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PA'ARAI, one of David's mighty men, 2 Sam 23:35; called Naarai in 1 Chr 11:37.

PA'DAN (field), Padan-aram. Gen 48:7.

PA'DAN-A'RAM (the low highland), the country from which Abraham obtained a wife for his son Isaac. Gen 24:10; Gen 25:20; Gen 28:2, Gen 28:5, Gen 28:7, from whence Jacob secured his wives, and where Laban lived. Gen 31:18; Gen 33:18; Gen 35:9, Gen 35:26; Gen 46:15. Padan-aram has usually been identified with Mesopotamia, the region between the two great rivers Euphrates and Tigris, and is believed more particularly to designate the plain, in distinction from the mountainous district, in the North of Mesopotamia. Another theory in respect to the location of Padan-aram has been advocated at various periods, to which attention has been directed of late by Dr. Merrill and Prof. Paine. They suggest that Milton places Haran (and of course Padan-aram) south or west of the Euphrates, and Dr. Beke (1845) wrote a learned work to prove that Padan-aram was in the vicinity of Damascus. This view, however, is opposed by the great majority of the most eminent scholars, and has too few facts in its favor to give it much importance. See Mesopotamia and Syria.

PAD'DLE, a small spade. Deut 23:13.

PA'DON (deliverance), ancestor of a family of Nethinim which returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:44; Neh 7:47.

PA'GIEL (God allots) was the chief of the tribe of Asher in the wilderness. Num 1:18; Num 2:27; Num 7:72, Num 7:77; 1 Kgs 10:26.

PA'HATH-MO'AB (governor of Moah), the head of one of the principal families of the tribe of Judah, whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:6; Rom 8:4; Ezr 10:30; Neh 3:11; Neh 7:11; Num 10:14. With respect to the name, it may be noticed that, according to 1 Chr 4:22, a family of Shilonites, of the tribe of Judah, had in early times "dominion in Moab."

PA'I (bleating), a place in Idumaea. 1 Chr 1:50. See Pau.

PAINT, PAINTING, and PICTURE. Paint was well known as a cosmetic in Egypt and Assyria, and universally applied by the women of those countries to the eyes. Also among the Hebrews the custom obtained, though it must be noticed that it is always spoken of in terms of contempt. 2 Kgs 9:30; Jer 4:30; Eze 23:40, See Eve. Painting as a decoration was much practised. In the houses the walls and beams were colored, Jer 22:14; also idols, either in the form of sculptures or in the form of drawings on the walls of temples, were colored. Wisd. 13:14; Eze 23:14. But pictures, in the modern sense of the word, as products of free art, were unknown to the ancient Jews, and would perhaps have been regarded as violations of the second commandment. The drawings upon mummy cases were, however, doubtless familiar to them.

PAL'ACE. In the O.T. the word is used both in a wider sense, denoting the whole mass of buildings, courts, and gardens belonging to a royal residence and enclosed by the exterior wall, Dan 1:4; Lev 4:4, and in a narrower sense, denoting some special part of the whole construction; for instance, the fortress or citadel. 1 Kgs 16:18; 2 Kgs 15:25. In the N.T. the word generally signifies the residence of any man of wealth or prominent social position. Matt 26:3; Luke 11:21; John 18:15. The "palace" of Phil 1:13 is the barrack of the Praetorian camp attached to the emperor's palace in Rome, on the Palatine. The emperor was "praetor" or commander-in-chief; so the barrack of his bodyguard was the praetorium. The Roman governors occupied Herod's palace in Jerusalem.

The most interesting building of this kind mentioned in the O.T. is the palace erected by Solomon. 1 Kgs 7:1-12. It occupied an area of about 150,000 square feet, consisted of several independent structures - the house of the forest of Lebanon, the hall of judgment, the porch, etc. - and took thirteen years to build. Besides the description given of this building in First Kings, there is another by Josephus, but they remained 638 almost unintelligible as long as the principles of Greek or Egyptian architecture were applied to them, while the investigations of the ruins of the palaces

Ground-plan of Solomon's Palace.

in Nineveh and Persepolis have thrown much light on the subject.

PA'LAL (judge), the son of Uzai, who assisted Nehemiah in restoring the walls of Jerusalem. Neh 3:25.

PAL'ESTINE (land of sojourners), a country east of the Mediterranean Sea, and sacred alike to Jew, Mohammedan, and Christian. See Maps at the end of the volume.

Name. - "Palestine" - or "Palestina," which has become the most common name for the Holy Land - is found only three times in our version of the Bible, Ex 15:14; Isa 14:29, 1 Chr 24:31, and in the O.T. represents the Hebrew name elsewhere rendered "Philistia." Ps 60:8; Ps 87:4; Ps 108:9; Zeph 2:5. etc. The term, therefore, originally referred only to the country of the Philistines, and in its Greek form is so used by Josephus. The name is also applied to the whole land of the Hebrews by Josephus, Philo, and by Greek and Roman writers. Its first and native name was "Canaan." Gen 12:5; Acts 16:3; Ex 15:15; Jud 3:1. It was also known as the Promised Land, land of Israel, land of Judah or "Judaja," and the Holy Land. Gen 12:7; Ps 105:9; Zech 2:12, etc.

Situation and Extent. - Palestine is situated at the south-eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, being the southern portion of the high table- and lowlands lying between the great plains of Assyria and the shores of that sea. This central location in the midst of the great nations of the East has been frequently noticed. It was about midway between Assyria and Egypt on the south-west, and between Persia and Greece on the north-west, being on the high-road from one to the other of these mighty powers, and often the battle-field on which they fought to decide which should become the mistress of the world. This central position gave it the opportunity to become acquainted with the progress which these great nations had gained in the arts, the sciences, and in civilization. This also exposed it to the powerful religious influences which these great but idolatrous nations constantly exerted. The weakness of the Hebrew nation in following these forms of false religion and worship caused it to be frequently visited with the judgments of the Almighty.

The boundaries of Palestine cannot now be accurately determined. While the boundaries between the tribes were defined with much care and precision, the portions bordering on other nations to the north, east, and south on their outlying sides were described in general terms only, and these border-lines seem to have varied at different periods of their history. The land promised to Abraham and described by Moses extended from Mount Hor to the entrance of Hamath, and from the "river of Egypt" to "the great river, the river Euphrates." Gen 15:18; Gen 17:8; Num 34:2-12; Deut 1:7. Some understand by the "river of Egypt" the Nile, but, as Eastern Egypt was never held by the Hebrews, such a promise was, of course, never fulfilled. To account for this it is said that the promise was made upon conditions which the nation failed to meet, and hence the failure of the Hebrews to possess all the land which, according to this view, had been promised to them. Others suppose that the "river 639 of Egypt" means the Wady el-Arish, and all this territory was actually possessed during the period of the monarchy under David and Solomon. Palestine in its greatest extent, therefore, was bounded on the north by Syria, on the east by the Euphrates and the great desert, on the south by Negeb or "the south country," and on the west by the Mediterranean Sea. Scarcely more than one-half of this region lay west of the Jordan between that river and the great sea, the other portion lying to the eastward and including all the fertile table-land between the Jordan and the great Arabian desert, which reached to the borders of Assyria. The greatest length of Palestine is about 160 miles, its breadth not far from 90 miles; the average length of the territory, according to the latest authorities, is about 150 miles, its average breadth west of the Jordan a little more than 40 miles, and its breadth east of the Jordan rather less than 40 miles. The total area of that portion which lies between the Jordan and "the great sea" is about 6600 square miles; that portion east of the Jordan has an area of about 5000, and perhaps of 6000, square miles, making the whole area of Palestine, on both sides of Jordan, 12,000 or 13,000 square miles, or about equal to that of the two States of Massachusetts and Connecticut.

Physical Features. - This land naturally divides itself into four long parallel tracts, extending north and south, two of them low and two of them elevated:(1) The plain along the sea-coast, broken at the north by Carmel; (2) The hill country and table-land between the Jordan valley and the coast-plain, reaching from the north to the south end of the land, and broken only by the great plain of Jezreel, or Esdraelon; (3) The valley of the Jordan, with its remarkable depression below the level of the sea; (4) The high table-land east of the Jordan, reaching from Mount Hermon on the north, through Bashan, Gilead, and Moab, and extending eastward to the Arabian desert. Each of these four natural divisions will be described, beginning with the plain along the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. The coast-plain. - This district is supposed to have been formed by the denudation of the mountains, the sand-dunes along the shores, and partly by the deposit of the Nile mud, which has been noticed as far north as Gaza. This plain extends without a break from the desert below Gaza to the ridge of Carmel; north of Carmel is the plain of Acre, which reaches to a headland known as the "Ladder of Tyre;" north of this headland lies the narrow plain of Phoenicia. That portion of the plain which lies between Carmel and Jaffa (Joppa) was known as the plain of Sharon. A great portion of this plain is flat, but north of Jaffa are low hillocks, through which, in ancient times, tunnels were cut to drain the marshy land lying back of them. The soil is of marvellous fertility, producing good crops without irrigation, though it is tilled in the rudest manner. "Deep gulleys intersect the plain," says Conder, "running westward to the sea, and carrying down the drainage of the mountain-system. They have generally high earthen banks, and in some cases contain perennial streams. The neighborhood of these streams is marshy, especially toward the north of Sharon, and the dunes and marshes together reduce the arable land by about one fourth. The maritime plain is some 80 miles long, and from 100 to 200 feet above the sea, with low cliffs near the coast. Toward the north it is 8 miles, and near Gaza 20 miles, broad." - Handbook, p. 211. Wilson speaks of the broad expanse of the Philistine plain as covered in harvest-time with a waving mass of golden grain unbroken by a single hedge, and presenting one of the most beautiful sights in Palestine. The stubble becomes so dry under a scorching Syrian sun that a spark would set it on fire, and the flames would sweep over it like the fires upon an American prairie. Such a fire was no doubt kindled by Samson when he turned his three hundred foxes or jackals with their firebrands into the standing grain of the Philistines in the time of wheat-harvest. Jud 15:4-5. The Shephelah, or "low country," in which were the towns of Beth-shemesh, Aijalon, Tininah, and Gimzo, 2 Chr 28:18, consisted of a series of low undulating hills lying between the great southern plain on the coast and the hill-country toward Jerusalem. There is not to be found a single good harbor along this entire coast.

  2. The highlands west of the Jordan. -


Next to the coast-plain eastward comes the high-table land, including the hill country of Judaea - a tract about 25 miles wide, and which begins at the foot of Lebanon in the north and extends southward through the hills of Galilee, is broken by the plain of Jezreel, rises again with the hills of Samaria, and extends southward beyond Jerusalem for about 50 miles. It has been designated geologically as the "back-bone of Palestine." As seen from the sea, it has a general resemblance to a long continuous wall. The following are the heights above the sea of some of its chief points: Hebron, 2840 feet; Olivet, 2665 feet; Nebi Samwil, 2900 feet; Mount Ebal, 3029 feet: Nebi Ismail, 1790 feet; and Jebel Jermuk, 4000 feet. "The hills are broad-backed," says Wilson, "and present none of the grander features of mountain-scenery, but every here and there a rounded summit rises above the general level of the range and affords striking panoramas of the surrounding country: such are the views from Mount Ebal, Little Hermon, Nebi Ismail, near Nazareth, and the hill on which Safed stands, each embracing no inconsiderable portion of the Holy Land. The effect of the view is increased by the transparency of the atmosphere, which diminishes apparent distances in a manner unknown in moister climes, and by the rich and varying tints that light up the steep slopes of the Jordan valley. Through the centre of the hill-country runs the main road from Jerusalem through Samaria to Galilee, following nearly the line of the watershed, and passing close to many of the chief cities of Judah and Israel. It is the route now usually followed by travellers, and was probably always one of the most important thoroughfares in the country. East of this road the hills descend abruptly to the Jordan valley; west of it they fall more gradually to the coast-plain. The wonderful ramifications of the valleys which cut up the hill-country on either side of the watershed form one of the peculiar features of Palestine topography; rising frequently in small upland plains of great richness, such as el-Mukhua, near Nablus, the valleys at first fall very rapidly, and then, after a tortuous course, reach the plain on the one side and the Jordan valley on the other. The effect of this is to split up the country into a series of knife-like ridges, generally preserving an east-and-west direction, and effectually preventing any movement over the country from south to north, except along the central highway; the valley of the Kishon, which spreads out into the broad plain of Esdraelon, and the valley of Jezreel, are the only two which are more than mere torrent-beds." - Bib. Educator, vol. ii. p. 214. Near Jerusalem the tract becomes lower, about 2600 feet above the sea, and the hills are capped with chalk, but south of Jerusalem the ridge becomes higher and more rugged, the slopes to the west very steep, deep ravines running north and south, while south of Hebron is a plain upon the table-land, partially broken by a valley extending from Hebron to Beersheba. and thence north-westward nearly to Gaza. Pres. Bartlett, speaking of the hill-country of Judah, says: "Perhaps no one aspect of Palestine along its central line of hills, both here and north of Jerusalem, strikes the stranger more with surprise than the amount and roughness of its rock- surface. It is not unlike the stony parts of New Hampshire in this respect. At the first glance, especially in its present wretched desolation and neglect under a government that crushes all the hopes of industry, and in possession of a people that destroy and never replace, the thought of the superficial observer is that of disappointment. He sees it almost treeless, rocky, and rough and neglected, and thinks that it is, after all, a much overrated and overpraised country. But when he looks more closely he perceives that all this rock, being limestone, and not sandstone or granite, when it pulverizes, carries with it, not barrenness, but fertility. He observes how the noble olive grows in successive tiers up the sides of seemingly hopeless hills, what sunny exposures are everywhere offered to the vine, and how green are the wheat-fields even when wedged in among the cliffs, and how all these hills appear once to have been diligently and laboriously laid out in terraces almost to their tops; and he changes his mind. He travels through a multitude of fertile valleys, and crosses plains, like that of Esdraelon, as rich of soil as a Western prairie, almost abandoned now. He 641 passes from the deep tropical valley of the Jordan by the Dead Sea to the high mountains of Galilee and the still higher range of Lebanon, and sees how this little country, not larger than Wales, is fitted to produce almost every species of fruit or grain, of whatever climate, upon the globe. And as he watches the brooks and springs of water, and the singular variety of surface, orchards, glens, bold mountains, fertile flowery plains, picturesque sites - such as those of Jerusalem, Hebron, Samaria, and a multitude of other places - he cannot but perceive how in its palmy days, when the heights were crowned with foliage, the hillsides with cattle, and the fields with grain, Palestine must have been indeed a goodly land, presenting to its children home-attractions and inextinguishable recollections beyond even those of Scotland, Switzerland, or New England." - From Egypt to Palestine, p. 409.

  1. The Jordan valley and plain. - This valley, extending from the base of Hermon to the south end of the Dead Sea, is one of the wonders in physical geography. It varies greatly in width from half a mile to 5 miles, and at some points is 12 miles broad. At the foot of Hermon this valley is about 1000 feet above the sea; at Lake Huleh, about 12 miles south of Hermon, the valley is upon the sea-level; at the Sea of Galilee, some 10 miles farther south, the valley falls 682 feet below the level of the sea; while at the Dead Sea, about 65 miles south of Galilee, the valley sinks to the astonishing depth of 1300 feet below the ocean-level. The sea has on its shore a salt-mountain, Jebel Usdum, a long mass of rock - salt several hundred feet high, nearly 7 miles long, and from 1 to 3 miles wide. The mountain is capped with marl and gypsum, and in this region are numerous salt pillars, among them one spire which tradition points out as Lot's wife. Bitumen abounds also, and sometimes is strongly impregnated with sulphur. See Salt Sea. The mountains on either side of this immense depression rise to a height, near Beisan, of about 2000 feet above the valley, while near Jericho they are nearly 4000 feet above the river Jordan. These heights, combined with the deep depression, afford a great variety of temperature, and bring into close proximity productions usually found widely apart in the temperate and torrid zones. See Jordan.

  2. The table-land east of the Jordan. - The broad eastern plateau beyond Jordan may be described as having a general altitude of about 2000 feet above the sea, though at some points it attains a height of 3000 feet; the surface is tolerably uniform, but broken on its western edge by deep ravines running into the Jordan valley. Within this region were the ancient forests and rich pastures of Bashan, famous from a very early age, and still regarded as among the most fertile portions of Palestine. This plateau, upon its extreme eastern edge, sinks away into the Arabian desert. Eastward of the Sea of Galilee, however, it is broken by a mountainous tract extending from 40 to 50 miles from north-east to south-west. The region known as the Lejah is one vast lava-bed, broken by deep ravines, where water is found and where people dwell in caves. See Bashan.

This volcanic or basaltic tract rises gradually from the north, and is interspersed with many isolated hills, some of which are beyond doubt craters of extinct volcanoes. Nearly opposite Jericho is the range of Abarim, which includes Nebo and Pisgah, the place where Moses viewed the land and died. Deut 34:1-6. See Abarim.

Mountains, Passes, and Plains. - The only mountain of importance along the coast is the promontory and ridge of Carmel, which extends north-west and south-east, being from 12 to 18 miles in length, about 1750 feet high at its highest point, and about 600 feet high where it breaks off into the sea. Among the noted elevations of the district known as "the hill-country," west of the Jordan, are the following: At the extreme north the Anti Lebanon range, and southward, in Galilee, Little Hermon, Tabor, the Horns of Hattin, the hill of Nazareth, and Mount Gilboa; still farther south. Mount Ebal, Mount Gerizim. Gibeah, Olivet, the mountain Quarantania, and, at the extreme south. Mount Seir. Among the mountains in the district cast of Jordan are Mount Gilead, the range of Abarim, which included Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor. Among the noted "passes" on the west side of Jordan is that at Beth-horon, 642 the one in the south at Akrabbim, and that on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho through the Wadi Kelt. There are numerous other deep ravines on both; sides of the Jordan, like that of Mar Saba, and of the Callirrhoe along the Zerka Main. Among the plains, the two most remarkable are the plain of Jezreel and the plain of Sharon. See Jezreel and Sharon.

Rivers, Lakes, and Fountains. - The great river of Palestine is the Jordan, which divides the land into two almost equal portions. It has no important tributary from the west, but there are some small streams, as the Derdarah, the Nahr el- Jalud, rising in the fountain of Jezreel, and the Wady el-Faria. Of the streams running into the Mediterranean are the Leontes, the Belus, the Kishon - "that ancient river" - the Zerka, north of Caesarea, and the Anjeh, near Jaffa, which drains the mountains of Samaria. The streams running into the Jordan from the east are the Wady Za'areh, the Yarmuk or Hieromax, the Jabbok - now called the ez-Zerka - the Zerka Main, the Arnon - now called the el-Mojib - and the Wady Kerak. Many of the so-called "rivers" of Palestine are only winter-torrents, whose beds are dry in summer. The lakes of importance are Lake Huleh, or the "waters of Merom," the Lake of Galilee, and the Salt or Dead Sea. A description of these is given under their respective titles. Palestine was noted of old for its fountains. Among the most important are those which constitute the sources of the Jordan, as the great fountain at Banias, the ancient "Caesarea Philippi," at Tell al-Kady, the ancient Dan, the fountain of Jezreel, the source of the Kishon, the fountain of Nazareth, that of et-Tabighah, the hot springs of Tiberias, the various fountains in and about Jerusalem - of which Robinson says there are not less than thirty - the "fountain of Elisha," near ancient Jericho, those near Hebron, and the noted fountain near ancient En-gedi. Upon the east of the Jordan, near the Dead Sea, were the famous hot springs of Callirrhoe, and similar springs near the Zerka, the Yarmuk or Hieromax, and, besides these, the copious fountains at some of the principal towns, as Kunawat, Hebron, Ornam, and Busra or Bozrah. The mineral springs are found chiefly in the valley of the Jordan, and are divided by Robinson into three classes: (1) Hot sulphur springs, which are found in five places - near Tiberias, on the western shore of the lake, with a temperature of 144F; near Um Keis, in the valley of the Yarmuk, with a temperature of 109F; at Callirrhoe, east of the Dead Sea; and in Wady Hamad. (2) Warm saline springs occur at only one place, the Wady Malik, south of Beisan, which have a temperature of 98F. (3) Warm springs in general, of which there are several. The "fountain of Elisha," near Jericho, is slightly warm, but not brackish, and the same is true of the fountains et-Tabighah and el-Feshkah, on the western shore of the Dead Sea, except that the latter is quite brackish.

Geology. - There never has been a complete geological survey of Palestine. The general character of its formation has been ascertained, however, and will be briefly described. The Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges of mountains are chiefly composed of hard limestone overlaid with a formation of soft white chalk, the latter containing numerous fossils, those of the fish being the most common. These formations occur in Western Palestine, though in the higher hills of Galilee there is a second layer of limestone above the chalk. The upper limestone varies from white to reddish brown, has few fossils, and abounds in caverns, the strata being sometimes violently twisted, as between Jerusalem and Jericho, and in other places blends into dolomite or magnesian limestone, as on the western shore of the Dead Sea. East of the Jordan and south of Hermon are vast beds of volcanic rock, and in the Lejah district there is a great field of basalt covering about 500 square miles. East of the Dead Sea occurs the Nubian sandstone, while beneath this formation, especially near Petra, igneous formations are to be found, the chains of Sinai and Serbal being formed of different varieties of granitic rock. The geological origin of the great depression of the valley of the Jordan may be due to volcanic causes, though this question has not yet been settled. Some think the basins of the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea resemble craters; 643 others attribute the chasm to the gradual action of the ocean at some immensely remote period. All agree that the theory which ascribes the formation of the Dead Sea to the time of the overthrow of the cities of the plain is without any scientific support, and it is not required by the language of Scripture. The soil of Palestine is noticed under Agriculture.

Climate. - Though the present climate of Palestine appears to be unhealthy for Occidentals, it is on the whole mild, and tends toward an extreme of heat rather than of cold. The mean temperature at Beirut (a little north of Palestine proper) of each month for a period of ten years was as follows: January, 67.3F; February, 58.6F; March, 63.3F; April, 67.3F; May, 73.3F; June, 78.1F; July, 83F; August, 83.4F; September, 81.6F; October, 77.8F; November, 67.6F; December, 61.5F, - making the mean for the whole period 71.1F. The coldest month, on the average, was January; the warmest, August. The average summer heat, according to Conder, ranges between 100F in the plains and 85F in the mountains as a maximum temperature in the shade. In the plains the winter temperature seldom falls below freezing-point, but in the mountains frost and snow are of frequent occurrence. On the sea-coast the heat of the summer is tempered by the cool breezes, but in the valleys of the Jordan the heat is often terrible, sometimes reaching 110F in the shade.

According to Dr. Barclay, the highest temperature at Jerusalem is about 92F and the lowest 28F, the mean temperature being not far from 62F. About the same temperature doubtless prevails throughout the whole hill country. Mount Hermon, in the north, 9300 feet high, is never entirely clear of snow, though sometimes there is very little of it left upon its sides late in autumn. As a rule, the year consists of two seasons only, the rainy and the dry. The rainy season begins near the end of October, sometimes preceded by violent thunderstorms. This may be the "former rain" noticed in the Bible. Deut 11:14; Joel 2:23. The winds from the south and south-west bring frequent showers. December is usually stormy, January and February cold and rainy, the rain falling in the valleys and uplands and the snow upon the mountains. The "latter rains " come in March and April. If scanty, they impair, or even destroy, the crops; if violent, they sometimes sweep away the fruit trees and gardens, and do not spare the mud hovels, or even the better houses of the peasantry. The average annual rainfall at Jerusalem has been found to be about 60 inches, while with us it is 45, and in California, where the climate resembles Palestine, it is only 20 inches. The annual rainfall at Beirut for the ten years noted in the previous paragraph was 63 inches, the least for any one year being 57, and the greatest 74. The average number of rainy days in a year was 63. The dry season extends from April to November, during which period the sky is almost uninterruptedly cloudless. Thunderstorms occasionally occur in May, but are very rare. 1 Sam 12:17-18. Mists hover about the mountains, but otherwise the atmosphere is generally brilliantly clear. Heavy dews fall at night, even in the midst of summer, except in the desert. The east wind, or sirocco, blows during February, March, and April, and sometimes darkens the air with clouds of fine dust. A drought of three months before harvest is fatal to the crops, the harvest coming in the valley of the Jordan a month in advance of that on the highland. The barley-harvest usually comes early in May in the valley; the wheat-harvest is a few weeks later. But the harvest-time varies in different years, and even in different parts of the country, in the same season, owing to the different elevations of the land.

In regard to the climate and seasons of Palestine now, Warren says: "There is but one rainy season, and then a long interval of drought and desolation from July - I might say May - to November. During this long period scarcely a green blade can be seen as far as the eye can stretch over the vast plains, nothing but sticks, stones, and dust, the monotony relieved only by the noise of the wild artichoke careering on the wings of the whirlwind, or by a troop of Bedouins rushing off on a plundering expedition. Toward the end of October there is a sullen stillness in the air; the atmosphere is loaded to the senses, and 644 the soul is heavy with melancholy, waiting for the rains. Then the spell of drought is broken; a storm occurs. For three days there is abundance of soft showers, with a few downpours, and again often some weeks of drought until the winter solstice; then there is a thorough break up: cold and rain spread over the land. In January the rain falls now and again for three days, with a week's interval; but February is the really rainy month. I have known it to rain every day throughout the month. There is, however, no certainty in the matter; one year the rain is later than the next. In March there are pleasant showers and storms, and in April there are showers and often intervals of intense cold; even snow I have known at Jerusalem during that month. May is frequently a month of hot winds blowing from the east, but in June there are clouds and a few showers. Now, it is this early portion of the year that would be most affected by the growth of trees and the terracing of the hillsides. The April showers would be extended into May, the June clouds and showers into July; the latter rains of June will fall in abundance, giving a second season - a never-ending succession of crops - when the ploughman will overtake the reaper and the treader of grapes him that soweth seed. The rich soil is well prepared to yield a second crop year by year; all that is required is water and warmth, and this it will have, for water will now be found gushing from the rocks, from springs which have long been silent. Carried along the hillsides in ducts, it may be used for irrigation purposes in the undulating country, and then into the plains, to be used again, or else it may assist in filling up the wells of the plain to near the surface of the ground - wells which are now 30 to 90 feet deep - with water. The water so freely used will evaporate and form clouds over the land without ever reaching the sea, thus preventing the formation of the unhealthy lagoons of half-salt, half-fresh water along the shore of Palestine, now so common.

"Philistia, Sharon, and the other plains bordering on the sea, are even now exceptionally fertile, but they may, by a regular succession of crops, be made to yield far more abundantly, and the advance of the rolling sand-hills may be arrested - an advance which, if not looked to, will soon overwhelm the fairest of the maritime plains. The rich ground between Gaza and Ascalon, between Ascalon and Jaffa, which the sand has swallowed up, must again be uncovered. United action is requisite for this, for individual efforts can be of no avail: the rolling sand-hills are a common enemy, and must be attacked by the nation."

Of the effect of the "former rains" in October and November, Tyrwhitt Drake wrote in 1872: "These rains produced an immediate change in the appearance of the country. Grass began to sprout all over the hills; the wasted grain on the threshing-floors soon produced a close crop some 6 inches high. The cyclamen, white crocus, saffron crocus, and jonquil are in full flower on the mountains; the ballat (Quercus segilops) is fast putting out its new leaves, and in sheltered nooks some of the hawthorn trees are doing the same. . . . These, to our notions, are hardly signs of coming winter, but the advent of numberless starlings and common plovers on the plains and woodcock in the woodlands points to rain not far distant."

Productions. - Among the trees and plants of Palestine, the more important are the cedar and the cypress, now quite rare; the Aleppo pine, still abundant on the slopes of Lebanon; the terebinth, evergreen oak, and the common oak, for which Bashan was famed; the locust tree, the carob - the pods of which were the "husks" the prodigal would have eaten - the walnut, the plane tree, the tamarisk, the common willow, the white or silver poplar, the maple, juniper, ash, alder, and hawthorn. Of fruit trees there are the sycamore-fig, olive, quince, mulberry, almond, banana, pomegranate, orange, pear - though not abundant - and the common fig, which is one of the staple products of the country. The prickly pear is used for hedges; the palm tree, once abundant, is now rarely seen; though the date-palm is occasionally found, yet its fruit does not ripen. Vines are very common, grapes being one of the principal products of the hill-country. Melons of various kinds, cucumbers, lettuce, purslane, endive, gourds, and pumpkins are likewise common, some of the latter attaining 645 great size. The egg-plant and cauliflower are also common, and artichokes and asparagus grow wild. Potatoes are grown in some places, as at Jerusalem. Among the flowering-plants may be noticed the tulip, various kinds of the anemone, the lily, the white narcissus, the iris, the flowering oleander, the honeysuckle, the jessamine, the primrose, mistletoe, acacia, poppy, geranium, and pink, and altogether more than five hundred different varieties of wildflowers of rich and delicate color, giving the country, in the height of the season, a showy and gorgeous appearance. Indeed, the wild flowers of Palestine are the chief natural attractions of the country. The various grains grown in Palestine are described under Agriculture and under their different titles.

The wild animals of Palestine are about the same as in ancient times, except that the lion and a species of the wild ox have become extinct. The number of species of mammals is about eighty - a large number for so small a country. Among the animals are the badger, bat, bear, zemer, coney, various kinds of deer, ferret, fox, wild goat, hare, hedgehog and porcupine, hyaena, jackal, cheetah or leopard, wild boar and wild ass, the mole, mouse, the jerbon or jumping mouse, weasel, and the wolf. Of domestic animals there are the camel, dog, cat, goat, horse, mule, ass, ox, sheep, and the half-wild swine. Of the reptiles and "creeping things" of Palestine every traveller is painfully conscious. They are the adder, lizard, chameleon, frog, shrill-crying little gecko, the viper, and scorpions under every stone. Insects abound on every hand. The more common are the ant, honey-bee, flea, locust, wasp, hornet, spiders without number, various kinds of gnats and flies, beetles, and butterflies. Of fish the most common are the carp, perch, minnow, barbel, bream, sheat-fish, and the dog-fish, all of which abound in the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee. Larger fish are found in the Mediterranean, among them the shark, which was doubtless the "great fish" (incorrectly rendered "whale") that swallowed the truant prophet Jonah.

The birds of Palestine are very numerous, more than three hundred and twenty species having been already identified. The hills abound in fine specimens of the partridge, and quails are found in the grain-fields. Wild ducks frequent the plains of the Jordan, and pigeons swarm everywhere. Large flocks of storks and cranes hover about the plain of Jezreel, while sparrows and swallows swarm in the ruins of towns and boldly enter the very sanctuaries of the Muslims in Jerusalem and elsewhere. The most conspicuous of the birds of prey are the eagle, ospray, vulture, kite, the lapwing or hoopoe, the filthiest of scavengers among birds, the hawk, and the majestic lammergeier. The ravens are still abundant as in the days of Elijah, and are of various kinds. Singing-birds are not wanting. Song 2:12; Ps 104:10, Jud 4:12, the more common being the thrush, nightingale or bulbul, and the cuckoo, whose sweet call-notes are often heard in spring. The cormorant, heron, and pelican are also found upon the lakes or along the coast. Gulls and petrels skim the shores of the sea; jays and woodpeckers sport in the forests of Carmel, Gilead, and Bashan; kestrels, griffons, and buzzards soar over the rugged cliffs of Jordan or sweep across the marshes of the plains; bats and owls swarm in the numerous caverns in the sides of the deep ravines and limestone precipices abounding in the land; larks and linnets are taken in snares, tamed, and used like pigeons as decoys to catch other birds; while chattering sparrows are on every hand, until we do not wonder that a single one of these birds was counted worth next to nothing - two for a farthing or five for two farthings. Matt 10:29; Luke 12:6. While the thrift, prosperity, and true religion of the people of Palestine have disappeared, and with them the beauty and natural loveliness of the land, the prominent physical features remain as they were 4000 years ago, and our eyes behold the same valleys, hills, and mountains, our feet may cross the same streams, and our thirst may be quenched from the same fountains and wells that were fumed in the days of the patriarchs. The same kind of animals survive to bear burdens for the trader and to feed the hungry now as in those remote ages, the same kind of insects annoy and destroy the comfort of the "sojourner,"


[image -7, 100, 291, 457, 19554] 648 and the same sort of birds delight the eye with their majestic flight or please the ear with their song.

Palestine is itself one vast ruin; even the very land seems to sympathize with the general desolation which rests upon its cities and towns. A bad government has for years not only failed to protect its inhabitants: it has burdened them with taxes, and when it had brought them to poverty it added extortion to oppression, allowed justice and honesty to be disregarded by its officials, made bribery and corruption so common, and the reward to the extortionate so great, that no officer could afford to be honest or dare to be just. The whole system of civil rule is on a rotten foundation, and cannot be made solid so long as it is based on the Turkish belief that a Christian and a Jew can never be raised to an equality with a follower of Mohammed. Added to this there are great physical causes which have been suggested as reasons why a land once so fruitful has become so barren and desolate. Among these are:(1) Rains have ceased to fall in proper proportion; (2) Clouds fail to protect the soil from the sun in spring; (3) There are neither people, facilities, nor skill to till the land properly; (4) Soil once terraced on the mountain-sides is now washed into the valleys.

Respecting the possibilities of recovering the former fertility and productiveness of the Holy Land, Warren eloquently declares: "Put the country under proper cultivation, and will not all be changed? Rich loam clogs the valleys, the hillsides are bare. The work to be done is not difficult. It is practicable; it is going on in Spain, and even in parts of Palestine at the present time. Walls of rough stones are built along the hillsides, 3 to 4 feet high, according to the steepness of the slope, and the space between them and the hill filled up with the jet loam; this is continued from bottom to top until the mountain-side presents the appearance, from the opposite side, of a series of steps:from the bottom it looks like a great stone wall; from the top, like a loamy plateau. On these terraces are planted the young trees, figs, olives, mulberry, apricot, the pine, those of a more delicate nature being planted on the northern terraces in order that they may suffer less from the sun's rays, the walls not being exposed to the heat. These trees thrive rapidly, as they will do in Palestine, and spread out their leaves and thrust their roots into the rocky clefts. The rain falls, but not as heretofore; there are no bare rocks for it now to course down, no torrent is foaming in the valley. No! Now it falls on the trees and terraces, it percolates quietly into the soil and into the rocky hillside, and is absorbed, scarcely injuring the crops in the valley, where before it would have ruthlessly washed them away.

"The water that thus sinks into the rocks is not lost, for it will shortly reissue at some distance lower down in perennial springs, so refreshing in a thirsty land. The rain that remains in the soil keeps about the roots of the trees, enabling them to spread out their leaves in rich groves over the land to protect it from the sun, whose rays are now intercepted and absorbed by the leaves and fruits, giving forth no glare or reflection, but a delicious green shade. The soil, though warm, is not burnt up at once, but every day gives out a moisture which rises above the trees, and on reaching the higher and cooler winds is condensed into visible vapor or clouds, constantly forming as the breeze passes over the groves, thus protecting them from the sun as with an umbrella. The climate becomes changed, for the rocks, once bare and exposed to the sun, have now upon them soil, and, sheltering the soil, trees, and, sheltering the trees, clouds. Thus where were but glaring sun, dry winds, dry with stony land, absence of vegetable products, are now to be found fleecy clouds floating through the air, the heat of the sun tempered by visible and invisible vapors, groves with moist soil, trickling streamlets issuing from the rocks, villages springing up apace - Palestine renewed."

History. - The history of the Holy Land is treated in detail under Canaan, Israel, Judah, and Jerusalem. A concise general view may here be added for convenience to the reader. The history of this land may be not inappropriately divided into five great periods:(1) Before the Israelitish conquest; (2) Under the Judges and kings; (3) During the Captivity and Maccabaean period; (4) The Roman and Christian period- (5) 649 The Mohammedan period. An outline only can be given under each period.

  1. Before the Israelitish Conquest. - The earliest inhabitants of Palestine of whom we have any notice were Hamites, descended from Canaan, and included ten or more tribes, grouped under the general name of Canaanites. Gen 10:15-18. Some suppose these tribes were in two groups, Sidon and Heth, and that the curious inscriptions found at Hamath, yet undeciphered by scholars, are of Hittite origin. At an early date there may have been only four leading tribes within the bounds of Palestine - Jebusites, Amorites, Girgasites, and Hivites; others were soon added, however, and appear in the days of Abraham, the Hittites probably coming from the north, as did also the Amorites. The walls of the temple at Karnak, in Egypt, bear a hieroglyphic inscription, lately deciphered, recording an invasion by Thothmes III. of the countries east of the Mediterranean, including Palestine, and the conquest of one hundred and nineteen towns and cities, a large portion of them being identified as cities mentioned in the Bible. For the later conquest of the land by Joshua, and the division of it among the tribes, see Canaan.

  2. Under the Judges and Kings. - During the rule of the Judges the land was not under any united or strong government. The fortunes and the possessions of the people were subject to constant fluctuations - sometimes overrun by enemies, at others victorious over them, as under the leadership of Samson, Gideon, and Jephthah; but there was little general security, and the former tribes kept the new settlers in a state of constant alarm. They longed for a central and monarchical government, and God granted their desire, though warning them, through the prophet Samuel, of the result. Under David and Solomon the nation was consolidated and reached the highest point of temporal prosperity. The rupture followed, and for five hundred years the nation gradually declined in greatness and power, until it fell into captivity under the Assyrian and Babylonian empires. See Israel and Judah, Kingdoms of.

  3. The Captivity and Maccabean Rule, - After the seventy years' captivity portions of the southern nation returned to repeople Palestine. The ten tribes composing the northern kingdom of Israel were "lost," and portions of their territory were repeopled by a mixed class, afterward known as Samaritans. Later, Philip and his son Alexander extended the Grecian conquests into Asia. The decisive battle of Issus, b.c. 333, in which Darius was completely deflated, caused Palestine to pass from the Persian to the Grecian sway. The country was ruled under the Seleucidae by governors appointed by the king at Antioch. The war of independence, under the leadership of the Maccabaean princes, is among the most important events of this period.

  4. Roman and Christian Period. - About b.c. 40 the Parthians plundered Syria and Palestine; Herod I. (afterward the Great) obtained the vassal-kingship from the Romans, and was confirmed in office b.c. 37. After his death (b.c. 4), and during the ministry of our Lord, the land was divided and ruled by his sons and by Roman procurators, Herod Antipas and Pilate being among those more prominent in biblical history. A national (Jewish) insurrection broke out in consequence of the maladministration of the Roman governor, and in a.d. 70 the capital, Jerusalem, was captured after great loss of life. The whole land was soon after reduced to the condition of a colony, and the Jews excluded from their capital. Later, the eastern empire gained the ascendency in Western Asia, and under the Constantines the land was favored, Christianity was recognized, churches built. Christian sees established, and partial prosperity restored. The birth of the false prophet Mohammed, a.d. 570, and the rapid rise of Mohammedanism, led the way for the Holy Land to fall into the hands of the Arabs.

  5. The Mohammedan Period. - The battle of Hieromax (Yarmuk), a.d. 634, opened the whole of Palestine to the Arabs, followers of Mohammed. The political history of the Arab rulers of these centuries presents a continuous scene of war and bloodshed, accompanied by an interminable series of intestine dissensions, intrigues, and murders. The Arabs, however, made considerable progress in scientific knowledge, in philosophy, and in mathematics. The internal disorders of the Muslim empire aided in giving success to the bold bands of Christian Crusaders who were determined


to wrench the Holy Land from the hand of the Muslim, and for a time they held the country, but their rule was comparatively short: and, though four or five crusades were undertaken with remarkable zeal, the Mamelukes succeeded in coming into possession of the land, to be followed by the Osmans, who have held the country under their misrule, scarcely interrupted by the famous invasion of the French under Napoleon I., who signally defeated the Turks in battle on the plain of Jezreel. The recent intervention of England and the nations of Europe was supposed to promise some reforms in misgoverned Turkey and its possessions, including Palestine, but the realization of the promise must be found in the future, if at all.

Palestine now belongs to the pashalic of Damascus, which includes the three sub-pashalics of Beirut, Akka, and Jerusalem.

Present Inhabitants. - As no census of Palestine has been taken under its present rule, the number of its inhabitants can be only approximately determined. The estimates of the present population vary widely. The pashalic of Jerusalem, according to Ritter, has 602,000; the pashalic of Acre, according to Robinson, has 72,000; the remaining part of the pashalic of Sidon in Jerusalem and the East Jordanic region is estimated to contain about 150,000, making a total population of 824,000. Dr. Hitchcock, in Johnson's Cyclopaedia, supposes the present population "to be well on toward 400,000, less than a tenth of what it probably was in the time of Solomon," The correct number can only be ascertained by a census under a government with more trustworthy officials than the present Turkish rule sustains. Of the population of Palestine probably about 20,000 are Jews, chiefly dwelling in the four sacred cities of Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias, and Hebron, The Samaritans number scarcely one hundred and fifty, dwelling in Nablius. The rest of the population is Mohammedan and of a mixed character, from the ancient Syrians and their conquerors the Arabs. Computations based on the statements of Josephus make the population of Palestine in the time of our Lord from 4,000,000 to 6,000,000,- the number in the most prosperous days of the monarchy under Solomon is estimated at from 3,000,000 to 4,000,000.

The peasantry of Judaea are termed fellaheen Arabs, but M. Ganneau argues that this sedentary and not nomadic race must be distinguished from the nomad Arabs who came from Arabia with Caliph Omar. He thinks that the fellaheen Arabs are descendants, not of the conquering Arabs, but of the peasants found by them upon the soil. "Of what race, then, were these peasants? Were they Jews? No; for the wars of extermination waged by Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, and Hadrian, and the persecutions of the Christian emperors left not one stone upon another of either political or ethnic Judaism. . . . Jewish tradition, properly so called, is for ever lost in Palestine; and all the Jews now found there have, without exception, come to the country at a comparatively recent date," Were they Greeks? No; for they spoke a Semitic dialect, M. Ganneau's conclusion is "that the fellaheen of Palestine, taken as a whole, are the modern representatives of those old tribes which the Israelites found in the country, such as the Canaanites, Hittites, Jebusites, Amorites, Philistines, Edomites, etc, "He designates these as "pre-Israelite" races," Each successive change in the social and political condition of the country has more or less affected it in various ways; and we must not be surprised, when we study the fellaheen, at finding Jewish, Hellenic, Rabbinic, Christian, and Mussulman reminiscences mingled pell-mell and in the quaintest combinations with traits which bring us back to the most remote and obscure periods of pre-Israelite existence,

"The tenacity with which old religious customs have been kept up is another remarkable circumstance. Not only have the fellaheen, as Robinson conjectured, preserved, by the erection of their Mussulman kubbeks and their I fetichism for certain large isolated trees, the site and the souvenir of the hill sanctuaries and shady groves which were marked out for the execration of the Israelites on their entry into the Promised Land, but they pay them almost the same veneration as did the Canaanite Kooffars, whose descendants they are, These makoms, as Deuteronomy 651 calls them - which Manasseh rebuilt, and against which the prophets in vain exhausted their invectives - are word for word, thing for thing, the Arabic makums, whose little white-topped cupolas are dotted so picturesquely over the mountain-horizon of Central Judaea.

"In order to conceal their suspicious origin, these fellah sanctuaries have been placed under the protection of the purest Mohammedan orthodoxy by becoming the tombs or shrines of sheykhe, welys, and nebys - elders, saints, and prophets - deceased in the odor of sanctity. But there are many traces of their true origin beneath this simple disguise."

On account of the close connection between the names and places, Moses insisted upon destroying both. The fellaheen will "swear fluently and perjure themselves without scruple by any other sacred object, even by the Sakhrah - the rock upon which stood the altar; but if they take an oath on their local sanctuary, it is extremely rare to find them faithless or bearing false witness."

Antiquities and Explorations. - Palestine has no wonderful pyramids and obelisks like Egypt, nor has it ruins of vast temples and palaces like Assyria. There are few remains of the work and art of the Israelites, most of the ruins of edifices being not older than the Roman period. There are some coins of the Maccabaean era, some of the stones of Solomon's temple and palace have been found, and the enclosure of Abraham's tomb at Hebron has not been explored and its age is unknown. The wells at Beersheba are, however, of the patriarchal ages, and the well at Sychar has also been generally accepted as the one dug by the patriarch Jacob.

The exploration of this land may be traced back to the era of pilgrimages, when Eusebius and Jerome wrote a description of Palestine in the Onomasticon. Little was added to the information they gathered until a recent period, when Seetzen (1805-1807). Burckhardt (1810), Irby and Mangles (1817), and, pre-eminently, Robinson (1838 and 1852) brought a true critical and scientific method to the examination of this land of lands. Besides these, a multitude of noted travellers have visited and explored the country, and presented the results of their labors to the world.

In 1865 the English Palestine Fund was formed for an exact survey and thorough scientific exploration of Western Palestine. This has been completed, and the results have been very satisfactory, the latest being given in the admirable large sheet-maps of the whole territory between the Jordan and the Mediterranean, accompanied by full descriptive memoirs of the survey. The American Palestine Exploration Society was formed in 1870 to make a similar survey of the Holy Land east of the Jordan. It has furnished valuable information relating to the identification of Mt. Nebo and of many places east of the Jordan. Its work of exploration has now (1884) been assumed by the English Palestine Fund. The Moabite Stone, found by Mr. Klein in 1868 (see Dibon), had caused explorers to expect rich results from a thorough survey of the East Jordanic region - expectations which may yet be realized.

Meanwhile, there are a number of topographical questions unsettled in respect to cities in the West Jordanic territory, as the locations of Capernaum, Chorazin, Bethsaida, Cana of Galilee, Emmaus and the sites of the lost cities of the plain, the true Calvary, and a large number of points in Jerusalem topography. Some of these will be settled more surely with the spade than with the pen: others it may be impossible to solve satisfactorily by either method. It is, however, remarkable to note how completely every successive fact in the history or topography of this land has tended to throw additional light upon the Book of books, and to add to the external evidence of its divine origin, by showing how writers of such a variety of grades of intelligence, trained under such widely-different circumstances, and at eras separated by upward of fifteen centuries, each recorded descriptions, allusions, and incidents which are now found to be in exact accord with what we know must have been the physical features of the land, the character, customs, conditions of the people, and the influences existing at each of the periods of which he professes to write. Renan happily calls Palestine "the fifth Gospel." The Book fits the 652 Land, and the Land testifies to the accuracy and the inspiration of the Book.

The literature upon Palestine would fill a large library. Tobler notes over one thousand writers on the topic. A few of the most important and of the later works only can be given on the subject. Onomasticon, by Eusebius and Jerome (830-338), edited by Lasson and Parthey (1862); Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae, of writers in the eighth, ninth, twelfth, and fifteenth centuries, edited by Tobler (1874); Aleppo to Jerusalem, by Maundrell (1697); Palestina Illustrata, by Reland (1714); Voyages and Travels in the Levant, by Hasselquist (1749-1752), edited by Linnaeus (1766); Travels in Syria and the Holy Land, by Burckhardt (1822); Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and Asia Minor, by Irby and Mangles, (1822); Biblical Researches, by Robinson (1838-1841 and 1856); Lands of the Bible Visited and Described, by John Wilson (1847; Physical Geography of Palestine, by Robinson (1865); Expedition to the Dead Sea and Jordan, by Lynch (1849); Sinai and Palestine, by Stanley (1857); Land and Book, by Thomson (1859, and new edition 1880); Narrative of a Journey through Syria and Palestine, by Van de Velde (1858 and 1865); Rob Roy on the Jordan, by Macgregor (1870); Land of Israel, by Tristram (1865); Natural History of the Bible, by Tristram (1867); Land of Moab, by Tristram (1873); Geography of Palestine, Ritter, translated by Gage (1866); Damascus; Giant Cities of Bashan, by Porter (1855-1865); Handbook of Syria and Palestine, by Murray (1875); Bible Educator, by Plumptre (1873-1875); Handbook of Syria and Palestine, by Baedeker (1876); Bible Lands, their Modern Customs, etc., by Van Lennep (1875); Quarterlies Palestine Exploration Fund (organized, 1865-1880); American Palestine Exploration Society's Statements (1871-1877); Our Work in Palestine (1875); Through Bible Lands, by Schalf (1878); Tent-work in Palestine, by Conder (1878); From Egypt to Palestine, by Bartlett (1879); Handbook to the Bible, by F.R. and C.R. Conder (1879); Sheet Maps and Memoirs of the Palestine Exploration Fund (1880).

PAL'LU (distinguished), the second son of Reuben, and founder of the family of the Palluites, Ex 6:14; Num 26:5, 1 Kgs 15:8; 1 Chr 5:3; called Phallu in Gen 46:9.

PAL'LUITES. See above.

PALM TREE. The date-palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is found from the Indus to the Nile, through most of Northern Africa, and upon all the warmer shores of the Mediterranean, but it is now rare in Palestine. Yet in ancient times, when the land was peopled with many industrious inhabitants, it was very common. Lev 23:40; Deut 34:3; Judg 1:16; Joel 3:13; 1 Chr 4:5. Ancient historians corroborate this statement, and inform us that the region of the Dead Sea was noted for the palm, of which there were groves twelve miles in extent.

The general figure and appearance of this tree is familiar to our minds from pictures and descriptions. It grows in sandy soils, in hot and dry climates, but flourishes best in the vicinity of streams and where it can be watered, and in valleys and plains, especially where the water is moderately salt or brackish. It is always green and grows to a great height - from 60 to 100 feet. Its straight and slender trunk rises very high before it puts forth any leaves, and its foliage is in one mass at the top. Song 7:7; Jer 10:5. This ever green and stately tree is the emblem of the righteous. Ps 1:3 and Ps 92:12. The columns of costly edifices were sometimes hewn in imitation of its trunk, as may be observed in some of the ruins of Egypt. Palm trees were carved upon the doors of the temple. 1 Kgs 6:32; comp. Eze 41:19.

It is a peculiarity of palms and similar endogenous trees that the diameter of the trunk is as great as it ever becomes when the tree first rises above the ground, as seen in the cut of young palms. Hence there is growth yet completeness almost from the first.

Strictly speaking, the palm has no branches, but at the summit from forty to eighty leaf-stalks spring forth, which are intended in Neh 8:15. These are set around the trunk in circles of about six. The lower row is of great length, and the vast leaves, often 12 feet in length, bend themselves in a curve toward the earth; as the circles ascend the leaves are shorter. In the month of February there sprout from between the junctures of the lower stalks and the 653 trunk little scales, which develop a kind of bud, the germ of the coming fruit. These germs are contained in a thick and tough skin not unlike leather.

Date-Palm. (After Photograph)

According to the account of a modern traveller, a single tree in Barbary and Egypt bears from fifteen to twenty large clusters of dates, weighing from fifteen to twenty pounds each. The palm tree lives more than two hundred years, and is most productive from the thirtieth until the eightieth year. The Arabs speak of three hundred and sixty uses to which the different parts of the palm tree are applied.

The inhabitants of Egypt, Arabia, and Persia depend much on the fruit of the palm tree for their subsistence. Camels feed on the seed, and the leaves, branches, fibres, and sap are all very valuable.

When the dates are ripe they are plucked by the hand or shaken into a net, which is held below. The person who ascends the lofty trunk is assisted by the ragged processes or scales with which the body of the tree is armed. The dates ripen at different times, so that a tree is commonly ascended two or three times in a season. When gathered they are spread upon mats in the open air, and after a few days begin to be used. Some are eaten fresh, and some are laid aside for future use. Others yield a rich syrup; which being expressed, the remaining mass is steeped in hot water, and after being macerated and cleansed affords a pleasant drink. These different kinds of syrups are the celebrated date-wine, which was greatly prized in ancient times by the Orientals. Some suppose it to be the "strong drink" often named in the Scriptures; but this term rather designates all intoxicating liquors except wine. See Wine.

The shoots, which are annually cut away from the bottom of the tree, and the leaves themselves, are used for making ropes, baskets, sacks, mats, fans, hats, and sandals. The Hebrews were accustomed to carry the leaves, which they called "branches," in the solemn festivities of the feast of tabernacles, and to strew them in the way of triumphal processions. Thus branches were spread in the way of Christ upon his entry into Jerusalem. John 12:13. They were anciently used as a symbol of victory, and carried before the conqueror in triumphal processions. Hence the force and beauty of the figure in Rev 7:9.

The former abundance of the palm and the estimation in which the Hebrews held it are seen from many Bible names and references. Phoenicia and Phoenice came from the Greek name of the palm; Elim and Elath, or "trees," refer evidently to this species; Hazezontamar, "the filling of the palm trees," is identified with En-gedi, Gen 14:7; 2 Chr 20:2, whose palm trees are mentioned by Josephus and Pliny; Tamar, "a palm," occurs twice in Ezekiel for a place, and, referring to the tree as tall, straight, and graceful, was a favorite female name among the Hebrews; Baaltamar, "the sanctuary of the palm," occurs; Bethany is "the house of dates;" and Jericho is often called "the city of palm trees." This tree is found upon 654 ancient Hebrew coins as the symbol of Judaea, and Roman coins struck after the conquest of Judaea have a palm with an inscription commemorating the event.

PALMCRIST, mentioned in the margin of Jonah 4:6, is the Gourd, which see.

PALM'ER-WORM, a destructive insect of the locust tribe, figuratively spoken of in Joel 1:4; Am 4:9 as an instrument employed to afflict the rebellious Jews. See Locust.

PAL'SY (contr. from paralysis), a disease which deprives the part affected of sensation or the power of motion, or of both, according as the sensory or the motor nerves, or both, are attacked. As the term is used in the N.T. it imports apoplexy, or paralysis of the whole system; paralysis of one side; a paralysis affecting the whole body below the neck; and a paralysis caused by a contraction of the muscles, so that the limbs can be neither drawn up nor extended, and soon become emaciated and dried up. 1 Kgs 13:4-6; Matt 4:24; Matt 12:10-13; Luke 6:6; John 5:5-7. A fearful form of this disease is known in Eastern countries. The limbs remain immovably fixed in the position in which they were at the time of the attack, and the suffering is so exquisitely severe that death is often occasioned in a few days. Matt 8:6.

PAL'TI (deliverance of Jehovah), a Benjamite, and one of the twelve spies. Num 13:9.

PAL'TIEL (deliverance of God), the chief of the tribe of Issachar, and one of the twelve appointed to superintend the division of the land of Canaan. Num 34:26.

PAL'TITE, THE, one of David's mighty men, 2 Sam 23:26; called the Pelonite in 1 Chr 11:27.

PAHIPHYL'IA (region of every tribe), a Roman province in Asia Minor. Acts 27:5. It was bounded on the east by Cilicia, on the north by Pisidia - from which it was separated by the Taurus Mountains - on the west by Lycia, and on the south by the sea. Claudius made Pamphylia an imperial province. including in it the regions of Pisidia and Lycia, which are distinguished from Pamphylia proper. Acts 13:13-14; Gen 14:24; Acts 27:5.

Physical Features. - Sweeping around the head of the bay in crescent form and extending to the Taurus Mountains on the north is a plain about 80 miles long and 30 miles broad. This is Pamphylia proper. Three principal rivers intersect this plain, the Catarrhactes, the Cestrus, and the Eurynedon. The Cestrus was navigable for 7 miles to the city of Perga, which appears to have been the capital of the province, and Attalia its chief seaport. Acts 14:25.

History. - Pamphylia, according to Herodotus, was a small territory during the Persian war, when it sent only thirty ships, while Cilicia contributed one hundred. The Romans united it to the province of Asia, but later it was detached, and was included in the jurisdiction of M. Tullius Cicero. Its capital, Perga, was the first place in Asia Minor visited by Paul on his first missionary tour, and there Mark left him. Acts 13:13. On his return from Pisidia he preached at Perga, and from Attalia sailed to Antioch. Acts 14:24-26. Strangers from Pamphylia were at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.

PAN is, in our version, the rendering of six different Hebrew words, of which two seem to have denoted flat plates of metal, such as are still used in the East for baking cakes of meal, while the others seem to have denoted deeper vessels, used for boiling purposes. Lev 2:6; Ex 6:21.

PAN'NAG. Eze 27:17. Our translators wisely did not render this word into English. The most probable opinions are that it meant some kind of spice, or that it is millet. It has also been interpreted "balsam," "cassia," "sweetmeats," "panax."

PA'PER, 2 John 12, PAPER REEDS, See Books, Bulrush.

PA'PHOS (boiling, or hot), a town in the western end of Cyprus. There were two towns of this name - old Paphos, or Paphos of the poets, situated on a height about 2 miles from the sea, and new Paphos, on the seashore, about 10 miles to the north-west of the old town. It was founded b.c. 1184. Paul and Barnabas visited it, and the Roman governor was converted. Acts 13:6-11. At the old town there was a famous temple dedicated to Venus, which was visited annually by great numbers of heathen pilgrims. There are still extensive ruins and catacombs on its site. Not long before the visit of Paul and 655 Barnabas the new town had been destroyed by an earthquake. Augustus rebuilt it, and it became famous from its shrine and from the worship of Venus. Mingled with the ruins of palaces and churches are the poor dwellings and hovels of the Greek and Mohammedan inhabitants. The harbor is now nearly filled up. The modern name of the town is Baffa.

PAPY'RUS. Job 40:21. See Reed.

PAR'ABLE (from a Greek word signifying comparison) is used in the Bible in both a wider and a narrower sense. In the first case it comprises all forms of teaching by analogy and all forms of figurative speech, and is applied to metaphors, whether expanded into narratives, Eze 12:22, or not, Matt 24:32; to proverbs and other short sayings, 1 Sam 10:12; 1 Sam 24:13; 2 Chr 7:20; Luke 4:23; to dark utterances or signs of prophetic or symbolical meaning. Num 23:17-18; 1 Sam 24:3; Eze 20:49; Heb 9:9, etc. In the second case it means a short narrative of some everyday event, by which some great spiritual truth is conveyed to the hearer. In this sense the parable differs -

  1. From the fable, by its higher aim to illustrate spiritual truth, and by the intrinsic possibility and probability of its fictitious narrative, which could have happened, though perhaps it did not actually happen; while the fable uses the wonderful, and even the impossible (thinking, talking, acting animals and plants), for teaching maxims of prudence and lower morality, the parables of Christ always keep within the limits of the simple every-day experience.

  2. The parable differs from the allegory by its meaning, its idea not being represented, but simply suggested. The allegory is self-interpreting, the imaginary persons being named and performing acts which declare the meaning; while the parable must be interpreted by means of a knowledge of him who speaks it and of those to whom it is spoken. The allegory itself says what it means; the parable receives its whole meaning from the situation which called it forth. For him who knows not Christ the parable of the Sower contains nothing beyond a common every-day experience, but to him who knows the Man sitting there in the boat and speaking to the multitude on the shore this parable reveals a sublime spiritual truth.

From this peculiarity of the character of the parable it is easy to understand its signification in the teaching of Christ, and easy to derive the law for its interpretation. "The purpose of our Lord in teaching by parables was twofold - to reveal and to conceal the truth: to reveal to those who really sought the truth, to conceal from those who did not desire such knowledge, thus rewarding the former and punishing the latter." - Schaff. To him who has, the parable gives more; but it takes away from him who has not. No pondering over its details will ever bring out its meaning, for, although the idea may be reflected a thousand times from every turn of the narrative, still it is not present in the words: it is a light thrown upon the words from without, from the situation, from the speaker.

Teaching by parables was an ancient method. Striking instances occur in the O.T. - Nathan's address to David, 2 Sam 12:1-4; the woman of Tekoah, 2 Sam 14:6; the rebuke of Ahab, 1 Kgs 20:39; the denunciation of Isaiah, Isa 5:1-7 - and later on, the method found much favor with the Hebrew teachers. But it reached its perfection by the application it found in the teaching of Christ.

Matthew gives, in Matt 13, seven parables, which represent the several stages of the kingdom of God and its relation to the world: (1) The parable of the Sower, or the beginning of the kingdom and its reception or rejection by the different classes of men; (2) The parable of the Tares, or the kingdom of heaven in conflict with the kingdom of Satan; (3) The parable of the Mustard-seed and (4) the parable of the Leaven, or the growth of the kingdom of heaven extensively, comprising all nations and intensively pervading all forms of human life; (5) The parable of the Hidden Treasure; (6) The parable of the Pearl of Great Price; and (7) The parable of the Net cast into the Sea, or the relation between the kingdom of heaven and individual man and his efforts to grasp it and to develop it.

The parables occurring in the N.T. are:

  1. The Sower. Matt 13:3-8; Mark 4:3-8; Luke 8:5-8.
  1. The Wheat and the Tares. Matt 13:24-30.

  2. The Mustard-seed. Matt 13:31-32; Mark 4:30-32.

  3. The Leaven. Matt 13:33.

  4. The Seed cast into the Ground and Growing up Secretly. Mark 4:26-29.

  5. The Hidden Treasure. Matt 13:44.

  6. The Pearl of Great Price. Matt 13:45-46.

  7. The Net cast into the Sea. Matt 13:47-48.

  8. The Lost Sheep. Matt 18:12-13; Luke 15:4-6.

  9. The Merciless Servant. Matt 18:23-34.

  10. The Two Debtors. Luke 7:41-42.

  11. The Good Samaritan. Luke 10:30-35.

  12. The Importunate Friend. Luke 11:5-8.

  13. The Rich Fool. Luke 12:16-20.

  14. The Return from the Wedding. Luke 12:35-40.

  15. The Fig Tree. Luke 13:6-9.

  16. The Great Supper. Luke 14:16-24.

  17. The Lost Piece of Money. Luke 15:8-9.

  18. The Prodigal Son. Luke 15:11-32.

  19. The Unjust Steward. Luke 16:1-8.

  20. The Rich Man and Lazarus. Luke 16:19-31.

  21. The Unjust Judge. Luke 18:2-5.

  22. The Pharisee and the Publican. Luke 18:10-13.

  23. The Pounds. Luke 19:12-27.

  24. The Laborers in the Vineyard. Matt 20:1-16.

  25. The Two Sons. Matt 21:28-30.

  26. The Vineyard let to Husbandmen. Matt 21:33-39; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-15.

  27. The Marriage-Feast. Matt 22:2-14.

  28. The Wise and the Foolish Virgins. Matt 25:1-13.

  29. The Talents. Matt 25:14-30.

  30. The Sheep and the Goats. Matt 25:31-46.

The number of parables in the Gospels differs according to the range given to the application of the term. Greswell reckons 27; Trench, 30; Plumptre, 31; others, 50.

Matthew and Luke give us most of the parables. Mark dwells more on the acts than the discourses of Christ. John has no parables proper. He took them for granted from the earlier Gospels, and gives us instead those higher discourses of our Lord respecting his relation to the Father.

The best special works on the parables are by Lisco, Greswell, Trench, Arndt, Arnot, Stier. Our Lord has himself explained the parable of the Sower and the parable of the Wheat and the Tares. His explanation must be the standard by which our interpretations are to be regulated and measured.

PAR'ACLETE. See Advocate.

PAR'ADISE, a word of Persian origin, meaning a "garden." "orchard," or other enclosed place, filled with beauty and delight. Hence it is used figuratively for any place of peculiar happiness, and particularly for the kingdom of perfect happiness, which is the abode of the blessed beyond the grave. Luke 23:43; 2 Cor 12:4; Rev 2:7. See Eden.

PA'RAH (heifer-town), a place in the territory of Benjamin. Josh 18:23. It has been located south-east of Michmash, at the ruined village Farah, at the junction of the Wady Farah with the Wady Suweinit, and about 6 miles northeast of Jerusalem.


PA'RAN (place of caverns), a wilderness or desert region west of the Elanitic Gulf, and within the Sinaitic peninsula. It was bounded on the north by the wilderness of Shur and the land of Canaan; on the east by the great valley of the Arabah - which separated it from the mountains of Moab - and the Gulf of Akabah; on the south by a great sand-belt, separating it from the granitic mountains of Sinai; and on the west by the wilderness of Etham, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and from Egypt. A range of mountains sweeps around this wilderness on all sides except the north. It is a high limestone plateau, crossed by low ranges of hills and intersected by few watercourses, always dry except in the rainy season. In this blanched and dreary waste of chalk, covered with coarse gravel, black flint, and drifting sand, upon which a slight coating of vegetation struggles for existence, the Israelites spent thirty eight years after leaving Sinai. Num 10:12. The modern name, Badiet et Tih 657 , or "desert of the wandering," commemorates this historic fact. Across this desert lay the road from Canaan to Egypt which was travelled by Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph. The north-east corner of the wilderness is a hilly plateau, the home and pasture-ground of the patriarchs, the Negeb, or "south country," of Scripture.

Scripture History. - Paran is first mentioned in connection with the conquest of the confederate kings, when it appears to have been the home of the Horites. Gen 14:6. Hagar and Ishmael, after being driven away by Abraham, went into the wilderness of Paran, Gen 21:21; the Israelites entered it soon after leaving Sinai, Num 10:12, 1 Sam 15:33; Josh 11:3, Num 11:34-35; Neh 12:16; the spies were sent up to Canaan and returned from this region:and eighteen stations of the Israelites' journev are noted in this wilderness. Num 13:3, Acts 11:26; Num 33:17-36; comp. Deut 1:1. Probably, during their thirty eight years of sojourn in the wilderness, the people were scattered over a wide extent of territory, like the modern Bedouin tribes. David found refuge in this wilderness, 1 Sam 26:1, and Hadad passed through it when escaping to Egypt. 1 Kgs 11:18.

PARAN, MOUNT OF, the place where the Lord is said to have shined forth. Deut 33:2; Hab 3:3. It was probably the most southern portion of the mountain-plateau in the north-eastern part of the wilderness of Paran, now Jebel Magra'h. In this region is situated 'Ain Gadis, which some identify with Kadesh, and the one encampment in the wilderness of Kadesh. Jebel Magra'h would always be the most conspicuous object, and would completely shut out from view the more fertile mountains beyond.

PAR'BAR occurs only in 1 Chr 26:18, where it denotes some place on the western side of the temple-enclosure.

PARCH'ED CORN, mentioned in Ruth 2:14, consisted of roasted heads of grain.

PARCH'ED GROUND. The Hebrew word thus rendered, Isa 35:7, denotes that optical delusion known by the name of "mirage," and frequently occurring in the African and Asiatic deserts. On account of the different refraction of the solar rays in the various layers of the atmosphere, the white, barren sand-waste suddenly assumes the aspect of a beautiful lake surrounded by trees and a most luxuriant vegetation.

PARCH'MENTS. The skins of beasts were early and extensively used for writing; the lonians wrote upon sheep-skins five centuries before Christ. Very slight preparation was used, however, until under Eumenes, a king of Pergamos, a mode of producing a really fine material was discovered, whence the skins thus prepared were called by the Latins pergamena, which is translated "parchments." 2 Tim 4:13.

PAR'DON. Ps 25:11. The scriptural import of this term is very imperfectly indicated by the common acceptation of it among men. In the dispensation of grace pardon is inseparably connected with justification. Hence it is spoken of as the covering of sin, Ps 85:2; the non-imputation of it, Ps 32:2; a blotting out, Ps 51:1, Gal 1:9; Isa 43:25; forgetting it, Heb 8:12; passing by it or removing it to an immeasurable distance from us. Ps 103:12; Mic 7:19.

It is evident that God only has power to bestow pardon, Mark 2:7, Mark 2:10-12, and that it proceeds from free sovereign grace, Eph 1:6-7, through the mediation and atonement of Jesus Christ. Heb 9:9-28; 1 John 1:7.

Men are commissioned to preach pardon and salvation through the blood of Christ, but no man can forgive sin or pretend to the right and power of absolution without direct and daring blasphemy.

PAR'LOR. See Dwellings.

PARMASH'TA (superior), one of the ten sons of Haman; slain by the Jews in Shushan. Esth 9:9.

PAR'MENAS (steadfast), one of the seven deacons ordained by the disciples to administer alms to the widows and the poor of the church. Acts 6:5.

PAR'NACH (swift), the father of Elizaphan, chief of the tribe of Zebulun. Num 34:25.

PA'ROSH (flea). Of his descendants one group, comprising 2172 persons, returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:3; Neh 7:8; and another, comprising 150 males, with Ezra. Ezr 8:3.

PARSHAN'DATHA (given by prayer), the eldest of the ten sons of 658 Haman; slain by the Jews in Shushan. Esth 9:7.

PAR'THIA. Originally a province of Media, on its eastern side, in the time of the apostles it had spread its sway from India to the Tigris, and from the Kharesem desert to the southern ocean. Seleucia was a chief city, and Ecbatana was its king's summer residence. Parthia was united to the Persian empire under Cyrus, b.c. 550. But in b.c. 256 it revolted and became an independent empire. At last, however, Parthia was conquered by the Persians and united to their empire, a.d. 226.

PAR'THIANS, inhabitants of Parthia, were at Jerusalem during the Pentecost. Acts 2:9. They spoke the Persian language, so that, in Scripture and other ancient writing, "Persia" and "Parthia" are often used interchangeably. Coming from the ruins of the Persian empire, they were a powerful enemy to the Romans, whom they defeated at Carrhae (Haran). Under Mithridates I. their cavalry and bowmen were very expert, and dangerous to an opposing army. They were accustomed to shoot their arrows while at full speed. They possessed, also, considerable knowledge of architecture and art. But it is for their remarkable skill in archery that they are now remembered, and for a long time they were Rome's formidable rival in the East.

PARTI'TION, MIDDLE WALL OF, is supposed to have reference to the wall in the temple which separated the court of Israel from the court of the Gentiles, Eph 2:14, and is figuratively used to denote whatever in their laws or customs separated the Jews from the Gentiles, and rendered the former any more the objects of divine favor than the latter. See Temple.

The Greek Partridge.

PAR'TRIDGE (Heb. the caller). The Greek partridge (Caccabis saxatilis) is very common in Palestine, and one or two other kinds are found. The modern peasants esteem the flesh of these birds a luxury: and as, when hunted, they try to save themselves by running rather than by flight, they are often chased till, being fatigued, they can be knocked down with a stick or a stone. 1 Sam 26:20. The partridge lays many eggs, which are prized by the Syrians and gathered in large numbers. The ancients undoubtedly hunted the bird and its eggs in the same way as is now customary. Thus the partridge often laid her eggs and brooded upon them in vain, which is the meaning of Jer 17:11.


PAR'UAH (blossoming), the father of Jehoshaphat, one of Solomon's officers. 1 Kgs 4:17.

PARVA'IM (eastern regions) occurs only once, 2 Chr 3:6, and is the name of the country or place producing the gold which Solomon used for the decoration of the temple; but this country or place it has not been possible to identify. Some regard it as an abbreviation for "Sepharvaim," or "Sephar," supposed to be a seaport in Arabia.

PA'SACH (cut off), one of the chiefs of the tribe of Asher. 1 Chr 7:33.

PAS-DAM'MIM (boundary of blood), the scene of fierce contests between the Israelites and the Philistines. 1 Chr 11:13. It is called Ephes-dammim in 1 Sam 17:1. It was on the side of the valley of Elah, and Van de Velde proposes to identify it with the ruins called Damum, 3 miles east of Shochoh, about 11 miles south-west of Jerusalem.

PASE'AH (lame).

  1. One of the descendants of Judah. 1 Chr 4:12.

  2. One whose descendants returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:49; called Phaseah in Neh 7:51. One of the family, Jehoiada, assisted in rebuilding the gate under Nehemiah. Neh 3:6.

PASH'UR (freedom).

  1. The son of Malchijah, and founder of a family of priests, 1 Chr 9:12; 1 Chr 24:9; Neh 11:12, which seems to have returned with Zerubbabel, and which, in the time of Nehemiah, was one of the chief houses, its head being the head of a course. Ezr 2:38; Neh 7:41; Neh 10:3. Sent by King Zedekiah to Jeremiah to inquire about the issue of Nebuchadnezzar's preparations against Jerusalem, Pashur received a sombre warning, Jer 21; but when later on the siege of Jerusalem was raised by the advance of the Egyptian army, Pashur, together with other prominent men, demanded of Zedekiah that Jeremiah should be put to death as a traitor, and the prophet was actually cast into the dungeon or well where was mire. Jer 38.

  2. The son of Immer, also a priest, and chief governor in the house of the Lord. Jer 20:1. In the reign of Jehoiakim he caused Jeremiah to be put in the stocks because he prophesied evil against Jerusalem; but the prophet pronounced a fearful sentence against him, Jer 20:1-6, and his name was changed to Magor-missabib, which see.

PAS'SION. Acts 1:3. The word, in this connection, denotes the last sufferings of Christ, or rather his death as the consummation of his sufferings. The expression in Acts 14:15 and Jas 5:17 signifies like propensities, feelings, and susceptibilities. See Cross.

PASS'OVER, the principal annual feast of the Jews, which typified the sacrifice of Christ, the Lamb of God, slain for the sins of the world. Comp. 1 Cor 5:7-8, Christ our Passover is slain for us, etc. It was appointed to commemorate the exemption or "passing over" of the families of the Israelites when the destroying angel smote the first-born of Egypt, and also their departure from the land of bondage. At even of the 14th day of the first month (Nisan) the Passover was to be celebrated, and on the 15th day commenced the seven days' feast of unleavened bread. The term "Passover" is strictly applicable only to the meal of the paschal lamb, and the feast of unleavened bread was celebrated on the 15th onward for seven days to the 21st inclusive. This order is recognized in Josh 5:10-11. But in the sacred history the term "Passover" is used also to denote the whole period - the 14th day, and the festival of the seven davs following. Luke 2:41; John 2:13, Heb 12:23; Am 6:4; John 11:55.

As to the time of the celebration of the Passover, it is expressly appointed "between the two evenings," Ex 12:6; Lev 23:5; Num 9:3, 1 Chr 6:5, or, as it is elsewhere expressed, "at even, at the going down of the sun." Deut 16:6. This is supposed to denote the commencement of the 15th day of Nisan, or at the moment when the 14th day closed and the 15th began. The twenty-four hours, reckoned from this point of time to the same period of the next day, or 15th, was the day of the Passover. At sunset of the 14th day the 15th began, and with it the feast of unleavened bread. The lamb was to be selected on the 10th day, and kept up till the 14th day, in the evening of which day it was to be killed. Ex 12:3-6. A male lamb was demanded, not more than one year old and without blemish; but often several households, comprising, perhaps, one hundred persons, 660 associated and had a lamb in common, in which case each person was provided with a piece at least as large as an olive. The feast began by the handing around of a cup of wine mixed with water, over which the head of the family or the chief of the association pronounced the benediction. The lamb, roasted whole, and the other dishes were then placed on the table, and after a second cup of wine the meal was eaten. Everybody present partook of the lamb, the bitter herbs, and the unleavened bread, and care was taken that no bone was broken. What was left of the flesh was immediately burnt. After the meal followed the third cup of wine, then the singing of psalms and hymns, and finally a fourth, and perhaps a fifth, cup of wine. Then followed the feast of unleavened bread, occupying seven days, the first and last of which were peculiarly holy, like the Sabbath. Ex 12:15-16.

The "preparation of the Passover," John 19:14, or "the day of the preparation," Matt 27:62. was the Paschal Friday, as in John 19:31 and 1 Chr 2:42, or the day preceding the regular Sabbath (Sabbath eve). It was, then, at the close of the 14th day of the month, when the feast of unleavened bread, called, in the larger sense, the Passover, Luke 22:1, approached, that Jesus directed the lamb for the paschal sacrifice to be prepared for himself and his disciples. This being done immediately after sunset of the 14th, which was the beginning of the 15th, the paschal supper was eaten. After this supper, and in the course of that night, Christ was arrested, tried during the night, condemned the next morning, crucified at 9 A.M., and died at 3 P.M. of the 15th of Nisan (this being a Friday). The whole series of events occurred between what we should call Thursday evening and Friday evening.

The facts of chief importance in reconciling all the evangelists are that the word "Passover" is applied sometimes strictly to the 14th day, and at other times to the whole festival of unleavened bread; that the Passover, or paschal supper, strictly speaking, was celebrated at 6 P.M. at the close of the 14th or at the beginning of the 15th day of the month, and that the 15th of Nisan, or first day of the festival, was the day of the crucifixion. This has been verified by astronomical calculation, which proves that in the year a.d. 30, the year of our Saviour's death, the 15th of Nisan (April 7), fell on a Friday, which agrees with the testimony of all the evangelists.

PAS'TOR. Jer 2:8. See Shepherd.

PAT'ARA, a seaport-town on the south-west shore of Lycia, near the left bank of Xanthus, and opposite Rhodes. Acts 21:1-2. It was about 7 miles east of the mouth of the river, had a convenient harbor, and was visited by ships of all nations. The gospel was early preached there, and it became the seat of a bishopric and was represented in the Council of Nice. The city was given up to the worship of Apollo, its founder, Patarus, being reputed to be a son of that god. Patara is now in ruins, but retains its ancient name. The remains prove it to have been a city of considerable importance. Among them are a theatre, some massive walls and arches, a gate of the city with three arches nearly perfect, and numerous sarcophagi. Near the theatre is a deep circular pit, and a square pillar rising above it, which Lewin thinks was the seat of the oracle of Patareus Apollo. The port is completely filled with sand, and is a malarious swamp; all communication with the sea is cut off by a sand-beach, and the sand is also gradually encroaching upon the ruins.

PATH'ROS (region of the south), a district of Egypt near Thebes; named, as some suppose, from a town called Ha-hathor, or "the abode of Hathor," the Egyptian Venus. Originally it was ruled by its own kings, independent of Egypt. It was probably the Thebaid of the Greeks and the Said of the Arabs. The country is mentioned in the Prophets, and nearly always in connection with Egypt. Isa 11:11; Isa 19:11-13; Jer 44:1-15; Eze 29:14. Its inhabitants were known as the Pathrusim, the descendants of Ham through Mizraim. Gen 10:14; 1 Chr 1:12.

PATHRUSIM. See above.

PA'TIENCE. With God, patience is a form of his infinite love which causes him to bear long with sinners, Isa 30:18; Rom 3:25; 2 Pet 3:9, and to send them warnings of judgments before the judgments are executed. Hos 6:5; 661 Am 1:1; 2 Pet 2:5, With man, patience is a grace enabling him to bear with meekness and confidence the trials which God sends him, Rom 2:7; 2 Tim 3:10, and to deal with his fellow-men with love and forbearance. 1 Thess 5:14. In many passages of our English Version where "patience" occurs, "endurance" or " constancy " would be a better rendering of the Greek (???).

PAT'MOS, a little rugged island in the AEgean Sea, 20 miles south of Samos and 24miles west of Asia Minor. Rev 1:9. It is from 15 to 25 miles in circumference, and is very rocky and barren. The coast is rock-bound, but indented with several deep bays. It has only a few large trees, among them a palm, some olives, and cypresses. The barrenness of the island made it a suitable spot for the banishment of Roman criminals. To it the apostle John was banished by the emperor Domitian, a.d. 95. Its rocky solitude well suited the sublime nature of the Revelation. There is a grotto on a hill in the southern part of the island

Isle of Patmos,

which tradition points out as the place where John received the Revelation. Upon the summit of the mountain is a monastery built in honor of St. John, and having a library containing about two hundred and forty manuscripts. In the Middle Ages the island was called Palmosa, and now bears the name of Patmo.

PA'TRIARCH. Acts 2:29. In the early history of the Jews we find the ancestor or father of a family retaining authority over his children and his children's children so long as he lived, whatever new connections they might form. When the father died the branch families did not break off and form new communities, but usually united under another common head. The eldest son was generally invested with this dignity. His authority was paternal. He was honored as the central point of connection, and as the representative of the whole kindred. Thus each great family had its patriarch or head, and each tribe its prince selected from the several heads of the families it embraced. These princes were called "elders of Israel." See Elders. The word "patriarch" is also applied to the founder of a family or to any illustrious ancestor. Acts 2:29. In later ages of the Church the same title is found, but is applied to ecclesiastical dignitaries, and denotes the supposed paternal character of their authority. The sons of Jacob, as the progenitors of the Jewish nation, are called, by way of distinction, "the twelve patriarchs." Acts 7:8.

PAT'ROBAS (life of his father?), a Christian in Rome to whom Paul sends salutation, Rom 16:14, was, according to a late tradition, one of the seventy disciples, and became bishop of Puteoli, where he suffered martyrdom on November 4, which accordingly is his anniversary in the Romish calendar.


PAT'TERNS, in Heb 9:23, should be "copies."

PAU (bleating), a place in Idumaea; called Pai in 1 Chr 1:50; Gen 36:39. It may be identical with Phauara, a ruined site in Idumaea.

PAUL (small), or SAUL (asked for). 1. Life. - Paul, or Saul, was a native of Tarsus, in Cilicia, and inherited the privileges of a Roman citizen. Acts 22:28-29. His original Hebrew name was "Saul," which he exchanged afterward in his intercourse with the Gentiles for the Hellenistic or Latin form, "Paul." His descent and education were Jewish, but he had also a good knowledge of the Greek language and literature, and quotes from three poets not much known - Aratus, Acts 17:28,- Menander, 1 Cor 15:33; and Epimenides. Tit 1:12. Being a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, born in the Greek city of Tarsus, and a Roman citizen, he combined the three great nationalities of the Roman empire, and was providentially prepared for his apostolic mission among Jews and Gentiles, Greeks and barbarians. Under the instruction of Gamaliel, a distinguished rabbi at Jerusalem, Acts 5:34, he became master of the Jewish law. Acts 22:3; Gal 1:14, and was also taught a useful mechanical trade, according to the custom of the rabbis. Acts 18:3. His residence at Jerusalem commenced at an early period, Acts 26:4, and he was probably from twenty-two to twenty-five years old when Christ commenced his public ministry. He belonged to the strict sect of the Pharisees. Acts 23:6.

The preaching of the apostles, and especially the fact of Christ's resurrection, on which they placed their chief stress, excited a violent opposition among the Jews. Stephen, an eloquent and powerful advocate of the new religion, was seized and stoned to death. Among the spectators and promoters of this bloody deed was Paul. Acts 7:58; comp. Gen 22:20. His temperament, talents, and education fitted him to become a leader in the persecution; and he commenced his career with a degree of fanatical zeal bordering on madness. He even sought for authority to go to Damascus, whither many of the disciples had fled after the murder of Stephen, to bind and drag to Jerusalem, without distinction of age or sex, all the followers of Christ whom he could find.

Just before he reached Damascus, however, he was arrested by a miraculous light so intense as to deprive him of sight. Acts 9:8-9. At the same time Christ revealed himself as the real object of his persecution. Acts 26:15; comp. 1 Cor 15:8. From this time he became a new man, and received from the lips of Christ himself his commission as an apostle to the Gentiles. Acts 26:16. The miraculous restoration of his sight, his baptism, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit followed in quick succession, and we soon find him zealously preaching the faith he had set out to subvert. Acts 9:20-21; Gal 1:16.

To this one purpose he thenceforth gave all the energies of his mind and all the affections of his heart. Forsaking, and indeed forgetting, all other purposes and pursuits, he devoted the residue of his life to the cause of Christ with a singleness of purpose and an energy of devotion that have no parallel in history. The Acts trace his career till the first imprisonment at Rome, which lasted two years, a.d. 61-63, and left him comparatively free to labor for the gospel. After this we are left in the dark. Some scholars maintain that he suffered martyrdom in the Neronian persecution of

The Traditional Room in the Centurion's House at Rome in which Paul was Imprisoned.

a.d. 64; others that he was freed from the first Roman imprisonment, made new missionary tours in the East, and possibly also to the West as far as Spain, was taken prisoner to Rome a


Portrait of Paul. (From a Roman Two-leaved Tablet not later than the Fourth Century.) 664 second time, and suffered martyrdom a.d. 67 or 68. The hypothesis of a second Roman imprisonment has some support in an ancient tradition (mentioned by Eusebius), and explains certain historical allusions in the Pastoral Epistles, which cannot well be placed before the first imprisonment, but were probably composed between the first and the second Roman imprisonments, except Second Timothy, the last of all Pauline Epistles. Ancient tradition is unanimous as to his martyrdom in Rome, and the place of his execution by the sword is still shown a little distance from the city. He himself alludes to his approaching martyrdom in those noble words, 2 Tim 4:6-8: I am already being offered, and the time of my departure is at hand, I have fought the good fight, I have finished the course, I have kept the faith: henceforth there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give to me at that day: and not only to me, but also to all them that have loved his appearing.

  1. Character of Paul. - Whether we regard his sudden and radical change from an enemy to a most devoted friend of the Christian religion, or the purity and loftiness of his character, or the strength and depth of his mind, or the extent of his missionary labors, or his whole heroic career from his conversion in Damascus to his martyrdom in Rome, St. Paul is beyond doubt one of the most remarkable men that ever lived, and perhaps the greatest man in the history of Christianity. Without money, without family, without friends, lonely by land and lonely by sea, he faced a hostile world and converted it to Christ, whom he himself once persecuted, and by his Epistles and example he still rules the theology and feeds the devotions of believers in all parts of Christendom. His motives are above suspicion; his intellect is apparent on every page of his letters; it is impossible to charge him with hypocrisy or self-delusion, as even infidels admit; he furnishes an irresistible argument for the divine truth of the religion he taught and practised to the end.

  2. Chronological Summary of the Chief Events in the Life of Paul (from Schaff's History of the Apostolic Church):

Paul's conversion ...................................................................a.d. 37

Sojourn in Arabia ..................................................................37-40

First journey to Jerusalem after his conversion, Gal 1:18; sojourn at Tarsus, and afterward at Antioch, Acts 11:26............................................40

Second journey to Jerusalem, in company with Barnabas, to relieve the famine........................................................................................44

Paul's first great missionary journey, with Barnabas and Mark; Cyprus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe; return to Antioch in Syria........45-49

Apostolic Council at Jerusalem; conflict between Jewish and Gentile Christianity; Paul's third journey to Jerusalem, with Barnabas and Titus; settlement of the difficulty; agreement between the Jewish and Gentile apostles; Paul's return to Antioch; his collision with Peter and Barnabas at Antioch, and temporary separation from the latter...........................................................................50

Paul's second missionary journey from Antioch to Asia Minor, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Troas, and Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Beraea, Athens, and Corinth). From this tour dates the Christianization of Europe........................ 51

Paul at Corinth (a year and a half). First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians.........................................................................52-53

Paul's fourth journey to Jerusalem (spring); short stay at Antioch. His third missionary tour (autumn).......................................................54

Paul at Ephesus (three years); Epistle to the Galatians (56 or 57). Excursion to Macedonia, Corinth, and Crete (not mentioned in the Acts); First Epistle to Timothy (?). Return to Ephesus. First Epistle to the Corinthians (spring, 57)...............................................................................54-57

Paul's departure from Ephesus (summer) to Macedonia. Second Epistle to the Corinthians.........................................................................57

Paul's third sojourn at Corinth (three months). Epistle to the Romans...............................................................57,58

Paul's fifth and last journey to Jerusalem (spring), where he is arrested and sent to Caesarea................................................................58

Paul's captivity at Caesarea. Testimony before Felix, Festus, and Agrippa (the Gospel of Luke and the Acts commenced at Caesarea, and concluded at Rome)...............................................................58-60

Paul's voyage to Rome (autumn); shipwreck at Malta; arrival at Rome (spring, 61)............................................................60,61

Paul's first captivity at Rome. Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon.....................................................61-63

Conflagration at Rome (July); Neronian persecution of the Christians; martyrdom of Paul (?)................................................64

Hypothesis of a second Roman captivity and preceding missionary journeys to the East, and possibly to Spain. First Epistle to Timothy; Titus (Hebrews?), Second Timothy. .......................................................63-67

  1. The Epistles of Paul are thirteen, or, if we count the Hebrews (as the product of Paul's mind, though probably not of his pen), fourteen, in number. They are the most remarkable body of correspondence in the history of literature. They are tracts for the times, and yet tracts for all times. They will be found separately considered under their titles. Here only some general remarks are given. They may be arranged differently.

(a) Chronologically:

1 and 2 Thessalonians, written a.d. 52, 53, from Corinth.

Galatians, written a.d. 56-57, from Ephesus.

1 Corinthians, written a.d. 57, from Ephesus.

2 Corinthians, written a.d. 57, from Macedonia.

Romans, written a.d. 58, from Corinth.

Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Philemon, written a.d. 61-63, from Rome.

Hebrews, written a.d. 64 (?), from Italy.

1 Timothy and Titus, written a.d. 65 or 57 (?), from Macedonia.

2 Timothy, written a.d. 67 or 6-4 (?), from Rome.

The time of the composition of the Pastoral Epistles depends upon the question of the second Roman captivity. The Second Epistle to Timothy was at all events the last, whether written in the first or second captivity.

(b) Topically

Romans and Galatians:doctrines of sin and grace.

1 and 2 Corinthians: moral and practical questions.

Colossians and Philippians :person of Christ. Ephesians: the Church of Christ.

1 and 2 Thessalonians: the second advent.

1 and 2 Timothy and Titus: church government and pastoral care.

Philemon: slavery.

Hebrews: the eternal priesthood and sacrifice of Christ.

(c) As to importance, the order in our Bible is pretty correct. The Epistles are all important, but were not equally well understood in all ages of the Church. Thus the Galatians and Romans were more appreciated in the time of the Reformation than in any preceding century; they are the stronghold of the evangelical doctrines of total depravity and salvation by free grace. Paul's Epistles give us the most complete exhibition of the various doctrines of Christianity and of the spiritual life of the apostolic Church, and are applicable to all ages and congregations.

Works on the life and Epistles of Paul are very numerous, and constantly increasing. We mention only three, which are very elaborate, yet popular, and enriched with fine maps and illustrations: Conybeare and Howson (1854 and later editions), Thomas Lewin (1875, 2 vols.), and Canon Farrar (1879, 2 vols.). - See map of journeys of St. Paul at the close of this volume.

PAVE'MENT, an area in Pilate's court- room, the floor of which was paved with marble or other stones. John 19:13. See Gabbatha.

PAVIL'ION, a small movable tabernacle or tent, chiefly used for a king, prince, or general. 1 Kgs 20:12-16; Jer 43:10. The Psalmist sublimely describes Jehovah as surrounding himself with dark waters and thick clouds of the skies as with a tent or pavilion. Ps 18:11.

PEACE. Employed in various phrases, such as "Peace be to thee," "Go in peace," etc., this word occurs both in the O.T. and the N.T. as a common form of salutation. Ex 4:18; Mark 4:34; Luke 10:5; John 20:19, 2 Chr 11:21; Rom 1:7.

In a more special sense, the word denotes a Christian grace obtained by faith in Christ, who by his death has restored us to peace with God. Rom 5:1; Eph 2:14. Peace with ourselves springs from peace with God, and peace with God from the assurance of pardon and reconciliation with God by the atoning merits of Christ, who "is our peace." Without such peace there can be no true happiness.

PEA'COCK. 1 Kgs 10:22. This singular and beautiful bird is mentioned among the articles imported by Solomon from Tharshish, the modern Ceylon or Malabar coast of India, where the peacock is indigenous. In Job 39:13 another Hebrew word is found, better rendered "ostriches," and the word "ostrich" should be translated (as it is elsewhere) "stork." The wings of the ostrich cannot raise it from the ground; yet in running it catches (or, as the word rendered "goodly" imports, "drinks in") the wind. The construction of the ostrich and that of the stork are thus contrasted, as are also their habits; for the stork is 666 as proverbial for her tenderness to her young as is the ostrich for her seeming indifference. Job 39:14-16. See Ostrich, Stork.


PEARL. The best pearls are produced by a shell-fish of the oyster species, though they are found in other mollusks. The pearl-oysters grow in clusters on rocks (hence called "pearlbanks") in the Persian Gulf, on the western coast of Ceylon, on the coasts of Java, Sumatra, etc., and in some parts of Europe. The shells are obtained by diving, and this is done by a class of persons trained to the business. The Ceylon pearl-fishery bank is about 15 miles from the shore, and 72 feet deep on an average. The fishery begins in April, when the sea is most calm, and continues five or six weeks. One shell contains from eight to twelve pearls. The largest are of the size of a walnut, but they are rarely as large as a cherry-stone. The shell of the pearl-oyster, or, more properly, the interior coat, is called "mother-of pearl." A single pearl has been valued at $350,000.

Pearls were anciently, as now, used in the East as personal ornaments. 1 Tim 2:9; Rev 17:4; Rev 18:12-16. From the various illustrations in which the pearl is introduced in the N.T., it was evidently regarded as among the most precious substances, and, compared with gems, it was esteemed as more valuable than at present. Matt 7:6; Matt 13:45-46; Rev 21:21.

PED'AHEL (whom God delivers), the son of Ammihud, chief of the tribe of Naphtali, one of the superintendents of the division of Canaan. Num 34:28.

PEDAH'ZUR (whom the Rock - i.e. God - delivers), the father of Gamaliel, and chief of the tribe of Manasseh in the time of the Exodus. Num 1:10; Num 2:20; Num 7:54, Num 7:59; Ezr 10:23.

PEDA'IAH (whom Jehovah delivers).

  1. The father of Zebudah, Jehoiakim's mother. 2 Kgs 23:36.

  2. The brother of Shealtiel, and father of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 3:17-19.

  3. One who assisted Nehemiah in repairing the walls of Jerusalem. Neh 3:25.

  4. A Levite who stood on the left hand of Ezra when he read the Law to the people. Neh 8:4; called Phaldaius in 1 Esd. 9:44.

  5. A Benjamite, ancestor of Sallu. Neh 11:7.

  6. A Levite in the time of Nehemiah. Neh 13:13.

  7. The father of Joel, chief of the half-tribe of Manasseh in the reign of David. 1 Chr 27:20.

PEEP, to "chirp" like young birds. Isa 8:19; Num 10:14. The wizards who pretended to raise the dead spoke in low shrill tones because the dead were supposed to speak thus.

PE'KAH (open-eyed), a general of 667 the Israelitish army who assassinated the king Pekahiah in his palace and usurped the government; but his reign, which lasted twenty years, b.c. 758-738, was highly inauspicious; the country was invaded and greatly harassed by the Assyrians, and the king himself became finally the victim of a conspiracy. 2 Kgs 15:25.

PEKAHI'AH (Jehovah has opened his eyes) succeeded his father, Menahem, as king of Israel in 760, and reigned only two years, being murdered by Pekah, b.c. 758. 2 Kgs 15:22-26.

PE'KOD (visitation?), a symbolical name for Babylon. Jer 50:21. In Eze 23:23 it appears to be applied to a Chaldaean province. A Pekod is mentioned in the cylinder of Sennacherib as near the Hauran, and Lenormant thinks it was the collective name of several tribes in the Euphrates valley. The exact meaning of the term is not known. Some explain it as "visitation," "punishment," others as "perfect," "noble."

PELA'IAH (whom Jehovah distinguishes).

  1. A descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:24.

  2. A Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the Law, Neh 8:7, and sealed the covenant with Nehemiah, Neh 10:10; called Biatas in 1 Esd. 9:48.

PELALI'AH (whom Jehovah judges), a priest in the return from the Captivity Neh 11:12.

PELATI'AH (whom Jehovah delivers).

  1. The grandson of Zerubbabel. 1 Chr 3:21.

  2. A Simeonite captain on an expedition to Mount Seir. 1 Chr 4:42.

  3. One of the heads of the people, who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah. Neh 10:22.

  4. One of the five-and-twenty men who withstood the prophet Ezekiel and counselled the people of Israel wickedly, but was suddenly struck dead while the

The Pelican.

prophet was uttering his prediction. Eze 11:1-13.

PE'LEG (division), a son of Eber and brother of Joktan, in whose time - that is, in the age immediately succeeding the Deluge - the family of Eber was divided, the elder branch, which descended 668 from Peleg, remaining in Mesopotamia, while the younger branch, descending from Joktan, emigrated to Southern Arabia. Gen 10:25; Num 11:16; 1 Chr 1:25.

PE'LET (deliverance).

  1. A son of Jahdai. descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:47.

  2. One of the Benjamites who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:3.

PE'LETH (swiftness).

  1. A Reubenite whose son On joined Dathan and Abiram in their rebellion. Num 16:1.

  2. A son of Jonathan, and a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:33.

PE'LETHITES. 2 Sam 8:18. See Cherethites.

PELICAN (Heb. the vomiter), a voracious water-bird, unclean by the Levitical law. Lev 11:18, of singular construction and habits, resembling the goose, though nearly twice as large. Its bill is 15 inches long. The female has a large pouch or bag capable of containing 2 or 3 gallons of water, and food enough for six common men. Out of this pouch she feeds herself and her young, and from this habit and the red nail at the end of her bill came the notion that she fed her offspring on her own blood. The pelican was formerly more abundant than now in the Levant, but Dr. Thomson has seen it at Lake Huleh and the Sea of Galilee. Having gorged itself with fish, this bird flies miles into the wilderness, where it sits in some lonely place "for hours, or even days, with its bill resting on its breast, a picture of melancholy." Ps 102:6. The margin correctly reads "pelican" for "cormorant" in Isa 34:11; Zeph 2:14. (Sec cut. p. 667.)

PEL'ONITE, a designation applied in 1 Chr 11:27, 1 Chr 11:36 to Helez and Ahijah, two of David's mighty men, of whom the former is called the Paltite in 2 Sam 23:26.

PEN. The instruments with which the characters were formed in the writing of the ancients varied with the materials upon which the letters were to be traced. Upon hard substances, such as stone or metallic plates, a graver of steel was used, the same which Job calls "an iron pen." It is possible that an instrument pointed with diamond, such as glaziers now use, was not unknown, as "the sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron, and with the point of a diamond;

Pens and Writing-Materials.

it is graven upon the table of their heart, and upon the horns of your altars." Jer 17:1. Upon tablets of wax a metallic pen or stylus was employed, having one end pointed to trace the letters, the other broad and flat to erase any erroneous marks by smoothing the wax.

Upon paper, linen, cotton, skins, and parchments, it was in very early times common to paint the letters with a hair-pencil brought to a fine point. The reed pen was introduced afterward, and at first used without being split at the point. The reed pen is used by the modern Turks, Syrians, Persians, Abyssinians. Arabs, and other Orientals, as their languages could not be written without difficulty with pens made from quills. A particular kind of knife is used to split the reed. Jer 36:23.

PENI'EL, or PENU'EL (face of God), a place between the Jabbok and Succoth where Jacob had his mysterious wrestling with the Angel. Gen 32:24-32. The usual, and probably the original, form was "Penuel," and this is the form in the Samaritan Pentateuch. Five hundred years later, when pursuing the Midianites. Gideon found a city and tower at Penuel, and slew the men of the city. Jud 8:17-18. Jeroboam went from Shechem and built Penuel. 1 Kgs 12:25. Its site has long been counted as unknown, for the region in which it was situated has been only slightly explored. Dr. Merrill, however, identifies Penuel with a point on the Zerka (Jabbok), about 4 miles east of Canaan's ford and at Tabill edh Dhahuh. See Jabbok.


PENIN'NAH (coral), one of the two wives of Elkanah, the father of Samuel. 1 Sam 1:2.

PEN'KNIFE. Jer 36:23. See Knife.

PEN'NY. This word, so translated in our English Version for the Greek denarius, is equivalent to about sixteen cents or eight pence, and was a regular day's wages. The "penny" shown to Christ bore the likeness and name of Caesar (Tiberius), who had then been emperor for seventeen or eighteen years. Matt 22:19, 2 Chr 11:21, Denarius ought to have been retained or Anglicized into denar, with a marginal note giving its precise value. See Money.

PENTATEUCH, THE, is the collective name for the first five books of the O.T., the books of Moses. The name is of Greek origin, meaning "five volumes," and was probably introduced by the Alexandrian translators of the O.T. As also the names of the separate books - Genesis, Exodus, etc. - are of Greek origin, referring to the contents of the books, and as, in the Jewish manuscripts, these books form only one roll or volume, it has been conjectured that the division itself is due to the Greek translators. In Scripture the Pentateuch is called "a book of the law of the Lord given by the hand of Moses," 2 Chr 34:30; "the book of the law of the Lord," 2 Chr 17:9; "the book of the law," 2 Kgs 22:8; "the book of the covenant," 2 Chr 34:30; 2 Kgs 23:2, 2 Kgs 23:21; "the law of Moses." Ezr 7:6; "the book of the law of Moses," Neh 8:1; "the book of Moses," Ezr 6:18; Neh 13:1; 2 Chr 25:4; 2 Chr 35:12; or simply "the law," Matt 12:5; Luke 10:26; John 8:5, 2 Sam 21:17. Among the Jews the several books are designated by their initial letters - Bereshith ("in the beginning"), Shemoth ("names"), etc.; among the Christians, with reference to their subject-matter - Genesis giving the primitive history, as a preparation for the theocracy, from the Creation to the death of Jacob; Exodus, the foundation of the theocracy, by the legislation from Mount Sinai; Leviticus, the inner organization of the theocracy by the ceremonial laws on the Levitieal worship; Numbers, the actual establishment of the theocracy by the march through the wilderness and the conquest of Canaan; and Deuteronomy, the final and comprehensive recapitulation of Mosaic legislation. The whole is one compact and complete representation of the Hebrew theocracy, the first and the last books having a more universal character, the three intermediate ones a more specifically Jewish character, Exodus giving the prophetic, Leviticus the priestly, and Numbers the kingly, aspect of the theocracy.

With respect to the authorship of this work, various circumstances have during the last two centuries caused some doubt whether it can legitimately be ascribed to Moses. Moses is always spoken of in the third person, and in the last passages of Deuteronomy his death and burial are related. Names of places occur, though we know that they did not come into use until after the conquest of Canaan - such as "Dan," Gen 14:14; Deut 34:1; comp. Josh 19:47, and "Hebron." Gen 13:18; Gen 23:2; comp. Josh 14:15; Judg 1:10. The names of the Lord, "Jehovah" and "Elohim," alternate in such a way as to indicate a double authorship, and alleged differences in style and language and repetitions seem to point the same way. On these grounds a school of modern critical scholars contends that the Pentateuch, at least, in its present shape, was not written by Moses, or by any single author, but is a compilation of much later date and from very different sources.

However ingenious many of the arguments against the Mosaic authorship may be, the collected evidence in its favor is nevertheless overwhelming. The unity of the composition, as set forth above, is so strong that no attempt at breaking it has ever succeeded, and the book itself, directly and indirectly, bears testimony to its essential Mosaic origin. In Deut 31:9-12, Deut 31:24-26 we are told that Moses wrote "this law," and when he was done with it he placed it in the hands of the Levites, to be kept in the ark of the covenant and to be read to the people every seventh year on the feast of the tabernacles. "This law" may mean Deuteronomy alone, and not the whole Pentateuch; but other passages refer in exactly the same manner to other parts of the work. He wrote, by divine command, the book of the covenant and the ten commandments, Ex 24:3-7; Ex 17:14, 670 and also the camping-stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. Num 33:2 ff. The presumption is that he wrote the rest, unless there are convincing arguments to the contrary (as in the account of his death at the close of Deuteronomy, which is evidently added by a later hand). The Mosaic authorship of the great body of the Pentateuch is sustained by uninterrupted and unanimous tradition of the Jewish Synagogue and the Christian Church, and by the internal evidence of the work itself. Moses was, of all men, best qualified to write it. He had the best preparation, he knew all about the events in which he figured so prominently. The book contains so many and so close references to Egypt - the land, the people, and the civilization - that its author must not only have lived for a long time in Egypt, but also have received the benefit of a thorough Egyptian education and partaken in Egyptian life from a superior position; see, for instance, the references to irrigation, Deut 11:10; to war, Deut 20:5; to mining, Deut 8:9; to criminal punishment, Deut 25:2, etc. Next, the narrative of the passage through the desert gives so correct and so fresh a description of the event that it could never have been made by any one who had not taken part in that long trial, and hardly by any other than by him who was the leader. The language, also, and the theology (especially the eschatology) of the Pentateuch are archaic, and antedate the compositions of the Davidic, and still more of the post-Exilian, period. There is no man in the whole subsequent history of Israel, as far as we know, who could at all account for the peculiarities of the Pentateuch near so well as the great lawgiver, who is the central figure of the book. Ezra, for instance, to whom some ultra-critics assign the authorship, never was in Egypt nor in the wilderness, and lived in the reproductive period of reconstruction or restoration of the theocracy founded by Jehovah through Moses centuries before. Thus from various sides we are led to feel not only that Moses has written the Pentateuch, but also that he was the only one who could have written it; and the objections have so much the less power, as a Mosaic authorship by no means excludes either the use of earlier documents or the addition of later notes.

For further details see the special articles on the separate books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

PEN'TECOST (from a Greek word signifying fiftieth) is the name by which the N.T. denotes the second great festival of the Jews, called by them "the feast of weeks" or "the day of first-fruits." It was celebrated on the fiftieth day (hence the name) after the Passover, reckoning from the second day of the Passover (the 16th of Nisan), Lev 23:11, 2 Sam 20:15, to the morrow after the end of the seventh week. Lev 23:15-16; Deut 16:9. It was originally a simple thanksgiving for the harvest, which in Palestine fell in the weeks between the Passover and the Pentecost. The festival was kept only for one day, and the principal rite consisted in the offering of two loaves made of the finest flour of the last crop's wheat.

Later on, however, after the destruction of Jerusalem and the dispersion of the Jewish nation, the feast assumed an historical character. It was made out from Ex 19 that the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai took place on the fiftieth day after the deliverance from Egypt, and in course of time, and among Jews living in other climes with another harvest-season, this became the principal signification of the festival.

In the Christian Church, Pentecost is celebrated seven weeks after Easter, in commemoration of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the disciples, as the birthday of the Christian Church. Acts 2:1-14.

PENU'EL (face of God).

  1. A Judite. 1 Chr 4:4.

  2. A chief Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:25, 1 Chr 8:28

PENU'EL. See Peniel.

PE'OR (cleft), the mountain-peak to which Balak brought Balaam to curse Israel. Num 23:28. The camp of Israel was at this time in the Jordan valley, near the Dead Sea. Beth-peor was "over against" the camp. Deut 3:29; Deut 34:6. Peor is described as "facing Jeshimon," and this is also said of Pisgah. The Rev. J.A. Paine proposed to identify Pisgah with Jebel Siaghah in the Abarim range opposite Jericho. Of 671 the three summits of Siaghah he suggested the first or western as one station of Balaam. Num 22:41, and the second summit as the top of Peor, but his theory is disputed by Dr. Merrill and others. Balaam was first at "the top of Pisgah "and then upon "the top of Peor," Num 23:14, Acts 20:28, another peak evidently not far from Pisgah. From this he exclaimed, "How goodly are thy tents, Jacob!" See Pisgah.

PER'AZIM (breaches), a mountain upon which divine vengeance would be manifested. Isa 28:21. It is not elsewhere mentioned in Scripture, but has been regarded as identical with Baal-perazim of 2 Sam 5:20 and 1 Chr 14:8-17, where David won his victory over the Philistines. The latter place was in the valley of Rephaim. See Baal-per-azim.

PE'RES. Dan 5:28. See Mene.

PE'RESH (dung), son of Machir, and descendant of Manasseh. 1 Chr 7:16.

PE'REZ (a rent). See Pharez.

PE'REZ-UZ'ZA, or UZ'ZAH (breaking of Uzzah), a place called also Nachon and Chidon. 2 Sam 6:6-8; 1 Chr 13:9-11; 1 Chr 15:13. It was near Jerusalem, and there Uzzah died for his presumptuous rashness in attempting to steady the ark of God.

PERFECTION. That which is entire and complete in all its parts, without defect or blemish, is perfect. Thus even the most insignificant thing can be perfect - perfect in its kind; and, although perfection can never raise a thing above its kind, it nevertheless confers on it the highest value which it ever can reach. When Christ says, "Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect," Matt 5:48, the meaning is not that we should be perfect as God, but simply that we should realize all the possibilities which are involved in our nature and conditions as his children - that is, we should be entire in our faith and without blemish in our love.

PER'FUME. Ex 30:35. The use of perfumery to give an agreeable odor to the person and apparel is and ever has been, widely prevalent in Eastern countries. In the passage cited, however, the composition which is called a perfume was to be used in the tabernacle service. The composition of it is prescribed with great particularity, and the making or using it for any other purpose was forbidden under severe penalties. It is of little importance what the ingredients were, or what was specially denoted in the manner of using it. It had its value as a test of obedience, and may have had some significancy to the view which we cannot appreciate. The "art of the apothecary," after or according to which the compound was to be made, probably consisted quite as much in the preparation of perfumes as in the sale of drugs and medicines. See Incense.

PER'GA (extremity, or place of nuptials), a city of Pamphylia. a province of Asia Minor, and situated on the river Cestrus, about 7 1/2 miles from the sea. It was the original capital of the province. The inhabitants were Greeks, and had a temple, a stadium, theatres, and a far-famed temple of Diana, standing on a high eminence. Coins of Perga have been found bearing the image of this celebrated goddess. Paul and Barnabas, with Mark, landed at Perga in the spring, when the roads to Pisidia would be cleared of snow. Paul preached in the city, and Mark here forsook him and returned to Jerusalem. Acts 13:13; Acts 14:25. There are extensive ruins at the place, which is now called Eski Kalessi by the Turks.

PER'GAMOS (place of nuptials), a celebrated city of Mysia, about 3 miles north of the river Caicus and 20 miles from the sea. It was noted for its wealth, which had its origin, it is said, from the time that 9000 talents were entrusted by Lysimachus, a successor of Alexander, to the keeping of Philataerus, who (b.c. 283) appropriated the money, declared himself independent, and founded a successful dynasty, which lasted for over four centuries, when the treasure was bequeathed to the Romans. The city was celebrated for (1) literary character; (2) idolatry. It had avast library of 200,000 volumes (rolls), rivalling that at Alexandria, but Antony presented this library to Cleopatra, when it was removed to Egypt, and, with the Alexandrine Library, destroyed by Caliph Omar. At this city also the art of preparing skins for writing was greatly improved, and our word "parchment" is derived from the Latin charta pergamena,


Pergamos 673 or "paper of Pergamos." The city had, in a grove near by, a cluster of famous temples dedicated to Zeus, Minerva, Apollo, Venus, Bacchus, and AEsculapius. One of the seven churches of Asia was at Pergamos, "where Satan's seat is." Rev 1:11; Rev 2:12-17. The term "Satan's seat" some regard as referring to the worship of AEsculapius, whose common emblem was the serpent. Others think it denotes the particular wickedness of the various idolatries and the trials which had come upon the church, one faithful member, Antipas, having already suffered martyrdom. The city is now called Berqama, and has a population of from 20,000 to 30,000, of which about 2000 are Christians, having several churches. The rest of the inhabitants are Turks and Mohammedans. There are ruins of fine churches and temples, indicating the former grandeur of the city, but the modern houses are small and mean.

PERI'DA. See Peruda.

PER'IZZITES (villagers). The Canaanites apparently lived in the cities of Palestine, while the Perizzites lived in the open country; accordingly, the two together made up the inhabitants of the country, and were scattered over the land, from which they were, however, in great measure expelled during the Conquest. Gen 13:7; Gen 34:30; Josh 17:15; Jud 3:5; 1 Kgs 9:20; 2 Chr 8:7; Ezr 9:1.

PERSECU'TION is the application of coercive means in matters of conscience, or the infliction of pains and penalties for conscience' sake. Under the Mosaic dispensation, which considers God as the King of the Hebrew nation, the enforcement of religious views was a part of the criminal law. To worship another god was treason, and was punished as such. Deut 13. Foreigners who dwelt in Palestine were not compelled to embrace Judaism, but they would not obtain full citizens' rights unless fulfilling this condition, Ex 12:48, and for open idolatry they were punished. Lev 18:26; Lev 20:1-5.

Under the Christian dispensation, which considers God as the Father of all men, persecution becomes itself a crime, which, however, does not encroach on the right of the Christian Church to exclude any member for heretical doctrine or scandalous conduct. 1 Cor 5:3-5, 1 Cor 5:13.

Persecution in the Christian Church has indeed been defended by reference to the Mosaic Law, but it is manifestly contrary to both the spirit and action of Christ and the apostles, who had rather suffer than inflict punishment, and who trusted to the power of the truth, and not to carnal weapons, for the universal success of their religion. Thus Jesus said, "My kingdom is not of this world." John 18:36. And Paul affirms, "The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds." 2 Cor 10:4.

PERSEP'OLIS, a celebrated city, and the capital of Persia. It is not mentioned in the canonical books of the Bible, but is noticed in the Apocrypha. 2 Mace. 9:2. It was probably founded by Darius Hystaspes, and became a residence of Persian monarchs until the time of Alexander the Great, who wantonly burned the city. It partially recovered, and was again attacked by Antiochus Epiphanes, who attempted to plunder it. The city was situated near the plains of Mergasht, where extensive and magnificent ruins still exist, and are called Chehl-Minar, or "forty pillars."

PER'SIA (Heb. Pharas, pure, or tigers?), a country in Central Asia. The term is generally applied in Scripture to the entire Persian empire, but in Eze 38:5 it appears to designate Persia proper. The latter country was bounded by Media on the north, Carmania on the east, Susiana on the west, and the Persian Gulf on the south. The Persian empire, however, extended from the Indus on the east to Thrace on the west, and from the Black and Caspian Seas on the north to the Indian Ocean, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea on the south. It included all Western Asia and portions of Europe and Africa. Persia proper was in general an unproductive country, low and sandy on the gulf, hilly and mountainous inland. The interior was a great plateau, having an average elevation of 4000 feet above the sea, broken by mountains and valleys and interspersed with fruitful plains.

History. - Persia was settled originally by Aryan tribes from the east, probably about b.c. 880. They were brave and enterprising, and divided into ten castes 674 or tribes, of which the Pasargadae were the nobles. Their language was closely allied to the Sanscrit, and in their religion they were dualists, believing in one supreme god and in one great power of evil. These good and evil beings were regarded as co-eternal and coequal. The founder of the Persian dynasty was Achaemes, and it was tributary to the Medes for a time, until a revolt under Cyrus about b.c. 588. Their sway was then rapidly extended over Asia Minor, and in b.c. 539 over Babylon, where the Persians came into contact with the captive Jews, Cyrus issuing a decree permitting these captives to return to their own land. 2 Chr 36:20-23; Ezr 1:8. Cyrus died in b.c. 529, and his tomb is still pointed out near the ancient capital, now known as Murghab. A later king, called Artaxerxes in Scripture, forbade the rebuilding of the temple, but Darius Hystaspes authorized the work to go on. Ezr 4:5-24; Ezr 6:7-12. Xerxes, who was probably the Ahasuerus of the book of Esther, succeeded him, and was defeated by the Greeks, assassinated, and succeeded by his son Artaxerxes Longimanus, who was friendly to the Jews. Ezr 7:11-28; Neh 2:1-9. Only one of his successors is noticed in Scripture, Darius the Persian. Neh 12:22. After lasting about two hundred years the Persian empire was overthrown by Alexander the Great, b.c. 330, and followed by the Macedonian, the third great world-empire. Dan 8:3-7.

Present Condition. - Persia now has an area of about 500,000 square miles and a population of about 10,000,000. Its principal seaport-town is Bushire, a city of 30,000 inhabitants having considerable trade with England. The chief ruler is called the Shah. The province of Shiraz is properly the ancient kingdom of Persia before Cyrus. Within it are the ruins of Persepolis, the palace of Darius, which was burned by Alexander the Great when in a drunken frolic, fire-temples, inscriptions, altars, and various mementoes of the old Persian faith, which is still held by the Parsees. Christian missions have been established among the Nestorians in Persia by the American Congregational, and the American Presbyterian Board of Missions, which have met with encouraging success.

PER'SIANS, inhabitants of Persia. Dan 6:28. See Persia.

PER'SIS (a Persian woman), a Christian woman in Rome to whom Paul sends his salutation. Rom 16:12.

PERU'DA (kernel), a servant of Solomon whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:55; called Perida in Neh 7:57.

PES'TILENCE expresses all sorts of distempers and calamities. Jer 21:6. The Hebrew word, which properly signifies the "plague," is applied to all epidemical and contagious diseases.

Pestilences are still very common in Asia and Africa. It is supposed to have been by a species of pestilence that the first-born of Egypt were cut off. Ps 78:60, Jer 25:51.

A pestilent fellow is one who is mischievous and disposed to corrupt and ruin a multitude. Acts 24:5. See Plague.

PE'TER (stone, or rock; Syriac Cephas; Greek Petros), one of the twelve apostles, one of the three favorite disciples (with John and James), and the most active of all in word and deed (except Paul, who did not belong to the twelve). His original name was "Simon" or "Simeon." He was a son of Jonas (John, according to the reading of the best manuscripts), a brother of Andrew, probably a native of Bethsaida in Galilee. He was a fisherman by trade, and resided at Capernaum with his wife and mother-in-law, who was healed by Christ of a fever. See John 1:42; Josh 21:15; Matt 16:18; Luke 5:3-10; Matt 8:14-15; Mark 1:29-31; Luke 4:38. When he forsook all to follow Christ he must have made a considerable sacrifice. His new name "Peter" ("rock-man") was given him when he was called to the apostleship, John 1:42, and was solemnly confirmed when he, in the name of all the other apostles, made that remarkable confession of the divinity of our Lord which is the fundamental creed of Christendom and the immovable foundation of the Christian Church.Matt 16:18. The name "Peter" or "Cephas" was a prophecy of the prominent position which he, as the confessor of Christ, would occupy in the primitive age of the Church. He laid the foundation of the Church among the Jews on the day 675 of Pentecost, Acts 2, and, after a special revelation, among the Gentiles also, in the conversion of Cornelius. Acts 10. He appears throughout in the Gospels and the first part of the Acts as the head and mouthpiece of the twelve. He had an ardent nature, a sanguine, impulsive, hopeful temperament, was frank, open, fresh, enthusiastic, and energetic, and born to take the lead, but apt to overrate his strength and liable to change and inconsistency. He was the first to confess and the first to deny his Lord and Saviour, yet he repented bitterly, and had no rest and peace till the Lord forgave him. He had a great deal of genuine human nature, but divine grace did its full work, and overruled even his faults for his advancement in humility and meekness, which shine out so beautifully from his Epistles.

The labors of Peter are recorded in the Acts. Chs. 1 to 12 and ch. 15. He was the leading apostle from the day of Pentecost to the Council of Jerusalem, in a.d. 50. After that time his whereabouts are involved in obscurity. Paul mentions him as being at Antioch, about a.d. 52, and censures him for inconsistency of conduct, which he showed at that time toward the Gentile converts, from fear of offending the Judaizing party. The alienation of the two apostles was merely temporary. We must admire the meekness and humility with which Peter bore the sharp rebuke of his younger colleague, and with which he alluded afterward to the Epistles of his "beloved brother Paul," 2 Pet 3:15, as much as the boldness and fearlessness with which Paul stood up for principle and the rights and liberty of the Gentile Christians. Paul mentions him again, a.d. 57, 1 Cor 9:5, as engaged, in company with his wife, in missionary journeys and labors, perhaps among the dispersed Jews in Asia Minor, to whom he addressed his Epistles. 1 Pet 1:1. This allusion to Peter's wife is important as proving that he did not give up the family ties when he entered upon his spiritual calling. Clement of Alexandria expressly states that Peter and Philip had children, and that both took about with them their wives, who aided them in ministering to women at their own homes. It is a singular fact that he whom Roman Catholics hold to be the first pope should have been and remained a married man and thus protested against clerical celibacy.

According to the unanimous testimony of Christian antiquity, Peter suffered

Portraits of Peter and Paul. (From a Gilded Glass Cup found in the Catacombs of Rome.)

martyrdom in Rome under Nero, but the length of his residence in Rome and the year of his martyrdom are uncertain. When Paul arrived at Rome, a.d. 61, and during his imprisonment, a.d. 61-63, no mention is made of Peter. It is therefore improbable that he reached Rome before the close of 63. The report of a twenty or twenty-five years' residence of Peter in Rome rests on a chronological miscalculation of Eusebius and Jerome, who assume that he went to Rome a.d. 42, immediately after his deliverance from prison (Acts 12:17, "he went into another place"), and is entirely irreconcilable with the silence of Scripture, and we may say even with the mere fact of Paul's Epistle to the Romans, written in 58; for Paul says not a word of previous labors of Peter in that city, and never built on other men's foundation. Peter's martyrdom may have taken place either in a.d. 64, during the terrible Neronian persecution after the great conflagration, or in 67. He is said to have been crucified, and thus he followed his Lord literally in the mode of his death. Comp. John 21:18-19. Origen adds, however, that Peter, deeming himself unworthy to be, in the mode of his death, conformed to his Master, was at his own request crucified with his head downward.


The Epistles of Peter belong to the last years of his life, and are addressed to churches in Asia Minor, chiefly planted by Paul and his companions. They contain precious consolations and exhortations, and confirm the harmony of his doctrine with that of the apostle of the Gentiles. 1 Pet 5:12; 2 Pet 3:15. They breathe a sweet, gentle, lovely, humble spirit, thoroughly mastered and softened by divine grace, and are full of joy and hope in view of the threatening persecutions.

The First Epistle is dated from Babylon, 1 Pet 5:13; but commentators differ. Some refer it to the famous Babylon in Asia, which after its destruction was still inhabited by a Jewish colony, and remained for several centuries a chief seat of rabbinical learning; others refer it to Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo; still others understand it mystically of heathen Rome, in which sense "Babylon" is certainly used in the Apocalypse of John. The last view is favored by the terms co-elect ("elected together with you") and Marcus my son, which occur in the same verse, and which scarcely bear a literal interpretation ("Peter's wife and son"), but probably mean the Christian Church and Mark the evangelist, who was his spiritual son. In this case the passage would be the first, and the only scriptural, proof for Peter's presence in Rome. If the letter was written during or after the terrible persecution of 64, he might have had good reason to call Rome by the name of Babylon, the ancient enemy of the people of God. Mark was a companion and interpreter of Peter in his missionary labors. The Epistle was transmitted by Silvanus, 1 Pet 5:12, a disciple and fellow-laborer of Paul, and a connecting link between him and Peter, well qualified to assure the Jewish converts in the churches of Asia Minor of the harmony of the two great apostles in all the essential doctrines of salvation.

The Second Epistle is a valedictory of Peter, written shortly before his martyrdom, with warnings against Antinomian heresies, which began to disturb the harmony and purity of the Church. The external testimonies in favor of the Second Epistle are not so numerous as those in favor of the First, nor was it as much used. But the author expressly designates himself as an eye-witness of the transfiguration of Christ on the mount, 2 Pet 1:16-18, and bears ample evidence of apostolic depth and unction. It attests some of the most important facts in our Lord's ministry; it confirms the unity of apostolic teaching; it adds the doctrine of the final destruction of the material universe to make room for a new heaven and a new earth "wherein dwelleth righteousness;" and it appropriately closes with the exhortation to "grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and for ever."

PETHAHI'AH (whom God sets free).

  1. The head of the nineteenth course of the priests in the reign of David. 1 Chr 24:16.

  2. A Levite who had married a foreign woman in the time of Ezra, Ezr 10:23, and probably the same who conducted the solemn service of the fast. Neh 9:5.

  3. A descendant of Judah who held an office at the Persian court. Neh 11:24.

PE'THOR (soothsayer ?), the native place of Balaam, situated "upon the river," probably the Euphrates, as it was in Mesopotamia. Num 22:5; Deut 23:4. Pethor has been supposed to be identical with Balis, on the Euphrates, where Benjamin of Tudela states there is the "tower of Balaam, son of Beor." Some scholars have recently proposed, however, to locate the country of Balaam in Syria, but this view lacks sufficient support. See Padan-aram.

PETHU'EL (vision of God), or perhaps METHU'EL(peace of God), the father of the prophet Joel. Joel 1:1.

PE'TRA. Isa 16:1. See Sela.

PEUL'THAI (wages of Jehovah), a Levite porter, the eighth son of Obededom. 1 Chr 26:5.

PHA'LEC, same as Peleg, the son of Eber. Luke 3:35.

PHAL'LU (distinguished). Gen 46:9. See Pallu.

PHAL'TI (deliverance of Jehovah), called PHAL'TIEL, 2 Sam 3:15, the man to whom Saul gave Michal, the wife of David. 1 Sam 25:44.

PHAL'TIEL. See above.

PHANU'EL (face of God), father of the prophetess Anna. Luke 2:36.


PHA'RAOH, an Egyptian word applied by the Egyptians themselves to their kings as a generic name or title, and adopted into Hebrew, where it was used either alone or with the addition "king of Egypt," or, as in two cases, followed by a proper name - Pharaoh-nechoh and Pharaoh-hophra. The word was formerly derived from the Egyptian article Pi or Ph and the word Ra, denoting "the sun," as the Egyptian king was considered the representative on earth of the sun-god, or from the Coptic ouro, "king." Modern Egyptologists (De Rouge, Brugsch, and Ebers) define its meaning as "the great house," and its application would thus be equivalent to our "the sublime porte." On account of the great uncertainty which still surrounds Egyptian chronology, it has proved very difficult to identify the different Pharaohs mentioned in the Bible, but, in many points, the investigations of Egyptologists and biblical scholars have reached pretty certain conclusions. Ten Pharaohs are mentioned in the O.T.

  1. The Pharaoh of the time of Abraham. Gen 12:15. He is probably identical with Salatis, the head of the fifteenth dynasty, one of the Shepherd-kings (Hyksos), foreigners of the Semitic race, who conquered Egypt and, having become Egyptianized, ruled it for several centuries. The date of Abraham's visit to Egypt is most probably fixed at about b.c. 2080.

  2. The Pharaoh of Joseph, Gen 41, was the last, or the last but one, of the fifteenth dynasty; probably identical with Apophis, who reigned at least 26 years, b.c. 1876-1850.

  3. The Pharaoh of the Oppression - "the new king over Egypt who knew not Joseph," Ex 1:8, and under whose reign Moses was born - is now by most Egyptologists identified with Rameses II., the third sovereign of the nineteenth dynasty (the Sesostris of the Greeks), the most prominent of the Pharaohs, a conqueror of many lands, the masterbuilder of Egypt, whose statues and temples in ruins are found all over the Nile valley from Zoan (Tanis) to Karnak and Aboo Simbel. The other theory, which seeks the Pharaoh of the Oppression in Aahmes I. (the Amosis of Josephus), who began to reign b.c. 1706 as the first sovereign of the eighteenth dynasty, is now pretty generally abandoned. See Egypt.

  4. The Pharaoh of the Exodus, Ex 5:1, before whom Moses wrought his miracles, and who perished with his army in the pursuit of the Israelites, was Menephtha, the thirteenth son of Rameses II., who began to rule b.c. 1325. His reign was inglorious and marked a period of decline. He did not even finish his father's tomb. On a monument of Tanis mention is made of the fact that he lost a son, and Dr. Brugsch connects this with the death of the first-born, the last of the plagues.

  5. The Pharaoh whose daughter, Bithiah, was given in marriage to Mered, a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:18.

  6. The Pharaoh who gave the sister of his queen in marriage to Hadad, an Edomite of royal blood, who escaped the massacre of Joab and fled to Egypt. 1 Kgs 11:18-20.

  7. The Pharaoh whose daughter Solomon married and brought "into the city of David until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the Lord," 1 Kgs 3:1, consequently before the eleventh year of his reign, in which year the temple was finished. 1 Kgs 6:37-38. This Pharaoh afterward made an expedition into Palestine, took Gerar, slew the Canaanites who dwelt in the city, and gave it to his daughter, Solomon's wife. 1 Kgs 9:16.

  8. The Pharaoh in whom King Hezekiah put his confidence in his war with Sennacherib, 2 Kgs 18:21, probably identical with Sethos or Zet.

  9. Pharaoh-nechoh, also called simply Necho, was the fifth or sixth ruler of the Saite dynasty, and reigned from b.c. 610 to 594. He made an expedition against Assyria, but was encountered by Josiah, king of Judah, who sided with Assyria, but was defeated and killed at Megiddo. 2 Chr 35:20-24; 2 Kgs 23:29-30. The Jews then raised Jehoahaz, the younger son of Josiah, to the throne, but he was deposed by Necho, who gave the sceptre to Jehoiakim, the elder son of Josiah. Necho's army was afterward defeated at Carchemish by Nebuchadnezzar, and he lost all his Asiatic possessions. 2 Kgs 24:7. See Necho.

  1. Pharaoh-hophra, the Apries of secular historians, was the second successor of Necho, and entered Palestine, probably in b.c. 590, in order to relieve Jerusalem, which was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar. Jer 37:5-8; Eze 17:11-13; comp. 2 Kgs 25:1-4. The campaign was of no avail. Jerusalem fell, and Nebuchadnezzar made a successful invasion into Egypt. Pharaoh-hophra was afterward deposed by his own subjects, and, though he was at first treated kindly by his successor, Amosis, he was finally strangled. In their prophecies Jeremiah and Ezekiel give a very striking picture of this king, his arrogance and conceit, which corresponds closely with that given by Herodotus.

PHARAOH'S DAUGHTER. Three Egyptian princesses are mentioned in the Bible.

  1. Moses' preserver. Ex 2:10.

  2. Bithiah, the wife of Mered, an Israelite. 1 Chr 4:18.

  3. A wife of Solomon. 1 Kgs 3:1.

PHA'RES. Matt 1:3; Luke 3:33. See Pharez.

PHA'REZ (a breach), a son of Judah, and twin-brother of Zarah, Gen 38:29; Gen 46:12, the ancestor of a great family called the Pharzites, Num 26:20; Ruth 4:12, 1 Sam 30:18; 1 Chr 2:4; 1 Chr 4:1; 1 Chr 9:4; called Perez in Neh 11:4, 1 Chr 24:6, and Phares in Matt 1:3; Luke 3:33.

PHARISEES, THE (from a Hebrew word meaning separated), formed one of the most conspicuous and powerful sects or parties among the Jews in the time of our Lord. The name does not occur before the N.T. period, and the origin of the sect is somewhat obscure. It is probable, however, that the Pharisees were simply a continuation or development of the Assideans ("the pious") in the time of the Maccabees. 1 Mace. 2:42; 7:13; 2 Mace. 14:6. Under the foreign rule, and more especially under the Syrian government, which left no means unemployed - even resorting to violence - in order to effect an amalgamation of the different nationalities under its sway, it was natural that there should rise among the Jews a party which opposed this influence and labored to preserve the national integrity. The Pharisees were this party, and much of their influence with the people was no doubt due to their political position. On the accession of Herod, 6000 Pharisees refused to take the oath of allegiance, but were "put down with a strong hand;" and, again, it was the Pharisees who originated and organized that desperate resistance to the Romans which finally led to the dispersion of the whole nation. In a constitution, however, like that of the Hebrew theocracy, a political party must always be a religious sect at the same time, and with the Pharisees their political position was a simple consequence of their religious standpoint. As they were national in politics, they were orthodox in religion; and in opposition to the two other sects, the Sadducees and the Essenes, they stood among the people as the true expounders of the Law. In the time of our Lord, however, their orthodoxy had degenerated into mere formalism.

The principal points of difference between the Pharisees and the Sadducees were the doctrine of the immortality of the soul and a future reward or punishment; the doctrine of a divine Providence acting side by side with the free will of man; and the doctrine of an oral tradition descending from Moses and involving the same authority as the written Law, - all of which doctrines the Pharisees accepted, while the Sadducees rejected them. It was, however, more especially the last-mentioned doctrine which gave the Pharisees their peculiar character, and which caused our Lord to denounce them so often and so severely. Teaching that God had given to Moses, on Mount Sinai, an oral explanation with respect to the proper application of the written Law, and commanded him to transmit this explanation by word of mouth, the Pharisees ended by placing the oral explanation above the written commandment, the tradition above the Law. Entangled in the minute and subtle application of the Law, they missed its spirit; and though to the very last there were found noble characters among them, such as Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea, Gamaliel, and others, self-conceit, arrogance, and hypocrisy became the general characteristics of the sect. They were exceedingly particular in refraining from anything which had not been duly tithed, but they forgot to pay that tithe which is most necessary 679 of all, and which consists in meekness and mercy. Matt 23:23; Luke 18:12. They were exceedingly particular in avoiding anything which the Law declared unclean, but they forgot to acquire that cleanness which is the most important of all, and which consists in the purity of the heart. Matt 16:11. And while they themselves degenerated into empty formalists, they troubled the conscience of the people by the absurd importance they ascribed to the most futile questions, such as what material the wick of the Sabbath-lamp was to be made of, whether or not it was permitted to eat an egg laid on a Sabbath-day, etc. Hence we understand how they could at the same time be the true bearers of Judaism in politics and in religion, and yet be punished by our Lord by the severest denunciations.

PHA'ROSH. Ezr 8:3. See Parosh.

PHAR'PAR (swift), a river of Damascus named by Naaman. 2 Kgs 5:12. It is about 8 miles from Damascus, and is the modern Awaj, while the Abana is the modern Barada. The Pharpar, or Awaj, rises high up on the eastern side of Hermon, near the mountain-village of Beit Jann. There are several other small streams, which unite near Sasa, and the river flows eastward in a serpentine course through a deep glen and thickets of poplars and willows, and through green meadows rendered fertile by its waters. It empties into a lake or marsh called Bahret Hijaueh, about 4 miles south of the lake into which the Barada falls, and about 16 miles south of Damascus. In spring and summer these so-called "meadow-lakes" are of considerable size, but in autumn and winter they are mere morasses. The Awaj flows across the plain of Damascus, but its waters are diminished by canals constructed to irrigate the fields and gardens almost up to the walls of the city. Its length is from 30 to 40 miles, and it is a much smaller stream than the Barada, for it is described as a little and lively stream, often dry in the lower part of its course, while the Barada is perennial and is a copious stream in the hottest season. The traveller from Banias to Damascus now crosses a deep ravine east of Hermon, through which runs the Nahr Barbar, a name in which the ancient Pharpar survives, according to Baedeker, but it no longer falls into the el-Awaj.

PHAR'ZITES, a family descending from Pharez, and belonging to the tribe of Judah. Num 26:20.

PHASE'AH. See Paseah.

PHASE'LIS, a town on the border of Lycia and Pamphylia, where the Jews settled. It was at one time a place of considerable importance, but later became a resort of pirates. It is now called Tckrova. It is mentioned only in the Apocryphal book of Maccabees. 1 Mace. 15:23.

PHE'BE (shining). See Phobe.


  1. Another and more accurate form for Phoenicia. Acts 11:19; Acts 15:3. See Phoenicia.

  2. A town and harbor, more properly Phoenix (from the Greek word for the palm tree, which was indigenous to Crete). The town was on the south-west coast of the island of Crete. It had a safe winter harbor, into which the captain of the ship upon which Paul was a prisoner attempted to sail after leaving Fair Havens. He was caught in the storm, however, and his ship was wrecked on the island of Melita. Acts 27:8, Jud 4:12. Phoenix or Phenice has been identified with the harbor of Lutro, about 35 miles west-north-west from Cape Matala. It has lately been shown that this place has an admirable harbor with a good depth of water, and sheltered from the winter winds.

PHI-BE'SETH. See Pi-beseth.

PHI'CHOL (according to some, strong; according to others, mouth of all), chief of the army of Abimelech, king of the Philistines of Gerar in the times of Abraham, Gen 21:22, and of Isaac. Gen 26:26.

PHILADEL'PHIA (brotherly love), a city on the borders of Lydia and Phrygia, about 25 miles south-east of Sardis. It was built by Attains Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, who died b.c. 138. It then came into the hands of the Romans; was destroyed by an earthquake a.d. 17; was restored, and continued a place of importance to the Byzantine age; was taken by the Turks in a.d. 1392. Philadelphia is menitioned in the N.T. as the seat of one of the seven churches. Rev 1:11; Rev 3:7-13. The church at this place was highly commended, and it is noticeable that the 680 city has survived all the vicissitudes of earthquakes and wars until the present day. Its bishops were at the councils of Nicaea, Laodicaea, and Constantinople; and when Tamerlane destroyed the seats of the other Christian churches and massacred the Christians, Philadelphia escaped, and was an asylum for some of the Christians of Sardis. Even the sceptical Gibbon speaks of its preservation as remarkable. A solitary pillar is still one of the most conspicuous features of the town, and the modern name is Allah Shehr, or "city of God," seeming to illustrate the promise in Rev 3:12. The modern city, situated upon four or five flat summits at the foot of Mount Tmolus, contains about 3000 houses and 10,000 inhabitants, mostly Turks. The dwellings are mean and badly built, and the streets filthy. The ruins include a wall and about 25 churches. In one place there are four large marble pillars which may have once supported the dome of a church. Tradition points out an old mosque in which the primitive Christians addressed in the Apocalypse are said to have worshipped. Earthquakes have frequently overthrown the city and rendered even its walls unsafe.

PHILE'MON, a native of Laodicaea and a resident of Colossae, was a man of means and influence, the head of a large household and of a Christian congregation in his own house. He had been converted to Christianity through Paul, probably during the apostle's stay at Ephesus, a.d. 54-57, and appears, from the letter addressed to him by Paul, to have been a large-hearted and sympathetic character.

The Epistle of Paul to Philemon was written at the same period as those to the Ephesians and Colossians - that is, toward the close of the apostle's first captivity in Rome, a.d. 62 or 63. Onesimus, a slave of Philemon's, had committed some crime - theft, it would seem - and fled from the house from fear of punishment. Arrived at Rome, he met with Paul, and was converted to Christianity; and when he was ready to return penitently to his former master, the apostle furnished him with a letter bespeaking for him a good reception as a brother and freeman in Christ.

About the genuineness of the letter there can be no doubt, and, though short and occasioned by a private affair, it is a "gem of Christian tenderness," and an invaluable testimony to the character of the apostle as a perfect Christian gentleman.

PHILE'TUS (amiable), one whom Paul associates with Hymeneus as an errorist. 2 Tim 2:17. "They appear to have been persons who believed the Scriptures of the O.T., but misinterpreted them, allegorizing away the doctrine of the resurrection, resolving it all into figure and metaphor. The delivering over unto Satan seems to have been a form of excommunication declaring the person reduced to the state of a heathen, and in the apostolic age it was accompanied with supernatural or miraculous effects upon the bodies of the persons so delivered." - Waterland: Importance of Doctrine of Holy Trinity.

PHIL'IP (lover of horses).

  1. The apostle, a native of Bethsaida, and known to the Lord before called to follow him. He is always mentioned as the fifth among the twelve, Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14; John 1:43-46; Acts 1:13, but the Gospels contain only a few notices of him. According to tradition, he preached in Phrygia and died at Hierapolis.

  2. The evangelist, one of the seven persons appointed to the office of deacon in the primitive church in Jerusalem, Acts 6:3-5, and who preached the gospel with great success in Samaria. Acts 8:6-8. While there he received a divine intimation to go southward from Samaria to the road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. In the course of his journey he found a distinguished Ethiopian traveller on his way home from Jerusalem - probably either a Jew or a proselyte to the Jewish religion - who had been to the city to celebrate some feast. He was an officer of high rank in the court of Candace, queen of Ethiopia, and as he was sitting in his chariot in the leisurely pursuit of his journey he read aloud a portion of the Jewish Scriptures. At this time Philip saw him, and was divinely admonished to approach him. Without hesitation he obeyed the suggestion, and ran to overtake the chariot. He overheard the traveller reading Isa 53:7-8, and immediately inquired of him if he understood the force and scope of the passage. The traveller meekly


acknowledged his need of instruction, and invited Philip to take a seat with him in the chariot. The latter then explained the great subject of redemption, to which the passage so naturally led; and the result was that the traveller became a convert to the faith of the gospel and was baptized. Philip was next found at Azotus, about 40 miles from Gaza, and afterward settled, it is supposed, in Caesarea. Acts 21:8. He had four daughters, who were endued with gifts of prophecy. Acts 21:9.

  1. The tetrarch. Luke 3:1. See Herod.

  2. The husband of Herodias. Matt 14:3. See Herod.

  3. The foster-brother of Antiochus Epiphanes, who appointed him regent of Syria and guardian of his son, Antiochus V. 1 Mace. 6:14, 15, 55. He is probably identical with that Philip who was made governor of Jerusalem in b.c. 170. 2 Mace. 5:22; 6:11.

  4. King of Macedonia, b.c. 359-336, father of Alexander the Great. 1 Mace. 1:1,- 6:1.

  5. Another king of Macedonia, b.c. 220-179, defeated by the Romans. 1 Mace. 8:5.

PHILIP'PI (see Philip), the chief city of the eastern division of Macedonia, situated near the borders of Thrace and 8 miles north-west of Neapolis, which was its seaport. It lay between two mountain-ranges, and a paved Roman road led over the steep range Symbolum from Neapolis to Philippi, over which Paul went.

History. - The place was at first called Crenides, or "fountains," from its numerous springs. It also at one time bore the name of Datum. Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, took it from the Thracians, garrisoned it as a frontiertown, and gave it his name. It is made famous by the noted battle of Philippi, fought, b.c. 42, between Octavius and Antony on the one side, and Brutus and Cassius on the other. In honor of this victory Augustus made Philippi a "colony." These colonies were miniature Romes established on foreign soil. The Roman law was administered, and the Roman language was used even among natives who spoke Greek.

Scripture References. - Philippi was the first place in Europe to receive the gospel. Paul and Silas preached there; Lydia became a convert; the apostles cast out the "spirit of divination" from a damsel; were thrown into prison and miraculously delivered; the jailer was converted. Acts 16. Afterward, Paul revisited Philippi, and perhaps remained for a considerable time. Acts 20:1-6. The Christians of that city on four occasions sent contributions for his support, and he wrote to them the Epistle to the Philippians. Ignatius visited the city, a.d. 107, on his way to Rome, where he suffered martyrdom, and Polycarp sent the church at Philippi all the letters of Ignatius which Sardis had received, thus keeping up their sympathy with the suffering Christians.

Present appearance. - The ruins of the citadel are still seen on the summit of a rounded hill. The circuit of the walls which enclosed the hill and a part of the plain can be traced. Next to the theatre is a temple of Silvanus, and various tablets show the list of donors, the members of the sacred college, etc. Four massive pillars mark the site of the forum, where the apostles were publicly scourged.

About 10 furlongs to the west of Philippi is a small river called the Gangas or Gangites, now the Bournabachi, which is probably the place where the Jews had their place of prayer.

PHILIPPIANS, EPIS'TLE TO, is the eleventh in the order of the books of the N.T., and was addressed by Paul to the Christians at Philippi, with whom he appears to have entertained particularly friendly relations. They had kindly ministered to his necessities by sending Epaphroditus to him with a present of money; and when Epaphroditus returned to Philippi, Paul acknowledged the kindness shown to him in grateful and affecting terms, and took occasion to warn the church in Philippi against certain Judaizing teachers. The second chapter contains one of the most important passages on the doctrine of the person of Christ and his states of humiliation and exaltation. The Epistle was probably written about 62, when Paul was a prisoner at Rome. About its genuineness there can be no reasonable doubt.

The following is the analysis of the Epistle given by Dr. Braune in Lange's


Commentary: I. Address and salutation. Phil 1:1-2. II. Situation and labors of the apostle at Rome. Phil 1:3-26. III. The Lord's example and pattern for the observance of the church. Phil 1:27-2:18. IV. Paul's assistants and colaborers. Phil 2:19-30. V. Warning against Judaistic false teachers and wicked deceivers, in contrast with the apostle. Phil 3:1-4:1. VI. Final exhortation to cooperation between himself and the Philippian church. Phil 4:2-20. VII. Salutation and benediction. Phil 4:21-23.

PHILIS'TIA (land of sojourners), in Ps 60:8; Ps 87:4; Ps 108:9, the only places where the word "Philistia" occurs, is the same Hebrew word elsewhere translated "Palestine." "Palestine" originally meant only the district inhabited by the "Philistines." In Ps 83:7 the word is rendered "Philistines." Josephus calls these people "Palestines."

Situation and Extent. - Philistia, or the "land of the Philistines," included the coast-plain on the south-west of Palestine, from Joppa on the north to the valley of Gerar on the south, a distance of about 40 miles, and from the Mediterranean on the west to the Judaean hills. Its breadth at the northern end was 10 miles, and at the southern about 20. It appears to have extended as far inland as Beersheba. Gen 21:33-34; Ex 26:1, Gen 26:14-18; Ex 23:31; Josh 13:2-3. Warren limited it, somewhat more closely, to the plain reaching 32 miles from Ekron to Gaza, with a breadth of from 9 to 16 miles. It is bounded on the north by the plain of Sharon, east by the hill-country, south by "the south country," and west by the Mediterranean.

Physical Features, - Along the whole sea-board are white sandy dunes. Behind these is the broad undulating plain, from 50 to 300 feet above the sea-level, with a deep rich soil. To the east of this plain is found a series of low spurs and undulating ground culminating in hogs' backs, running nearly north and south, and rising in places 1200 feet above the ocean; to the east of these is a steep descent of about 500 feet to the valleys, and east of these the hill-country of Judah begins. From the deep and narrow ravines of the hill-country rapid torrents roll during the rainy season. On coming into the plain the water forms marshes and pools, and quietly sinks away, most of the water reaching the ocean underground. The sand from the shore is constantly encroaching upon the fertile land. This whole great maritime plain was called in the Hebrew the Shephelah, signifying properly "low country," and sometimes so rendered in the English version, 2 Chr 26:10; 2 Chr 28:18, as likewise the "low plains," 1 Chr 27:28; 2 Chr 9:27; the "plain," Jer 17:26; the "valley." Josh 11:16; Judg 1:9.

History. - The origin of the Philistines has been a matter of much discussion. That the Hebrews regarded the Philistines as a branch of the Caphtorim is clearly stated in Jer 47:4; Am 9:7; Deut 2:23. In the last text, "the Caphtorims which came forth out of Caphtor" are said to have destroyed "the Avim which dwelt in Hazerim " - i.e., in the villages - "even unto Azzah " (Gaza). These could certainly have been no other than the Philistines. The Hebrew words in Gen 10:14 which are translated "out of whom" - i.e., the Casluhim - "came Philistim" appear to mean, not that the Philistines were descended from the Casluhim, but that they came out of or passed through their country. The purport of the two passages seems therefore to be that the Philistines (or Caphtorim) who took possession of the Holy Land entered it on the south-west by way of the land of the Casluhim (Egypt), having, as is probable, come thither from Crete. But although the balance of authority places the Caphtorim in Crete, the evidence is by no means conclusive. The Vulgate in several places identifies them with the Cappadocians, and some modern critics identify them with the Cyprians. Baedeker (Handbook) says: "Their original home, the land of Caphtor or Kaftor (Kaft being the same word as Gypt in Egypt), must have been in the Delta of the Nile, and not in Crete, as was once supposed."

It would seem that the Philistines who were settled in the land in the time of Abraham, whose capital was Gerar and whose king was called Abimelech, Gen 21:34; Gen 26:14, did not possess Gaza or either of the five Philistine cities that became powerful in later times. In Gen 10:19, Gaza is named as the frontier-town of the Canaanites in the direction of Gerar, and from Deut 2:23 it appears 683 that the Avims held it till they were driven out by the Caphtorim. This seems to indicate a second immigration of Philistines, probably direct from Crete or Cyrus, that may have taken place but little before the time of Moses. Abraham found them in possession of the "south country," but they seem then to have treated with him as an equal in power. He made a treaty with their chief, Abimelech, at Beersheba, and this treaty was renewed in the days of Isaac. Gen 21:32-33; Gen 26:12-23.

But at the Exodus the Philistines seem to have been such a mighty and warlike people that it was thought best for the Israelites to avoid their land, lest "the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt." Ex 13:17.

Thenceforward, during the whole period of O.T. history, the Israelites and the Philistines were frequently brought in contact. The Philistines are mentioned three hundred and ten times in the O.T. from Genesis to Zechariah, but the limits of this article will allow of only the briefest outline of the leading events.

Philistine. (From an Egyptian Painting.)

The land of the Philistines was within the limits of the land promised to Israel, Num 34:5-6; Eze 13:17; Eze 23:31, and it was assigned to Judah and Dan, Josh 15:45-47; Josh 19:41-45, but no attempt to conquer it was made under Joshua's leadership. They had a league of their five chief towns, Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron, under the direction of the five lords or kings.

After Joshua's death Gaza, Ashkelon, and Ekron were taken, Judg 1:18, but not permanently held, by Israel. The Philistines gained the ascendency and long held it, although occasionally shaken off for a brief period, as by Shamgar, Jud 3:31; Neh 10:7; and Samson. Judg 13-16. Even Samson, who broke up the subjection of forty years, did not succeed in permanently delivering his people from the Philistine yoke. Under Eli the Israelites again resisted, but were defeated at Aphek, 30,000 slain, and the ark captured. 1 Sam 4:1-11. Under Samuel's leadership success crowned the arms of Israel. 1 Sam 7:11-14. When Saul became king he continued the contest against the ancient foe, and Jonathan and his armor-bearer began the fight which terminated in the slaughter of the Philistines at Michmash. 1 Sam 13-14. David killed Goliath later, and the Philistines were pursued to the gates of Gath and Ekron with great slaughter (30,000 killed and 60,000 wounded, according to Josephus). 1 Sam 17.

David, after inflicting many defeats upon the Philistines, sought refuge among them from the malignity of Saul. 1 Sam 19:8; 1 Sam 23:1-5; 1 Sam 27:1-7; 1 Sam 29; Ps 56, title. Saul and his sons were slain at Gilboa by the Philistines. 1 Sam 31; 1 Chr 10:1. When David became king the Philistines attacked him. He defeated them at Baal-perazim and Rephaim. During Solomon's reign the Philistines were subjects, 1 Kgs 2:39-40; 1 Kgs 4:21, 1 Kgs 4:24, and he fortified Gezer and some other border-towns. After the division of Israel the Philistines engaged in hostilities at various times with both kingdoms. 1 Kgs 16:15; 2 Chr 21:16-17. Jehoshaphat, Uzziah, and Hezekiah defeated them. 2 Chr 17:11; 2 Chr 26:6; 2 Kgs 18:8. As Philistia was on the great route between Egypt and Assyria, it was often involved in the great wars between those powers. Ashdod was taken by Sargon, king of Assyria, after a siege of three years, Isa 20:1, and to Sennacherib most of the towns 684 became subject. Isa 36. Pharaoh took Gaza. Jer 47:1.

Before the Jewish Captivity the kingdom of the Philistines had disappeared, and a few of their towns only retained some importance. Upon the return from captivity some of the Jews married Philistine women, "wives of Ashdod." Neh 13:23. After the time of Alexander the power of the Philistines was entirely gone. Later the country shared in the reverses and desolations of the Syrian and Egyptian, Maccabaean, and Jewish and Roman wars.

Customs, Religion, etc. - According to all accounts, the Philistines far surpassed the Hebrews in culture, and in war-chariots and cavalry they were superior to the Israelites. 1 Sam 13:5.

The heavy-armed soldiers wore a round copper helmet, a coat-of-mail, brazen greaves. Their weapons were a javelin and long lance, and each had an attendant to bear his shield and weapons, like the Greeks in the Homeric poems. The light-armed soldiers were archers. The Philistines had fortified encampments, surrounded their towns with lofty walls, and kept the territories they had conquered in subjection by means of garrisons. They were a commercial as well as a warlike people, and not only competed with the Phoenicians by sea, but endeavored to keep in their own hands the inland and caravan traffic. Their chief god was Dagon, Jud 16:23; 1 Sam 5:1-5, who, as well as the goddess Derketo, had the form of a fish. Baalzebub, 2 Kgs 1:2-3, 2 Kgs 1:6, 2 Kgs 1:16, the fly-god of Ekron, was famed for his oracles. On their various campaigns they took their idols with them. 2 Sam 5:21; 1 Chr 14:12. Their seers or prophets seem to have formed a distinct profession.

Present Condition. - It is a remarkable fact that the principal towns of Philistia, Gaza, Ashkelon, Joppa, Ashdod, Lachish, and Gath, have never once disappeared from history, but exist at the present day under the names of Gazzeh, Askalun, Yafa, Esdud, Umm Lakis, and Beit Jibrin - that is, Beth - geborim, "the house of the giants." Many other of the modern names also preserve the memory of the old Philistine history and worship. Low mounds at intervals show the sites of former cities. Four and a half miles from Gaza a colossal marble statue has recently been discovered (1879). The total height of the figure is 15 feet. The hair hangs in long ringlets down upon the shoulders, and the beard is long, indicating a man of venerable age. The right arm is broken in half, while the left arm is crossed over the breast to the right shoulder, the hand being hidden by the drapery of a cloth covering the shoulders. There is no inscription on the figure or the pedestal, which is a huge block carved in one piece with the figure. The statue was found in a recumbent position, buried in the sand, on the top of a hill near the sea. It had evidently been removed from its original site, which is unknown. Its estimated weight is 12,000 pounds. Lieut. Conder thinks it is the statue of Marnas (the Cretan Jupiter), the god of Gaza, which once stood in the principal temple of Gaza, but which had been buried, perhaps at the time of the destruction of the temple, by Porphyrus, a.d. 406. See Palestine Exploration Fund's Quarterly Statement for January, 1880.

The inhabitants are a race distinct from the rest of the inhabitants of Palestine, and it has been suggested that the fellakin, or peasantry, are of Canaanite origin, though no doubt a mixed race as now constituted.

For the present condition of the land of the Philistines, see Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, Gaza, Gerar, Gibbethon, Jabneel. Metheg-amma, Palestine.


PHILOL'OGUS(learned), a Christian in Rome to whom Paul sends a salutation. Rom 16:16.

PHILOS'OPHY. During his visit to Athens, Paul was encountered by certain philosophers of the Epicureans and of the Stoics, Acts 17:18, the two great moral schools of Greek philosophy. This is the only instance related in the N.T. of an encounter between Christianity and Western speculation. But Eastern speculation, in many ways and under many forms, tried from the earliest times to penetrate into the mysteries of Christianity, and in the philosophy against which Paul warned the Colossians, Col 2:8 et seq., we recognize not only an outgrowth of Eastern speculation, 685 but the prototype of that phantastic mysticism which afterward played so conspicuous a part in the history of the Eastern Church under the name of Gnosticism. Comp. 1 Tim 6:20.

PHIN'EHAS (brazen mouth).

  1. A son of Eleazar, and grandson of Aaron, Ex 6:25; 1 Chr 6:4, 1 Chr 6:50 filled the office of high priest of the Jews for nearly twenty years. His zeal and promptitude in punishing the sin of Zimri turned away the anger of the Lord against the nation, and was rewarded by the promise to his family of perpetual succession in the Jewish priesthood. Num 25:6-15. This promise was fulfilled; for except the interval from Eli to Zadok, the priesthood continued in the family of Phinehas until the destruction of the temple and the captivity of the nation.

  2. A son of Eli, and noted for his wickedness. 1 Sam 1:3; 1 Sam 2:34; 1 Sam 4:4, 1 Sam 4:11, 1 Sam 4:17, 1 Sam 4:19; 1 Sam 14:3.

  3. A Levite in the time of Ezra. Ezr 8:33.

PHLE'GON (flame), a Christian in Rome to whom Paul sent salutation. Rom 16:14.

PHOE'BE, a distinguished member of the church at Cenchraea, a city of Corinth. Rom 16:1. She is called a "servant of the church" (see Deaconess); and the strong commendation of the apostle shows her to have been prominent in works of faith and labors of love.

PHOENICE. See Phenice.

PHOENI'CIA, a country north of Palestine, so named by the Greeks, either from the abundance of palm trees or from Phoenix, the brother of Cadmus. It was a narrow strip of country between the Lebanon mountains and the Mediterranean Sea. It varied in extent at different periods, sometimes extending about 30 miles from the "Ladder of Tyre" to the Nahr Auly, 2 miles north of Sidon, and sometimes about 120 miles north of the "Ladder of Tyre." Along the shore it was sandy, but behind this sand-belt was fertile land, and upon the slopes of the mountain good pasture and excellent timber. Promonotories jut out into the sea, making good harbors and sites for towns, as at Tyre, Sidon. and Beirut. The country is well watered, its principal rivers being the Leontes, Bostrenus, Lycus, or "dog river," Adonis, and Eleutherus. Its principal towns are Arvad, Tripoli, Beirut, Sidon, and Tyre.

Phoenicia was included in the Land of Promise, but it was not occupied by the Israelites. Josh 13:4-6; Jud 1:31-32. David and Solomon traded with its king, receiving timber from its territory, and employing its sailors, laborers, and skilled workmen. 2 Sam 5:11; 1 Kgs 5:9, 1 Kgs 5:17-18. Ahab married a princess of this country, and there Elijah found a refuge. 1 Kgs 16:31; 1 Kgs 17:9; Luke 4:26. Jesus also visited this country - the only time he passed the borders of Palestine. Matt 15:21; Mark 7:26. Paul visited Tyre, Sidon, and Ptolemais. Acts 21:2-3, 1 Kgs 15:7; 1 Sam 27:3.

The name "Phoenicia" does not occur in the O.T.; in the N.T. it appears once as "Phoenicia" and twice as "Phenice." Acts 21:2; Josh 11:19; Acts 15:3. There are numerous prophecies in the O.T., however, concerning the overthrow of cities in this country, which have been signally fulfilled. See Tyre and Sidon.

Present Condition. - Phoenicia is now a land of ruins, the whole shore from the "Ladder of Tyre" northward, according to Porter, being strewn with them. "Heaps of hewn stones and quantities of marble tesserae lay in my path, while broken shafts and mounds of rubbish were seen to the right and left, here crowning a cliff, there washed by the waves. One thing I specially noticed: from the time I left Achzib till I reached the fountains [of Tyre] I did not see a human being; a mournful and solitary silence reigns along Phoenicia's coast." - Giant Cities, p. 277. Stanley writes in a similar strain: "There is one point of view in which this whole coast is specially remarkable. 'A mournful and solitary silence now prevails along the shore which once resounded with the world's debate.' This sentence, with which Gibbon solemnly closes his chapter on the Crusades, well sums up the general impression still left by the six days' ride from Beirut to Ascalon; and it is no matter of surprise that in this impression travellers have felt a response to the strains in which Isaiah and Ezekiel foretold the desolation of Tyre and Sidon. In one sense, and that the highest, this feeling is just. The Phoenician power which the prophets denounced has 686 entirely perished." - Sinai and Palestine, p. 266.

PHOENIC'IANS. At the very dawn of history the Phoenicians appear to occupy one of the most prominent places among the nations of the earth. They were closely related to, if not identical with, the Canaanites, Gen 10:15, and of the whole group of Semitic languages their language was nearest allied to the Hebrew; indeed, the few remnants of the Phoenician tongue - names of persons and places, inscriptions on coins and monuments, etc. - which are still extant can be interpreted only by means of Hebrew. The nation, though cultured in literature and art, was debased by its religion. The worship of Baal was made corrupt and revolting in the extreme. While the burning of children to this god may have originated in the idea that sin required some blood-expiation, the form of the sacrifice was so cruel, and many features of the worship were so shameless, that they tended to destroy all virtue in the people, and the nation died of immoral rottenness. Passion and licentiousness were deified in connection with the worship of Astarte, the Phoenician Venus. 2 Kgs 23:7; Deut 23:17-18; 1 Kgs 14:24; 1 Kgs 15:12; 1 Kgs 22:46; Hos 4:14. Their religion was a kind of Nature-worship, centering in the idea of generation, and most of their gods, such as Baal, Ashtaroth, etc., seem to have had a double signification - one allegorical and lofty, and another literal and sensuous. Their occupation was commerce. They maintained commercial stations on the shores of the Red Sea and all along the coasts of the Mediterranean. They worked the silver-mines of Spain and the lead-mines of Cornwall, and their sailors brought amber from the Baltic and tin from Britain. Through their commerce they became the bearers of civilization, and from them both the Greeks and the Romans learnt the use of letters and of coins, of the compass and of astronomy in navigation, of glass, purple, etc.

Between the Jews and the Phoenicians friendly relations seem to have been established very early. Palestine was the granary of the Phoenician cities, and, indeed, all its surplus products - wheat, honey, oil, balm, etc. - were exported from Tyre and Sidon, Eze 27:17, as the Jews had no ports themselves. Under King David these friendly relations grew into an alliance, and the conquest of Edom and the establishment by the Jews of a harbor at Ezion-geber, on the Red Sea, did not cause any disturbance. Phoenician mechanics worked at the erection of the temple in Jerusalem beside Jewish, and Phoenician vessels sailed together with Jewish from the port of Ezion-geber for Ophir and other places. 1 Kgs 10:11, 1 Kgs 10:22; 1 Kgs 9:26-28; 1 Chr 14:1; 2 Chr 8:18; 2 Chr 9:10. After the secession of the ten tribes the Phoenicians sided with the kingdom of Israel and broke the old covenant with Judah, Joel 3:4-8; Am 1:9-10; Isa 23; Eze 28; they even went so far as to sell the Jews to the Edomites as slaves. The influence, however, of the Phoenician idolatry on the Israelites was very baneful, though it would seem that the Phoenicians themselves were not so very anxious to make proselytes; at least, they did not interfere when Elijah slew four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal at the brook of Kishon. 1 Kgs 18:40.

PHRYG'IA (dry, barren), a district of Asia Minor, whose limits varied so much at different times that no exact boundaries can be given. Its settlement was very early. Phrygian traditions and those of the Egyptians make them the most ancient race of men in the world. Profane writers say that the Phrygians migrated from Macedonia long before the Trojan war. Phrygia is mentioned in Homer's Iliad. It then appears to have included a large part of Central Asia Minor. Later it was divided into Phrygia Major on the south, and Phrygia Minor on the west. It was of a very irregular and undefined shape; and when Galatia was a part of it, Phrygia touched, so it was said, upon every other province in Asia Minor. The Romans divided it into three districts. Part of it belonged to the province of Asia and part to Cilicia, and in N.T. times it was not a regularly-defined Roman province, but an ancient country, apportioned to other provinces, but mostly included in the province of Asia. Within its limits were the cities of Laodica'a, Hierapolis, Colossal, and Antioch of Pisidia.

Phrygia is mentioned three times in the book of the Acts. People from there 687 were present at Pentecost. Acts 2:10, and the apostle Paul twice traversed the country. Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23. Some converts were made, and we find Paul "strengthening all the disciples." Acts 18:23. At the Council of Nice, a.d. 325, the Phrygian churches were represented by eight bishops, and still more attended the Council of Constantinople, a.d. 381.

PHU'RAH (bough), the armor-bearer of Gideon, who accompanied him into the camp of the Midianites. Jud 7:10-11.

PHUT, Gen 10:6, or PUT, Nah 3:9 (probably a bow), the name of the third son of Ham and of the country occupied by his descendants.

PHUT (afflicted, or a bow?), Gen 10:6; more properly, PUT, 1 Chr 1:8. Phut was a son of Ham, and progenitor of an African people of the same name, though sometimes the name is rendered "Libya" or "Libyans." Jer 46:9; Eze 27:10; Eze 30:5; Eze 38:5; Nah 3:9. These people probably occupied Libya, in North Africa, to the west of Lydia, or Ludim, near the Mediterranean coast. This is the land of the Moors in modern times.

Mr. Poole would identify Phut with Nubia, south of Egypt. The Egyptian monuments mention a people called "Pet," whose emblem was a bow unstrung, and who dwelt between Egypt and Ethiopia. Phut may be Pet, or To-Pet, and therefore modern Nubia, as To-meru-Pet of the monuments answered to the island of Meroe.

PHU'VAH (mouth), a son of Issachar, Gen 46:13; called Pua in Num 26:23, and Puah in 1 Chr 7:1.

PHYGEL'LUS (fugitive), a Christian of Pronconsular Asia who "turned away" from Paul. Nothing more is known of him than his name and this circumstance. 2 Tim 1:15.

PHYLACTERIES (preservation, or safeguard, with reference either to the preserving of the words of the Law in the memory or to the preservation of the person from danger, as by the amulets or charms of modern superstition). The practice of using phylacteries was founded on a literal interpretation of Ex 13:9, Ex 17:16; Deut 6:8; Acts 11:18, where God commands the Hebrews to bear the Law in their hearts and in their heads, and it is still continued in our days. There are two kinds of phylacteries - one to be worn on the forehead, between the eyebrows, and another to be worn on the left arm. The former was called a "frontlet," and was composed of four pieces of parchment, on the first of which was written Ex 12:2-10; on the second, Ex 13:11-21; on the third, Deut 6:4-9; and on the fourth, Deut 11:18-21. These pieces of parchment, thus inscribed, were inclosed in a piece of tough skin, making a square, on one side of which was placed the Hebrew letter shin, and this box was tied to the forehead with a thong or riband. Some wore them both evening and morning, and others only at morning prayer.

The Phylactery.

The other kind of phylacteries consisted of two rolls of parchment, written in square letters, with an ink made on purpose, and with much care. They were rolled up to a point, enclosed in a sort of case of black calfskin, and then put upon a square bit of the same leather, whence hung a thong of the same, about a finger in breadth and about two feet long. These rolls were placed near the elbow of the left arm, and after one end of the thong had been made into a little knot in the form of the Hebrew letter yod, it was wound about the arm in a spiral line, which ended at the top of the middle finger.

PHYSI'CIAN. It was natural that the Jews should have learned something about medicine in Egypt, where, at the time of their stay in the country, 688 this art was cultivated with great zeal. It also appears from several passages in the books of Moses that at his time there were not only midwives, but also surgeons and physicians, among the Jews. Thus it was ordained, Ex 21:19, that he who hurt another should not only pay for the loss of time, but also "cause him to be thoroughly healed." At a later period surgeons and physicians became quite numerous. 2 Chr 16:12; Jer 8:22; Mark 5:26. A special physician was appointed at the temple, and every parish had its surgeon and physician. The art, however, never reached any high degree of perfection in Palestine, because the people were prevented from acquiring sufficient anatomical knowledge by their great aversion to contact with dead bodies; and to the last we find them employing amulets, charms, invocations, etc., as remedies. Some medical knowledge was demanded of the priests, who exercised a kind of sanitary superintendence; also the prophets gave medical advice. 2 Kgs 4:18; 2 Kgs 20:7. But generally medicine was cultivated as a separate profession. Luke was a physician. Col 4:14.

PI-BE'SETH, or PIB'ESETH, a city of Lower Egypt, named from the goddess Bubastis. The hieroglyphic name is "Pe-Bast," "the house of Bast," the Egyptian Artemis, the goddess of fire, the calf-headed goddess, also shown with a lion's head. The name appears in Scripture only as one of the cities of Egypt which Ezekiel foretold would be destroyed. Eze 30:17. From this it would seem to have been a city of great importance. The name appears occasionally in Egyptian annals. An earthquake is mentioned on Manetho's list which took place there about b.c. 2470. Herodotus speaks of the temple of the goddess Bubastis, whom he identifies with the Greek Artemis, as the most beautiful he had ever seen. It was built of the finest red granite, in the midst of a sacred enclosure 600 feet square.

Ruins still bearing the name of Fel Besta mark the site of the ancient city, which was situated on the eastern or Pelusiac branch of the Delta, some 20 miles from the Nile and 40 miles north-east of Memphis. Remains of the ancient houses of brick and of a fortress are found. The temple is entirely ruined, but the names of several of the sovereigns have been traced out, including those of Rameses II. and Shishak. The city was taken by the Persians, b.c. 352, and the walls were overthrown. It continued to exist, however, as a considerable city under the Roman empire.

PICT'URE. See Paint.

PIECE OF GOLD- e.g., 2 Kgs 5:5 - should be "shekels of gold," as there was no coined money in Palestine before the Persian period.


PIECE OF SILVER. In the O.T. the word "pieces," in every passage but one, is inserted in the A.V., the phrase being "a thousand," or the like, "of silver," and may be interpreted "shekels," as the shekel was the common weight for money. See Money.

In the N.T. "piece of silver" is the translation of "drachma," Luke 15:8, and of a coin of uncertain value, probably shekel. Matt 26:15.

PI'ETY occurs only once in our version, 1 Tim 6:4, where it denotes the reverence which children owe their parents.

PIG'EON. See Dove.

PIHAHI'ROTH (mouth, or entrance of caverns, or place of reservoirs), the last place where the Israelites encamped before crossing the Red Sea. Ex 14:2, Gal 1:9; Num 33:7-8. Robinson identifies it with Ajrud, 12 miles from Suez, now a watering-place for caravans, and is approved by Lepsius. In a curious papyrus deciphered by Chabas it is said that Pehir (which seems to be the same as Pihahiroth) was the place from which King Rameses was supplied with garlands of beautiful flowers. Stanley says that there is now no appearance of verdure there.

PI'LATE, John 19:1, or PON'TIUS PI'LATE, Matt 26:2, was appointed procurator of Judaea, a.d. 29. The proper residence of the procurator was Caesarea, but it was customary for him to go to Jerusalem at the great festivals for the purpose of securing order and safety in the city, and thus it happened that Pilate was present in Jerusalem during the Passover when our Lord suffered death. The chief duty of the procurator respected the revenues, but in a minor territory, such as 689 Judaea, which was dependent on a larger contiguous province (Syria), the procurator was the head of the whole administration, and held the highest military and judicial authority; and thus Pilate became the judge of our Lord.

The administration of Pilate was extremely offensive to the Jews, and more than once he drove them to the very verge of insurrection. He seems to have nourished a special contempt for them and taken pleasure in showing it, but when, by cruelty and perfidy, he had brought them into a rage, he generally became frightened and yielded. Having transferred the military headquarters from Caesarea to Jerusalem, he sent the standards with the images of the emperor into the city. As soon as this became known the Jews rushed in great multitudes down to Caesarea, and demanded to have the standards removed, because, as idols, they defiled the Holy City. Pilate permitted the multitude to be surrounded by soldiers, and told them to disperse quietly or else they would be massacred. But when the Jews declared that they would die rather than tolerate the images of the emperor within the walls of Jerusalem, Pilate was frightened and yielded.

The principal feature in the character of Pilate was weakness, and it became piteously apparent during the trial of our Lord. When Jesus was arraigned before him he was not only anxious to avoid trying him, but he once and again, in the most solemn and impressive manner, even in presence of his malicious and bloodthirsty persecutors, declared his conviction of his perfect innocence. He even remonstrated with them on the iniquity and unreasonableness of their conduct, and would fain throw upon them the whole responsibility of the deed they were about to perpetrate. Nevertheless, as soon as he saw that the acquittal of Jesus might be so construed as to arouse the suspicion of the emperor, he renounced his own conviction and delivered up the innocent Saviour to the hands of the enraged multitude to be crucified.

In 36 the governor of Syria raised some severe accusations against Pilate, who went to Rome to defend himself before the emperor. He did not succeed, however, and was banished to Vienne, in 44 Gaul, and there, or, according to another tradition, on the mountain near Lake Lucerne which bears his name, he committed suicide shortly after. The Fathers speak often about an official report of the trial and condemnation of our Lord sent by Pilate to Tiberius, but the Acta Pilati now extant are spurious.

PIL'DASH (flame of fire), a son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen 22:22.

PIL'EHA, one of the chiefs who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. Neh 10:24.

PIL'LAR. This word is often used metaphorically in the Bible, thus a pillar of fire, cloud, smoke, etc., denoting a fire, a cloud, or a mass of smoke in the form of a pillar. Ex 13:21; Jud 20:40. Besides, in architecture, where it was employed both as support and ornament, it was common to erect a pillar as a monument of some distinguished person or event. Gen 28:18; Gen 35:20; Josh 24:26.

"The plain of the pillar," Jud 9:6, properly the "oak of the pillar," a tree near Shechem under which Abimelech was crowned.


PILL'ED. Gen 30:37. The same with "peeled."

PIL'LOW, a cushion for the head. Mark 4:38. Jacob used a stone for his pillow. Gen 28:11, 1 Sam 30:18; in Eze 13:18, Ruth 4:20 pillows are spoken of as an appliance of luxury.

PIL'TAI (whom Jehovah delivers), a priest. Neh 12:17.

PINE. Isa 41:19; Isa 60:13. This is mentioned as a tree of Lebanon. The root of the original word denotes "curvature" or "duration," neither of which meanings suits the pine. Tristram suggests the elm, a species of which grows upon Lebanon, and Gesenius the oak, but the proper translation is very doubtful. Another word is rendered "pine branches " in Neh 8:15, where the Oil Tree (to which refer) is undoubtedly meant. (See cut, p. 690.)

PIN'NACLE. The word translated "pinnacle," Matt 4:5; Luke 4:9, signifies, not a summit, but a wing; and the part of the temple to which our Lord was taken by Satan was probably the elevation over the roof of Solomon's 690 porch, to which there was a passage by stairs, and which overlooked the valley on the east, and had beneath a perpendicular depth of 600 or 700 feet, for at this part of the valley a wall had been

The Eastern Pine.

carried up to a level with the ground on which the temple stood (some historians say 750 feet).

PI'NON (darkness), one of the dukes of Edom. Gen 36:41; 1 Chr 1:52. His tribe was settled, according to later traditions, at Punon, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness.

PINS. See Nail, Weaving.

PIPE, or FLUTE, similar to the present instrument, was the principal perforated wind instrument among the Hebrews, as the harp was the principal string instrument. It was made of different materials, reed, copper, bronze, etc., and was played on all occasions - the procession, 1 Kgs 1:40, the banquet, Isa 5:12, the wedding, the funeral. Matt 9:23. Thus, in times of joy and in times of sorrow, in the religious festivals and in private life, the pipe, the simplest, and probably the oldest, musical instrument, was heard. See Music and Musical Instruments.

PI'RAM (perhaps fleet as the wild ass), king of Jarmuth, one of the Amorite chiefs in the time of Joshua. Josh 10:3.

PIR'ATHON (princely), a place in Ephraim, the home and burial-place of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel. Jud 12:15. One of David's mighty men was a Pirathonite. 1 Chr 27:14; 1 Chr 11:31; 2 Sam 23:30. Robinson proposed Ferata, 6 miles from Shechem; the Pal. Memoirs suggest Feron, a hamlet on the edge of a plain, 10 miles west of Samaria, as its site.


  1. One of the judges of Israel, Abdon ben-Hillel. Jud 12:13, 2 Sam 20:15.

  2. A captain in David's army, and one of the king's guard. 1 Chr 27:14; 2 Sam 23:30; 1 Chr 11:31.

PIS'GAH"(hill, or the height), the summit from which Moses, before his death, gained his view of the Promised Land. It was in Moab, one of the mountains of Abarim, and the top of Nebo. It was in the territory afterward assigned to Reuben, and thus was north of the Arnon. Num 21:20; Deut 3:27; Deut 4:49; Deut 34:1; Josh 13:20. Pisgah had cultivated land. Balaak brought Balaam "into the field of Zophim, to the top of Pisgah," and there "built seven altars." Num 23:14.

Situation. - While the general position of Pisgah is clearly given in the Scriptures, the precise location has been sharply disputed, and is yet unsettled. So able a writer as Dean Stanley says: "In the long line of those Eastern mountains which so constantly meet the view of the traveller in all the western parts of Palestine, the eye vainly strives to discern any point emerging from this horizontal platform which may be fixed as the top of Nebo. Nothing but a fuller description than has ever yet been given of 691 these regions can determine the spot where the great lawgiver and leader of his people looked down upon their embattled ranks, and over the 'land which he was to see with his eyes, but was not to go in thither.'" - Sinai and Palestine, p. 294.

Some scholars have questioned whether "pisgah" is a proper name. It occurs eight times in Scripture: four times with Ashdoth. In Deut 4:4, Gal 1:9 the English version reads "springs of Pisgah." The Septuagint renders "Pisgah" and "Ashdoth-pisgah" as a proper name only four times; the Jewish Targums render it "hill." The English version regards it as a proper name, and it has a prominent place in Christian literature.

The great interest which Nebo and Pisgah possess, as the scene of the last days of Israel's lawgiver, has led recent travellers carefully to explore the region in order to discover the location of these historic peaks. Robinson long ago suggested that the name Nehd might represent the ancient Nebo. In 1868, De Saulcy, when about an hour's ride from Hesban on his way to Ma'in, found a peak which the Arabs called Jehel Nebu. This he regarded as the long-lost Nebo, and says he was proud to recover the famous mount so long searched for without success. Among other explorers who have visited the region are Tristram in 1864, and again in 1872; Due de Luynes, 1864; Captain Warren, 1867; and the expeditions of the American Exploration Society in 1873 and 1877.

In 1875 the American Society issued an extended statement on the identification of Pisgah by the Rev. J. A. Paine. He thinks De Saulcy mistook the height of Nebi 'Ahdullah for Jebel Neba; he likewise rejects the description of Tristram as inaccurate, and infers that Due de Luynes may have "suppressed the real name, Jebel Neba, and endeavored to substitute a term of his own, Jebel Mura, as the Arabic name of the mountain, "though he holds" that the members of Due de Luynes' party were the first to ascend Mount Nebo with a consciousness that they were standing on the summit supposed to be made sacred by the death of the great lawgiver." Mr. Paine claims to have discovered that the name Jebel Siaghak is applied by the Arabs to the extreme western headland or peak near Jebel Neba; and after noticing the extent of the view and the grandeur of the scenery declares: "Two conclusions are irresistible - namely: the highest portion of the range is Nebo: the extreme headland of the range is Pisgah." He urges in favor of this identification of Pisgah with Jebel Siaghah: (1) the similarity in the names; (2) the position of Siaghah, "the only headland overlooking the circuit of the Jordan - the place above all others to be selected for the sake of a remarkable view;" Mr. Paine says: "Two-thirds of the Dead Sea stretches out an azure sheet to the southward, and beyond it the Negeb Moses saw." Deut 34:1-4.

His theory of the site of Pisgah is sharply questioned by Wolcott, Tristram, Warren, and others, chiefly on the ground that it fails to meet the requirements of the biblical narrative, and that Siaghah is not the modern equivalent of Pisgah. Merrill, as the results of a later exploration, says: "Mr. Paine makes the lowest and most western of his five flat summits to be the Pisgah of Moses. The most prominent summit directly south of 'Ayun Musa is called by Due de Luynes Jebel Musa, and is covered with ruins." Mr. Paine's theory places Pisgah a quarter of a mile south-west of this ruin summit, while Due de Luynes regards a higher peak in the opposite direction as Pisgah. Merrill favors this "highest point and most commanding outlook" as the probable point to which Moses ascended. (See East of the Jordan, pp. 242-250.) The biblical statement seems to designate the summit of Nebo, Deut 34:1; and if Nebo is Jebel Neba, as many explorers now hold, then Pisgah should be its most prominent peak. The Due de Luynes gives the following graphic description of the view from this mount:

"Observing that a second height of this mountain seemed more elevated and to give a perspective of greater extent over the Dead Sea and the Holy Land, we proceed thither. In spite of the hazy state of the horizon, we ascertained that from this elevation one discerned the north and the north-west shore of the Dead Sea from the mouth of the Jordan as far as nearly to Jebel Esdoum and to Jebel Safan, the whole mountain-chain from Hebron to the Quarantania Mount, 692 all the land from the mountain of Hesban, of Jebel Osha, and of es-Salt, even into the Ghor, to the mountains of Nablus, of Jenin, and of Nazareth, Mount Tabor, a part of its plain, and even Banias, as our guides assured us; only they said that one could not see the snow of Hermon, even in the purest atmosphere. The perspective of that elevated spot was without limits, and its effect of the utmost majesty. It is understood that tradition [Scripture] causes Moses to be conducted to this place by Jehovah, in order to show him all the Promised Land. The view from this second height does not reach as far as the place where Segor is admitted to be, the refuge of Lot, whether situated at Wady es-Safieh, or supposed to lie in Wady Eddraa. . . . We were, then, on the summit of Pisgah, among the heights of Mount Nebo, and in the chain called Abarim; we were beholding the same spectacle that Jehovah spread before Moses, after having prohibited him from crossing the Jordan." - Voyage d'Exploration a la Mer Morte (1866-67), pp. 150-152.

PISID'IA (pitchy), a district of Asia Minor. The boundaries varied at different times. It lay to the north of Pamphylia and to the south of Phrygia, and was during the republic contained in the province of Cilicia. The ranges of the Taurus Mountains extended through it, and the mountains are cut by deep defiles, through which dash rapid torrents. The inhabitants also were rough highlanders, famous for their warlike character, and long maintaining their independence. They were also notorious robbers, and in this region Paul may have been "in perils of waters, in perils of robbers." 2 Cor 11:26.

Paul twice visited Pisidia, passing directly north from Perga to Antioch, Acts 13:14, and again returning through Pisidia to Pamphylia. Acts 14:21-24. See Antioch.

PI'SON (the full-flowing, Gesenius, or the free-flowing, Furst), one of the four "heads" into which the stream that watered Eden was parted. Gen 2:11. There have been numberless conjectural identifications of the Pison, which of course will depend for their likelihood upon the location of Eden, which see. If Eden was in Armenia, near the sources of the Euphrates and Tigris, then the ancient Pison may be the modern Phasis.

The Rev. L.W. Bacon sums up these views by stating that "for the river of Havilah, the Pison, some like (for the sound of the name doubtless) the Phasis; others (because it is so great and beautiful), the Halys; and others, the Cyrus, flowing into the Araxes." The above writer would identify the Pison with the Jorak or Acampis, that rises in the same mountain with the Araxes and the Euphrates, and bounds Colchis on the west.

If, on the other hand, Eden was near the mouth of the Euphrates, some would identify the Pison with the river Jaab, which empties into the Tigris near Kurnah. - Newman's Babylon, p. 68. Among other streams which have been suggested as identical with the Pison are the Indus, the Ganges, the Hyphasis, the Nile, etc. Dr. Tayler Lewis suggests the northern shore of the Arabian Sea. - Lange's Genesis, p. 219. See Havilah.

PIS'PAH (expansion), an Asherite chief. 1 Chr 7:38.

PIT. This term is used to render several Hebrew words. It denotes a cistern or a reservoir, which the Eastern people are in the habit of preparing in those regions where there are few or no springs for the purpose of preserving rain-water for travellers and cattle. These cisterns and trenches are often without water, there being no supply for them except from the rain. It was into such a dry cistern that Joseph was cast. In old decayed cisterns the water leaks out or becomes slimy, and such a pit becomes the image of dreariness and misery. Jer 2:13; Ps 40:2; Zech 9:11.

Next, the word is used for the grave and as an image of the realm of death, Ps 28:1; Isa 30:3, Ps 30:9; Ps 88:4, and finally it is employed as the name of the game-trap. Eze 19:8. The pit here spoken of is used at this day in all wild countries. A deep hole in the earth is covered very slightly with boughs or shrubs, upon which is placed a living lamb, which by its cries allures the lion or wolf; and when the beast makes a sudden spring upon his prey, he is caught in the pit below. This affords a significant 693 figure of the devices of crafty men and devils. Ps 119:85; Prov 26:27; Eze 19:4.

PITCH. This word is used in the Bible for asphalt or bitumen, a light, inflammable, and nearly black mineral which in its soft form is called slime. Gen 14:10. In this latter state it was formerly obtained in pits near the Dead Sea (hence called the "Lake of Asphaltites"). On exposure this pitch becomes dry and hard like mortar, for which it was often used, especially in stone-work. It was also employed for coating the outside of vessels and for making watertight the papyrus boats of Egypt. Gen 11:3; Zech 6:14; Ex 2:3. There is reference to its inflammable nature in Isa 34:9. The ancients obtained pitch in various localities of the Old World. At the present time fragments of asphalt occasionally rise from the bottom of the Dead Sea, having been dislodged by earthquakes and other causes, and are washed ashore.

PITCH'ER. The custom of drawing water in pitchers still prevails in the East, an earthen vessel with two handles or in modern times a skin-bottle being used for the purpose; and the letting down of the pitcher upon the hand. Gen 24:18, justifies the inference that it was carried upon the head or left shoulder and balanced with the right hand, and when presented was rested on the left hand.

PI'THOM (house, or temple, of Tum, who was the Sun-god of Heliopolis), a "treasure city," or depot of provisions, built by the Israelites in Goshen. Ex 1:11. It was probably not far from the "Bitter Lakes" of Suez and near the canal. Some critics identify it with the Patoumos of Herodotus and the Thoum of the Antonine Itinerary, between Heliopolis and Pelusium, 50 Roman miles from the former and 48 miles from the latter. M. Naville identifies Pithom with PaTum, "setting sun," and with Tel el-Maskhuta, where he made excavations in 1883, and found remarkable ruins, brick grain-chambers, and similar evidences of a "store city." The conclusions of M. Naville have been disputed, but Poole, Sayce, and other Egyptologists accept his '"find" as settling the question of Pithom. According to this view, Rameses II. was its founder.

PI'THON (probably harmless), a son of Micah, a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:35; 1 Chr 9:41.

PLAGUE, an eminently contagious and destructive disease, a virulent typhus accompanied by loathsome eruptions, prevalent in the East from the earliest ages, and still ravaging Egypt even in modern times. Ex 11:1. Besides in this its specific sense, the sacred writers also employ the word to express any terrific and desolating disease, Lev 13:3; 1 Kgs 8:37, or any severe calamity or scourge, Mark 5:29, Num 32:34; Luke 7:21, or as a general term for the judgment of God. Ex 9:14. The judgments of God on Pharaoh are called plagues. In the A.V. "plague" is the translation of seven words.

PLAGUES OF E'GYPT. When the Lord had ordered Moses to lead the people of Israel out of Goshen and conduct them to Canaan, and Pharaoh, hardening his heart, opposed the command of the Lord and would not let the people go, ten fearful plagues fell upon the land of Egypt.

  1. The waters of the Nile changed into blood; the fishes died, and no man could drink of the river. But the magicians imitated the miracle, and Pharaoh hardened his heart. Ex 7:14-25.

  2. Then followed the plague of the frogs; but this too was imitated by the magicians, and Pharaoh hardened his heart still more. Ex 8:1-15.

  3. With the third plague, however - that of lice - the magicians gave in, and acknowledged, "This is the finger of God." Ex 8:16-19.

  4. The fourth plague sent swarms of flies out over the country, and the people were devoured by their venomous bite. Ps 78:45. Pharaoh now relented and declared himself willing to yield, but on the removal of the plague he again hardened his heart. Ex 8:20-32.

  5. A very grievous murrain attacked the horses, asses, camels, oxen, and sheep of Egypt, while those of the children of Israel were free. Ex 9:1-7.

  6. Boils broke out upon man and beast, even upon the magicians themselves. Ex 9:8-12.

  7. Then a frightful thunderstorm, with hail, passed over the land of Egypt, destroying the growing crops, breaking trees, overthrowing buildings every


where, but sparing Goshen. Alarmed, Pharaoh promised to yield, but on the withdrawal of the plague he again hardened his heart. Ex 9:13-35.

  1. Locusts followed, and ate up what the hail-storm had left; but Pharaoh sent Moses and Aaron away from his presence, and heeded not the warning. Ex 10:1-20.

  2. A thick darkness fell for three days upon the land. For three days no man was able to rise. But in Goshen there was light. Then Pharaoh was seized by despair, and he threatened Moses with death if he ever saw his face again. Ex 10:21-28.

  3. Finally, the first-born of the Egyptians were smitten at midnight; "and Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead." Ex 12:29-30. Pharaoh now yielded, and allowed the children of Israel to leave Egypt.

These ten plagues were doubtless spread over a long time, and probably they followed, as much as possible, the order of the seasons; for some of them were not only distinctively Egyptian, but really only an aggravation of yearly maladies. Canon Cook, in the Bible Commentary, distributes them thus: The first was toward the end of June, when the Nile begins to overflow. The second came three months later, at the time of the greatest inundation, in September,and was an attack on a native worship. The third was early in October, and the fourth after the subsidence of the inundation. The fifth was in December or January; the sixth, shortly after; the seventh, at the time when hailstorms occur now in Egypt, from the middle of February to early March. The eighth was when the leaves are green, toward the middle of March. The ninth was peculiarly Egyptian, and was the immediate precursor of the tenth. During this time the Israelites had frequent opportunities to gather, and thus were prepared for their exodus.

It is interesting to know that the so-called ten persecutions of the Christian Church are thus numbered in remembrance of the ten plagues. The number, in reality, is either greater or less - greater if all be counted, less if only the important persecutions be enumerated.

PLAIN, This word is often used alone, leaving the particular plain intended to be inferred from the connection; as, for instance, in Deut 1:1; Deut 2:8; or in Gen 13:12; 2 Kgs 25:4, etc., where the plain of Jordan is obviously intended. In other passages the name of the plain is added, such as Esdraelon, Sharon, etc., which see.

PLAIT'ING, braiding the hair. 1 Pet 3:3. The business of dressing the hair is mentioned by Jewish writers as an art by itself, practised by women. The hair was folded up in curls, tied up in knots, and put into the form of horns and towers, made by their crisping-pins with their cauls and round tires, etc. Isa 3:18-22.

PLAN'ETS. 2 Kgs 23:5. See Stars.

PLAS'TER was used by the ancient Hebrews as a wall-covering. Lev 14:42, Gen 24:48; Dan 5:5. It is also mentioned as forming a coat over the stones on which the Law was to be engrossed. Deut 27:2, Ex 6:4.

PLAT'TED, woven together. Matt 27:29.

PLEDGE, that which is given as security for the performance of a contract. The Jewish law contained many wise and benevolent provisions on this subject, Ex 22:25-26; Deut 24:6, 1 Kgs 16:10, Jud 4:12, 2 Sam 21:17, and anything like oppression in respect to pledges was severely reprobated. Job 22:6; Job 24:3-7. The hand-mill could not be taken as a pledge, and the garment, if taken, should be rendered back before sunset. The creditor was not allowed to enter the house of the debtor in order to take the pledge, but was compelled to wait before the door until it was brought to him.

PLE'IADES, a cluster of stars, placed by modern astronomers in the neck or near the shoulder of the constellation Taurus. They appear about the middle of April, and hence are associated with the return of spring, the season of sweet influences. Job 9:9; Job 38:31; Am 5:8.

PLOUGH. There can be no doubt that the ancient Hebrew plough was substantially like that still used in Syria, so unchangeable are the customs of the East. It was very light and simple, perhaps merely a crotched stick, having a wooden share shod with one of those 695 triangular or heart-shaped points of iron which the inhabitants of the Palestine towns still do a great business in sharpening. 1 Sam 13:20. A single upright held by one hand, Luke 9:62, while the goad was carried in the other, guided this primitive instrument, which turned the earth equally on both sides. The coulter is not now used in Oriental ploughing, and probably never was, so that in the above passage of First Samuel some other implement must be intended.

Eastern Plough.

The slight scratching which constitutes Eastern ploughing never requires more than one pair of cattle, and often a single cow or ass or camel was doubtless used, as now. In ignorance or disregard of Deut 22:10 the modern Syrians often use the ox and ass unequally yoked. Sometimes several teams work together and move in succession across the field, as did Elisha and his servants. 1 Kgs 19:19. The writer has seen eleven yoke thus ploughing in the same Jordan valley.

Land was probably, as now, often broken up before the rainy season, that it might be rendered absorbent. Steep places were tilled with mattocks. Isa 7:25. Fields were frequently ploughed twice. It seems to be, more than formerly, the practice in Palestine to drop the seed in the furrow just before a plough which covers it.

Ploughing is mentioned as early as the time of Job. It is also spoken of in Gen 45:6, for "earing" (akin to "arable") properly means "ploughing." 1 Sam 8:12. The prophecies of Isa 2:4 and Joel 3:10 are not here to be overlooked.

PLUMB'-LINE, Am 7:7-8, PLUM'MET, Isa 28:17, a line by which a plummet or leaden weight hangs, and by the application of which the exact perpendicular may be ascertained.

POCH'ERETH (snaring), one of Solomon's servants, whose children returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:57; Neh 7:59.

POETRY, HE'BREW. The Jews were an imaginative people. With them poetry and music, closely connected, accompanied domestic and social life in all its more prominent scenes, such as the wedding, the harvest, and other feasts. Am 6:5; Ps 4:7. Victory in battle was celebrated by song; see, for instance, the song of Moses, Ex 15, and the song of Deborah. Judg 5. The death of a beloved person was deplored in songs; see, for instance, the maidens' song over Jephthah's daughter, Jud 11:40, and David's song at the death of Saul and Jonathan, Jud 2 Sam, 1:18, and afterward at the death of Abner. 2 Sam 3:33. It is therefore quite natural that so large a part of the O.T. - more than one-third - - consists of poetry, but these Poetical Books - Job, the Psalms, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon, to which may be further added, besides numerous poetic fragments in the historical books, such as Gen 4:23; Ex 32:18; Num 21:17, the Lamentations of Jeremiah and the Prophets (with the exception of Daniel), as most of these writings, though not strictly poetry, oscillate between poetry and prose - were in the Jewish canon included among the Hagiographa, or Holy Writings.

In Hebrew poetry two forms, the lyrical and the didactic, predominate. To the didactic the poetic portions of the prophetic writings belong. There is no epic and no dramatic poetry, strictly so called, in the Bible. The book of Job and the Canticles are sometimes called Hebrew dramas, and have undoubtedly a dramatic drapery, but the former is chiefly didactic, the latter lyrical. The Psalms are, without any qualification, the highest specimens of sacred poetry which mankind possesses; and in spite of the very strong marks of nationality they bear, both in style and in imagery, they have become, nearly to the whole world, the most striking and most complete expression of that which moves deepest in the human soul. They owe this pre-eminence to their spiritual character. The Hebrew poetry is now passionate and pathetic, as in the Psalms and the Prophets; 696 now contemplative and didactic, as in the Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. But in both cases the pervading spiritual character is religious.

The relation between man and God, his Creator and his Judge - that is, his Father - is, directly or indirectly, the sole theme of all Hebrew lyrics, and in the treatment of this theme, its awfulness and its consolation, man has not failed to feel the inspiration from above.

The power of Hebrew poetry to strike the imagination and move the heart - its poetical essence - has always been recognized; but its poetical form was for a long time overlooked, and is hardly yet fully understood. Hebrew lyrics have a division into verses and strophes, and employ occasionally alliterations and rhymes, but they have no regular metrical system, the verses containing an unequal number of syllables and the strophes an unequal number of verses. They were destined to be sung, and consequently adapted simply to some melody. The principal element of their poetical form is therefore their rhythm, and, again, this rhythm depends much more on the ideas than on the words. Its principal feature is the so-called parallelism - a correspondence between two or more sentences of similar or opposite meaning by which the idea receives its full and harmonious expression. The correspondence may be one of harmony or of contrast or of progressive thought, and accordingly it is called synonymous or antithetic or synthetic parallelism. Synonymous parallelism expresses the same idea in different but equivalent words, as in the following examples:

"What is man that thou art mindful of him?

And the son of man that thou visitest him?"- Ps 8:4.

"The heavens declare the glory of God;

And the firmament showeth his handiwork."- Ps 19:1-2

Antithetic parallelism expresses the idea through a contrast, as in the following examples:

"Evil-doers shall be cut off;

But those that wait upon the Lord, they shall inherit the earth." - Ps 37:9.

" A soft answer turneth away wrath;

But grievous words stir up anger."

Prov 15:1.

Synthetic parallelism expresses the idea through a progress or gradation of thoughts, as in the following example:

"The law of Jehovah is perfect, converting the soul.

The testimony of Jehovah is sure, making wise the simple.

The statutes of Jehovah are right, rejoicing

the heart.

The commandment of Jehovah is pure, enlightening the eyes.

The fear of Jehovah is clean, enduring for


The judgments of Jehovah are truth, they

are righteous altogether.

More to be desired are they than gold, yea,

than much fine gold." - Ps 19:7.

POI'SON. This word is in our translation the rendering of two different Hebrew words, of which the one, derived from a root signifying "heat," is applied to animal poisons, Deut 32:24, 1 Sam 15:33; Ps 58:4; while the other, though its derivation is somewhat doubtful, seems to have been applied to vegetable poisons. The latter is sometimes translated with "gall" or "water of gall." Jer 8:14; Jer 9:15.

POLL, POLLED. When used as a noun, "poll" means a head. Num 3:47; and when used as a verb, it means to cut the hair from the head. 2 Sam 14:26.

POL'LUX. See Castor.

POLYG'AMY. See Marriage.

POMEGRAN'ATE (pronounce pum-gran'nate). This word designates a large bush (Punica granatum) of the myrtle family, and its fruit. Our English name comes from the Latin, which means "grained apple," referring to the beautiful pink pips or grains which fill the interior. The pomegranate has been cultivated from early times in Syria, Num 13:23; Deut 8:8, and the warmer regions of the East. It rarely exceeds 10 feet in height, and has small lance-shaped, glossy leaves, of a reddish-green when young, but becoming pea-green and remaining alive through the winter. The flowers are of a brilliant scarlet or orange, and in August or September the fruit ripens. This is of the size of an orange, flattened at the ends like an apple, is of a beautiful brown-red color, Song 4:3; Song 6:7, has a hard rind, and is filled with pulp of a highly-grateful flavor. The abundant juice was made into wine. Zech 8:2, and used for a cooling drink. Some cultivated trees 697 bear sweet fruit and some sour, while the wild pomegranates yield only a small and worthless apple.

Rimmon, the Hebrew word for this fruit, gave name, in whole or in part, to several places in Palestine, near which the pomegranate was doubtless abundant.

The Pomegranate.

The bush of this kind under which Saul tarried must have been of unusual size. 1 Sam 14:2.

"The graceful shape of the pomegranate was selected as one of the ornaments on the skirt of the high priest's blue robe and ephod, alternating with the chieftains, golden bells, Ex 28:33-34; Ex 39:24-26, and hence was adopted as one of the favorite devices in the decoration of Solomon's temple, being carved on the capitals of the pillars. 1 Kgs 7:18, etc. Whether the design was taken from the fruit or the flower, it would form a graceful ornament. We have frequently noticed the pomegranate sculptured on fragments of columns among the ruins of Oriental temples.

"The Syrian deity Rimmon has been supposed by some to have been a personification of the pomegranate, as the emblem of the fructifying principle of nature, the fruit being sacred to Venus, who was worshipped under this title. Hadad-rimmon is mentioned in Zech 12:11, Hadad being the Sun-god of the Syrians; and when combined with the symbol of the pomegranate, he stands for the Sun-god, who ripened the fruits, and then, dying with the departing summer, is mourned 'with the mourning of Hadad-rimmon.' "- Tristram.

POM'MELS, convex projections on the capitals of pillars. 2 Chr 4:12-13. In 1 Kgs 7:41 the same ornament is called "bowls."

PONDS. The ponds of Egypt were sheets of water along the Nile, left by its inundations. Ex 7:19; Song of Solomon 8:5.

PON'TUS (the sea), the north-eastern province of Asia Minor, bordering on the Euxine Sea. Under the Romans the name comprised the whole district from the river Halys on the west, separating it from Bithynia, to Colchis and Armenia on the east; it was separated on the south from Cappadocia by lofty mountains. It was originally considered a part of Cappadocia, and called "Cappadocia on the Sea." Pontus rose into power under Mithridates, who was defeated by Pompey, b.c. 66, after a long struggle, and was brought under the Roman yoke. The western portion of the empire of Mithridates was united partly with Bithynia and partly with Galatia, but for a long period the region properly called Pontus remained under the government of independent chieftains. It was really made a province under Nero before Paul's death. Polemo II., who married Bernice, great granddaughter of Herod the Great and sister of Herod Agrippa, Acts 25:13, was its last king. This marriage of a Jewess with the king must have had an influence upon the Jewish population of Pontus, of whom some representatives were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost. Acts 2:9. Aquila, a Jew born in Pontus, Acts 18:2, was a very useful helper of Paul, and Peter addressed his First Epistle "to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus." 1 Pet 1:1. It formed part of the later Greek empire; became the seat of a new Christian empire founded by Alexius Comnenus in the thirteenth century; was conquered by the Turks in a.d. 1461, and remained under their dominion. It corresponds nearly with the modern province of Trebizond, which came into some prominence during the Russo-Turkish war in 1877-78. The country contains valuable mineral deposits, extensive forests, and some fertile districts.


POOLS. See Bethesda, Siloam, Solomon's Pools, Jerusalem.

POOLS OF SOLOMON. Eccl 2:6. See Solomon.

POOLS OF WATER. Eccl 2:6. See Cisterns, Water.

POOR. By ordaining that land could be sold only for a term of years, but should return to its original owner at the jubilee, Lev 25:23-28, the Mosaic Law found an effective check to pauperism. But also in other ways it took great care of the poor. All kinds of offering and sacrifice were accommodated to their condition. Lev 5:7, Rev 1:11; Neh 12:8. The gleanings of fields and vineyards and the harvest of the seventh year and part of the third tithe belonged to them. Lev 19:10; Lev 25:25-41. Judges were charged to do them justice, but not unjustly to favor them for their poverty. Ex 23:6; Lev 19:15; Ps 82:4. God claimed to be the special protector of them. Prov 14:31.

In the N.T. the word "poor" is used figuratively to denote those who are humble of heart. Matt 5:3; but also literally, as when Jesus said "The poor have the gospel preached to them," Matt 11:5, and touchingly declared, "Ye have the poor always with you; but me ye have not always." Matt 26:11.

POP'LAR (white). The storax (see Stacte), being ordinarily only a bush, does not meet the conditions of Hos 4:13. Four or more species of poplar are found in the Holy Land, and this fact, with the white appearance of some kinds - e.g., Populus alba - warrants us in preferring the A.V. Gen 30:37.

POR'ATHA (favored by fate), one of the ten sons of Haman whom the Jews slew in Shushan. Esth 9:8.

PORCH. Jud 3:23. See Dwellings.

PORCH, SOLOMON'S. John 10:23. See Temple.

POR'CIUS FES'TUS. Acts 24:27. See Festus.

POR'TERS, such as attend the gate of a city or house to open and shut it. 2 Sam 18:26; 2 Kgs 7:10. The temple had 4000 of them. 1 Chr 23:5. They were classified, and had leaders or directors. 1 Chr 26:1-19; 2 Chr 8:14. Besides keeping guard at the temple, they had also charge of the freewill offerings and of the treasure-chambers of their respective wards. 2 Chr 31:14.

POR'TION. Among the Egyptians, Greeks, and Hebrews of ancient times the portion of food intended for every guest was set before him separately. When it was intended to confer special honor upon any one a portion much greater than common was given to him. Gen 43:34. A "worthy portion," 1 Sam 1:5, means, literally, a "double portion."


POST (the Hebrew word means a runner), a messenger or bearer of tidings, especially of royal despatches. Esth 3:13, 2 Sam 20:15; Am 8:14; Jer 51:31. That they were employed in very early times is proved by Job's comparison. Job 9:25. To convey intelligence quickly, the Persian kings placed sentinels at proper distances, who, by crying to one another, gave notices of public occurrences. This method being impracticable for secret intelligence, Cyrus established posts that rode night and day. Persians and Romans impressed men and beasts into this public service, and to this fact our Lord alludes. Matt 5:41. The regularity and swiftness of the Roman posts were admirable.

POT. See Pottery.

POT'IPHAR (belonging to the sun), a distinguished officer in Pharaoh's court, who elevated Joseph to a place of trust and committed to him the charge of the household. Gen 37:36.

POTI-PHE'RAH, a priest or prince of On, and father-in-law of Joseph, Gen 41:45. The marriage of Joseph to Asenath and her conversion to faith in the one God form the subject of an old romance which exists in a Latin, Greek, and Syriac version. It is chiefly made up of Jewish legends, but belongs, nevertheless, to the Christian era. The title is The Life and Confession of Asenath, Daughter of Pentephres [Potipherah] of Heliopolis, a narrative [of what happened] when the beautiful Joseph took her to wife. The story is thus summarized (Schaff, Through Bible Lands, pp. 57, 58): Asenath was a proud beauty, living in great splendor with seven attendants, and disdaining all lovers except Pharaoh's oldest son, who loved her, but was forbidden by his father to marry her. When 699 she saw Joseph from her window as he entered Heliopolis to collect corn in the first year of plenty, she was captivated by his beauty, ran down, hailed him as "My lord, blessed of the most high God," and at her father's bidding went forward to kiss him. Joseph refused to kiss an idolatrous woman, but, seeing her tears, he laid his hand upon her head and prayed God to convert her to the true faith, and then departed. She threw her idols out of the window, repented seven days, saw an angel of comfort, and was married to Joseph by Pharaoh with great pomp.

POT'TAGE. Gen 25:29. At this day, in many parts of the East, lentiles are boiled or stewed like beans with oil and garlic, and make a dish of a chocolate color, which is eaten as pottage. Other ingredients were used, as in soups of modern times. 2 Kgs 4:39.

POT'TER'S FIELD, THE. Matt 27:7. See Aceldama.

POT'TERY. The potter's art was one of the first kinds of manufacture in

Egyptian Potter and Pottery.

which man became proficient. The Israelites worked at the trade while in Egypt, Ps 81:6; they used earthenware during their passage through the wilderness; and from the earliest time of their settlement in Canaan the trade was established among them. In Jerusalem there was a royal establishment of potters, 1 Chr 4:23, from which it has been conjectured that the potter's field received its name.

The method employed by the Israelites and often hinted at by the prophets seems to have been exactly the same as that employed by the Egyptians, such as we find it minutely illustrated by Egyptian wall-paintings. The clay was trodden by the feet into a uniform paste, Isa 41:25; Wisd. 16:7, and a sufficient mass was then placed by the potter on the wooden disc of the wheel. The wheel was turned by the hand or worked by a treadle, Isa 45:9; Jer 18:3, but generally by an attendant, and not by the potter himself. When finished the vessel was coated with glaze and burnt in a furnace. Such vessels were used, however, not only for culinary purposes, but also as a means of preservation; from Jer 32:14 it appears that deeds were kept in them.

POUND. See Measures. In 1 Kgs 10:17; Ezra 2:69; Neh 7:71-72 it is the translation of the Hebrew manch; in the N.T. of mina, Luke 19:13, etc., and also of litra, John 12:3; the first and last words refer to quantity, the second to value as money. See Appendix, pp. 938, 939.

PRAETO'RIUM. The headquarters of the Roman governors; in Scripture three such places are mentioned.

  1. At Jerusalem. Mark 15:16. The same Greek word is rendered "common hall" and, margin, "governor's house," Matt 27:27; "hall of judgment" and "judgment-hall." John 18:28, 1 Sam 15:33; 1 Kgs 19:9. It occupied a vast rectangular space and contained barracks for the soldiers by whom Jerusalem was kept in subjection. This praetorium communicated with the temple, which was situated on the eastern hill, by a causeway crossing the Tyropoeon valley. It was in this praetorium that Jesus was tried before Pilate. Some, however, would identify the praetorium with the fortress Antonia, at the northwest corner of the temple-area. See Lange on Matt 27:27.

  2. At Caesarea, Acts 23:35; translated "Herod's judgment-hall." This was the gorgeous palace in which Herod the Great resided during his latter days. It probably stood on the commanding eminence near the middle of the city. There Paul was kept a prisoner for two years.

  3. At Rome, Phil 1:13; translated


"palace," and in the margin "Caesar's court." This has been interpreted - (1) As in the A.V., "the palace" - i.e. the palace of the Caesars, on the Mount Palatine, which was garrisoned by a body-guard of soldiers called Praetorians. (2) As the general camp of the Praetorian guard, situated just without the city walls, before reaching the fourth milestone. It was established by the emperor Tiberius.

PRAISE. In the ordinary Scripture use of the term, it denotes an act of worship, and is often used synonymously with thanksgiving. It is called forth by the contemplation of the character and attributes of God, however they are displayed; and it implies a grateful sense and acknowledgment of past mercies. Expressions of praise abound in the Psalms of David, in almost every variety of force and beauty. Ps 33:1; Ps 138:1; Ps 106:2.

PRAY, PRAYER, the most essential act of private devotion and public worship in all ages and nations. It is rooted and grounded in man's moral and religious constitution, enjoined by God, and commended by the highest examples. It is speaking to God and offering to him our petitions for mercies needed, and our thanks for mercies obtained. It embraces invocation, supplication, intercession, and thanks. 1 Tim 2:1. It may be either mental or vocal, private or public, in the closet or in the family or in the house of God. We are commanded to pray for others as well as for ourselves, Jas 5:16; for kings and all that are in authority, 1 Tim 2:2; for kindred, friends, and even for our enemies, persecutors, and slanderers. Matt 5:44. God is the only object of prayer and worship. Matt 4:10; Deut 6:13; Num 10:20. We may pray for all things needful to our body and soul, for our daily bread as well as for all spiritual mercies. Prayer should be offered to God the Father, in the name of the Son, through the Holy Spirit. But inasmuch as Christ and the Holy Spirit are strictly divine in essence and character, they may also be directly addressed in prayer. Comp. Acts 7:59-60; 1 Cor 1:2; Phil 2:9. To pray in the name of Christ means to pray in harmony with his Spirit, trusting in his all-prevailing mediation, with humility and resignation to the holy will of God. Such prayers will always be heard in God's own best way and time (which, however, often differs from our own short-sighted views), and will always have a wholesome effect upon the soul of him who prays. Comp. Matt 6:6; Matt 7:7-12; Eze 21:22; John 16:23-24, Acts 11:26; Jas 5:15. The Holy Spirit enables us to pray aright. Rom 8:26.

All the great saints of God were fervent and mighty in prayer - Abraham, Gen 20:17; Jacob, Gen 32:26-31; Moses Num 11:2; Deut 9:19-20; Joshua Josh 10:12; Samuel, 1 Sam 12:18 David (all his Psalms); Elijah, 1 Kgs 17:1; 1 Kgs 18:42, 1 Kgs 18:45; Jas 5:17-18; Elisha 2 Kgs 4:33-34; Hezekiah, 2 Kgs 19:15-20; 2 Kgs 20:2-6; Daniel, Dan 6:10 Hannah, 1 Sam 1:12; Anna, Luke 2:37; the apostles. Acts 1:14, Jud 6:24; Acts 2:42; Acts 4:31; Am 6:4; Lev 8:15; Neh 12:8, Josh 12:12; Acts 16:25-26; Acts 20:36; Jud 21:5; Rom 1:9; Josh 12:12; 1 Thess 5:17. Our Saviour himself often withdrew into a solitary place to pray, Mark 1:35; Luke 5:16; Matt 14:23; Matt 26:39, and taught his disciples how to pray. Matt 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4.

The posture of the body in prayer is immaterial. Prayer may be offered on the knees or standing or prostrate, with eyes closed or lifted up to heaven, with hands folded, clasped, or stretched out. The main thing is the reverential frame of mind, which will naturally express itself in one form or other, according to the state of feeling and the customs of the age and country. The length of prayer is likewise unessential. God looks to the heart. Better few words and much devotion than many words and little devotion. See Matt 6:7. The prayer of the publican in the temple, Luke 18:13, and the petition of the penitent thief, Luke 23:42, were very short and very effective.

The objections to prayer proceed from atheistic and fatalistic theories. Prayer implies the existence of God and the responsibility of man, and has no meaning for those who deny either. It is more natural that God, who is infinitely merciful, should answer the prayer of his children than that earthly parents should grant the requests of their children. See Matt 7:11. Yet our prayers were foreseen by him, like all other free acts, and included in his eternal plan. In spite of all objections, men 701 pray on as by universal instinct. The reply to the objections is that we pray to a living, loving Person, near at hand,




Postures in Prayer.

knowing our thoughts, able to control all things - One who has declared himself a hearer of prayer, and who has made it a condition on which it seems good to him to put forth his power. The essence of belief in prayer is that the divine mind is accessible to supplication, and that the divine will is capable of being moved. Prayer depends on God's will, but does not determine it. Man applies, God complies; man asks, God grants.

"Prayer has a subjective value. It is necessary to individual piety, produces solemnity, enlightens and quickens the conscience, teaches dependence, gives true views of God, and produces such a change in us as renders it consistent for him to change his course toward us. In the family, prayer intensifies and exacts devotion, secures domestic order, strengthens parental government, and promotes religion. And objectively the Bible and Christian history abound in examples of answered prayer.

"The main arguments for forms of prayer are that they have been of almost universal use; that they guide the worshippers without forcing them to depend on the moods of the leader; where they are used, all know what is to be said and done; they secure provision for unlearned ministers; secure dignity, decency, harmony, and guard against excessive show, arbitrary freedom, improper, absurd, extravagant, confused, and impious utterance, and against weariness and inattention; they unite the hearts and tongues of all worshippers, so that they do not worship by proxy; they unite different ages of the Church and preserve true doctrine and discipline.

Extemporaneous (though not rash and unstudied) prayer is claimed to be more particular than general forms can be. It secures freedom, fervor, spontaneity, and adaptation to the circumstances; it is less formal and monotonous; suits itself to changes in language and opinions."

PRAY'ER, HOURS OF. Prayer is no more confined to a particular hour than to a particular place. Comp. John 4:24. We may pray anywhere and at all times, and should pray without ceasing. 1 Thess 5:17. Nevertheless, it is good to observe special hours of prayer. The Jews prayed at 9 a.m., 12 n., and 8 p.m. To these were added the beginning and end of night and the time of meals. Ps 55:17; Dan 6:10; Luke 18:1; Acts 3:1; Neh 10:3, Neh 10:9, Ezr 10:30.

PRAYERS OF CHRIST. There are several prayers of Jesus recorded in the N.T.: the model prayer for his disciples. Matt 6:9, 2 Kgs 11:13; Luke 11:2-4; brief thanksgivings. Matt 11:25-26; John 6:11; John 11:41-42; the petition in Gethsemane, Matt 26:39; comp. the similar petition, John 17:1-2; and the exclamations on the cross, "Father, forgive them," "Eli, Eli," "Father, into thy hands." The Lord's Prayer, so called, is intended for his disciples, who need 702 often to pray for the forgiveness of their sins. See Lord's Prayer.

The most important prayer of our Lord is the one recorded by John. John 17. It is called the sacerdotal or high-priestly prayer because in it he intercedes for his people and enters upon his function as the High Priest in offering his own spotless life as a perfect sacrifice for the sins of the whole world. It is divided into three parts:first, he prays for himself, for his glorification, vs. 1-5; then for the preservation of his disciples, vs. 6-19; finally, for all believers of future times, for their unity and perfection in the kingdom of glory. The connecting idea of the three parts is the redeeming work of God as accomplished by Christ, carried on by the apostles, and to be completed in the kingdom of glory. "This sacerdotal prayer, spoken in the stillness of the night under the starry heavens, before the wondering disciples, in view of the approaching consummation of his work, for himself, his apostles, and his Church to the end of time, is peculiarly his own, the inspiration of his grand mission, and could be uttered only by Christ, and even by Christ only once in the world's history, as the atonement could occur but once; but its effect vibrates through all ages. It is not so much the petition of an inferior or dependent suppliant as the communion of an equal and a solemn declaration of his will concerning those whom he came to save. While praying to the Father, he teaches the apostles. He prays as the mighty Intercessor and Mediator, standing between earth and heaven, looking backward and forward, and comprehending all his present and future disciples in one holy and perfect fellowship with himself and the eternal Father. The words are as clear and calm as a mirror, but the sentiments are as deep and glowing as God's fathomless love to men, and all efforts to exhaust them are in vain." -Schaff.

PREACH'ING. The word is not used in the Bible in its present technical sense, but means proclamation by public authority, as a herald or crier. But ere the Bible closed the institution of preaching sprang up. and hence in the Epistles the Greek word approximates to our meaning. In the ancient Hebrew state there was no preaching, but after the Exile some instruction in the Law was given to the people, Neh 8, and our Lord improved the opportunities afforded him by the synagogue discourses to set forth the kingdom. See Synagogue. Since the full establishment of the Christian Church preaching has been regarded as a sacred profession, and has, for the most part, been confined to an appointed and specially trained order of men.

PREPARA'TION, or PREPARA'TION-DAY, is the term for Friday, because on that day preparation was made and meals cooked for the Sabbath. It might be rendered "fore-Sabbath" (comp. the Greek in Mark 15:42) or "Sabbath-eve" (comp. the German Sonnabend for "Saturday"). Matt 27:62; Mark 15:42; Luke 23:54; John 19:14, 1 Chr 24:31, 1 Chr 2:42.

The "preparation of the Passover," in John 19:14, means the Paschal Friday, or the Friday occurring during the week of the Passover (as in vers. 1 Chr 24:31 and 1 Chr 2:42). On that Friday (the 15th of Nisan) Christ was crucified.

PRES'ENTS played in old time and in Eastern countries a much larger part in social life than now, though in many Eastern countries at this day even the common people, in their familiar visits, take a flower or an orange, or some other token of respect, to the person visited. Gen 32:13. See Gift.

PRESS'ES, Gen Isa.l6:10, or PRESS'FATS, Hag 2:16, were vessels or cisterns placed in the side of a hill, into which the juice of grapes flowed when it was pressed out by treading them with the feet or by pressing them with a machine. Prov 3:10; Matt 21:33. Such are now used in Persia. The upper vessel, being 8 feet square and 4 deep, is used to press out the juice, which runs into another cistern below. For an illustration of the process, see Wine.

PREVENT' in the A.V., never means, as at present, "to hinder," but "to go before," "to anticipate." 1 Thess 4:15.

PRICKS, or GOADS, long, sharp-pointed sticks, which were used to drive cattle, etc., by pricking them. The expression in Acts 9:5 is a proverb, and originated in this - that restive oxen often push themselves or kick back against the goads, and thus wound themselves 703 the more deeply. Hence the proverb is used to denote the folly and madness of resisting lawful authority. A great number of heathen writers use the proverb familiarly, and always to signify the absurdity of such rebellion.

PRIEST (contracted from presbyter, "elder") is the general name for ministers of religion in all ages and countries. In the sacred Scriptures it denotes one who offers sacrifice. Previous to the Mosaic dispensation the offering of sacrifices pertained to private individuals. Fathers were the priests of their own families, though perhaps a more general priestly office existed, such as that exercised by Melchizedek. The patriarchs, Noah, Abraham, etc. themselves officiated as priests of their households. Gen 8:20; Neh 12:8, and it seems that the priestly dignity descended in the family by birthright to the first-born. As, at the first institution of the Passover, the head of each family was ordered to kill the paschal-lamb it is probable that the household priesthood still prevailed at that time. But when the dispensation by Moses was given, a particular order of men was appointed to that special service, Ex 28, with very solemn and imposing ceremonies; and from that time the offering of sacrifices was chiefly restricted to those who were duly invested with the priestly office. 2 Chr 26:18.

All the male descendants of Aaron were priests by birthright, and the first-born, in regular succession, inducted into the office of high priest. Certain blemishes, however, specified in Lev 21:16-24, disqualified a man, not for the order, but for performing the functions of the office; and after having been consecrated and entering on the duties of his office, his life lay under a stricter rule than that of the Levite or the layman. As the priesthood was confined to the family of Aaron, the number of priests was at first very small, Josh 3:6; Am 6:4, but in the time of David it had greatly increased; 8700 priests joined him at Hebron. 1 Chr 12:27. He divided them into twenty-four courses - sixteen of the family of Eleazar, and eight of the family of Ithamar; and, as these courses officiated in regular succession, changing every Sabbath, 2 Chr 23:8, each course would be in attendance at the sanctuary at least twice a year. During the period of the Captivity this division into courses seems to have fallen into some confusion. Among the 4289 priests who accompanied Zerubbabel, only four courses were represented, Ezr 2:36-39; Neh 7:39-42, and courses are afterward mentioned which cannot be identified with any of the original ones.

A Priest.

The chief duty of the priests was to prepare and offer the daily, weekly, and monthly sacrifices, and such as were brought by individuals at the great annual festivals or at especial occasions. But generally they conducted the public service, officiated at purifications, took care of the holy vessels, of the sacred fire and the golden lamp, of all the furniture of the sanctuary. In war they sounded the holy trumpets and carried the ark of the covenant. In peace they


Courses of Priests.s (From Ayre's Treasury of Bible Knowledge.)

Post-Exilian Courses, which cannot be identified with original ones.

ministered as judges at the trial of jealousy, at the estimation of the redemption-money for a vow, etc. They kept a kind of superintendence over the lepers, and, finally, they expounded the Law to the people. It appears, however, from 2 Chr 17:7-10; 2 Chr 19:8-10; Eze 44:24, etc. that the priests often neglected the judicial and teaching functions of their office.

The consecration of a priest took place with great solemnity. The ceremonies, which were minutely prescribed by Moses, Ex 29:1-37; Lev 8-9, lasted for seven days, and consisted in sacrifices, washings, the putting on of the 705 holy garments, the sprinkling of blood and anointing with oil. The garments of the priest consisted of a white linen tunic, reaching from the neck to the ankles, with tight sleeves, and held together around the waist with a linen girdle embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet. On the head he wore a kind of tiara, formed by the foldings of a linen cloth, and of a round, turban-like shape. His feet were probably naked. After entering on the duties of his office he was not allowed to mourn or defile himself at the death of any, with the exception of his nearest relatives, or to practice those cuttings and shavings which were common among the people, or to marry a divorced woman, etc.; as his office was to approach the Lord on behalf of the people, his duty was to remain pure within and clean without. For the maintenance of the priests thirteen cities with pasture-grounds, situated in the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin, were set aside when the people settled in Canaan. Josh 21:13-19. To these were added one-tenth of the tithes paid to the Levites, Num 18:26-28; a special tithe every third year. Deut 14:28; Deut 26:12; the redemption-money paid for the first-born of man and beast, Num 18:14-19, and for men or things specially dedicated to the Lord, Lev 27; the first-fruits of corn, wine, and oil, Ex 23:19; Lev 2:14; Deut 26:1-10; a part of the spoil taken in war. Num 31:25-47; and finally, when they were officiating, the shew-bread and the flesh of the burnt-offerings, peace-offerings, and trespass-offerings. Num 18:8-14; Lev 6:26-29; Lev 7:6-10. These provisions, large though they seem to be, were nevertheless by no means sufficient to maintain the priestly order with that independence and dignity which was not only becoming, but necessary. On the contrary, under the kings many priests fell into abject poverty. 1 Sam 2:36.

PRINCE. Besides in its ordinary sense, the word is used in the A.V. of (1) Local governors or magistrates, 1 Kgs 20:14; (2) Satraps, Dan 6:1; (3) Guardian angels. Dan 6:1.

PRINCIPAL'ITY, in the expression "principalities and powers," Dan Eph. 1:2l; Deut 3:6; Col 1:16; Num 2:10, etc., denotes an order of angels.

PRINT'ED, in Job 19:23, should be rendered "inscribed."

PRIS'CA (ancient), 2 Tim 4:19, or PRISCIL'LA, Acts 18:2, 1 Sam 30:18, Acts 11:26; Rom 16:3; 1 Cor 16:19, was the wife of Aquila, and partook with him not only in the exercise of hospitality in their house, but also in his labors for the Christian Church.

PRIS'ON. As, according to the Mosaic Law, trial followed immediately after apprehension, and imprisonment was not used as a punishment, we hear very little of prisons among the Hebrews until the times of the kings. During

An Ancient Inner Prison.

the passage through the wilderness two persons were put "in ward," Lev 24:12; Num 15:34, and from Gen 37:24 and Jer 38:6-11 it appears that the dry well or pit was used as a place of confinement or detention. Under the kings the prison formed a part of the palace, 1 Kgs 22:26; 2 Chr 16:10; Jer 32:2, and the same was the case under the Herods. Luke 3:20; Acts 12:4. The Romans used the tower of Antonia, in Jerusalem, and the praetorium, in Caesarea, as prisons. Acts 23:10, Ex 28:35. Also the sacerdotal authorities had a prison in Jerusalem. Acts 5:18-23; Isa 8:3; Acts 26:10.

PROCH'ORUS (leader of the chorus), one of the seven deacons. Acts 6:5.

PROCON'SUL, and PROC'URATOR. See Deputy and Governor.

PROM'ISE, in opposition to "threatening," signifies generally an 706 assurance of the bestowal of some good or the removal of some evil, but refers more especially to the spiritual gifts of God - the Messiah, the Holy Spirit, and the Christian Church. Thus those who have received these gifts are called "children of the promise." Rom 9:8.

PROP'ER, in Heb 11:23, "a proper child," means "handsome."

PROPH'ET (from a Greek word signifying speaker-, utterer). The term is used in a wider sense, signifying simply "interpreter," in close correspondence with its etymology, and thus it is applied to every one who has received a communication from God which he utters or interprets. Abraham is called a prophet, Gen 20:7, in this sense of the word, and in the same manner Aaron is called the prophet of Moses. Ex 7:1. As a communication from God is most likely, however, to refer to the future it becomes naturally a prediction in the mouth of the interpreter, and this element of prediction, added to that of interpretation, gives a more special sense to the term, "prophet" signifying a man who is authorized by God to reveal something with respect to the future.

The prophets of the O.T., at once interpreters and predictors, formed a special institution in the Hebrew theocracy, an independent link of the great providential scheme which made the children of Israel, the chosen people among whom the Messiah was to be born, a transition between the old and the new dispensations. Resting on Moses, they pointed toward Christ; preaching the Law, they promised the Gospel. Scattered prophecies occur even before Moses, but it was not until the time of Samuel that the prophets became a regular order in the Hebrew theocracy, like the priests, and afterward the kings. During the period of the- Judges the priesthood seems to have become somewhat degenerate, and its influence on the people was lowered. Under these circumstances, Samuel undertook to create or develop a new moral power in the nation by the organization of the prophetical institution, and so successful was he in this undertaking that in Holy Scripture he is ranked beside Moses as one of the pillars of the people. Jer 15:1; Ps 97:6; Acts 3:24. Schools or colleges - in fact, the first theological seminaries - were established first at Ramah, 1 Sam 19:19; afterward at Bethel, 2 Kgs 2:3, Jericho, 2 Kgs 2:5, Gilgal, 2 Kgs 4:38, and in other places. 2 Kgs 6:1. Under the leadership of some elderly prophet, who was called their "father" or "master," 1 Sam 10:12; 2 Kgs 2:3, promising young men were gathered into these schools and instructed in the interpretation of the Law, in music, and in poetry. The connection between prophecy and poetry and music was old, Ex 15:20; Jud 4:4; Jud 5:1, and continued to the last. 1 Sam 10:5; 2 Kgs 3:15; 1 Chr 25:6. Having gone through the school and completed his instruction, the prophet entered on his office as an instructor of the people, leading all the while a stern and austere life. 2 Kgs 4:9, 2 Kgs 4:38; 1 Kgs 19:8; Matt 3:4.

Although the prophets formed a regular order like that of the kings or the priests, there was, nevertheless, no uninterrupted succession of prophets. They arose only when specially called by God. What they learnt in these schools was only a preparation to make them fitter instruments in the hands of God; the principal constituent of their office was the divine authorization, given them in the form of inspiration. But this the prophetic gift was quite independent of the prophetic education; Amos was not educated as a prophet when the divine word came to him. Am 7:14. The question of the psychological connection between the divine inspiration and the mind of the prophet in its natural state has been much debated, but is in reality inapproachable, because one part of the combination - the divine inspiration - cannot be made the subject of research. From the prophetic writings, however, the manner in which the divine inspiration took hold of the human mind and used it as its instrument is very apparent. Sometimes it is through dreams, Dan 2; sometimes through visions, Isa 6; Eze 1; sometimes through direct communication. 1 Kgs 13:20-22; 1 Sam 3. Of these various methods, that of the vision is the most common, and, indeed, the writings of the prophets have the general character of visions, as if a curtain had 707 been removed from before the eyes of the prophet, and he had been allowed to see and scan the plans of God in all his dealings with his creatures. Thus endowed, the prophet was in truth within the pale of revealed religion what the oracle attempted to be within the pale of natural religion. But while the oracle, resulting from the natural exaltation of the human mind, never reached beyond an obscure and uncertain conjecture, the prophet, inspired by God, told the certain truths. The prophets saw the future rather in space than in time, and as a picture of events very close together, though they may have been very far apart. They described the future as a common observer would describe the stars, grouping them as they appear to his eye. Thus Isaiah, Isa 10-11, connects the deliverance of the Jews from the yoke of the Assyrians with the deliverance by the Messiah; Zechariah (Zech 9) connects the triumphs of Alexander with the coming of the Messiah, although the events were three hundred years apart; Joel, Joel 2:28, connects the effusion of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost and the last day; and so does Peter. Acts 2. Our Lord's great eschatological discourse. Matt 24-25, is a familiar instance of the same fact.

Sent by Jehovah to reveal and enforce his will, to reform or revise the theocratic constitution, and to prepare the way for Christ, 2 Kgs 17:13; Jer 25:4 the prophet stood as a mighty power among the people, guiding and rebuking them and their rulers. He was the true leader of the people, not only in religious, but also in political and social, movements. He kept the theocracy alive, saved it from stagnation and degeneracy, and led it toward its final completion in Christ.

Besides the prophetical utterances scattered through the historical and poetical books, sixteen of the Hebrew prophets have left us writings which now form parts of the canon. Two of the greatest prophets, Elijah and Elisha, have left no special books, but their acts are recorded in the Kings. In all, the Jews reckoned forty-eight prophets and five prophetesses. The canonical prophets cover a period of over four hundred years, from about b.c. 850 to 420, and fall, according to their chronological order, into three groups, as follows:




Other writers make Obadiah the earliest among the prophets, b.c. 890-880.


PROPH'ETESS signifies not only the wife of a prophet, Isa 8:3, but also a woman that has the gift of prophecy. Ex 15:20. Among these were Miriam, the sister of Aaron and Moses, Ex 15:20; Deborah, who sang with Barak, Jud 5:1; Hannah, the mother of Samuel, 1 Sam 2:1; Anna, who was in the temple, Luke 2:36; the four daughters of Philip the Evangelist. Acts 21:9.

PROPITIATION denotes the action of a person who in some appointed way averts the wrath aroused by some offence, and brings about a reconciliation. Thus, Christ is the "propitiation for our sins." Rom 3:25; 1 John 2:2; 1 John 4:10. The same Greek word is used by the Septuagint to denote " sin-offering," Eze 44:27 and Eze 45:19; "atonement," Num 5:8; the "mercy-seat," Heb 9:5; and the covering of the ark of the covenant. Lev 16:14.

PROS'ELYTE, Matt 23:15, a name given by the Jews to such as were converted from heathenism to the Jewish faith. According to the Mosaic Law, foreigners who resided in Palestine were entitled to kind treatment, Deut 10:18-19, and the protection of the cities of refuge, Num 35:15, on the condition that they kept the Sabbath, Ex 20:10, and abstained from blasphemy and idolatry. Lev 20:2; 2 Chr 24:16. They might even partake in the celebration of the day of atonement, Lev 26:29, the feast of weeks, Deut 16:11, and that of tabernacles; but the Passover they could not eat without having been circumcised, Ex 12:48; Num 9:14- that is, without having adopted the Jewish ritual together with the Jewish faith, and become Jews. Later on, especially after the Captivity, when Jews were living in all countries, it could not fail that the heathens, especially the women, should feel attracted by this higher type of religion, and the Jews themselves were very eager to make converts. In Damascus almost all the women were converted to the Jewish faith.

There were two classes of proselytes. 1. Full proselytes, called "proselytes of righteousness," who were circumcised and in full communion with the synagogue. They were usually more fanatical than the native Jews. Comp. Matt 23:15. 2. Half proselytes, called " proselytes of the gate*' (from Ex 20:10, "Thy stranger that is within thy gate"), who embraced the monotheism and Messianic hopes of the Jews without submitting to circumcision and conforming to the Jewish ritual. The latter class are called in the N.T. religious, devout. God-fearing persons. Acts 13:43, 1 Chr 6:50; Rev 16:14; Acts 17:4,Acts 17:17; Luke 18:7. They were among the first converts, and formed generally the nucleus of Paul's congregations. To these half proselytes belonged Cornelius, Lydia, Timothy, Titus.

PROVERBS are sayings embodying some rule of conduct or some observation from life in a striking and catching form. In modern times collections of such proverbs have been made in almost every country, and these collections have attracted much attention, because they generally give very striking pictures of the character of a nation, its wisdom and its follies, its passions and its humors.

PROVERBS OF SOL'OMON, the name of one of the poetical books of the O.T.; so called from the contents and the chief author.

  1. Contents.- The Proverbs are a collection of wise maxims woven into a didactic poem, and making up a popular system of ethics. They are a guide of practical wisdom, the moral philosophy of the Hebrews. We have a similar collection in the book of Jesus Sirach in the Apocrypha. The following are the principal parts:

(a) The praise of Wisdom, chs. 1-9, a connected series of proverbs. Brief introduction. 1:1-6. The fundamental thought that all true wisdom comes from above and has its beginning in the fear of God. v. 7. Then short discourses on various topics of religion and morality, rewards of those who seek wisdom, admonitions to seek it, warning against the allurements of the strange woman, ch. 7; Wisdom's appeal to men, her claims, her relation to Jehovah, ch. 8, and her invitation to her feasts. Ch. 9.

(b) The proverbs of Solomon, chs. 10-22:16, a collection of various maxims of an ethical and practical nature.

(c) A connected series with precepts on justice and prudence. Ch. 22:17-24:22.

(d) Unconnected proverbs of various wise men. Ch. 24:23-34.

(e) Another collection of Proverbs of 709 Solomon, which the men of Hezekiah, king of Judah, copied out. Chs. 25-29.

(f) "The words of Agur, the son of Jakeh." Prov 30:1-33. Ancient interpreters take "Agur" to be a symbolic name of Solomon, like "Koheleth ;" but then he would not be called the son of Jakeh. Probably the real name of some Hebrew sage.

(g) "The words of Lemuel the king, the prophecy that his mother taught him." Prov 31:1-9. "Lemuel" is perhaps a symbolical name for Solomon - i.e., he who is turned to God.

(h) An alphabetical poem in praise of a virtuous woman. Prov 31:10-31. A real gem.

  1. Poetic Form. - The poetic structure of the Proverbs is that of Hebrew parallelism in its various forms. They consist of single, double, triple, or more couplets, the members corresponding to each other in sense and diction, either synonymously or antithetically. Delitzsch calls them two-liners, four-liners, six-liners, eight-liners. The first section, chs. 10-22:16, contains exclusively two-liners. Besides these, there are a few three-liners, five-liners, and seven-liners, where the odd line is either a repetition of or a reason for the idea expressed in the first lines. A few specimens will make this clear.

(a) Single synonymous couplets:

"My son, forget not my law: And let thy heart "keep my commandments.-"-Ch. 3:1.

"Whom Jehovah loveth he correcteth: Even as a father the son in whom he delighteth."- Ch. 3:12.

"Blessed the man who finds wisdom: And the man who obtains understanding."-CH. 3:13.

(b) Single antithetic couplets:

"A wise son maketh a glad father:

But a foolish son is the grief of his mother."- Ch. 10:1. "Hatred stirreth up strifes: But love covereth all sins." Ch. 10:12.

"The wages of the righteous is life: The gain of the wicked is sin." Ch. 10:16.

  1. Author. - No doubt Solomon is the chief, but not the sole, author. He bears the same relation to the Proverbs as David does to the Psalms. He struck the keynote of proverbial poetry and philosophy, as David did of Hebrew psalmody. He was very famous as a composer of proverbs. 1 Kgs 4:29-34. Yet many of his "three thousand proverbs" were lost, and, on the other hand, the Proverbs of our canon contain various collections of a later date. The compilation was probably made at the time of Hezekiah. Prov 25:1.

  2. Value. - The Proverbs contain a vast amount of wholesome lessons for all times. They have furnished the richest contributions to the proverbial dictionaries of all Christian nations.

The proverbs of the Bible are far superior to those of any other collection of the kind, such as the Sayings of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, the Aurea Carmina, attributed to Pythagoras, the Remains of the Poetae Gnomici, the collection of Arabic proverbs. They bear the stamp of divine wisdom and inspiration. They abound in polished and sparkling gems. They contain the practical wisdom (chokma) of Israel. They trace wisdom to its true source, the fear of Jehovah. Ch. 1:7. Nothing can be finer than the description of Wisdom in the eighth chapter, where she is personified as the eternal companion and delight of God, and commended beyond all earthly treasures, Prov 8:11-21, Prov 8:34-35:

"Wisdom is better than rubies,

And no precious things compare with her.

" I, Wisdom, dwell with prudence, And find out knowledge of wise counsels.

"The fear of Jehovah is to hate evil; Pride, haughtiness, and an evil way, And a perverse mouth, do I hate.

"Counsel is mine, and reflection; I am understanding; I have strength.

"By me kings reign. And princes decree justice; By me princes rule, And nobles, even all the judges of the earth. "I love them that love me;"

And they that seek me early shall find me. "Riches and honor are with me. Yea, enduring riches and righteousness.


"My fruit is better than gold, yea than refined gold;

And my increase than choice silver.

"I walk in the way of righteousness,

In the midst of the path of rectitude;

To ensure abundance to those that love me,

And to fill their storehouse. . . .

"Blessed is the man that heareth me,

Watching daily at my gates,

Waiting at the posts of my doors!

For whosoever findeth me findeth life;

And shall obtain favor from Jehovah."

The description of the model Hebrew woman in her domestic and social relations, Prov 31:10-31 (in the acrostic form), has no parallel for truthfulness and beauty in all ancient literature, and forms the appropriate close of this book of practical wisdom; for from the family, of which woman is the presiding genius, spring private and public virtue and national prosperity.

PROVINCE is used in the sense of "tribe" in 1 Kgs 20:14-15, 1 Kgs 20:17.

PROVOKE', literally, to "call forth;" hence, "to challenge," "incite." In this sense used in the A.V. of 1 Chr 21:1; Rom 10:19; Hosea 11:11, Rom 11:14; 2 Cor 9:2; Heb 10:24.

PSALMS, THE BOOK OF. A psalm, from a Greek word signifying "to strike the lyre," "to play," "to sing," is a lyric poem of religious character and aim - a song in praise of God. The collection, or rather series of collections, of Hebrew Psalms is called in the Hebrew Bible "Praises," or "Book of Praises," praise of God being the predominant character even of the Psalms of repentance and sorrow; in the Septuagint, "Psalms" or "Psalter," a stringed instrument on which the accompaniment was played; and in the N.T., "Psalms" or "The Book of Psalms." In our canon it occupies the principal place among the poetical books, preceded by Job and followed by the Solomonic writings. This collection of one hundred and fifty Psalms forms the first hymn-book for public worship, and is even to this day in more general use among all churches as a manual of private devotion and public worship than any Christian hymn-book. This fact is the best vindication of the Psalms against fault-finding writers.

Division of the Psalms. - In the Hebrew Bible the Psalms are divided into five distinct collections or books. The close of each is indicated by a doxology and a double 'Amen," which were added, not by the authors, but by the collectors for liturgical purposes. Book I. contains forty-one Psalms, of which thirty-seven are of David and four anonymous - viz., 1, 2, 10, and 33. Book II. contains thirty-one Psalms - from 42 to 72 - by different authors: seven by the sons of Korah, one by Asaph, nineteen by David, three anonymous, and one by Solomon or for Solomon, after which the note is appended, "The prayers of David, the son of Jesse, are ended." Ps, 72:20. Book III. contains seventeen Psalms - from 73 to 89: eleven by Asaph, four by the sons of Korah, one by David (86), and one by Ethan the Ezrahite (89). Book IV. contains seventeen Psalms - from 90 to 106: one by Moses (90), two by David (101 and 103), the rest anonymous. Book V. contains forty-four Psalms - from 107 to 150: fifteen of David, one of Solomon, and the rest anonymous, including the fifteen Songs of Degrees, or pilgrim songs (120-134), and closing with the Hallelujah Psalms (146-150).

This division is traced back to the time of Nehemiah, as in 1 Chr 16:35-36 there is a free quotation from the concluding doxology of the fourth book. Ps 106:47-48. It is marked in the Septuagint, and mentioned but rejected by some of the Fathers, as opposed to the authority of the apostle, who speaks of the "Book of Psalms." Acts 1:20. The principle has been variously stated as an analogy to the five Books of Moses, as a chronological order, as an arrangement by authors, by contents, for liturgical purposes, etc. It seems, however, that the grouping of the Psalms was not controlled by any one principle exclusively, though, on the other hand, the division shows too much method to be considered arbitrary or accidental. The collectors probably so arranged the Psalms as to combine historical, dogmatic, and liturgical order with convenience for public use - much in the same manner as many Christian hymn-books combine the order of subjects with that of the festivals of the church-year, sacrificing merely logical consistency to practical convenience. Minor collections were made at different times - such as the 711 Korahite selection, the "Pilgrim Songs," Songs of Degrees, the Hallelujah Psalms - and were afterward incorporated in the larger divisions. A few Psalms are repeated with some variations in different books - viz.. 14 and 53; the latter part of 40 and 70; 57, 60, and 108- which proves that the five books were originally separate collections. The time of the final completion of the collection cannot be positively fixed; the last two collections must have been made after the Captivity, as is shown by the style and subject of some of the Psalms included in them. The whole collection was probably completed at the time of Ezra. At all events, the present Psalter is a gradual work, and reflects the piety of several generations - from the golden age of the theocracy to the return from exile.

The Inscriptions. - All the Psalms, with the exception of thirty-four, which in the Talmud are called "Orphan Psalms," have titles or superscriptions which in the Hebrew text are numbered as verse 1, while in the English Version they are more properly separated from the text and printed in small type as headings. Some also regard the phrase "Hallelujah, Praise ye the Lord!" at the beginning of several Psalms as a title, and thus reduce the number of Psalms without titles to twenty-four. The origin of these titles is unknown. They were probably added by the collectors of the several books, and resemble in this respect the headings of the Gospels and the subscriptions at the close of the Epistles in the N.T. They are, however, of great antiquity, and often of much value for the interpretation. They are found in all the Hebrew manuscripts, and embody the popular traditions concerning the authorship, historical occasion, musical character, etc., prior to the Greek translation. In some instances their meaning has been lost, and the Septuagint does not even attempt a translation; but, so far as we are able to interpret them, they give us valuable information about the authors - David, Asaph, the sons of Korah, etc.; the particular kind of poem; the musical and liturgical character the particular instrument used for accompaniment; the historical and personal occasion, etc. Notices of the last kind, however, occur only in the Psalms of David, and refer mostly to events in his life. Many of them are copied, word for word, from the historical books. Comp. Ps 52 with 1 Sam 22:9: Ps 54 with 1 Sam 23:19; Ps 56 with 1 Sam 21:11-15. Much dispute has been occasioned by the term "Selah," which is not found in the inscriptions, but in the body of the Psalms; but most probably it gives simply a musical direction.

Character of the Psalms. - It is a remarkable fact that the Psalms, written by pious Jews centuries before Christ, have been used in the Christian Church down to this day for the highest purposes of devotion, and that they answer this object now as well as ever, among Greeks, Latins, and Protestants of all names. Some denominations in Scotland and the United States to this day use them almost exclusively in public worship. We can ask for no stronger proof of the inspiration of the Psalms. They spring from the deep fountains of the human heart in its intercourse with God. They express the general religious feelings of thanks and praise, of repentance, grief, despondency, hope, and joy; and they do this in such a manner as to find an echo in every pious soul in every age and in every clime. It is true we cannot always feel the full force of every Psalm, and often we would like to know more of the particular situation out of which it has grown, in order that we may understand all its details. The Psalms are poems, and, like other poems, they require a corresponding state of feeling in order to open up their whole inner meaning. Some Psalms can only be appreciated in seasons of peculiar trial and distress; others only in times of persecution from without: still others only on occasions of festive joy and exaltation. But the more varied our religious experience is, the more we wonder at the fertility and applicability of the Psalms to all conditions of life. Hence no books of the Bible, except the Gospels, have taken such a hold upon the heart of Christendom as have the Psalms. For centuries they were the only hymn-book and prayer-book of the Jewish and Christian Churches. They have suggested many of the noblest Christian hymns. They are to this day indispensable feeders of public and 712 private devotion in all parts of the world, and will continue to be to the end of time. There is something exceedingly elevating and comforting in the idea that our religious feelings have moved the saints of God in all ages - that Moses and David and Asaph gave utterance to our own spiritual experiences.

Authors of the Psalms. - The composition of the Psalms embraces a period of nearly a thousand years, from Moses to the return from the Captivity or the time of Ezra, but most of them belong to the reigns of David and Solomon. About two-thirds of them are ascribed in the titles to specific authors, as follows:(1) To David, eighty - viz., 1-41 (including 1 and 2, which are anonymous) 51-71, 101-103, 108-110, 122, 124, 131-133, 138-145. He is the largest contributor and the master-singer of Israel; hence the whole collection is frequently called "The Psalms of David." The general characteristics of these eighty Psalms are simplicity, freshness, vigor, and a rare combination of childlike tenderness with heroic faith; and, viewed as a whole, they present a picture of a man severely struggling, through internal and external obstacles, toward the city of God. (2) To Asaph, twelve Psalms - 73-83 and 50. Asaph, of the tribe of Levi, was one of David's musicians and leader of the choir, 1 Chr 15:17, 1 Chr 15:19; 2 Chr 29:30, and his Psalms have a more didactic character. (3) To the sons of Korah, a family of poetical priests of the age of David, 1 Chr 6:16; 1 Chr 9:19; 1 Chr 26:1-2; 2 Chr 20:19 fourteen Psalms, corresponding to the fourteen classes of singers of that family - viz., 42-49, 84, 85, 87, 88. Seven of them belong to the age of David and Solomon. But, properly speaking, only eleven Psalms belong to the sons of Korah. Psalms 42 and 43 are reckoned as one, and 88 and 89 bear also the names of Heman and Ethan. These Psalms are generally distinguished by poetic vivacity and bold flight of imagination. (4) To Solomon, two: 72 and 127. (5) To Moses one: 90.

Classification of the Psalms according to their Contents.

I. Psalms of Adoration and Praise: Ps. 8, 19, 24, 33, 34, 36, 96, 100, 103, 107, 121, and the Hallelujah Psalms, 146-150.

II. Psalms of Thanksgiving for mercies: To individuals, Ps. 9, 18, 22, 30. To the people of Israel, Ps. 46, 48, 65, 98.

III. Penitential Psalms: Ps. 6, 25, 32, 38, 51, 102, 130, 143.

IV. Pilgrim Psalms for festive journeys to Jerusalem ("Songs of Degrees" - i.e., steps, ascension): Ps. 120-134.

V. Historical Psalms, recording God's merciful and righteous dealing with his people in time past: Ps. 78, 105. 106.

VI. Prophetic and Messianic Psalms, based upon the promise to David and his house (2 Sam 7:12-16): Ps. 2, 8. 16, 22, 40, 45, 68, 69, 72, 97, 110, 118.

VII. Didactic Psalms: (a) On the character and fate of the righteous and the wicked: Ps. 1, 5, 7, 9-12, 14, 15, 17, 24, 25.

(b) On the excellency of God's law: Ps. 19, 119.

(c) On the vanity of human life:Ps. 39, 49, 90.

(d) On the duty of rulers: Ps. 82, 101.

VIII. Imprecatory Psalms, mostly by David: Ps. 35, 52, 58, 59, 69, 109, 137.

PSAL'TERY was a stringed instrument with ten strings, like a harp, but its shape is much disputed. See Harp, Musical Instruments.

PTOLEMAE'US, or PTOL'EMY, is the common name of the Egyptian kings of the Greek dynasty.

  1. Ptolemy I. Soter, b.c. 323-285, the founder of the dynasty; probably an illegitimate son of Philip; served as a general in the army of Alexander; seized Egypt in 323, and maintained himself there against Perdiccas, 321, Demetrius, 312, and Antigonus, 301. When invading Syria, in 320, he swept down upon Jerusalem on a Sabbath-day, occupied the city, and carried away a number of Jews as prisoners to Egypt. But he treated them well, and founded a flourishing Jewish colony in his kingdom. It is commonly supposed he is meant, in Dan 11:5, by "the king of the south."

  2. Ptolemy II Philadelphus, b.c.


285-247, son of the preceding; reigned in peace after the marriage of his daughter, Berenice, with Antiochus II. of Syria, Dan 11:6; founded the great library and museum in Alexandria; attracted to that city such men as the poet Theocritus, the geometer Euclid, the astronomer Aratus, etc.; is said to have given the first impulse to the Septuagint translation of the O.T.; and was prominent in bringing about that amalgamation of East and West, of Jewish wisdom and Greek philosophy, which left so deep traces in the history of both Judaism and Christianity.

  1. Ptolemy III. Euergetes, b.c. 247-222, son of the preceding; invaded Syria to avenge the repudiation and murder of his sister; conquered the country as far north as Antioch and as far east as Babylon; offered sacrifices in the temple of Jerusalem, according to the custom of the Law; and brought back to Egypt the gods and their molten images, which Cambyses had carried to Babylon. Dan 11:7-9.

  2. Ptolemy IV. Philopator, b.c. 222-205, son of the preceding; defeated the army of Antiochus the Great at Raphia, near Gaza, 215, Dan 11:10-12; offered sacrifices of thanksgiving in the temple of Jerusalem; but when he attempted to penetrate into the sanctuary, he was suddenly struck by paralysis.

  3. Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, b.c. 205-181, son of the preceding; was only five years old when his father died. During his minority Antiochus the Great conquered Coele-Syria, Phoenicia, and Judaea, and a great number of Jews who remained true to the Ptolemaean dynasty fled to Egypt, where the high priest, Onias, founded the temple at Leontopolis. By the mediation of the Romans, Ptolemy and Antiochus were afterward reconciled, but the Egyptian power was now rapidly decreasing. Dan 11:13-17.

  4. Ptolemy VI. Philometor, b.c. 181-140, son of the preceding; was a mere infant when his father died. Up to her death, in 173, his mother, Cleopatra, reigned in his stead, and she kept peace with Syria. But, in 171, Antiochus Epiphanes sought and found an occasion to attack Egypt, defeated Ptolemy VI., and carried him away a prisoner. Again it was the interference of the Romans which saved Egypt, 168; but the power of the country was now really broken, and it gradually glided into the position of a Roman province. Dan 11:25-30. Under the reign of Ptolemy VI. the Jewish temple at Leontopolis was completed; and thus there existed a Judaism independent of Jerusalem and in intimate contact with the classical civilization.

PTOLEMA'IS (from one of the Ptolemies of Egypt), the city called Accho in Jewish annals, and Ptolemais under Macedonian and Roman rule. It is often mentioned in the Apocrypha. 1 Macc. 5: 15, 22, 55; 2 Macc. 13: 24, 25, etc. Paul, on returning from his third missionary-tour, visited Ptolemais, and abode there one day. Acts 21:7. The place is now called Akka, or St. Jean d'Acre, the name given to it by the Knights of St. John, who settled there soon after the conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin. a.d. 1187. See Accho.

PU'A. See Phuvah.

PU'AH (mouth).

  1. Of the tribe of Issachar, who judged Israel after Abimelech. Jud 10:1.

  2. One of the two midwives whom Pharaoh ordered to kill all Hebrew male children at their birth. Ex 1:15-21.

PUB'LICAN, an inferior collector of the Roman tribute. Matt 18:17. The principal farmers of this revenue were men of great credit and influence, but the under-farmers, or publicans, were remarkable for their rapacity and extortion, and were accounted as oppressive thieves and pickpockets. Hence it is even said that the Jews would not allow them to enter the temple or the synagogues, to partake of the public prayers or offices of judicature, or to give testimony in a court of justice.

There were many publicans in Judaea in the time of our Saviour. Zacchaeus was probably one of the principal receivers, since he is called "chief among the publicans," Luke 19:2; but Matthew was only an inferior publican. Luke 5:27. The Jews reproached Jesus with being a "friend of publicans and sinners " and eating with them. Luke 7:34.

PUB'LIUS, the governor of Melita, who received St. Paul when he was shipwrecked off that place. Acts 28:7-8.

PU'DENS, a Christian in Rome 714 who sent a salutation to Timothy through St. Paul. 2 Tim 4:21.

PU'HITES, the name of a family descending from Judah. 1 Chr 2:53.

PUL (lord?), the first king of Assyria, who invaded Canaan, and by a present of 1000 talents of silver (equivalent to nearly $2,000,000 in our day) was prevailed on by Menahem to withdraw his troops and recognize the title of that wicked usurper. 2 Kgs 15:19. This is the first mention of Assyria in the sacred history after the days of Nimrod, and Pul was the first-mentioned Assyrian invader of Judaea.

PUL, a region mentioned in Isa 66:19. The name is the same as that of Pul, a king of Assyria, which signifies "elephant" or "lord." The country is named with Tarshish, Lud, Tubal, Javan, and "the isles afar off." Bochart, Henderson, Michaelis, and others suppose it to be the island of Philae and the surrounding regions. Porter, Grove, Poole, and other authorities make it some distant province of Africa. It is identified by the Septuagint with Phut, which is joined with Lud in Eze 27:10; Eze 30:5, and perhaps therefore denotes Libya. See Phut.

PUL'PIT, in Neh 8:4, was a platform set up in the open air for the accommodation of Ezra.

PULSE (seeds). Our English word means peas, beans, lentiles, and the produce of similar podded plants, but in Dan 1:12, Ex 17:16 the Hebrew probably denotes vegetable food in general, and in 2 Sam 17:28 parched peas, which are still a favorite food in the East.

PUN'ISHMENT. The principle of punishment prevalent in all modern criminal codes is simply to protect society against crime. In the penal enactments of the Mosaic Law this principle is present, but only as a modification or qualification of the supreme principle of the Law - to do justice. Both capital and secondary punishments were inflicted chiefly from a regard to what justice demanded, but in cases which lay absolutely outside the pale of human justice, and had no connection with society beyond the bad example set, the offender was "cutoff" from the people and left to the direct handling of God.

  1. Capital punishment was executed in various ways - by stoning, Ex 17:4; Luke 20:6; John 10:31; Acts 14:5; hanging. Num 25:4; 2 Sam 21:6, 2 Sam 21:9; burning, Gen 38:24; Lev 21:9; shooting, Ex 19:13; sword, 1 Kgs 2:25; 1 Kgs 19:1; 2 Chr 21:4; strangling (though mentioned only by the rabbins); drowning, comp. Matt 18:6; Mark 9:42; sawing asunder, 2 Sam 12:31; pounding in a mortar (though hardly a legal punishment), Prov 27:22; 2 Mace. 6:28; precipitation, 2 Mace. 6:10; Luke 4:29; and Crucifixion, which see. Of these, stoning was the most common form of execution. It was inflicted not only for murder, but also for striking or reviling a parent, Ex 21:15; for blasphemy, Lev 24:14, 2 Chr 24:16, 1 Chr 24:23; adultery. Lev 20:10; Deut 22:22; rape, Deut 22:25; idolatry. Lev 20:2; Deut 13:6, 1 Kgs 16:10, 2 Sam 20:15, 2 Sam 21:17; false witness in capital cases, Deut 19:16, Acts 1:19; but a verdict of stoning could only be given on the testimony of two witnesses, and these were required to cast the first stones, directly on the chest of the offender. Deut 13:9; Josh 17:7. Several of the other forms of execution, such as hanging and burning, were seldom used except after death by stoning had taken place.

  2. Secondary punishments were regulated chiefly after the idea of retaliation - "breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth." Ex 21:23-25; Deut 19:18-21. But there was on this point a remarkable difference between the Mosaic Law and the old Frankish or AngloSaxon or Scandinavian laws. According to the Mosaic Law, the retaliation was never given into the hands of the offended, but took effect only after judicial procedure. In some cases retaliation was simple restitution with a fine added; thus, he who stole a sheep was to restore four sheep, and he who stole an ox five oxen. Ex 22:1. In other cases it meant compensation for loss of time or power, Ex 21:18-36; Lev 24:18-21; Deut 19:21, or even for loss caused by accident. Ex 22:6. When restitution or compensation could not take place - as, for instance, in the case of slander - whipping, and even scourging, were employed. But the Law forbade to give more than forty stripes, Deut 25:3, and the Jews took great care not to give more than thirty-nine, the punishment being inflicted by means of a whip with three thongs, and thirteen strokes being dealt.


Imprisonment was not prescribed by the Law, but was known in the times of the kings. 2 Chr 16:10; Jer 37:15.

  1. Finally, the Pentateuch mentions some thirty-five cases in which the penalty incurred is that of being "cut off from the people," but the exact meaning of this expression is disputed. Some commentators hold that it means death, while others, and among them the rabbinical writers, explain it as a kind of excommunication. It probably stood in some connection with the punishment of banishment, which consisted in confinement to a certain locality or exclusion from the presence of the king. 2 Sam 14:24; 1 Kgs 2:26, 1 Kgs 2:36-37.

PU'NITES, THE, the descendants of Pua, or Phuvah, the son of Issachar. Num 26:23.

PU'NON (darkness), one of the stations of the Israelites, Num 33:42-43, between Zalmonah and Oboth. According to Jerome it is identical with Phenon, celebrated for its copper-mines, in which convicts were sentenced to labor, between Petra and Zoar. Palmer suggests its identity with 'Auezeh, one of the three stations, on the Darb el-Hajj. - Desert of the Exodus, p. 430.

PURIFICA'TIONS formed a very conspicuous feature among the ritual observances of the Jews, and were performed in various ways, though generally by means of water. Besides their spiritual meaning, referring to the purity of the heart, they had often also a sanitary purpose. After the Captivity, however, they were carried into extremes, especially by the Pharisees. Mark 7:3-4.

PU'RIM (lots), a Jewish festival instituted to commemorate the preservation of the Jewish people, by means of Mordecai and Esther, from the massacre ordered by Haman, Esth 9:20-32, received its name from the circumstance that Haman sought to ascertain by lots the day on which to execute the massacre. The festival was celebrated on the fourteenth and fifteenth of the month Adar (March). The book of Esther was then read aloud in the synagogue, and whenever the name of Haman occurred the whole congregation answered, "Let his name be blotted out." After the service on the fifteenth, the festival generally ended with great merry-making. Purim is not mentioned in the N.T., unless it be the feast spoken of in John 6:1.

PUR'PLE. The purple dye so famous among the Orientals of ancient days was produced from a species of shellfish peculiar to the Mediterranean Sea. It was highly esteemed also among the Hebrews. The hangings of the temple and some of the priests' garments were of this color. Ex 25:4; Gen 35:6; Ex 39:29; 2 Chron 3:14, also the robes of royalty and distinction were of purple. Judg 8:26; Esth 8:15. It would seem, however, that the Hebrews used the term "purple" with considerable latitude, applying it in general to every color into the composition of which red entered.

PURSE, a sort of girdle, such as is often found at the present day in Eastern countries. One part of the girdle, sufficient to encompass the body, was sewed double and fastened with a buckle. The other was wound around above or below the first fold, and tucked under. The first fold had an opening, closed with a leathern cover and strap, through which the contents of the purse were passed. Matt 10:9; Mark 6:8.

PUT. 1 Chr 1:8; Nah 3:9; elsewhere Phut, Phud, Libya, which see.

PUTE'OLI (sulphurous wells or springs), a seaport of Campania, in Italy, situated upon the northern shore of a small bay running northward from the Bay of Naples, and now called Pozzuoli Bay. The town was originally confined to a rocky promontory, but afterward extended to a considerable distance eastward and northward. Puteoli was the great port of Rome, and through it passed the immense exports and imports of the imperial city. Especially was it the port for the Alexandrian corn-ships, which were allowed the peculiar privilege of entering the bay with all their sails set. Its ancient Greek name was Dicaearchia. It was a favorite watering-place of the Romans, its hot springs being considered efficacious for the cure of various diseases. Puteoli is connected with many historical personages. Scipio sailed hence to Spain; Cicero had a villa near the city; here Nero planned the murder of his mother; Vespasian gave to this city peculiar privileges; and here Hadrian was buried,


The Castor and Pollux landed the apostle Paul there, Acts 28:13-14, and he tarried in the place, where there were Christians, for a week before setting out for Rome, 141 miles distant. The modern name of Puteoli is Pozzuoli. There are considerable remains of ancient structures, including an aqueduct, reservoirs, baths, and a building called the temple of Serapis. Thirteen arches can still be counted of the twenty-five which originally supported the great pier, thrown out for protection against the waves and for convenience in landing passengers and merchandise.

PU'TIEL (afflicted of God), the father-in-law of Eleazar, the son of Aaron. Ex 6:25.

The Addax or Pygarg

PY'GARG. Deut 14:5. This is believed to have been some species of antelope, perhaps the addax (Antilope addax).

PYR'RHUS, father of Sopater of Berea, mentioned in Acts 20:4; a genuine name, found in the best Greek texts, though not in the A.V. The father was doubtless a Berean as well as the son, but whether he was a Christian cannot be determined.

PY'THON, occurring Acts 16:16, margin, was a surname of Apollo, the god of divination in the Greek mythology, and hence applied to all oracular and divinatory spirits. See Divination.

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