:42; 2 Chr 29:12.

ZIM'RAN (celebrated), a son of Abraham by Keturah. Gen 25:2; 1 Chr 1:32.

ZIM'RI (snug).

  1. A Simeonite chief. Num 25:14.

2. A captain under Elah, and a king of Israel. 1 Kgs 16:9-20.

  1. A descendant of Judah, 1 Chr 2:6; called Zabdi in Josh 7:1, Josh 7:17-18.

  2. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:36; 1 Chr 9:42.

ZIN (a low palm tree). The wilderness of Zin was a part of the Arabian desert south of Palestine. Num 13:21-22; Jer 34:3. It joined the territory of Judah, Josh 15:1, Num 1:3; and lay west of Idumaea. Num 20:1; Eze 27:14; Num 33:36. Kadesh is sometimes spoken of as in the wilderness of Zin, Num 33:36, and again as in the wilderness of Paran. Num 13:26. This is explained by the fact that "Paran" was the general name for the whole desert of et-Tih, while Zin was the south-eastern corner of that desert, between the Gulf of Akabah on the south and the head of Wady Garaiyeh. It was south and south-west of 'Azazimeh Mountains, and east of the Ghor and Arabah.

Zl'NA. See Zizah.

ZI'ON, and SI'ON (dry, sunny mount). "Zion" is sometimes used to denote the whole of Jerusalem, but in its literal and restricted meaning it was the south-western hill of Jerusalem. This hill was surrounded on every side but the north with deep valleys having precipitous sides. To the east was the valley of the Tyropoeon, separating Zion from Moriah, the temple-mount, and from Ophel. On the south and west was the deep valley of Hinnom, called on the west the "valley of Gihon." Upon the north only is the boundary of Zion indefinite. Some authorities think it extended to the tower of David, near the Damascus-gate, and suppose the Tyropoeon valley to have ended here. Others would extend Zion farther northward toward the Jaffa-gate. Zion was the higher hill, being 105 feet above Moriah and 2539 feet above the level of the Mediterranean. It was in the shape of a parallelogram. The valleys were originally much deeper than at present, so that Zion was really compassed on three sides by precipices. It was also guarded by a strong wall.

Scripture History. - The hill is first mentioned as a stronghold of the Jebusites. Josh 15:63. It remained in their possession until captured by David, who made it "the city of David," the capital of his kingdom. He built there a citadel, his own palace, houses for the people, and a place for the ark of God. 2 Sam 5:7; 1 Kgs 8:1; 2 Kgs 19:21, 2 Kgs 19:31; 1 Chr 11:5; 2 Chr 5:2. The foregoing six passages are all in the historical books of the O.T. in which the name of Zion appears. But in the prophetical and poetical books it occurs no less than one hundred and forty-eight times - viz., in Psalms, 38 times; Canticles, 1; Isaiah, 47; Jeremiah, 17; Lamentations, 15; Joel, 7; Amos, 2; Obadiah, 2; Micah, 9; Zephaniah, 2; Zechariah, 8. In the N.T. it occurs seven times as "Sion," making the total number of times the name occurs one hundred and sixty-one. It was in the later books no longer confined to the south-western hill, but denoted sometimes Jerusalem in general, Ps 149:2; Ps 87:2; Isa 33:14; Joel 2:2, etc.; sometimes God's chosen people, Ps 51:18; Ps 87:5, etc.; sometimes the Church, Heb 12:22, etc.; and sometimes the heavenly city. Rev 14:1 , etc. Hence, Zion has passed into its present common use in religious literature to denote the aspirations and hopes of God's children.

Josephus does not use the word "Zion," but speaks of that quarter of the city as the "city of David," "the upper city," and the "upper market-place." It was then the aristocratic quarter of the city, and contained the mansions of the great. At the north-west corner stood the magnificent palace erected by Herod the Great and afterward called "Praetorium," the residence of the Roman procurator. Mark 15:16. On the north of this were three famous towers or fortresses, of which one is now the "tower of David."

Present Condition. - Less than one-half of the ancient hill of Zion is enclosed within the wall of modern Jerusalem. In this part are now the Armenian convent with its extensive grounds, synagogues of the Ashkenasim, St. James' church of the Armenians, the English Protestant church and school, the tower of David, etc. The only building outside the walls is the mosque and tomb of David, supposed to contain the tombs of David, Solomon, and other kings of Judah. In the upper part is the traditional "upper room" in which the Lord's Supper was instituted and the disciples waited for the descent of the Holy Ghost. Upon the slope of the hill are several 923 cemeteries of different Christian denominations and nationalities, including the American and English. A part of the hill is cultivated, and thus the traveller is frequently reminded of the traveler, "Zion shall be ploughed like a field." Jer 26:18; Mic 3:12. The hill sinks into the valley of Hinnom in steep terraced slopes covered with grain-fields, vineyards, and olive trees. The excavations of the British Ordnance Survey brought to light many interesting facts in regard to the original levels, the ancient walls, etc., etc. see Jerusalem.

Conder notes the fact that the name "Zion" has not been recovered, and says: "According to Gesenius, it means 'sunny,' and the proper equivalent in Arabic or Syriac, according to this same authority, is Sahyun. It is a remarkable fact that about 1 3/4 miles west of the Jaffagate there exists a valley having exactly this name, Wady Sahyun. . . . This discovery may perhaps lead students to consider the name 'Zion' as a name of a district rather than that of a particular mountain, but it would not accord with the scriptural representations of Zion."

ZI'OR. (smallness), a place in the mountains of Judah, near Hebron. Josh 15:54. Its probable site is at Sair, a ruin on a hill 5 miles north-north-east of Hebron.

ZIPH (a flowing), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:16.

ZIPH (a flowing), a name for two places.

  1. A city in the South of Judah. Josh 15:24.

  2. A town in the highlands of Judah, Josh 15:55; fortified by Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:8. When pursued by Saul, David hid himself "in the wilderness of Ziph." 1 Sam 23:14-15, 1 Sam 23:24; 1 Sam 26:2. The site is Ziph ia a hill about 4 miles south-east of Hebron, on the road to En-gedi. It is a conspicuous mound, and shows at the present day no trace of buildings, but there are large Jewish tombs and a quarry. On a low hill half a mile east are the remains of a town.

As to the "wood of Ziph," 1 Sam 23:15, Conder asserts that in all probability it never had any real existence as a "wood," but was rather a town. "The existence," he says, "at any time, of a wood in this part of the country is geologically almost an impossibility. From Hebron to Beersheba not a single spring of any importance exists in the eastern hills. . . . The country is emphatically a dry land. Looking down on the barren wastes which lie above the Dead Sea between Masada and En-gedi, there is no moisture capable of supporting vegetable growth. The cistus and the belan bushes grow among the ledges, but not a single tree exists in the whole country." The translation in Josephus is said to be "in the new place belonging to Ziph," and the Vatican and Alexandrine manuscripts support this. One mile south of Tell Zif is Khirbet Khoreisa, an ancient locality of which Conder says: "We can have little hesitation in identifying with Choresh of Zif a village or hamlet belonging to the larger town of Tell Zif." Tristram, however (Land of Moab, pp. 19, 20), says: "How far the forest of Ziph extended it is not easy to say, but there are traces of it in an occasional tree, and there seems no reason, from the nature of the soil, why the woods may not have stretched nearly to the barren, sandy marl which overlies the limestone for a few miles west of the Dead Sea."

ZI'PHAH, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:16.

ZIPH'IMS, the inhabitants of Ziph. Ps 54.

ZIPII'ITES, the inhabitants of Ziph. 1 Sam 23:19; 1 Sam 26:1.

ZIPII'RON. See Zephon.

ZI'PHRON, or ZIPH'RON (sweet odor), a city on the northern frontier of the dominions of Israel. Num 34:9. There is a place called Zaferaneh on the road from Hums (Emesa) to Hamah (Hamath), and about six hours' journey south-southeast of the latter, which may be the ancient Ziphron.

ZIP'POR (a little bird), the father of Balak, king of Moab. Num 22:2, Ex 6:4, 1 Kgs 16:10, Ex 17:16; Gen 23:18; Josh 24:9; Jud 11:25.

ZIPPO'RAH, a daughter of a Midianite priest, who was married to Moses and bore him two sons. Ex 2:21-22.

ZITH'RI (protection of Jehovah), a Levite. Ex 6:22.

ZIZ, THE CLIFF OF. 2 Chr 20:16. The paraphrase of this passage is "the going up of Ha-Ziz," and Grove suggests the name may survive 924 in Husasah. The Pal. Memoirs note a Wady Husasah, 8 miles north of Ain Jidy (En-gedi). The similarity of the name is striking, but the site seems too far from En-gedi. Others have identified Ziz with the pass and cliff near En-gedi, a route how taken by Arab marauding-parties. This pass was the ascent through which invaders from the south and east, after doubling the south end of the Dead Sea, entered the hill-country of Judaea. Ziz was the key of the pass.

ZI'ZA (abundance).

  1. A chieftain of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:37.

  2. A son of Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:20.

ZI'ZAH (abundance), a Gershonite Levite, 1 Chr 23:11; the same as Zina. 1 Chr 23:10.

ZO'AN (low region? or place of departure?), a city of Lower Egypt: called by the Greeks Tanis; now San. Zoan was situated in Lower Egypt, on the east bank of the ancient Tanitic branch of the Nile. It stood in lat. 31░ N. and long. 31░ 55' E. To the east was a great plain, representing "the field of Zoan."

History. - Zoan was an exceedingly ancient city, built seven years after Hebron. Num 13:22. Manetho gave an account of a city called "Avaris," fortified by the Shepherd-kings and garrisoned by 240,000 men. Avaris and Zoan are supposed to have been identical. Tradition makes it the town in which Moses had his memorable interviews with Pharaoh, recorded in the book of Exodus. The "field of Zoan" was the place of God's wonders. Ps 78:12, Acts 2:43. "When Isaiah wrote, it would appear to have been one of the chief cities in Egypt, as he speaks of "the princes of Zoan." Isa 19:11, 2 Kgs 11:13; Gen 30:4. Ezekiel foretells the fate of the city in the words: "I will set fire in Zoan." Eze 30:14. There are no other Scripture references to Zoan.

Present Condition. - Zoan has been satisfactorily identified with the ancient Avaris and Tanis and the modern San. Very interesting discoveries have been made there within a few years past by Brugsch Bey and others. Among the inscriptions has been found one with the expression Sechet Tanet, which exactly corresponds to the "field of Zoan." Ps 78:43. Several colossal statues of kings of the various dynasties and a number of sphinxes have been brought to light by excavations. The mounds which mark the site of the town are remarkable for their height and extent, and cover an area a mile in length by three-fourths of a mile in width. The sacred enclosure of the great temple was 1500 feet long and 1250 feet wide. This temple was adorned by Barneses II. There are some dozen obelisks of great size, all fallen and broken, with numerous statues. " The whole constitutes," says Macgregor, "one of the grandest and oldest ruins in the world." The "field of Zoan" was a rich plain extending some 30 miles to the east. It is now almost covered by the great Lake Menzeleh, but some portions exhibit a rich black loam without fences or towns, and with only a few trees in sight. Brugsch-Bey is of the opinion that Zoan was identical with Rameses, but this location was made to fit his theory that the Israelites crossed the Serbonian bog instead of the Red Sea. An English Exploration Society is engaged in making explorations in San. It promises rich historical results in this ancient land.

ZO'AR(smallness),one of the "cities of the plain," Gen 13:10; originally called "Bela." Gen 14:2, 1 Kgs 15:8. This "little city" was spared from the destruction which overtook Sodom and the other cities, and made a refuge for Lot. Gen 19:20-30. Zoar was included in the view Moses had from Pisgah. Deut 34:3. The prophets Isaiah, Isa 15:5, and Jeremiah, Jer 48:34, reckon Zoar among the cities of Moab.

Situation. - The situation of Zoar, like that of the other cities of the plain, has been much discussed. The great majority of scholars, from Ptolemy, Josephus, Eusebius, and Jerome to the present time, have located it near the southeastern shore of the Dead Sea. The shore of the bay, which extends from the Dead Sea into the Lisan Peninsula, has been regarded as a probable site for Zoar. For the general discussion as to the relative merits of the sites at the northern and at the southern ends of the Dead Sea, see Siddim and Sodom. Tristram was confident that he had discovered the site of Zoar at Ziara, some 3 miles north-west of Nebo and 11 miles 925 west of the northern end of the Dead Sea. Among the points he urges for this special identification are the strong resemblance of the names and the fact that this place would be in plain view of Moses from Nebo. Deut 34:3. He cites also several arguments for putting all the cities at the upper end of the Dead Sea. This seems to be among the mountains, and too far from the other to be a likely position for Zoar. Merrill suggests, as the site for Zoar, Tell Ektauu, in the Shittim plain, north-east of the Dead Sea, near to the mountains of Moab, although it cannot be reckoned as one of the foot-hills. There are ruins here of great age, and the name Ektauu, which has no meaning in Arabic, appears to be the Hebrew word Katan, which means "little," or "the little one." The site would be in the direction Lot would naturally take in hastening to the neighboring city, and its distance from other mounds in the Shittim plain (which Dr. Merrill would identify with the plain in which stood Sodom and Gomorrah) corresponds well with the time allowed the fugitive - namely, from dawn to sunrise. Conder, who would place the lost cities at the north "end" of the Dead Sea, suggests Tell esh-Shaghai as the site of Zoar. It is at the foot of the eastern mountains, immediately north of the Dead Sea, and about 6 miles south of Nimrin.

ZO'BA, and ZO'BAH (station), a portion of Syria. It was one of the kingdoms of Aram, known as Aramzobah. See Aram. It embraced the country between the north-east of Palestine and the Euphrates. It was the home of a powerful nation, whose kings were engaged in frequent wars with Israel during the reigns of Saul, David, and Solomon. Saul "vexed them." 1 Sam 14:47. David defeated King Hadadezer and the Syrians who came to his assistance with great loss. 2 Sam 8:3-8, 2 Sam 8:12; 1 Chr 18:3-8; Ps 60, title. Again, in David's time, they and the "Syrians beyond the river," their allies, were defeated by Joab. 2 Sam 10:6-13; 1 Chr 19:6. One of David's mighty men was "the son of Nathan of Zobah." 2 Sam 23:36. The nation, though severely punished, was not destroyed, and we read of a Hadadezer, king of Zobah, in Solomon's time, 1 Kgs 11:23, and Solomon took Hamath-zobah. 2 Chr 8:3. See Hamath. Other towns of Zobah are mentioned - Betah, Berothal, and perhaps Helam. 2 Sam 8:8; 2 Sam 10:6. Porter suggests it as just possible that the biblical Zobah. which was situated between Hamath and Damascus, may be identical with Emesa, the modern Hums. The region possesses a rich soil, abundant water, and a genial climate, but the towns and villages are in ruins and the Bedouins are the principal inhabitants. The cities of Zobah are forsaken.

ZOBE'BAH (slow moving), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:8.

ZO'HAR (whiteness).

  1. The father of Ephron. Gen 23:8; Gen 25:9.

  2. See Zerah, 3.

ZO'HELETH (serpent), a stone by "En-rogel," by which Adonijah "slew sheep and oxen and fat cattle." 1 Kgs 1:9. M. Ganneau found the steep rock-cut steps by which people from the village of Siloam pass down to the "Virgin's Fount," in the Kedron valley, bear among the Arabs the name of Zahweileh. This he would identify with the stone of Zoheleth. and En-rogel would be the Virgin's Fount instead of the Well of Job (Bir Eyub), as has been usually supposed.

ZO'HETH (derivation unknown), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:20.

ZO'PHAH (a cruse), an Asherite chief. 1 Chr 7:35-36.

ZO'PHAI (honeycomb), a Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr 6:26.

ZOPHAR, one of Job's three friends, Job 2:11, is called the Naamatliite, probably because he belonged to Naamah, Josh 15:41, a town assigned to Judah.

ZO'PHIM (watchers). The field of Zophim was the place on the "top of Pisgah" to which Balak brought Balaam that the false prophet might see the camp of Israel. Num 23:14. Grove says that if the word rendered "field" be taken in its usual sense, then the "field of Zophim" was a cultivated spot high up on the top of Pisgah. The position of the field must of course depend upon the site assigned for Pisgah. If Jebel Siaghah be Pisgah, as supposed by Paine (but not confirmed), then Zophim, or "the top of Pisgah," was the third 926 summit of Siaghah, running westward from Nebo, which is a little higher than the others and appears to look down upon them. See Pisgah.

ZO'RAH, and ZORE'AH (hornets' town), and ZA'REAH, Neh 11:29, a town in the low-country of Judah; afterward assigned to Dan, Josh 15:33; Josh 19:41; the birthplace and burial place of Samson. Jud 13:2, Gal 4:25; Jud 16:31. From Zorah the Danites sent spies to search the land for a place of inheritance. Jud 18:2. Zorah was fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:10, and inhabited after the return from captivity. Neh 11:29. The place still exists as Surah, 13 miles west of Jerusalem, 23 miles southeast of Joppa, and 2 miles north of Bethshemesh. It is situated on the crest of a hill, 1150 feet above the sea. It overlooks the valley of Sorek. Timnah stands some 2 or 3 miles to the southwest, across the valley.

ZO'RATHITES, a family of the tribe of Judah, probably inhabitants of Zorah. 1 Chr 4:2.

ZO'REAH. Josh 15:33. See Zorah.

ZO'RITES, probably inhabitants of Zorah. 1 Chr 2:54.

ZOROB'ABEL. See Zerubbabel.

ZUAR (smallness), father of Nethaneel. Num 1:8; Neh 2:5; Isa 7:18, Lev 7:23; Josh 10:15.

ZUPH (honeycomb), a Kohathite Levite, an ancestor of Samuel the prophet. 1 Sam 1:1; 1 Chr 6:35.

ZUPH (flag, sedge). Deut 1:1, margin. From the Hebrew Suph, signifying a kind of sea-weed, and the Hebrew name for the Red Sea, which see.

ZUPH, THE LAND OF, the farthest point of the journey of Saul, and where he encountered Samuel at a certain city, the name of which is not given. 1 Sam 9:5-6. The whole of this journey has been a curious puzzle in Scripture topography, "for the starting-point is unknown, the point to which he returned doubtful," and the intermediate places have not been satisfactorily identified. Some resemblance to Zuph was thought to be found in Sola, 7 miles west of Jerusalem and 5 miles southwest of Neby Samwil. Conder notes that the Targum on the passage connects the name "Zuph" with the root zephah, meaning "to shine," and hence "to be conspicuous," whence come the words "Zephathah," "Zophim," "Zephir," and "Mizpeh." In other Targums the words "Zophira " and "Mizpeh" are used indiscriminately in speaking of one place, both words being applicable to a "watch-tower" or city in an elevated situation. "Zuph" was, however, also the name of a man, and it is not impossible that the land of Zuph may have been named after him. 1 Sam 1:1. In the first case the city in the land of Zuph would possibly be Shufa: in the second it would be Bethlehem, the home of Zuph. See Mizpeh.

ZUR (rock).

  1. A Midianitish prince. Num 25:15; Josh 13:21, who was slain, with others, by the Israelites when the Midianites suffered the judgments of God for their sins. Num 26:18.

  2. Son of the founder of Gibeon. 1 Chr 8:30; 1 Chr 9:36.

ZU'RIEL (my rock is God), a chief Levite in the time of the Exodus. Num 3:35.

ZU'RISHAD'DAI (my rock is the Almighty), the father of the chief of Simeon at the time of the Exodus. Num 1:6; Num 2:12; Acts 7:36, John 7:41; Isa 10:19.

ZU'ZIMS, the Ammonite name. Gen 14:5, of doubtful derivation, for a tribe of gigantic stature and strength which inhabited the country east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, probably between the Arnon and the Jabbok. They were attacked and routed by Chedorlaomer, and afterward expelled by the Ammonites.

"All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:that the man of god may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works." - 2 Tim 3:16-17.

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