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JA'AKAN (he shall adorn, or one sagacious), the son of Seir the Horite. Deut 10:6. See Bene-jaakan. The name is given as Jakan in 1 Chron 1:42.

JAAK'OBAH (heel catcher, supplanter), a chieftain of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:36.

JAA'LA, JAA'LAH (a wild shegoat), one of the descendants of Solomon's slaves who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon to Jerusalem. Ezr 2:56, Neh 7:58.

JAA'LAM (whom God. hides), a son of Esau by his wife Aholibamah, and a chief of Edom. Gen 36:5, Gen 36:14, Gen 36:18; 1 Chr 1:35.

JA'ANAI (whom Jehovah answers), a chief of Gad. 1 Chr 5:12.

JAAR'E-OR'EGIM (forests of the weavers), the Bethlehemite whose son Elhanan slew the brother of Goliath. 2 Sam 21:19. In 1 Chr 20:5 he appears as Jair.

JA'ASAU (whom Jehovah has made), one mentioned, Ezr 10:37, as having a foreign wife.

JAA'SIEL (whom God has made), the son of Abner, and chief of the tribe of Benjamin. 1 Chr 27:21.

JAAZANI'AH (whom Jehovah hears).

  1. A captain who joined Gedaliah at Mizpah, 2 Kgs 25:23, and who subsequently fought against Ishmael, and then later went to Egypt. Comp. Jer 41:11; Jer 43:2.

  2. The probable chief of the family of the Rechabites at the time of Jeremiah. Jer 35:3.

  3. One of the seventy elders seen by Ezekiel in his vision. Eze 8:11.

  4. A prince against whom Ezekiel was directed to prophesy. Eze 11:1.

JAA'ZER, and JA'ZER (Jehovah helps), a city of Gilead, east of the Jordan, which was conquered and assigned to Gad and to the Levites. Num 21:32; Num 32:1; Josh 21:39. In the time of David it was held by Hebronites or Kohathites, 1 Chr 26:31, but in later times it was subject to Moab, and is often denounced in prophecies against that nation. Isa 16:8-9; Jer 48:32. It was situated at the massive ruins called Sar, about 4 hours (15 miles) north-east of Heshbon. Below the hill is a fountain with a stream which flows to the Jordan. Tristram found ancient terraces, probably vineyards, in illustration of Isa 16:9; Jer 48:32. There are mounds and rows of foundations at the head of the valley. In the A.V. the "Sea of Jazer" is referred to, Jer 48:32; but the passage may be rendered: "Thy shoots have overshot the sea, to Jazer have they reached;" the "sea" would then be the Salt or Dead Sea.

JAAZI'AH (whom Jehovah consoles), a Levite of the family of Merari. 1 Chr 24:26-27.

JAA'ZIEL (whom God consoles), a Levite who played before the ark. 1 Chr 15:18. In 1 Chr 15:20 he is called Aziel.

JA'BAL (a stream), the son of Lamech, descendant of Cain; described as the "father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle." Gen 4:20.

JAB'BOK (emptying), a stream rising about 25 miles east of the north end of the Dead Sea, and flowing east, then northward and westward, and finally south-west, into the Jordan about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. It is now called the Zerka or "blue" river. It has a small branch flowing into it past Gerosh, but no branch from the north-east as indicated on most maps. Across this stream Jacob sent his family, and here his wrestling for a blessing occurred. Gen 32:22-24. The Israelites conquered the kingdoms of Og and Sihon, but not the Ammonite country nor the upper Jabbok, which explains Deut 2:37. Compare Num 21:24; Deut 3:16; Josh 12:2; Jud 11:13, Neh 11:22. The Jabbok before it enters the Jordan valley flows through a deep, narrow ravine, the hills being from 1600 to 2000 feet in height. They are covered with verdure and are very picturesque. The stream in most of its course is perennial, swollen, deep, and rapid in winter; it abounds in small fish of excellent flavor.


JA'BESH (dry), the father of Shallum, the fifteenth king of Israel. 2 Kgs 15:10, 2 Kgs 15:13-14.

JA'BESH, and JA'BESH-GIL'EAD (dry Gilead), a city east of the Jordan; destroyed by the Israelites, Jud 21:8-14; delivered from Nahash by Saul, 1 Sam 11:1-11, and in gratitude therefor its people brought the bodies of Saul and his sons, which the Philistines hung upon the walls of Bethshan, to Jabesh, and caused them to be buried in a wood near by. 1 Sam 31:11-13. David blessed them, 2 Sam 2:4-6, but afterward removed the bones to Saul's ancestral burying-place. 2 Sam 2:4-6; 2 Sam 21:12-14. Robinson identifies it with ed-Deir, 23 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee on the south side of Wady Yabis. Dr. S. Merrill, however, questions this as not conforming to the location assigned to it by Eusebius. He would identify Jabesh with the ruins of a town found about 7 miles from Pella, on the north side of Wady Yabis, on the mountain Jebel Aijlun, about 2300 feet above the Jordan valley. This seems to conform to the biblical statements concerning the place.

JA'BEZ (he causes pain), the name of one whose prayer was answered. 1 Chr 4:9-10.

JA'BEZ (he causes pain), apparently a place; named only in 1 Chr 2:55, and doubtless named from Jabez of 1 Chr 4:9-10, though the Targumist regards it not as the name of a place, but of a person.

JA'BIIV (whom he-i.e. God-observes).

  1. King of Hazor, a northern district of Canaan. Josh 11:1. He attempted by a formidable alliance to oppose the progress of Joshua. He and his allies were utterly defeated in a battle at Merom, the city of Hazor was taken, and Jabin put to death.

  2. Another king of the same name and place, who had great wealth and power and oppressed the children of Israel for 20 years. Jud 4:2. His army was defeated by Deborah and Barak, and Sisera, his principal general, put to death.

JAB'NEEL (Jehovah causes to be built).

  1. A town of Judah; called also Jabneh. Josh 15:11; 2 Chr 26:6. Uzziah captured it from the Philistines and destroyed its fortifications. It was noted during the wars of the Maccabees, and called by Josephus, Jamnia. It was a large and populous place, and after the destruction of Jerusalem was for some time the seat of a famous Jewish school of learning and of the Sanhedrin. It is identified with Yebnah, a considerable village about 3 miles from the Mediterranean and 12 miles south of Joppa. The Crusaders built a fortress here, of which the ruins still remain. A tomb is shown, reputed as the tomb of Gamaliel, a descendant of the noted Gamaliel who instructed Paul. There are the ruins of an ancient church. The port of Yebnah is naturally one of the best on the coast of Palestine below Csesarea, but there are dangerous reefs hidden beneath the waters.

  2. A place in Naphtali, Josh 19:33; called, in the Talmud, Caphar Yama. Conder identifies it with Yemma, 4 miles south-west of the Sea of Galilee.

JAB'NEH. See Jabneel.

JA'CHAN (affliction), a Gadite chief. 1 Chr 5:13.

JA'CHIN (he shall establish).

  1. Fourth son of Simeon. Gen 46:10; Ex 6:15.

  2. Head of the twenty- first course of priests. 1 Chr 9:10; 1 Chr 24:17; Neh 11:10.

JA'CHIN (he shall establish) and BOAZ (lively) were the names of the two pillars Solomon set up. They were probably named after the givers. See Boaz.

JA'CHINITES, THE, the descendants of Jachin, son of Simeon. Num 26:12.

JACINTH, or HY'ACINTH, probably the same as the ligure, Ex 28:19, a gem of a yellowish-red or a dark-purple color, resembling the amethyst. Rev 9:17; Rev 21:20. In the former passage there is reference merely to its color.

JA'COB (heel-catcher, supplanter), the third of the Jewish patriarchs, the son of Isaac and Rebekah, and twin brother to Esau. He received his name from the circumstance which occurred at his birth. Gen 25:26. The family were then living at Lahai-roi. The twins greatly differed in tastes: Esau was a hunter, Jacob "a plain man, dwelling in tents." Gen 25:27. But though domestic, he was selfish and scheming. 413 He bought the birthright from Esau, taking advantage of the latter's temporary weakness. Gen 25:29-34. When Isaac, fearing a sudden death, desired to bless Esau, whose manly character made him his favorite, while the more pliable Jacob was the favorite of Rebekah, Jacob was ready to fall in with his mother's plan, and, by deceiving his blind and aged father, to secure the elder brother's blessing. The event, so momentous to all parties, is related in detail in Gen 27.

The hate of Esau, naturally aroused, compelled Jacob in fear to flee somewhere, and the anxiety of Rebekah lest Jacob should marry a daughter of Heth was the ostensible reason for turning his steps toward Padan-aram, where her brother Laban lived. Previous to his departure Isaac blessed him again, and thus with the assurance of divine favor, but with a heavy and fearful heart, did this man of at least 50 years (it is usual to call him 78 years old) turn his back upon his home and wearily go among strangers. But, though unworthy, he was the heir to the promises; and accordingly, God cared for him. At Bethel his eyes were opened to see a glorious vision and his ears to hear the voice of God. On awaking he made a vow to serve the Lord, giving the tenth, if the Lord on his part would protect and prosper him. Gen 28:20-22.

An every-day incident introduced him to the family of Laban; an act of gallantry won him a home at once. Loving Rachel, he promised to serve Laban for her. But when the time was fulfilled, Laban, favored by the marriage-customs of the Orient, fraudulently married him to the elder daughter, Leah, but afterward to Rachel also. Jacob contrived an expedient whereby his flocks became larger and healthier than Laban's, and thus in the course of time the desire of his heart after the things of this life was gratified. He had "increased exceedingly, and had much cattle, and maidservants, and men-servants, and camels, and asses." Gen 30:43. Eleven sons and one daughter had been born to him by his two wives and their two servants, who were his concubines.

But he yearned after his native land and determined to brave his brother's anger. Secretly, knowing Laban's feelings, he fled, but was followed and overtaken. A parley ensued. Jacob asserted his grievance: "I served thee fourteen years for thy two daughters, and six years for thy cattle; and thou hast changed my wages ten times." A covenant of peace was made, of which a pillar was a reminder, Gen 31:45-54, and Laban left him with expressions of goodwill.

Still dreading Esau, he sent messengers to him, and found Esau was approaching — he feared with hostile intentions. He prudently guarded against destruction by separating his company into two bands and by sending a handsome present to Esau. Fear acted like a slave to bring him to God. He prayed humbly, not to say cringingly, quoting the divine promises. After sending his family over the brook Jabbok, he tarried behind to see that nothing was forgotten, when there appeared "a man" who wrestled with him till the breaking of the day. The wrestling forms an extraordinary scene. Gen 32:24-32. God prevailed not against man. But when the day dawned the exhausted son of Isaac was no longer Jacob, but Israel; for though the sinew of his thigh shrank under the angel's touch, and though after this he was to know much sorrow, the all-night conflict had brought victory, so that the angel of the Lord could say, "As a prince hast thou power with God and with men; and hast prevailed." With the new name came the new nature. The man who met Esau was not Jacob, the supplanter, but Israel, the soldier of God. Behind him lay the guilty past; before him stretched the illimitable future, whose near part was full of trial, but whose far part was full of glory. Like many other awaited ills, the meeting with Esau was an agreeable disappointment. Esau was all kindness, and Jacob was compelled to refuse his friendly offers.

After the brothers separated, Jacob finally settled near the city of Shechem, where he bought some land. Gen 33. In retaliation for the ravishment of Dinah by Shechem, the son of the prince of the country, by a stratagem the city was destroyed. See Dinah. The patriarch was therefore compelled to leave that part of the land. By divine direction he came to Bethel, 414 where he paid the vow he had made so many years before, and here God again appeared unto him. On their way to Hebron, at Bethlehem, Benjamin was born, but Rachel, the beloved wife of Jacob, died. The memory of the event was ineffaceable. Gen 35:19. Shortly after his arrival, it would seem, Isaac died, and he and Esau buried him. Gen 35:29.

The history now is taken up with Joseph, and Jacob does not play a prominent part until, lying upon his deathbed, he utters his prophetic blessing, tracing from the starting-point of individual character the fortunes of the tribes his twelve sons were destined to found. But the future was revealed to him only a little while before he belonged to the past for ever, for scarcely had he spoken out the pride, affection, apprehension, and warning of his fatherly heart than he "yielded up the ghost," aged 147 years, "and was gathered unto his people." Gen 49:33. He was buried with great pomp; his body was embalmed by the court-physicians and carried to Hebron, and there at last, after 147 years of wandering and trouble, Jacob rested with his ancestors in the cave of Machpelah. Gen 50:13.

Jacob had more weaknesses and faults by nature than his father and grandfather, but his life was also more checkered and troubled, and his character purified by affliction, Abraham exemplifies heroic faith; Isaac, quiet humility; Jacob, patience and perseverance. His checkered life teaches us the lesson that through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of heaven.

The terms "Jacob" and the "seed" or "children of Jacob" are often applied to the body of true believers generally. Deut 33:10: Ps 14:7; Ps 22:23; Ps 105:6; Ps 135:4; Isa 14:1; Isa 44:2; Mic 7:20.

JA'COB'S WELL, the well at which Jesus sat and talked with the Samaritan woman, John 4:5-6, near Shechem; comp. Gen 33:19; Josh 24:32. Here our blessed Lord, weary of travel, but not of his work of saving love, offered to a poor woman the living water of eternal life and revealed to her the sublime truth of the true worship of God, who is a Spirit, in spirit and in truth. Here he sowed the seed for the harvest of the apostles. Acts 8. This is one of the few places in the Holy Land which can be identified with certainty. Christians, Jews, Mohammedans, Samaritans, all agree in regard to the site of Jacob's well. It is situated a mile and a half south-east of the town of Nablus, the ancient Shechem, at the eastern base of Mount Gerizim, near the edge of the plain of Moreh (Mukun), and close to the highway from Jerusalem to Galilee. The well is in an almost square enclosure, which measures 192 feet by 151 feet; the wall of this enclosure is almost

Jacob's Well.

entirely destroyed, and the ground is covered with shapeless ruins forming a large mound. The well is now 75 feet deep, 7 feet 6 inches in diameter, and the upper part lined with rough masonry. It must have been very much deeper in ancient times, for in the course of 10 years it decreased 10 feet in depth, and Robinson in 1838 found it 105 feet deep. Captain Anderson estimates that it has been filled up to probably more than half of its original depth by the stones thrown into it by visitors for the sake of hearing them strike, and by the debris from the ruined church built over the well during the fourth century. The bottom of the well is at times entirely dry, but in some seasons it contains water. 415 Money has been contributed to the British Palestine Exploration Fund for the purpose of clearing out the well and preserving its sacred associations.

JA'DA (knowing), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:28, 1 Chr 2:32.

JADA'U (loving), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:43.

JADDU'A (known).

  1. One who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:21.

  2. The son of Jonathan, high priest of the Jews, who officiated a considerable time after the Captivity, and who is believed to be the same who lived in the time of Alexander the Great "by those who maintain that the list, Neh 12:11, of high priests from Joshua to Jaddua, or from b.c. 538-b.c. 336, cannot, in its present shape, have proceeded from Nehemiah's hand, or from that of a contemporary." -Bible (Speaker's) Commentary. He is the last of the high priests mentioned in the O.T.

JA'DON (judge), one who helped build the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 3:7.

JA'EL (mountain-goat), the wife of Heber the Kenite. Jud 4:17. After the defeat of Jabin's army by Deborah and Barak, Sisera, the general, fled toward her tent, because Heber and Jabin were at peace. It was not unusual for the women to have a tent separate from the men, as in Sarah's case, Gen 24:67, and Leah's. Gen 31:33. This was a place of security, for then as now among the Arabs a stranger would not venture into the women's tent unasked. Jael invited him in, and concealed him. Fatigued and thirsty, he asked for water, and she gave him buttermilk, which greatly refreshed him. After instructing Jael to stand at the door of the tent, and to deny that he was within if any one should inquire for him, he fell into a sound sleep. She then took a tent-pin, and with a hammer drove it through his temples into the ground. Jud 4:21. Her act was treacherous, cowardly, and inhuman. It causes only a momentary perplexity, as we have no warrant for supposing her divinely commissioned. Hence, although Deborah appears to praise her in her song, Jud 5:24-27, she does not express any approval of the act upon moral grounds. Jael was a murderess from the Christian standpoint, and at best we can only justify her act by emphasizing the barbarity of her time and the usage of warfare, which is organized cruelty.

JA'GUR, a city on the south-eastern frontier of Judah, near Edom, Josh 15:21; perhaps to be associated with the following word. See Kinah.

JAH. Ps 68:4. A contraction of the word "Jehovah," which imports the attribute of self-existence. It is part of the compound words "Adonijah" ("God is my Lord") and "Hallelujah" ("Praise the Lord"). See Jehovah.

JA'HATH (union).

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:2.

  2. A Levite of the family of Gershom, and progenitor of Asaph. 1 Chr 6:20.

  3. A Levite, head of a branch of the same family. 1 Chr 23:10-11.

  4. A Levite of the Kohathites in the reign of David. 1 Chr 24:22.

  5. A Merarite Levite in the reign of Josiah, an overseer of the repairingwork in the temple. 2 Chr 34:12.

JA'HAZ (place trodden down), a Moabitish city situated near the desert; afterward reckoned to the tribe of Reuben and assigned to the priests. Num 21:23; Deut 2:32; Isa 15:4; Jer 48:34. It is also called Jahaza, Josh 13:18, Jahazah, Josh 21:36; Jer 48:21, and Jahzah. 1 Chr 6:78. At this place the Israelites gained a victory over Sihon and conquered the territory between the Arnon and the Jabbok; but in later times Jahaz seems to have been occupied by the Moabites. Osborn locates Jahaz a mile south of the Arnon and 12 miles east of the Dead Sea.


JAHAZI'AH (whom Jehovah beholds), one who helped Ezra in his marriage-reform. Ezr 10:15.

JAHA'ZIEL (whom God beholds).

  1. A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:4.

  2. A priest appointed by David to blow the trumpet before the ark. 1 Chr 16:6.

  3. A Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr 23:19; 1 Chr 24:23.

  4. A Levite of the sons of Asaph "inspired to encourage Jehoshaphat when marching against the Moabites and Ammonites." 2 Chr 20:14.

  5. The father of the chief of the sons


of Shecaniah who returned to Jerusalem with Ezra. Ezr 8:5.

JAH'DAI (whom Jehovah directs), a name in the genealogies of Judah. 1 Chr 2:47.

JAH'DIEL (whom God makes joyful), the head of a family in the trans-Jordanic half-tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chr 5:24.

JAH'DO (his union), a Gadite. 1 Chr 5:14.

JAH'LEEL (hoping in God), the youngest son of Zebulun, and founder of the Jahleelites. Gen 46:14; Num 26:26.

JAHLEELITES, THE, descendants of Jahleel. Num 26:26.

JAH'MAI (whom Jehovah guards), a man of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:2.

JAH'ZEEL (whom God allots), the eldest son of Naphtali, and founder of the Jahzeelites. Gen 46:24; 1 Chr 7:13.

JAHZEELITES, THE, descendants of Jahzeel. Num 26:48.

JAH'ZERAH (whom God leads back), a priest of the house of Immer, 1 Chr 9:12; called Ahasai in the duplicate passage in Neh 11:13.

JAH'ZIEL. 1 Chr 7:13. The same as Jahzeel, which see.

JAI'LER. See Prison, Punishment.

JA'IR (whom Jehovah enlightens).

  1. A chief warrior under Moses, descended from the most powerful family of Judah and Manasseh by his father and mother respectively. He took all the country of Argob (the modern Lejab) on the east side of Jordan, and, besides, some villages in Gilead, which he called Havoth-jair, "villages of Jair." 1 Chr 2:21-23; Num 32:41; Deut 3:14; comp. Josh 13:30.

  2. Jair the Gileadite, who judged Israel 22 years. "He had thirty sons who rode on thirty ass-colts, and they had thirty cities, which are called Havothjair, which are in Gilead." Jud 10:3-5.

  3. A Benjamite, father of Mordeeai. Esth 2:5.

  4. In 1 Chr 20:5 in the A.V., Jair occurs, but it is a totally different name in Hebrew, meaning "whom God awakens." This Jair was the father of Elhanan, who killed Lachmi, the brother of Goliath. He is called Jaareoregim in 2 Sam 21:19.

JA'IRTTE, THE, a descendant of Jair. 2 Sam 20:26.

JAI'RUS (whom Jehovah enlightens), an officer of the Jewish church who applied to Christ to restore to life his daughter, who was at the point of death when he left home. He evinced very strong faith. Christ with his disciples went to the ruler's house, and his daughter was restored. Mark 5:42.

JA'KAN (sagacious), a son of Ezer the Horite; identical with Jaakan. 1 Chr 1:42.

JA'KEH (pious), the father of Agur, whose "words" are recorded in Prov 30.

JA'KIM (whom God sets up).

  1. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:19.

  2. Head of the twelfth course of the priests. 1 Chr 24:12.

JA'LON (abiding), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:17.

JAM'BRES. See Jannes and Jambres.

JAMES (the same as "Jacob," the supplanter).

  1. James the Elder, one of the three favorite apostles, a son of Zebedee and Salome, and a brother of John the evangelist. With Peter and John, he was present at the raising of Jairus's daughter, the transfiguration, and the agony in Gethsemane. He was beheaded by order of King Herod Agrippa, and became the first martyr among the apostles, a.d. 44, thus fulfilling our Saviour's prediction concerning the baptism of blood. Matt 4:21; Matt 20:20-23; Ex 26:37; Mark 1:19-20; Mark 10:35; Acts 12:2. His apostolic labors seem not to have extended beyond Jerusalem and Judaea. Clement of Alexandria relates that the accuser of James on the way to the place of execution, stung by remorse, confessed faith and asked forgiveness; whereupon James said to him, "Peace be with thee!" gave him a brotherly kiss, and had him for a companion in martyrdom. His place was filled partly by James the brother of the Lord, partly by Paul.

    1. James the Less, or the Little, also one of the twelve apostles, a son of Alpheus and Mary. Mark 15:40; Mark 16:1; Matt 10:3; Matt 27:56; Acts 1:13. He labored, according to the tradition of the Greek Church (which distinguishes him from James, the brother of the Lord), in the south-western part of

Palestine, afterward in Egypt, and was crucified in Lower Egypt. He is regarded by many as a cousin of Jesus.

  1. James, "the brother of the Lord," Gal 1:19; comp. Matt 13:55; Mark 6:3, or simply James, Acts 12:17; Acts 15:13; Gen 21:18; Gal 2:9; 1 Cor 15:7. By ecclesiastical writers he is also called James "the Just" and "the bishop of Jerusalem." Commentators are divided as to his relation to James the Less. Some identify him with the younger apostle of that name, and regard him simply as a cousin of Jesus, while others distinguish the two, and understand the designation "brother of the Lord" in the strict sense either of a uterine brother or a half-brother of Jesus. See Brother and Brethren of Jesus. It is certain, from the Acts of the Apostles, that this James, after the dispersion of the disciples and the departure of Peter, Acts 12:17, occupied the most prominent position in the church of Jerusalem, and stood at the head of the Jewish converts. He presided at the apostolic council, and proposed the compromise which prevented a split between the Jewish and the Gentile sections of the church. Acts 15 and Gal 2. He stood mediating between the old and the new dispensations, and conformed very nearly to the Jewish traditions and temple-service as long as there was any hope of a national conversion. He stood in high repute even among the Jews, but nevertheless was (according to Josephus) sentenced to be stoned by the Sanhedrin, a.d. 62. Hegesippus, an historian of the second century, puts his martyrdom later, A.D. 69, shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem, and adds that he was thrown by the Pharisees from the pinnacle of the temple, and then despatched with a fuller's club while on his knees, in the act of praying for his murderers.

Epistle of James, "a servant (not an apostle) of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ," the same who is also called "the brother of the Lord." It is one of the catholic or general Epistles, and consists of five chapters. The design of the Epistle is, (1) To correct errors into which the Jewish Christians had fallen, especially relating to justification by faith; (2) To animate their hope, and strengthen their faith, in view of afflictions felt and feared; and (3) To excite the unbelieving Jews to repentance toward God and faith in the rejected Messiah. It is remarkable that the name of our blessed Lord occurs but twice in this Epistle, but with great reverence as the divine Master, Jas 1:1, and as "the Lord of glory." Ruth 2:1. The gospel is described as the perfect law of freedom. The Epistle strongly resembles the preaching of John the Baptist and the Sermon on the Mount. The main stress is laid on works rather than faith. It enforces an eminently practical Christianity which manifests itself in good fruits. Its doctrine of justification, ch. Jas 2, apparently conflicts with that of Paul, Rom 3-4, but in reality the two apostles supplement each other, and guard each other against abuse and excess. James opposes a dead orthodoxy, an unfruitful theoretical belief, and insists on practical demonstration of faith, while Paul, in opposition to Pharisaical legalism and self-righteousness, exhibits a living faith in Christ as the principle and root of all good works. The one judges the tree by its fruit, the other proceeds from the root.

The Epistle of James was written before a.d. 62, perhaps much earlier, probably from Jerusalem, the scene of his labors, and is addressed to the twelve tribes scattered abroad, Jas 1:1 -that is, either to all the Jews of the Dispersion, or only to the Jewish Christians, as to the true spiritual Israel. The style is lively, vigorous, and impressive. What kindling words on patience in suffering, joy in sorrow, heavenly wisdom, the power of prayer as the most certain unfailing thing, from deep personal experience! There is a resemblance between the Epistle and the pastoral letter of the Council of Jerusalem, which was no doubt written by the same James as the presiding officer; both have the Greek form of "greeting," Acts 15:23; Jas 1:1, which otherwise does not occur in the N.T. or is changed into "grace and peace." This is an incidental proof of the genuineness of the Epistle. The theory recently advocated by Bassett (Commentary on fhe Catholic Epistle of St. James, London, 1876), that it was written by the elder James, the son of Zebedee, before a.d. 44, has little to support it. He assumes that the Epistle was addressed to all the Jews of the dispersion with the 418 view to convert them by a moral rather than doctrinal exhibition of Christianity.

JA'MIN (prosperity, right hand).

  1. The second son of Simeon, founder of the Jaminites. Gen 46:10; Ex 6:15; 1 Chr 4:24; Num 26:12.

  2. A man of Judah. 1 Chr 2:27.

  3. A Levite who expounded the Law with Ezra. Neh 8:7.

JA'MINITES, THE, descendants of Jamin. Num 26:12.

JAM'LECH (whom God makes king), a chief of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:34.

JANG'LING means "babbling" in 1 Tim 1:6.

JAN'NA (whom Jehovah bestows), one of our Lord's ancestors. Luke 3:24.

JAN'NES and JAM'BRES, two famous magicians of Egypt, who are supposed to have used their art to deceive Pharaoh. 2 Tim 3:8; Ex 7:9-13.

JANO'AH (rest), a town of Naphtali, in northern Palestine, taken by the king of Assyria. 2 Kgs 15:29. Van de Velde and Porter propose to identify it with ruins at the village Hunis, between Abel-beth-Maachah and Kedesh; Conder with Yanuk, near the western limit of the ancient territory of Naphtali.

JANO'HAH (rest), a town on the north-east borders of Ephraim. Josh 16:6-7. At Yanus, about 8 miles south-east of Nablus, are extensive ruins, entire houses and walls, covered with immense heaps of earth, and these are identified as the site of Janohah.

JA'NUM (slumber), a place in the tribe of Judah. Josh 15:53. The margin has "Janus" ("flight"). It was not far from Hebron, and Conder proposes to identify it with Beni Naim.

JA'PHETH (enlargement), the second son of Noah. Gen 5:32; Gen 10:21. The prophetic blessing pronounced on Japheth by his father, Gen 9:27, was accomplished to the full extent of the promise. From him have come, (1) Gomer, or the Cymri or Celts; (2) Magog, or the Scythians and Sarmatians (Slavonians); (3) Madai, or the Medes or Aryans; (4) Javan, or the Greeks; (5) Tubal, or the Tibareni; (6) Meshech, or the Moschi; (7) Tiras, or the Teutons. The Japhetic races have occupied "'the isles of the Gentiles' — i. e. all the coastlands in Europe and Asia Minor and islands of the Mediterranean — whence they spread northward over Europe and much of Asia, from India and Persia in the east to the extreme west of Europe, and now to America and Australia." — Fausset: Englishman's Bible Cyclopaedia. The other branch of prophecy, "he (God) shall dwell in the tents of Shem," was fulfilled when the divine Presence was manifested in the tabernacle and temple; or if we read, "he (Japheth) shall dwell in the tents of Shem," it was fulfilled literally when the Greeks and Romans (descended from Japheth) subdued Judaea, the inheritance of Shem, and figuratively when the descendants of Japheth (the Gentiles) received the gospel, which the Jews, who were of the seed of Shem, rejected.

JAPHI'A (splendid), the king of Lachish, one of the five kings of the Amorites who united against Joshua, but were defeated at Beth-horon and killed at Makkedah. Josh 10:3.

JAPHI'A (splendid), a place in the tribe of Zebulun. Josh 19:12. It is identified with a small village, called Yafa, a short distance south-west of Nazareth. See Josephus: Wars, 2:20, 6. Drake described some caves at this place unlike any other he had seen in Palestine. A passage 12 feet long leads into a circular chamber, in the floor of which are circular "man-holes" leading to two lower caves, which in turn lead to others. All the chambers are connected by intricate passage-ways. Mr. Drake conceives that they were not tombs, but places for the storage of grain.

JAPH'LET (whom God delivers), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:32-33.

JAPH'LETI, a landmark of Ephraim west of Beth-horon. Josh 16:3.

JA'PHO. Josh 19:46. See Joppa.

JA'RAH (honey), a descendant of Saul, 1 Chr 9:42; called in the parallel list, 1 Chr 8:36, Jehoadah.

JA'REB (an adversary). The marginal reading would indicate that it was the name of a place, but that is forbidden by the form of the original word. Hos 5:13; Neh 10:6. Some make it the name of a king, but it is better to translate it "the hostile king" — i.e. "the king of Assyria."

JA'RED (descent), the father of Enoch. Gen 5:15-20; Luke 3:37. In 1 Chr 1:2 he is called Jered.

JARESI'AH (whom Jehovah fattens), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:27.


JAR'HA (meaning uncertain), an Egyptian servant of Sheshan, and married to his daughter, 1 Chr 2:34-35.

JA'RIB (an adversary).

  1. A son of Simeon, 1 Chr 4:24; called Jachin in Gen 46:10.

  2. A companion of Ezra, "a chief man." Ezr 8:16.

  3. A priest married to a foreign wife. Ezr 10:18.

JAR'MUTH. 1. A town in the low country of Judah. Josh 15:35. Its king, Piram, was one of the five who conspired to punish Gibeon for having made alliance with Israel, and who were defeated at Beth-horon and were hanged by Joshua at Makkedah. Josh 12:11; Josh 15:35. It was peopled after the Captivity. Neh 11:29. It is identified with Yarmak, 16 miles south-west of Jerusalem, on the crest of a rocky ridge, where hewn blocks of stone and other ruins of a town are found.

  1. A city of Issachar, allotted with its suburbs to the Gershonite Levites, Josh 21:29, and called Reneth and Ramoth. Josh 19:21; 1 Chr 6:73. Conder proposes to identify it with Rameh.

JARO'AH (moon), a Gadite. 1 Chr 5:14.

JA'SHEN (sleeping), the father of some of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:32.

JA'SHER, BOOK OF (upright). Twice referred to. Josh 10:13; 2 Sam 1:18; probably a collection of national songs, now lost.

JASHO'BEAM (to whom the people turns), the chief of David's captains, who came to him at Ziklag and distinguished himself and his band by slaying 300 men at one time. 1 Chr 11:11; 1 Chr 12:6; 1 Chr 27:2. He is the same with Adino the Ezmite, 2 Sam 23:8, the difference in the Hebrew being slight.

JASH'UB (he turns).

  1. One of the sons of Issachar; founder of the Jashubites. Num 26:24; 1 Chr 7:1; called Job in Gen 46:13.

  2. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:29.

JASHUBILE'HEM (turner back for food), either a person or a place mentioned in the genealogical list of Judah. 1 Chr 4:22.

JASHTIBITES, THE, descendants of Jashub, 1. Num 26:24.

JA'SIEL (whom God has made), one of David's warriors, 1 Chr 11:47; same as Jaasiel.

JA'SON (one who will heal), a Thessalonian, and probably a relative of Paul, whom he entertained, and in consequence received rough treatment at the hands of the unbelieving Jews. Acts 17; cf. Rom 9:3; Deut 16:21.

JAS'PER, the last stone in the breastplate of the high priest, and the first in the foundations of the new Jerusalem. Ex 28:20; Rev 21:19. Jasper is an opaque species of quartz, of different colors, often banded or spotted, and susceptible of a high polish. The darkgreen kind is supposed to be the variety of the Bible. From the apparent inconsistency of Rev 4:3; Rev 21:11 with the opaque character of this stone, it has been suggested that some transparent gem was denoted by jasper in the N.T. — perhaps the diamond or the translucent chalcedony. See Stones, Precious.

JATH'NIEL (whom God bestows),a Levite porter or doorkeeper in the tabernacle. 1 Chr 26:2.

JAT'TIR, a town of Judah in the mountain-districts, Josh 15:48; 2 Sam 21:14; David sent presents thither. 1 Sam 30:27; 1 Chr 6:57. Robinson identifies it with 'Attir, 6 miles north of Molada and 11 miles west of south of Hebron. Tristram noted there over 30 crypts, and found remains of terraces, many old wells, now dry and filled with rubbish, but only one modern building, a Moslem tomb.

JA'VAN, the fourth son of Japheth, and the ancestor of the Grecians or lonians. Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5, 1 Chr 1:7. Hence the word "Javan" in the O.T. denotes Greece, or the Greeks. Isa 66:19; Eze 27:13.


  1. In Isa 66:19 it is coupled with Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, and with Tubal and the "isles afar off;" again, in Eze 27:13, it is joined with Tubal and Meshech, as carrying on commerce with the Tyrians, who imported from these countries slaves and brazen vessels; in Dan 8:21; Num 10:20; Matt 11:2, in reference to the Macedonian empire; and in Zech 9:13, in reference to the Graeco-Syrian empire. From these passages it appears that "Javan" was regarded as a title for the Greek people and the Grecian empire.

  2. A town in the southern part of


Arabia (Yemen), whither the Phoenicians traded, Eze 27:19; probably Uzal, a name of the capital of Yema, in Arabia, and famous for the manufacture of swordblades.

JAV'ELIN. See Arms.

JA'ZER, Josh 21:39, or JAA'ZER, Num 21:32, a city of the Ammonites, near the river Jabbok, the ruins of which are still visible at Sar, about 15 miles from Hesban.

Sea of, Jer 48:32, may be a lake existing in ancient times near the city of Jazer. There are round pools of water near Sar, but scholars have not agreed what the Sea of Jazer refers to.

JA'ZIZ (whom God moves), the Hagerite who was over David's flocks. 1 Chr 27:31.

JEAL'OUSY. It is most frequently used to denote a suspicion of conjugal infidelity. 2 Cor 11:2. It is sometimes used for anger or indignation, Ps 79:5; 1 Cor 10:22, or an intense interest for the honor and prosperity of another. Zech 1:14; Zech 8:2.

The same term, in a similar sense, is used in speaking of God, for he is represented as a husband, related to his Church by a marriage-covenant that binds her to be wholly for him, and not for another. The more sincere and constant the love, the more sensitive is the heart to the approach of a rival; and the thought of such affection being alienated or corrupted fills the soul with grief and indignation. So God commends the purity, the fervency, and the sincerity of his love to his Church by the most terrific expressions of jealousy.

The various significations of the word "jealousy" are denoted usually by its connection. It is one of the strongest passions of our nature. Prov 6:34; Song 8:6.

The Image of Jealousy, Eze 8:3, Song of Solomon 8:5, is the same with Tammuz, in Am 8:14. See Tammuz.

Jealousy-offering, or Waters of Jealousy. See Adultery.

JE'ARIM, MOUNT (mount of forests), a place named in noting the northern boundary of Judah. Josh 15:10. The boundary ran from Mount Seir to "the shoulder of Mount Jearim, which is Chesnlon" — that is, Chesalon was the landmark on the mountain. Keslu stands 7 miles due west of Jerusalem, on a high point on the north slope of a lofty ridge, which is probably Mount Jearim. Considerable woods still exist there.

JEAT'ERAI (whom Jehovah leads), a Gershonite Levite, 1 Chr 6:21; called Ethni in 1 Chr 6:41.

JEBERACHI'AH (whom Jehovah blesses), the father of the Zechariah whom Isaiah took as a witness. Isa 8:2.

JE'BUS (place trodden down, threshing- floor), the ancient name of Jerusalem among the Canaanites, Jud 19:10-11; 1 Chr 11:4-5; probably derived from a descendant of Canaan, the son of Ham. Gen 10:16. The Jebusites were partially subdued by Joshua, Josh 10:23, Josh 10:40; Neh 12:10; Josh 15:63; Num 13:29; and they were permitted to remain after the conquest of Jebus by David. 2 Sam 5:6-9; 2 Sam 24:16-25; 1 Chr 11:48; Ezr 9:1-2. "Jebusi" is sometimes put for the city Jebus. Josh 18:16, Josh 18:28; Zech 9:7. Jebus was more accurately the south-west hill afterward called Mount Zion, or "city of David." Being surrounded on all sides by deep ravines, it was a place of great natural strength. See Jerusalem.

JEBU'SI. Josh 15:8; Josh 18:16, Josh 18:28. A name for Jebus. See Jebus and Jerusalem.

JEB'USITES, the name of a tribe inhabiting the portion of Canaan about Jebus or Jerusalem in the time of Joshua, and which the Israelites were commanded to destroy. Deut 7:1; Deut 20:17. They joined Jabin against Joshua. Their king, Adoni-zedek, was slain and they defeated. Josh 11:3; Josh 10:15, 1 Kgs 10:26; later their city was burnt, but reoccupied by the Jebusites. Jud 1:21 and Josh 15:63; Josh 19:10-22. David conquered their stronghold, and it became a part of his capital, Jerusalem. 2 Sam 5:6, 2 Sam 5:8; 1 Chr 11:4-6. Solomon made the Jebusites pay tribute, 1 Kgs 9:20, and some were known after the captivity. Ezr 9:1. David bought the place of Araunah the Jebusite for an altar, and this afterward became the site of the temple. 2 Sam 24:16-25.

JEB'USITES, inhabitants of Jebus.

JECAMI'AH (whom Jehovah gathers), one of the line of David, 1 Chr 3:18; same with Jekamiah of 1 Chr 2:41.

JECHOLI'AH (able through Jehovah), 421 the mother of Azariah, or Uzziah, king of Judah. 2 Kgs 15:2. She is called Jecoliah in 2 Chr 26:3.

JECHONI'AS. Matt 1:11-12. Greek form of Jeconiah or Jehoiachin, which see.

JECOLI'AH. See Jecholiah.

JECONI'AH (whom Jehovah establishes). See Jehoiachin.

JEDA'IAH (praise Jehovah).


  1. A Simeonite, ancestor of Ziza, a chief of his tribe. 1 Chr 4:37.

  2. One who helped repair the wall. Neh 3:10.


The same name in the A.V., but different in the Hebrew, meaning Jehovah cares for him.

  1. The head of the second course of priests, 1 Chr 24:7. "Most probably this course or the representative of it, divided afterward into two branches, is intended in 1 Chr 9:10; Ezr 2:36; Neh 7:39; Neh 11:10; Neh 12:6-7, Neh 12:19, Neh 12:21." —Ayre.

  2. One who returned from Babylon, to whom a memorial crown was given. Zech 6:10, Zech 6:14.

JEDI'AEL (known of God).

  1. A son or descendant of Benjamin, 1 Chr 7:6, 1 Chr 7:10-11, and progenitor of the most powerful family in the tribe.

  2. One of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:45.

  3. Perhaps the same as the chief of Manasseh who joined David on the march to Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:20.

  4. A Levite temple-doorkeeper in the time of David. 1 Chr 26:2.

JEDI'DAH (one beloved), the mother of King Josiah. 2 Kgs 22:1.

JEDIDI'AH (beloved of Jehovah), the name Nathan gave to Solomon. 2 Sam 12:25. It was a play on the word David, "beloved," which comes from the same root as "Jedid;" so, as the father was beloved, the child was the beloved of Jehovah.

JED'UTHUN (praising), an eminent master of the temple-music, to whom several of the Psalms are inscribed, see Ps 39, Ps 62, Ps 77, etc., or by whom, as some suppose, they were written. Probably he was identical with Ethan. 1 Chr 6:44; 1 Chr 15:17, 1 Chr 15:19; 1 Chr 16:38, 1 Chr 16:41-42; 1 Chr 25:1-6. "We find subsequently his division officiating when the temple was completed, 2 Chr 5:12, in Hezekiah's reformation, 2 Chr 29:14, and also under Josiah, 2 Chr 35:15; moreover, after the Captivity, a descendant of his house is mentioned. 1 Chr 9:16; Neh 11:17. Three Psalms have Jeduthun in their titles, Ps 39, Ps 62, Ps 77; probably they were to be sung by his musical division." — Ayre.

JEE'ZER (father of help), shortened form of Abiezer; a descendant of Manasseh through Gilead. Num 26:30. See Abikzer.

JEE'ZERITES, descendants of the above.

JE'GAR-SAHADU'THA (heap of testimony), the Aramaean name of the stone memorial between Jacob and Laban. Gen 31:47. The Hebrew word "Galeed" does not exactly represent it.

JEHALE'LEEL (who praises God), a Judite. 1 Chr 4:16.

JEHAL'ELEL (who praises God), a Levite. 2 Chr 29:12.

JEHDE'IAH (whom Jehovah makes joyful).

  1. A Levite. 1 Chr 24:20.

  2. He who had charge of David's she-asses. 1 Chr 27:30.

JEHEZ'EKEL (whom God makes strong), the head of the twentieth priestly course, 1 Chr 24:16; same name as Ezekiel.

JEHI'AH (Jehovah lives), a doorkeeper for the ark. 1 Chr 15:24.

JEHI'EL (God lives). 1. A Levite porter appointed by David for musical service. 1 Chr 15:18, 1 Chr 15:20; 1 Chr 16:5.

  1. A Gershonite Levite who had charge of the treasures of the house of the Lord. 1 Chr 23:8; 1 Chr 29:8.

  2. An officer under David. 1 Chr 27:32.

  3. A son of Jehoshaphat, slain by his brother Jehoram. 2 Chr 21:2.

  4. A Levite engaged in Hezekiah's reformatory work. 2 Chr 29:14.

  5. A ruler of the house of God during Josiah's reign. 2 Chr 35:8.

  6. A Levite "overseer." 2 Chr 31:13.

  7. Father of Obadiah, who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:9.

  8. One whose son proposed to Ezra the putting away of the foreign wives. Ezr 10:2.

10 and 11. Two men who had to separate their wives. Ezr 10:2, Gen 10:21, 1 Kgs 10:26.

JEHI'EL (treasured of God?), a distinct name in Hebrew from the last.

  1. The father of Gibeon of Benjamin,

and an ancestor of Saul. 1 Chr 9:35; comp. 1 Chr 8:29.

  1. A member of David's guard. 1 Chr 11:44.

JEHI'ELI, a patronymic; the descendants of Jehiel. 1 Chr 26:21-22; comp. 1 Chr 23:8; 1 Chr 29:8.

JEHIZKI'AH (whom Jehovah strengthens), the same name as Hezekiah. One of the Ephraimite chiefs who seconded the prophet Oded in his efforts to release the captives of Judah during Ahaz's reign. 2 Chr 28:12.

JEHO'ADAH (whom Jehovah adorns), one of the descendants of Saul, 1 Chr 8:36; in 1 Chr 9:42 called Jarah.

JEHOAD'DAN (the feminine form of the above), the queen of Joash and mother of Amaziah, the succeeding king of Judah. 2 Kgs 14:2; 2 Chr 25:1.

JEHO'AHAZ (whom Jehovah holds).

  1. Son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel for 17 years, b.c. 856-840. See 2 Kgs 13:1-9. His reign was disastrous to the kingdom. The kings of Syria, Hazael and Benhadad, oppressed and spoiled the country. The army was but a shadow. When his troubles multiplied he sought the Lord, whom he had forsaken, and God ultimately raised up a deliverer in the person of Jehoash, his son. 2 Kgs 13:25.

  2. Son and successor of Josiah, king of Judah, 2 Kgs 23:30; called Shallum 1 Chr 3:15; Jer 22:11. Though he was the fourth son, yet the people chose him king. He was an evil-doer, 2 Kgs 23:32, and referred to as a young lion by Ezekiel. Eze 19:3. He reigned only three months, b.c. 610. It has been plausibly conjectured that his irregular election offended Pharaoh-necho, who got Jehoahaz into his power at Riblah, in Syria, whence he sent him a prisoner loaded with chains into Egypt, and there he died, Jer 22:11-12, and his brother Jehoiakim became king in his stead. 2 Kgs 23:30, 2 Kgs 23:35.

  3. The same with Ahaziah and Azariah. Comp. 2 Chr 21:17; 2 Chr 22:1, 2 Chr 22:6, 2 Chr 22:8-9.

JEHO'ASH (whom Jehovah bestowed), original uncontracted form of the name commonly written Joash, and applied to two kings. See Joash, 3 and 4.

JEHOHA'NAN (whom Jehovah gave), a name contracted into Johanan, and thus into the familiar John.

  1. A Levite porter of the Korhite family. 1 Chr 26:3.

  2. Chief military leader under Jehoshaphat, 2 Chr 17:15, and probably the father of Ishmael, with whom Jehoiada conspired to set Joash on the throne. 2 Chr 23:1.

  3. One who put away his foreign wife. Ezr 10:28.

  4. A priest under the high priest Joiakim. Neh 12:13.

  5. A priest who officiated in the service of song at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 12:42.

JEHOI'ACHIN (whom Jehovah has appointed). Jeconiah, 1 Chr 3:17; Coniah, Jer 22:24; Jeconias, Matt 1:12. Son and successor of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, b.c. 598. 2 Kgs 24:8. He was eighteen years old when he began to reign, and reigned only three months and ten days, at which time Nebuchadnezzar besieged the city and carried the king and royal family, the chief men of the nation and great treasures unto Babylon. 2 Kgs 24:6-16. He merited this punishment. Jer 22:24-30. For thirty seven years he was a captive, but Evil-merodach on his accession liberated him and made him share the royal bounty and be head of all the captive kings in Babylon; and so to the end of his life he enjoyed a position befitting his rank.

JEHOI'ADA (whom Jehovah knows).

  1. The father of Benaiah, 1, which see. 2 Sam 8:18; 1 Kgs 1:32 ff.; 1 Chr 18:17. This Jehoiada was the chief priest, 1 Chr 27:5, and therefore he was the leader of the priests who came to David at Hebron. 1 Chr 12:27. By a copyist's error, Benaiah is said to have been the father of Jehoiada instead of the son. 1 Chr 27:34.

  2. A high priest of the Jews, and husband of Jehosheba. 2 Kgs 11:4. See Athaliah and Joash. His administration was so auspicious to the civil and religious interests of the nation, 2 Kgs 12:2; 2 Chr 23:16, that when he died, at an advanced age, he was buried in the royal sepulchres at Jerusalem. 2 Chr 24:16. Many do not accept the age of 132 years assigned to him, for the reason that if he lived so long, then, when he married the daughter of Jehoram, he must have been 80, while Jehoram was only 32, It has been proposed to read "83" instead.


3. The second priest in the reign of Zedekiah. Jer 29:25-29.

  1. One who helped repair the wall. Neh 3:6.

JEHOI'AKIM (whom Jehovah sets up), eldest son of Josiah, and the brother and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Judah. 2 Kgs 23:36. His original name was Eliakim, but it was changed by order of the king of Egypt, 2 Kgs 23:34, who put him on the throne. The iniquity of his reign is strongly depicted by the historian and prophet, 2 Kgs 24:4; 2 Chr 36:8; Jer 22, Jer 26, Jer 36. His end was in strict accordance with the prediction concerning him.

For the first four years of his reign Jehoiakim was subject to the king of Egypt, and paid an enormous tribute. Then he became tributary for three years to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, 2 Kgs 24:1, but he rebelled, in punishment was attacked by neighboring tribes, and then Nebuchadnezzar took him prisoner and at first bound him with chains to carry him to Babylon, 2 Chr 36:6; Dan 1:2, but afterward set him at liberty and left him at Jerusalem, to reign as a tributary prince. The whole time of his reign was eleven years, b.c. 609-598.

The expression Jer 36:30 is not to be taken strictly, and yet, as the reign of Jehoiachin was for only thirteen weeks, Jehoiakim may be said to have been comparatively without a successor. The same explanation applies to 2 Kgs 23:34, where Eliakim is said to have succeeded his father, Josiah; whereas the reign of Jehoahaz intervened. This was so short, however, as not to be reckoned in the succession.

Jehoiakim was a bad king, extravagant, irreverent, and vicious. His burning of Jeremiah's roll revealed his ungodly life. Jer 36:23. His murder of Urijah, Jer 26:23, and treatment of Jeremiah indicated his reckless cruelty. The latter prophet bravely denounced the oppression, injustice, covetousness, luxury, and tyranny of this miserable monarch. Jer 22:13-17. He was murdered in the eleventh year of his reign, and was "buried with the burial of an ass." Jer 22:19.

JEHOI'ARIB (whom Jehovah defends), the head of the first course of priests. 1 Chr 24:7.

JEHON'ADAB, or JONA'DAB(whom Jehovah incites), the son of Rechab, the founder of the Rechabites, which see. He joined Jehu in the slaughter of the Baalites. 2 Kgs 10:15-23.

JEHON'ATHAN (whom Jehovah gave), very frequently JOIVA'THAN.

  1. Superintendent of storehouses of David. 1 Chr 27:25.

  2. A Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to teach the Law to the people of Judah. 2 Chr 17:8.

  3. A priest, representative of the family of Shemaiah. Neh 12:18.

JEHO'RAM, frequently JO'RAM (whom Jehovah has exalted). 1. The eldest son of Jehoshaphat, and his successor as king of Judah. He reigned eight years, b.c. 892-885, perhaps for the first years as the associate of his father. 1 Kgs 22:50; 2 Kgs 8:10, [scripture]2 Kgs. 8:17; 2 Chr 21:1-3. He married Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and proved himself as wicked as his relatives. One of the first acts of his government was to put to death his six brothers and several of the chief men of the kingdom. 2 Chr 21:4. To punish him for this and other abominations of his reign, 2 Chr 21:11-13, the Edomites, who had long been subject to the throne of Judah, revolted, and secured their independence. 2 Chr 21:8-10. One of his own cities also revolted, and about the same time he received a writing from Elijah, admonishing him of the dreadful calamities which he was bringing on himself by his wicked conduct. In due time these calamities came upon him and his kingdom. Their territory was overrun with enemies; the king's palace was plundered, and the royal family, except the youngest son, made prisoners. The king himself was smitten with a terrible and incurable disease, which carried him to the grave unlamented, and he was buried without royal honors. 2 Chr 21:14-20.

  1. Jehoram, the son of Ahab and Jezebel, and king of Israel, b.c. 896-884. 2 Kgs 1:17; 2 Kgs 3:1. He was not so bad as his parents, but yet he did evil in the sight of the Lord, bowing down to the golden calves. 2 Kgs 3:2,

  2. The friendly intercourse between Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah, and Ahab was kept up by Jehoram, and so,


when the king of Moab rebelled, he obtained the help of Judah and Edom to bring him to terms. Distressed by lack of water after a seven days' march, on the insistence of Jehoshaphat, they inquired of the Lord through Elisha, who prophesied victory if an odd plan was adopted -viz., to dig trenches which, when filled with water by the Lord, would appear streams of blood to the Moabites, who would conjecture that there had been internal strife, and so would be induced to attack the camp without the usual caution. The ruse was successful, and the Moabites were repulsed with great loss. The allies pursued them into Moab, beating down the cities and stopping up wells and felling trees, thus devastating the land. In the city Kir-haraseth was the king of Moab brought to bay. He attempted to cut his way through, but, foiled in that, he offered his eldest son as a propitiatory sacrifice unto the Moabitish war-god, Chemosh -a performance which so horrified the Israelites that they abandoned the siege and returned home. See 2 Kgs 3:4-27 (v. 27, second clause, best reads, There was great indignation in Israel"). When fighting against Syria, Jehoram was informed of their king's secret counsels by Elisha, but when the Syrian army was miraculously delivered into his power the prophet forbade their slaughter. 2 Kgs 6:8-23. Subsequently, Samaria was besieged by Benhadad and reduced to dreadful straits. Jehoram laid the blame upon Elisha and determined his death, but afterward changed his mind. Man's extremity was God's opportunity. By a miracle plenty was restored unto the famishing city, as Elisha announced, and after this event the king's friendly feeling for the prophet returned. 2 Kgs 8:4-6. The seven-year famine of 2 Kgs 8:1 may have been that mentioned in 2 Kgs 4:38-44. A revolution in Syria gave Jehoram opportunity, in connection with his nephew Ahaziah, to recover Ramoth-gilead from the Syrians, but in the battle he was wounded, and while in Jezreel, whither he had gone for healing, Jehu revolted and slew him as he tried to escape, and his body was cast "in the portion of the field of Naboth the Jezreelite," according to the prophecy of Elijah. 1 Kgs 21:21-29; see 2 Kgs 8:28 and 2 Kgs 9:14-27. With the life of Jehoram ended the reign of the house of Omri.

  1. A priest employed by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people. 2 Chr 17:8.

JEHOSHAB'EATH (her oath is Jehovah). See Jehosheba.

JEHOSH'APHAT(whom Jehovah judges).

  1. The royal "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon. 2 Sam 8:16; 2 Sam 20:24; 1 Kgs 4:3; 1 Chr 18:15.

  2. Solomon's purveyor for the tribe of Issachar. 1 Kgs 4:17.

  3. The son and successor of Asa, king of Judah, 1 Kgs 15:24; 2 Chr 17:1; called Josaphat in Matt 1:8, and in 2 Chr 21:2 the king of Israel, where the writer uses the generic term. He came to the throne at the age of 35, and reigned 25 years, b.c. 914-890. He was a prince of distinguished piety, and his reign was powerful and prosperous. 2 Chr 17:3-6. Among other evidences of his piety and benevolence, we are told that he caused the altars and places of idolatry to be destroyed, a knowledge of the law to be diffused throughout the kingdom, and the places of judicial and ecclesiastical authority to be filled by the wisest and best men of the land. 2 Chr 17:6-9; 2 Chr 19:5-11. His sin in forming a league with Ahab, contrary to the counsel of Micaiah, against Ramoth-gilead, 2 Chr 18, was severely censured by Jehu, 2 Chr 19:2, and had nearly cost him his life. 2 Chr 18:31.

A few years after this the kingdom of Judah was invaded by a confederacy of Edomites, Moabites, and others. They collected their forces at En-gedi, and threatened to overthrow the kingdom. Jehoshaphat proclaimed a fast, and the people from all parts of the kingdom -men, women, and children- came up to Jerusalem; and being assembled in one place, the king himself made supplication to God for help in their extremity. 2 Chr 20:6-12. His prayer was answered, and a certain and easy victory was promised by the Lord through Jahaziel, a Levite. On the following day the army of Judah went forth to meet the enemy, preceded by a company of singers, who praised the name of the Lord. The enemy were panic-struck and fell into irrecoverable confusion, and instead of facing their adversaries turned their swords against 425 each other, until they were utterly routed and overthrown; so that Jehoshaphat and his men had no occasion to engage in the conflict. And such abundance of spoil remained in the camp that the men of Judah were employed three days in collecting it. 2 Chr 20:14-27.

Still later in his life, Jehoshaphat connected himself with Ahaziah, son and successor of Ahab, king of Israel, in a naval expedition; but this alliance with a wicked king turned out disastrously; as had been predicted by Eliezer, the son of Dodovah; for while the fleet lay at Ezion-geber it was utterly destroyed by a violent storm. 2 Chr 20:35, 2 Chr 20:37. See Ahaziah.

Again he involved himself in an alliance with Jehoram, the second son of Ahab, and also with the Edomites, for the purpose of invading the land of Moab; but while they attempted to make their way through the wilderness their water failed, and the whole army must have perished with thirst had not a miraculous supply been granted in answer to the prayers of Elisha, who accompanied the army. 2 Kgs 3:6-20. Jehoshaphat left seven sons, one of whom, Jehoram, succeeded him.

It may be said of his reign, as of that of many others in ancient and modern times, that his schemes of reform were dependent on his personal influence, and, not being in conformity with the popular sentiment and general policy of the country, were not of permanent utility.

  1. The father of King Jehu. 2 Kgs 9:2, 2 Kgs 9:14.

  2. A priest in the time of David. 1 Chr 15:24.

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF (valley of the judgement of Jehovah), a place named only in Joel 3:2, Deut 3:12. Three leading explanations have been given.

  1. That the valley referred to is the same as the "valley of Berachah," where the forces allied against Israel were defeated by Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 20:16-26. This event took place 100 years before Joel, and may have given rise to this expression of the prophet.

  2. That the valley is that of the Kedron, east of Jerusalem. Jews, Mohammedans, and Christians have identified the Kedron with the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The Mohammedans point out a stone on which they think the prophet will be seated at the last judgment, and medieval Christian tradition also indicated a stone on which it was then believed that Christ would sit at the judgment. The valley is a favorite burial-place, and some expect that the sides of the valley will move apart at the resurrection to afford room for a great assembly. When the name "Valley of Jehoshaphat" was given to the Kedron is not known, but there is no trace of it in the Bible nor in Josephus, but it is traced to the fourth century a.d. This identification of Jehoshaphat with the Kedron is now generally regarded as based upon a misinterpretation of Joel.

  3. That the name does not refer to any special place, but to either (a) the scene of great victories, as those of the Maccabees; or (b) the general judgment at the end of the world; or (c) the truth that God's persecuted people he will defend and vindicate.

JEHOSH'EBA (her oath is Jehovah), the wife of Jehoiada, the high priest, daughter of King Jehoram, but, it has been conjectured, not by Athaliah; if so, half-sister to Ahaziah. 2 Kgs 11:2-3; 2 Chr 22:11. When Athaliah attempted the entire destruction of the seed royal Jehosheba saved her infant nephew, Joash, and for six years, doubtless with the connivance of Jehoiada, he was hid in the temple.

JEHOSH'UA, or JEHOSH'UAH (Jehovah is his help), full form for Joshua; used in Num 13:16 and 1 Chr 7:27.

JEHO'VAH (he will be), a title of the supreme Being, indicative of the attribute of eternal and immutable self-existence. Ex 6:3. It is similar in import to the title I am. Ex 3:14. In the English Bible it is usually translated "Lord" and printed in small capitals. It occurs first in the second chapter of Genesis. As distinct from Elohim, it signifies the God of revelation and redemption, the God of the Jews, while Elohim is the God of nature, the Creator and Preserver of all men. See Jah, God.

JEHO'VAH-JI'REH (Jehovah will see, or provide), the name given by Abraham to the place on which he had been commanded to offer Isaac, 426 Gen 22:14, and probably the same as Mount Moriah, in Jerusalem.

JEHO'VAH-NIS'SI (Jehovah my banner), the name given by Moses to the altar which he built as a memorial of the discomfiture of the Amalekites. Ex 17:15.

JEHOVAH-SHALOM (Jehovah [is] peace), an altar erected by Gideon in Ophrah, where the angel greeted him with "Peace be unto thee!" Jud 6:24.

JEHOVAH-SHAM'MAH (Jehovah there), in the marginal reading in Eze 48:35; in the text the words are translated.

JEHO'VAH-TSID'KENU (Jehovah our righteousness), the marginal reading in Jer 23:6 and Jer 33:16. Our translators' "hesitation whether they should render or transfer the expression may have been the greater from their supposing it to be one of the Messianic titles." - Smith.

JEHOZ'ABAD, commonly contracted into JOZ'ABAD (whom Jehovah bestows). 1. One of Joash's servants, who slew him. 2 Kgs 12:21; 2 Chr 24:26.

  1. One of the Levite porters. 1 Chr 26:4.

  2. A Benjamite who was a prominent warrior under Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:18.

JEHOZ'ADAK (whom God makes just), the son of the high priest Seraiah, who was murdered at Riblah by Nebuchadnezzar. 2 Kgs 25:21. He was carried into captivity, 1 Chr 6:14-15, and never became high priest, but his son, Jeshua, attained unto this office, Ezr 3:2; Neh 12:26, and his descendants held it until Alcimus. See High Priest. He is more frequently called Jozadak or Josedech.

JE'HU (Jehovah is he).

  1. Was the son of Hanani the seer, with whom Asa was so much enraged as to cast him into prison. 1 Kgs 16:7; 2 Chr 16:7-10. He was appointed to carry a message to Baasha from God, threatening to visit upon him the most fearful judgments. He was afterward employed on a similar errand to Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 19:1-2.

  2. 1 Kgs 19:16. Comp. 2 Kgs 9:2. The grandson of Nimshi, and son of Jehoshaphat, selected by God to reign over Israel, and to be the instrument of inflicting his judgments on the house of Ahab. 1 Kgs 19:17; 2 Kgs 9:1-10. In executing this commission he commenced with the reigning king, Jorain, who was then lying ill at Jezreel. Having been proclaimed king by a few adherents who were with him at Ramoth-gilead, he proceeded toward Jezreel. Upon his approach within sight of that place Joram despatched two or three messengers to ascertain his design; and finding they did not return, he went out himself to meet him. It happened that they met on the ground of Naboth the Jezreelite, 1 Kgs 21:1-24; and Jehu at once charged him with his gross iniquities, and immediately shot him dead in his chariot. Comp. 1 Kgs 21:19 and 2 Kgs 9:25.

Jehu rode on to Jezreel, and as he was passing in at the gate, Jezebel, who was looking out at a window, said something in allusion to what had happened to Ahab. By Jehu's order she was thrown down, and the prophecy was exactly fulfilled. 1 Kgs 21:23; 2 Kgs 9:32-37. He then exterminated the family of Ahab through the agency of the elders of the city, in which the 70 sons of Ahab were. 2 Kgs 10:7. The next morning he ordered a general slaughter of all Ahab's family and adherents in the town of Jezreel. He then set out for Samaria, and meeting on his way a party of 42 persons, all the family of Ahaziel (a branch of Ahab's house), he seized and slew them.

But the most revolting of these deeds of blood was the slaughter of all the Baalites he could get together under pretence of a festival. 2 Kgs 10:18-28. This dreadful extermination of the house of Ahab, and of the idolatrous worship which he sanctioned, was in accordance with the divine command, and received the divine approbation. 1 Kgs 10:30. Jehu himself, however, was ambitious and tyrannical, and fell into idolatrous practices. 2 Kgs 10:31. His reign lasted 28 years, b.c. 884-856, and he was succeeded by his son Jehoahaz.

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:38.

  2. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:35.

  3. A Benjamite with David. 1 Chr 12:3.


JEHUB'BAH (he will he hidden), an Asherite chief. 1 Chr 7:34.

JE'HUCAL, or JU'CAL (potent), one of those whom Zedekiah the king sent to Jeremiah the prophet, and who afterward asked for the latter's death. Jer 37:3; Isa 38:1.

JE'HUD (celebrated), a town of the Danites, Josh 19:45; identical with the village el-Yehudiyeh, about 10 miles east of Jaffa, and now a place of 800 to 1000 inhabitants.

JEHU'DI (a Jew), one mentioned in Jer 36:14, 2 Chr 11:21, Heb 12:23 as being sent by the princes to tell Baruch to fetch the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies, and who, at the king's order, brought it and read it before him.

JEHUDI'JAH (the Jewess), not a proper name, but applied to one of the wives of Mered to distinguish her from the other, who was an Egyptian. 1 Chr 4:18. The word "Hodiah," 1 Chr 4:19, is the same word contracted.

JE'HUSH (a collector), one of Saul's descendants. 1 Chr 8:39.

JEI'EL (treasure of God).

  1. A Reubenite chief. 1 Chr 5:7.

  2. A Levite porter, one of the musicians of the second degree. 1 Chr 15:18, 1 Chr 15:21; 1 Chr 16:5.

  3. A Levite of the sons of Asaph. 2 Chr 20:14.

  4. A scribe in the time of Uzziah, "who kept the account of the number of his irregular predatory warriors." 2 Chr 26:11.

  5. A Levite who assisted in Hezekiah's reforms. 2 Chr 29:13.

  6. One of the chief Levites in Josiah's time. 2 Chr 35:9.

  7. One who came back with Ezra. Ezr 8:13.

  8. One who had taken a foreign wife. Ezr 10:43.

JEKAB'ZEEL (which God gathers), a place in the southern part of Judah, Neh 11:25; also called Kabzeel (God's gathering*), Josh 15:21; 2 Sam 23:20.

JEKAME'AM (who gathers the people), a Levite in David's time. 1 Chr 23:19 ;1 Chr 24:23

JEKAMI'AH (whom Jehovah gathers), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:18.

JEKU'THIEL (piety toward God), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:18.

JEMI'MA (dove), the eldest of Job's three daughters, born after his recovery. Job 42:14.

JEMU'EL (day of God), the eldest son of Simeon. Gen 46:10 ,Ex 6:15. The name is given Nemuel in Num 26:12; 1 Chr 4:24.

JEPH'THAE, the Greek form of Jephthah. Heb 11:32.

JEPH'THAH (whom God sets free), one of the judges of Israel, was the illegitimate son of Gilead, Jud 11:1; and this fact made him so odious to the other children of the family that they banished him from the house, and he took up his residence in the land of Tob, a district of Syria not far from Gilead, and probably the same with Ishtob. 2 Sam 10:8. Here he became the head of a marauding-party; and when a war broke out between the children of Israel and the Ammonites, he probably signalized himself for courage and enterprise. This led the Israelites to seek his aid as their commander-in-chief; and though he objected at first, on the ground of their ill-usage of him, yet, upon their solemn covenant to regard him as their leader in case they succeeded against the Ammonites, he took command of their army. After some preliminary negotiations with the Ammonites, in which the question of the right to the country is discussed with great force and ingenuity, and every attempt to conciliate them proved abortive, the two armies met. The Ammonites were defeated with great loss of life, and their country secured by the Israelites.

On the eve of the battle Jephthah made a vow that if he obtained the victory he would devote to God whatever should come forth from his house to meet him on his return home. This turned out to be his daughter, an only child, who welcomed his return with music and dancing. Jephthah was greatly afflicted by this occurrence; but his daughter cheerfully consented to the performance of his vow, which took place at the expiration of two months, and the commemoration of the event by the daughters of Israel was required by a public ordinance. Jud 11:34-40.

The Ephraimites quarrelled with Jephthah because they had not been invited to join in the war. But Jephthah again 428 put himself at the head of his army, defeated them, and by the word "shibboleth" detected those Ephraimites who tried to cross the Jordan, and slew them. In all, 42,000 Ephraimites, were slain. Jephthah judged the trans-Jordanic region six years. Jud 12:1-7.

The perplexing question what Jephthah did with his daughter will perhaps never obtain a satisfactory answer. The passage reads thus: "And Jephthah vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, If thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into mine hands, then it shall be that whatsoever cometh forth of the doors of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and I will offer it up for a burnt offering." Jud 11:30-31, An unprejudiced reading of the text leads naturally to the conclusion that Jephthah offered her up as a burnt-sacrifice, but the other opinion, that he devoted his daughter to a life of celibacy, is defended by these arguments: 1. The particle van, which in the A.V. is translated "and" ("and I will offer it up"), should be translated "or." But there is a Hebrew word with that meaning. 2. The emphasis is laid upon "him," which is made to refer to the Lord, and the vow is thus interpreted as contemplating two things: (1) a person to be consecrated to Jehovah, and (2) the additional offering of a burnt-sacrifice. But such a construction would be a solecism in Hebrew. 3. The "burnt-offering" has been taken in a spiritual sense, but that is to put an interpretation upon the word which the Hebrew will not bear. 4. Jephthah could not vow to God a human sacrifice, so abhorrent to him, and so contrary to the whole spirit of the Hebrew religion. Lev 20:2-5; Deut 12:31. But it must be borne in mind that Jephthah was a rude warrior in the semi-barbaric age of the Judges. Celibacy of a voluntary and religious character was unknown in Israel. Jephthah's daughter, on this supposition, would have been the first and last Hebrew nun. The Jews looked upon the family as a divine ordinance, and upon the unmarried state as a misfortune equalled only by that of being a childless wife. It may not be correct to say that each Hebrew woman looked forward to being the mother of the Messiah, but at all events to be a mother was to fulfil the function in society God had designed for her. A vow of celibacy, therefore, would have been contrary to the spirit of the Jewish religion as much as a vow of bloody sacrifice. The sojourn of Jephthah's daughter in the mountains for two months is inconsistent with any such dedication to Jehovah. But if she were to be sacrificed, her home would indeed be filled with too mournful associations, whereas the open air, especially to such a girl, and the solitude of the hills, would be real aids in preparation for death. Jephthah's intense sorrow when she came forth to meet him likewise harmonizes with the literal and natural interpretation.

JEPHUN'NEH (may he be regarded with favor!). 1. The father of Caleb the spy, a Kenezite. Num 13:6; Josh 14:14; 1 Chr 4:15. 2. An Asherite chieftain. 1 Chr 7:38.

JE'RAH (moon), a people descended from Joktan, who gave name to a region of Arabia, Gen 10:26: 1 Chr 1:20; perhaps the Moon Coast and Moon Mountains, near Hazarmaveth. Bochart proposes to identify this people with the Alilaei, or Beni-Hilal, "sons of the new moon." dwelling in the south of Chawlan.

JERAH'MEEL (on whom God has mercy). 1. The son of Hezron, Judah's grandson, 1 Chr 2:9, 1 Chr 2:25-27, 1 Chr 2:33, 1 Chr 2:42; founder of the Jerahmeelites, 1 Sam 27:10; 1 Sam 30:29, a tribe in the southern part of Judah. 2. A Merarite Levite. 1 Chr 24:29.

  1. A man employed to arrest Jeremiah and Baruch. Jer 36:26.

JE'RED (descent). 1. 1 Chr 1:2. See Jared. 2. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:18.

JER'EMAI (dwelling in heights), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:33.

JEREMI'AH (whom Jehovah sets up).

  1. The father of Hamutal, the wife of Josiah. 2 Kgs 23:31; 2 Kgs 24:18.

  2. The head of a house in Manasseh. 1 Chr 5:24.

  3. A Benjamite who came to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:4.

4., 5. Gadite warriors. 1 Chr 12:10, 1 Chr 12:13.

  1. One of the priests who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:2.

7. One of the Rechabites. Jer 35:3.

  1. Jeremiah, one of the four great prophets. He was the son of Hilkiah of Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, Jer 1:1, and lived under various kings from Josiah to the Captivity. In the English Version he is, by unnecessary variation, called "Jeremy" in Matt 2:17, and "Jeremias," Matt 16:14. "There is no one in the 'goodly fellowship of the prophets' of whom, in his work, feelings, and sufferings, we have so distinct a knowledge, although it is derived almost exclusively from his book. He is for us the great example of the prophetic life. It is not to be wondered at that he should have seemed to the Christian feeling of the early Church a type of Him in whom that life received its highest completion." Prof. Phumptre. He was not only the prophet of sorrow and public calamity, but also the prophet of a new and better covenant of the heart.

Jeremiah was very young when he was called to the prophetic office, and on that account declined it, Jer 1:6; but God promised him grace and strength sufficient for his work, and for forty-two years he persisted in this arduous service with unwearied diligence and fidelity, in the midst of the severest trials and persecutions. It was probably owing to his youth at the time, and his residence in Anathoth, that when the book of the Law was found in the house of the Lord the king sent to Huldah the prophetess, instead of to him, to inquire of the Lord. 2 Kgs 22:14.

Jeremiah's task was a thankless one. He was the divine means, not of encouragement, but of discouragement. His voice was constantly heard calling upon the people to submit to their enemies. During all this time Jerusalem was in a most distracted and deplorable condition, and the prophet was calumniated, imprisoned, and often in danger of death. But no ill-treatment or threatenings could deter him from denouncing the judgments of God, which were coming upon the nation and that devoted city. His exhortations to the king and rulers were to submit at once to the arms of Nebuchadnezzar, for by that means they would preserve their lives; and he assured them, as a message received from God, that their continued resistance would have no other effect than to bring certain and dreadful destruction upon Jerusalem and on themselves. At this time Jerusalem swarmed with false prophets, who contradicted the words of Jeremiah and flattered the king and his courtiers that God would rescue them from the impending danger; and after the city was taken and part of the people carried away to Babylon, these prophets confidently predicted a speedy return. On the other hand, Jeremiah sent word to the captives that the time of their captivity would be long, and that their best course was to build houses and plant vineyards in the land to which they were carried, and to pray for the peace of the country in which they resided. Indeed, he expressly foretold that the captivity would endure for seventy years; which duration, he intimated, was to make up for the sabbatical years which they had neglected to observe. He also foretold the deliverance of the people and their return to their own country. Toward the close of his life he was carried into Egypt against his will by the Jews who remained in Judaea after the murder of Gedaliah. On this occasion he was requested by Johanan and his followers to inquire of the Lord whether they should flee into Egypt; in answer, after accusing them of hypocrisy, he warned them in the most solemn manner, from the Lord, not to go down to Egypt, but they disregarded the commandment of God and went, and took Jeremiah forcibly with them, where, in all probability, he died, some think as a martyr.

"It is to Jeremiah, even more than to Isaiah, that the writers of the apostolic age, Heb 8:8, 2 Kgs 11:13; Heb 10:16-17, look back when they wish to describe the dispensation of the Spirit. He is the prophet, beyond all others of the N.T. covenant, which first appears in his writings; and the knowledge of this new truth shall no longer be confined to any single order or caste, but 'all shall know the Lord, from the least unto the greatest.'" Stanley.

The Prophecy of Jeremiah is a faithful reflection of his sad and tender character and the calamities of his age. It embraces a period of upward of 40 years, between b.c. 626 and b.c. 586. Jeremiah entered upon the office of a prophet in the thirteenth year of the reign of Joash, Jer 1:2, and his prophecy relates 430 to the judgments that were to come upon the people for their gross idolatry and corruption; to the restoration which awaited them whenever they would repent of their sins and forsake them; and to the future glory which would arise on the Church of God and on such as were steadfast in his service when all flesh should see the salvation of God.

The order of this book is as follows:

  1. The prophecies uttered in Josiah's reign, chs. 1-12. b.c. 629-608.

  2. In Jehoiakim's, chs. 13, 20, 22, 23, 35, 36, 45-48, 49:1-33. b.c. 607-597.

  3. In Zedekiah's, chs. 21, 24, 27-34, 37-39, 49:34-39; 50, 51. b.c. 597-586.

  4. In Gedaliah's, chs. 40-44.

The Lamentations of Jeremiah (the book immediately succeeding the prophecy) are a series of four elegiac poems, in which the fate of Jerusalem is described, with one, the third, of a personal character, written, it has been reasonably conjectured, when Jeremiah was in Ramah, whither he had been carried as a captive, but where he was released by Nebuzar-adan, the captain of the guard under Nebuchadnezzar. The poems are artistically composed. Chs. 1, 2, and 4 consist of 22 verses each, as many as there are letters in the Hebrew alphabet, and each successive verse begins with a successive letter of that alphabet. Ch. 3 has three verses under each letter, following them down in the same way. In ch. 5 there is the same number of verses, but not the peculiar alphabetic order. The prophet's theme is sorrow, but his genius keeps him from triteness, while the reality and intensity of his grief give the utmost variety to his pictures of the condition of his passionately beloved land. The poem is a fit companion of the prophecies of Jeremiah, a sort of a funeral dirge of the fall of Jerusalem. By giving free vent to the grief of the soul, it is at the same time a source of comfort to the Church, especially in seasons of public calamity. The place where it is said to have been composed is called "the Grotto of Jeremiah," a few yards north of the Damascus gate, in Jerusalem, and is by some modern writers (Fisher Howe, Conder,) identified with the true Calvary.

JEREMI'AS. See Jeremiah. 8.

JER'EMIE, THE EPISTLE OF, is the title of a pretended letter from the prophet Jeremiah appended to the Apocryphal book of Baruch. It purports to be a warning from him to the captives in Babylon against idolatry. Its style is rhetorical. It is an imitation of Jer 10:1-16. The author is unknown.

JER'EMOTH (heights).

  1. Head of a Benjamite family. 1 Chr 8:14.

  2. A Merarite Levite, 1 Chr 23:23; called Jerimoth in 1 Chr 24:30.

  3. The head of the 13th course of musicians. 1 Chr 25:22. In v. 4 the name is Jerimoth.

    1. Two who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:26-27.

JER'EMY. See Jeremiah, 8.

JERI'AH (founded by Jehovah), a Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr 23:19; 1 Chr 24:23. He is called Jerijah in 1 Chr 26:31.

JER'IBAI (whom Jehovah defends ?), one of David's heroes. 1 Chr 11:46.

JER'ICHO, an ancient and celebrated city in O.T. and N.T. history. The name is now generally thought to signify "fragrance," but an older explanation connects it with the moon, which may have been early worshipped there.

Situation. — Jericho was in the valley of the Jordan, about 5 miles west of the river, and 6 or 7 miles north of the Salt or Dead Sea. The portion of the plain on which it stood was noted for its fertility, being watered by a large spring known as the "Fountain of Elisha." See illustration p. 432. The city has occupied at least two different sites:(1) Ancient Jericho, near the fountain es-Sultan, or "Elisha's Fountain," at the foot of the Quarantania Mountain, and about a mile and a half above the opening of the Valley of Achor. (2) The Jericho of the Gospels, south-east of the ancient one, near the opening to the valley. The modern village Er-Riba, its present representative, is about two miles farther east.

Biblical History. — Jericho is first mentioned as the city over against which the Israelites were encamped before entering the Promised Land. Moses looked down upon the plain of Jericho from the summit of Nebo. Deut 34:3; Num 22:1; Num 26:3. The town was of considerable size, strongly fortified. Josh 2:15; very rich. Josh 6:24; Heb 7:21, and a royal residence. Spies were sent into the city and received by Rahab. Josh 2; 431 Heb 11:31. The wall fell after being compassed 7 days, and the city and its inhabitants were destroyed, Josh 6:20-21; Josh 24:11. A curse was pronounced upon any one who should thereafter rebuild it. Josh 6:26. This curse was fulfilled upon Hiel, 533 years later. 1 Kgs 16:34. But the curse seems to have been for fortifying the city, rather than for dwelling in its neighborhood, since the site was assigned to Benjamin, Josh 18:21, and was a boundary of Ephraim, Josh 16:7, and afterward belonged to Judah. In spite of many conquests Jericho continued to flourish. Eglon, king of Moab, possessed it 18 years, Jud 3:13. David's messengers tarried there, in accordance with his advice, "until your beards be grown." 2 Sam 10:5.

A school of the prophets, often visited by Elijah, flourished at Jericho, 2 Kgs 2, and Elisha miraculously healed its waters, 2 Kgs 2:19-22. King Zedekiah and his men, fleeing from Jerusalem, were captured in the plains of Jericho. 2 Kgs 25:5; Jer 39:5. After the return from the Babylonish captivity, Jericho was re-occupied, Ezr 2:34; Neh 7:36, and its people helped to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem. Neh 3:2.

Jericho is mentioned 63 times in the Scriptures — 56 times in the 0.T., and 7 in the N.T.

The Roman Antony presented the district to Cleopatra, who sold it to Herod,and that monarch embellished the city with palaces and made it his winter residence, as being the most beautiful spot for the purpose in his dominions. He died there.

It was at Jericho that the Jewish pilgrims going up to Jerusalem (who had taken the route east of the Jordan) used to assemble on their way to the temple. Hence Christ passed through it in his journeys. There he made the acquaintance of Zacchaeus, who was the chief revenue officer for the wealthy district of Jericho, Luke 19:1-9, and near this city also he healed the blind men, Matt 20:24-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke 18:35-43. It was on the rocky road from Jericho to Jerusalem (even in this generation the haunt of robbers) that Christ laid the scene of the parable of the Good Samaritan.

Jericho of the N.T. had an interesting history. It appears to have been at an early day the seat of a Christian church, as in the fourth century the councils of the Church were attended by the bishops at Jericho. The emperor Justinian caused a "church of the Mother of God" at Jericho to be restored. A monastery of St. Stephen existed there a.d. 810. In the time of the Crusaders "New Jericho" sprang up near the site of the present village.

Present Appearance. — Modern Jericho (er-Riba) consists of a group of squalid hovels inhabited by about 60 families. The character of the place seems not to have changed for at least 650 years, since Brocardus, in a.d., 1230 styled it "a vile place," and Maundrell, in a.d. 1697, "a poor, nasty village." The inhabitants are looked upon by the Arabs as a debased race, perhaps made degenerate by the enervating influence of the hot and unhealthy climate. A writer in Smith's Dictionary says that "they are probably nothing more nor less than veritable gypsies." The palm trees which once gave the city the name of the "city of palm trees" have all disappeared. One solitary tree was standing in 1838; but there are numerous petrified palm trunks floating upon the Dead Sea. Tristram notes that a few of the sycamore fig trees, Luke 19:4, are still found among the ruins by the wayside of ancient Jericho. The vegetation is of a semi-tropical character, as the plain is 900 feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and while snow is falling at Jerusalem linen clothing is comfortable at Jericho. There is an inn kept by a Greek, where Dr. Schaff spent a night in 1877, disturbed by vermin. The surrounding garden shows what a little industry can do in that fertile soil and climate.

The "Fountain of Elisha," by which Jericho was once supplied with water, is an object of special interest. It wells forth copiously from the earth, and runs into an old basin of hewn stone, 13 yards long and 8 yards wide. Numerous small fish swim about in the water, the temperature of which is 84° F. The earliest pilgrims found a tradition already existing here that this was the water which Elisha healed with salt, 2 Kgs 2:19-20, whence it is called "Elisha's Spring" by the Christians. Above the spring the site of the house of Rahab was formerly shown. In the village itself there is a 432 half-ruined tower, now occupied by a Turkish garrison, which is pointed out as Zacchasus's house, but it probably

'Ain Sultan, or Fountain of Elisha. (After Photographs)

dates from the Frank period, when it was erected for the protection of the crops against the incursions of the Bedouin.

JE'RIEL (founded of God), a descendant of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:2.

JERI'JAH (founded of Jehovah). See Jeriah.

JER'IMOTH (heights).

1,2,3. Benjamites. 1 Chr 7:7-8; 1 Chr 12:5.

4, 5. See Jeremoth, 2, 3.

  1. Ruler of Naphtali in David's reign. 1 Chr 27:19.

  2. One of David's sons, who was father to one of Rehoboam's wives. 2 Chr 11:18.

  3. An overseer in the temple under Hezekiah. 2 Chr 31:13.

JE'RIOTH (curtains), the wife of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:18.

JER'OBOAM (whose people is many). 1. The son of Nebat, is distinguished as "the man who made Israel to sin," and was the first king of the ten tribes, b.c. 975-964. He came of the tribe of Ephraim; and distinguishing himself, he was made by Solomon the superintendent of all the workmen furnished by his tribe. While thus employed the prophet Ahijah, by a symbolical act, informed him that the kingdom of Solomon was to be divided and he was to become the head of the ten tribes. What he did on receiving this information we know not; possibly he may have endeavored to hasten matters by raising the standard of revolt; but at any rate Solomon was alarmed, and took measures to apprehend Jeroboam, who fled to Egypt and remained there till Solomon's death. 1 Kgs 11:26-40. After Solomon's death the smouldering fires of discontent burst into a flame. Rehoboam, his successor, acted foolishly, returning an insulting answer to the people's mild demands. Accordingly, the ten tribes threw off the yoke and elected Jeroboam, who had returned, as the one best qualified to be their king. Thus was prophecy fulfilled. He fixed his residence at Shechem, which, with other cities, he fortified for the furtherance of his plans. Fearing that if the revolted tribes should go up to the solemn national feasts at Jerusalem they would be persuaded to return to their allegiance, and forgetting his obligations to God and his dependence on him, he caused two golden calves to be erected, one at Dan and the other at Bethel, the extremities of his dominions, and caused a proclamation to be made, requiring the worship of these idols. 1 Kgs 12:26-33. Jeroboam, having set up the idols, assembled the people at the latter place, to engage in the solemn worship of them; and to show his zeal for the service he officiated at the altar himself. But while he was thus occupied a prophet from the land of Judah appeared in the midst of the assembly, and in the hearing of all the people uttered a prediction that a man by the name of Josiah should arise and destroy that altar, and should burn upon it the bones of the priests; and to confirm his authority he gave this sign, that the altar should immediately be broken in pieces and the ashes upon it be poured out; and it was so. Jeroboam, greatly provoked by this bold interference, put forth his hand to seize the prophet; but in a moment it was stiffened, so that he could not draw it in. Intimidated by this miraculous judgment, and convinced that the man was indeed a prophet of the Lord, he begged that he would intercede for him that his arm might be restored, which was done accordingly. Jeroboam, however, was not reformed by this divine message and double miracle, but continued to cause Israel to sin in worshipping the calves which he had set up. His son was taken 433 sick, and he instructed his wife to disguise herself and go to Ahijah, who was now blind with age, and consult with him as to the result of the disease. The prophet was forewarned of her approach; and as soon as he heard her footsteps he called her by name, and after recounting the sins of Jeroboam he predicted the disgrace and ruin and utter extirpation of his whole family, and also the captivity and dispersion of the people of Israel. He also told her that the child should die, and that the nation should mourn for him as the only individual of the house of their king who should come to a peaceful end, and also as one who in the midst of all the idolatry and wickedness of the times had some pious emotions, even in the house of Jeroboam. As she entered the door of her house the child died. 1 Kgs 14:17.

Jeroboam reigned in Israel 22 years, and was succeeded by his son Nadab. During his life there were almost unceasing wars between him and the house of David.

  1. The son of Joash, and the great grandson of Jehu, reigned 41 years, b.c. 825-784, and followed the former Jeroboam in his idolatrous worship. 2 Kgs 14:23-29. The Lord, however, by him, according to the predictions of the prophet Jonah, raised the kingdom of the ten tribes to its greatest splendor. All the countries on the east of the Jordan he reduced. "The full extent of ancient sovereignty was recovered, no king of the northern state having ever been so victorious as he." It appears from the writings of Hosea and Amos that idleness, effeminacy, pride, oppression, injustice, idolatry, and luxury greatly prevailed in his reign. Am 2:6-16; Jud 5:6. Nor was it long after his death before the Lord, according to the predictions of Amos, cut off his family with the sword. 2 Kgs 15:10; Hos 1:1, etc.

JER'OHAM (who finds mercy).

  1. Samuel's grandfather. 1 Sam 1:1; 1 Chr 6:27, [scripture]1 Chr.1 Chr 6:34.
  2. Benjamites. 1 Chr 8:27; 1 Chr 9:8.
  3. A priest, 1 Chr 9:12; perhaps the same person as in Neh 11:12. .
  4. The father of some of David's warriors; a Benjamite. 1 Chr 12:7.
  5. The father of the prince of Dan in David's reign. 1 Chr 27:22.
  6. The father of one who assisted Jehoiada in placing Joash on the throne. 2 Chr 23:1.

JERUB'-BAAL (with whom Baal contends), Jud 6:32, and JERUB'BESHETH (with whom the idol contends). 2 Sam 11:21. See Gideon.

JER'UEL (founded of God), THE WIL'DERNESS OF, the place in which Jehoshaphat met and defeated the Ammonites, Moabites, and their allies. 2 Chr 20:16. It was near Tekoah and the valley of Berachah, on the west of the Dead Sea, probably the tract known as el-Hasasah, on the road from En-gedi to Jerusalem.

JERU'SALEM, the capital of the Hebrew monarchy and of the kingdom of Judah, the most important city in biblical history, and the most sacred and the most desecrated city of the world. "Beautiful for situation," "the joy of the whole earth," "the perfection of beauty," - so sings the Psalmist of this wonderful city. Ps 48:2-3; Ps 50:2. Yet Jesus wept over it tears of sorrow in view of its unfaithfulness and approaching doom: "Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate." Matt 23:37-39.

I. Names. - "Jerusalem," in Hebrew, means "the possession" or "inheritance of peace." It is called "Salem" in Ps 76:2, and Jewish commentators affirm that it is identical with the Salem of Melchizedek, Gen 14:18; but Jerome and others dispute this. The Jews also believe that it includes the mount upon which Abraham offered Isaac, and which he named" Jehovah-jireh." Gen 22:14. It is called "Jebusi," Josh 18:28, and "Jebus," Judg 19:10-11, and it first appears as "Jerusalem" in Josh 10:1. It was known as "the city of David" and of "Zion," 1 Kgs 8:1; 2 Kgs 14:20; "city of Judah," 2 Chr 25:28; "city of God," Ps 46:4; "city of the great King," Ps 48:2; "the holy city," Neh 11:1; "Ariel," Isa 29:1; in the Latin Version it is "Hierosolyma." By the Roman emperor Hadrian it was named AElia Capitolina; by the Mohammedans, Arabs, and Turks it is now known 434 as el-Khuds, or "the holy," and Beit-el-Makhuddis, or "the holy house" or "the sanctuary." The Moslems regard it as their most holy city, next to Mecca and Medina, and believe that the general judgment will take place in the valley of Jehoshaphat, under the direction of Mohammed and Jesus.

II. Situation and Extent. — Jerusalem is situated near the summit of the range of mountains which forms the water-shed between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, and which has been called the "backbone" of Palestine. Its distance from the Mediterranean is 32 miles, and from the Dead Sea 18 miles. The latitude of the city, as determined by the most trustworthy observations, is 31° 46' 35" north, and the longitude 35° 18' 30" east from Greenwich. According to the late British Survey, the dimensions of the Jerusalem of to-day are as follows; Length of the northern wall (measuring straight from point to point), 3930 feet; eastern wall, 2754 feet; southern wall, 3245 feet; western wall, 2086 feet; total circumference of the walls, 12,015 feet, or 2.27 miles. Dr. Robinson, measuring with a tapeline as closely as possible to the walls, found the aggregate length 12,978 feet, or nearly 2 1/2 miles. Maundrell, an English traveller, who visited Jerusalem at Easter in 1697, paced the walls round, and reckoned the distance at 12,501 feet. A pedestrian can walk around the city in an hour, taking a very leisurely gait. Josephus stated the entire circuit of the exterior walls in his day at 33 stadia, or a little less than 4 English miles. The ancient city included the southern slopes of Zion and Ophel, which are now without the walls, and the former is under cultivation, thus fulfilling the prediction of 2500 years ago: "Zion shall be ploughed like a field." Jer 26:18. The area included within the city walls is only 209 1/2 acres, or less than one-third of a square mile. About 465 acres are supposed to have been enclosed in the Holy City during the period of its greatest extent, after the third wall had been built by Herod Agrippa, but the old walls (of Solomon and Zerubbabel) only included an area of 155 acres.

III. Physical Features. — Surface. — The city stands upon a tongue of land which is separated from the surrounding country on all sides save the north by deep ravines. On the east is the Valley of the Kedron, called also the Valley of Jehoshaphat, and on the west and south the Valley of Hinnom. These depressions, which begin near together in the north, unite at Joab's Well, half a mile, south of the city wall, and pass off eastward toward the Dead Sea. A third valley, called the Tyropoeon, or the Valley of the Cheesemongers, falls into the Kedron Valley at the Pool of Siloam. There has been much discussion as to whether the Tyropoeon Valley extended to the Jaffa or to the Damascus-gate. Dr. Robinson favors the former opinion, and the British Survey the latter. The matter is important, because the position of various other places is decided by that of the Tyropoeon. The view of the British Survey, here followed, is the latest and most scientific, and therefore the most likely to be correct. By the Tyropoeon the tongue of land was divided into two parallel ridges, of which the eastern was Mount Moriah (the site of the temple), and the western Mount Zion (the site of David's house and later of Herod's palace), which was 110 feet higher than Moriah, and constituted the "upper city" of Josephus. North of Zion was the Akra, the "lower city" of Josephus. North of Moriah was the hill Bezetha, and south of it the hill Ophel.

"The mountains round about Jerusalem" approach near enough to the city to receive our notice only upon one side. Across the valley of the Kedron, upon the north-east, is the hill Scopus, from which Titus looked down upon the devoted capital of the Jews. South of Scopus and directly east of the city is the long ridge of the Mount of Olives, having three principal summits, of which the central one is designated as the Mount of the Ascension. Still farther to the south is the Mount of Offence, so called from its being the seat of Solomon's idol-worship. Across the Valley of Hinnom and directly south of Mount Zion is the Hill of Evil Counsel, where Judas is reputed to have bargained for the betrayal of our Lord. Upon the slope of this hill is the Aceldama, or "field of blood." The distance from Scopus to the Mount of Olives (according to the British Survey) is 5243 feet; from thence to the


View of Jerusalem from the South.--Jerusalem covers four or five hill-summits. Within the city walls, on the south-east, is Mount Moriah, the site of the temple, now covered by the Haram enclosure or square, within which is the Mosque of Omar. West and south-west of this is Mount Zion, a portion of which is without the city wall. Directly south of Moriah is the hill Ophel, also without the wall. North of Mount Moriah is Bezetha, or the "new city," and west of Bezetha, in the north-west part of the city is Akra. (Some, however, regard Akra as the north-west part of Mount Zion.) East side of the city is the Kedron, or Valley of Jehoshaphat. South of Mount Zion is the Valley of Hinnom, which extends around on the west side of the city. The valleys of Hinnom and the Kedron unite south of the city. Between Ophel and Mount Zion is the Tyropoeon Valley. North of the city is Scopus, east of it the Mount of Olives, and on the south the Hill of Evil Counsel. 436 Mount of Offence is 4731 feet, and from the last point to the Hill of Evil Counsel, 3772 feet. From Jerusalem to the summit of Olivet, which is approached by three paths, the mean distance is about half a mile.

Elevations. — The elevation of various points above the Mediterranean, as given by the British Survey, is as follows: Mount Scopus, 2715 feet; Viri Galilaei, 2682 feet; Mount of Olives, 2665 feet; Mount of Offence, 2409 feet; Hill of Evil Counsel, 2552 feet; Mount Moriah, 2440 feet; Mount Zion, 2550 feet; Castle of Goliath (highest point within the city), 2581 feet; Valley of the Kedron, 2190 feet; the general level of the city, 2610 feet; the hill Ophel, at the triple gate, was 300 feet above the Pool of Siloam. The topography of Jerusalem will be more fully treated toward the close of this article.

Climate. — The rainy season extends from October to March. Snow sometimes falls to the depth of a foot or more, and the pools are covered with a thin coating of ice; but the ground never freezes, and many winters pass without any signs of either snow or ice. The natives build no fires merely for warming themselves. During the summer, rain is almost unknown. A north-westerly breeze from the Mediterranean then prevails between the hours of 9 a.m. and 10 p.m. The meteorological observations of Dr. Thomas Chaplin, an English physician, at Jerusalem for over 3 years, from Nov., 1863, to Feb. 1867, showed that the mean temperature was 63°; highest mean for 40 months, 77°, in July, 1866; lowest, 42°.8, in Jan., 1864. The range of the thermometer was from 25°, Jan. 20, 1864, to 102°.5, June 27, 1865, showing a variation of 77°.5.

Dr. Barclay says that nearly every species of vegetable in common use in the United States has been successfully cultivated in the vicinity of Jerusalem. Oranges, limes, and lemons are to be had in the greatest profusion and perfection almost the entire year round. The oranges of Jerusalem mostly come from Jaffa, where they are grown in great abundance.

IV. History. — The Jerusalem of our Lord and of his apostles is buried from 20 to 80 feet beneath the ruins and rubbish of centuries; the "City of David" lies still deeper below the surface of modern Jerusalem. In the 15 centuries from Joshua to Titus, the city was besieged not less than 17 times; twice it was razed to the ground, and twice its walls were destroyed. There is no trace on the surface now to be seen of the city in its glory. The ancient streets, walls, and buildings have long since disappeared, and the old sites and historical places have long been the subject of speculation and most bitter controversy. The topography of ancient Jerusalem, even since the valuable discoveries of Robinson, Warren, Wilson, and others, is more confused and unsettled by new theories and speculations than ever before. It will be convenient to treat of the history of the city under successive periods; as Jerusalem of the Jebusites; of the Kings; of the Captivity, including that of the Ptolemies and the Maccabees; the Jerusalem of N.T. times; of the Romans and the Christian emperors; of the Saracens and the Crusaders; the Jerusalem of the Turks; and modern Jerusalem.

  1. The Jebusite Period. — In respect to the identity of Salem, of which Melchizedek was king. Gen 14:18, with Jerusalem, the weight of authorities is about equally divided in favor of and against it. An incidental proof in favor of this theory is supposed to be found in Ps 76:2, and it was held by Josephus, Eusebius, and many later scholars. The earliest definite notice of Jerusalem is found in the description of the boundaries of Judah and Benjamin, where it is called Jebusi, after the people who inhabited it. See Josh 15:8; Josh 18:16, Josh 18:28. The Jebusites still held the city after the conquest of the land under Joshua, Josh 15:63, but soon after his death the children of Judah besieged the city, took it and burned it, and destroyed its king, Adoni-bezek, Jud 1:7-8; yet it would appear from Jud 1:21 that the entire city was not subdued, and Josephus states that the siege lasted some time, that the lower city only was taken, and that the upper city was so strong, from its walls and the nature of the place, that they abandoned the attempt of completing the capture. Compare Jud 19:10-11. Through the rule of the Judges and the reign of Saul the stronghold continued in the possession of the Jebusites.

After David became king of all Israel he made Jerusalem his capital, and the city of the Jebusites was taken by his chief captain, Joab; it was called "the stronghold of Zion," or "the city of David." 2 Sam 5:7; 1 Chr 11:6. From this time the rising grandeur and glory of Jerusalem as the seat of one of the noted empires of the East caused the city to take rank along with Nineveh, Babylon, and Tyre.

  1. Under the Kings. — David began immediately to strengthen and to fortify the city by building a wall around it, and to increase the strength of the stronghold by connecting it with the city. This citadel he made his residence. He also brought the ark from Kirjathjearim to the house of Obed-edom, and thence to the "city of David," 2 Sam 6:2-16, thus making it the political and religious capital of the Israelitish nation. This choice of a capital was made by David, as elsewhere declared, under divine direction, Deut 12:5-21; 1 Kgs 11:36. It was the place where the Lord had chosen to put his name, Ps 78:68, as he may have done with the earlier spiritual capitals, Gilgal, Bethel, Shiloh, and Gibeon. The city of Zion also became the sepulchre of David and of the kings who succeeded him, and his royal gardens were in the valleys below. Under Solomon the city reached its greatest magnificence. His three important additions to the capital as founded by his father, David, were the temple, with its massive east wall, the royal palace, and the extension and strengthening of the walls of the city. The temple was built on the site which David purchased of Araunah the Jebusite, 2 Sam 24:20-25; 1 Chr 21:22-28; 2 Chr 3:1, and which was in Mount Moriah. David had also gathered a large portion of the wealth and of the materials required for erecting this magnificent sanctuary to the Lord, and had designed to build it himself, but was forbidden of the Lord because he had been a man of war. 1 Kgs 8:18-19. In this vast work Solomon was aided by Hiram, king of Tyre, who furnished timber out of Lebanon, and cunning workmen in every kind of metal, and those skilled, no doubt, in the mechanical arts, as the Tyrians are known to have been unsurpassed in their day in this class of work. In seven years the temple was completed and dedicated, and thus Jerusalem became the one central place of all the world to the true worshipper of Jehovah. See Temple. A palace of grandeur corresponding to the extent and power of his empire, Solomon erected for himself within the chosen capital, taking 13 years for its construction; he also built another royal edifice to beautify the city, and which is called the "house of the forest of Lebanon," perhaps from the "pillars of cedar" around it, 1 Kings 7:2-7; a palace was likewise built for the queen, the daughter of Pharaoh. 1 Kgs 7:8. He extended the walls of the city probably around the newly-built portions, added towers, and increased the height of the walls made by David; so that the Jerusalem of that period, with the splendor of Solomon's court, was unsurpassed for magnificence and brilliancy by any of the noted capitals of the East. The fame of it reached unto Sheba, whose queen came to behold it; and she declared that the half of the glory of the kingdom of which Jerusalem was the centre had not been told her, 1 Kgs 10:7; 2 Chr 9:1-12.

The division of the kingdom under Rehoboam, which followed the death of Solomon, exposed the city to attack from foreign foes. Shishak, jealous of the glory of Jerusalem, which had for two generations excelled that of Egypt, tempted by the treasures of the famous city, and perhaps influenced by Jeroboam, who had been an exile in Egypt and was the leader of the revolting tribes, invaded the land and made the southern kingdom tributary to the Pharaohs, bearing away the accumulated treasures of the temple, including 500 golden shields, computed to represent $720,000 — a vast sum for those days. Thirty years later, under Asa, Jerusalem regained her independence after the great battle with Zerah at Mareshah. 2 Chr 14:9-15. As the fruit of this victory, Asa replaced the vessels of the Lord's house taken by Shishak, rebuilt the altar, and probably added a new court to the temple, 2 Chr 15:5, 2 Chr 15:8; these treasures were soon after granted to the king of Syria to secure his aid in a war against Baasha, king of Israel. 2 Chr 16:1-2.

In the idolatrous and troubled times which followed the alliance of the house 438 of Jehoshaphat with that of the wicked Ahab, the glory of Jerusalem fell into a decline, but it revived for a time under Joash, who repaired the temple, only to despoil it when Hazael of Syria invaded the country and threatened the capital. 2 Chr 24:10-14, 2 Chr 24:23; 2 Kgs 12:17-18, Later, under Amaziah, a large portion of the walls of Jerusalem was broken down by the armies of the northern kingdom of Israel. 2 Chr 25:23. Uzziah repaired the walls and renewed the fortifications of the city, which were still further strengthened by his son Jotham, especially that part of the city on Moriah, Zion, and Ophel. It again declined under the wicked Ahaz, but was improved and made to approach the former magnificence attained in the days of Solomon by the extensive and remarkable works of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 32:30; Isa 22:9-11. Manasseh built a wall outside of the city of David, enclosing Zion, and raised the tower of Ophel to a great height. 2 Chr 33:14. With the ample supply of water provided by Hezekiah through the pools and conduits which he built, and the towers of defence constructed by Manasseh, the city was regarded as very strong, if not impregnable. Compare 2 Kgs 20:20; 2 Chr 33:14; Lam 4:12. The kingdom was, however, subject to Assyria. The subject king revolted; the capital was attacked, and was compelled to surrender to the forces of Nebuchadnezzar, who carried away all the treasures of the temple and the palace, and took as captives the princes, men of wealth, and the skilled artisans, numbering 10,000, so that only the poorest of the people were left in the land, over whom Zedekiah was made king. Trusting to the aid of Pharaoh-hophra, Zedekiah rebelled, and Nebuchadnezzar again laid siege to Jerusalem, erecting forts, mounds, and engines of war to batter down the walls. This siege was temporarily raised by the approach of an Egyptian army, but the Assyrians speedily returned to the city, and invested it more closely than ever. Its inhabitants, shut up within its walls, suffered from all the horrors of famine, pestilence, and war for a year and a half, when the walls were broken and the place taken b.c. 586, the temple, palace, and chief buildings burned, the walls thrown down and the city made a "heap of rubbish" by order of Nebuchadnezzar. The dreadful horrors of this siege and destruction are vividly portrayed by Jeremiah. Lam 2 and Lam 5. For 50 years the city lay in ruins.

  1. Jerusalem of Ezra and the Ptolemies. — Under the decree of Cyrus the captives returned to Jerusalem, rebuilt the temple, and made the city again habitable; and later, under Nehemiah, the city was fortified, and the walls, which had been broken for 140 years, were re-constructed, notwithstanding the opposition of Sanballat and Tobiah. Neh 4:7-22; Neh 6:1-16. The extent of the walls built by Nehemiah is clearly indicated in Neh 3, and they must have enclosed a far larger space than the reduced population could require. The following description of the city and its extent is from Baedeker's Handbook of Syria (1876): "The wall extended up the hill from the pool of Siloam toward the north. On the highest point of Ophel rose a bastion, which was also intended to protect the horse-gate, an entrance of the temple toward the east. Near the horse-gate, and within the precincts of the temple, were the dwellings of the priests. On the east side it is commonly supposed that there was a second gate, called the water-gate. There were also fortifications at the north end of the temple terrace, the most important being the Bira, a large bastion restored by Nehemiah, afterward the site of Baris. The city was further defended on the north side by the tower of Hananeel. There was also the tower of Mea, about 50 yards south of the other; but the site of both seems to be far from being even approximately determined. . . . The wall which enclosed the upper city ran toward the west and had two gates — the gate of the centre, which led from one pairt of the city to the other, and, to the extreme west, the valley-gate, afterward called Gennath, situated to the east of the present Jaffa-gate, where Uzziah once erected a tower of defence. In the suburb to the north was, first, the corner-gate, which was probably the same as the old gate, and perhaps also the gate of Ephraim, the site of which, however, is quite uncertain. From the upper part of the city a gate led west toward the valley of Hinnom, called the dung-gate, where a rock staircase has been

discovered. To the south a wall ran across the Tyropoeon, at the outset of which lay the spring-gate, or the valley between the two walls. The situation of the potters' gate, leading to the valley of Hinnom, is a matter of mere conjecture."

The city prospered under Nehemiah as a Persian governor. In b.c. 366, Jeshua was murdered by his brother, Johanan, through rivalry for the high priesthood, and Bagoses, the Persian general, entered the sanctuary, and imposed a tax of 50 darics or drachmas for every lamb offered during the lifetime of Johanan, which was 7 years. The two sons of Johanan, Jaddua and Manasseh, held the high priest's office jointly until after their father's death, when Manasseh joined the Samaritans, and became the first high priest of their temple on Mount Gerizim. See Samaritans. In b.c. 332, Alexander the Great, after the famous battle of Issus, in which he gained a decisive victory over the Persians, visited Jerusalem, according to Josephus, and the high priest read to him the writings of Daniel, predicting the overthrow of Persia by the Greeks. This secured to the Jews various favors, among them an exemption from tribute during the sabbatical year. In b.c. 320, Ptolemy Soter captured Jerusalem because the Jews would not fight on the Sabbath, and large numbers of the people were transported to Africa. In b.c. 300, Simon the Just, a favorite hero among the Jews, became high priest, and added deep foundations to the temple, probably to gain greater surface on the top of the hill, sheathed the great sea with brass, strengthened and fortified the walls, and sustained the temple-service with great pomp and ceremony. Ptolemy Philadelphus, under whose direction the Septuagint Version of the O.T. is reputed to have been made, at Alexandria, also made rich gifts to the temple and its service.

Jerusalem soon after became the prey of rival parties; was visited by Ptolemy Philopator, who attempted to offer sacrifice in the temple, but was prevented by Simon, the high priest, and by a supernatural terror, which caused him to fall paralyzed upon the floor of the court. He afterwards showed great hostility to the Jews. Jerusalem was taken by Antiochus the Great, b.c. 203, and retaken by Scopas, the Alexandrian general, b.c. 199, but a year later was opened by the Jews to Antiochus, who rewarded them with large presents of money and materials for repairing the temple, and with considerable remission in taxes, declaring their temple inviolable. The city again had great apparent prosperity. After the death of Antiochus the Great, b.c. 187, and under the reign of the infamous Antiochus Epiphanes (since b.c. 175), it became again the scene of commotion through strifes and disgraceful Greek customs, young men being trained naked in a new gymnasium set up by Jason the high priest, to whom Antiochus had sold the office; bribery, fraud, pillage, and riot were common; the holy place of the temple was polluted; a foreign garrison was placed in the hill of David, overlooking the temple; heathen worship was ordered to be celebrated in the sanctuary of Jehovah, and the Jews not slain were forced to submit to every species of indignity. Many of them resisted the efforts of Antiochus to destroy their religion, and suffered torments and bitter persecutions. See 1 Mace. 1:13; 2 Mace. 4:9, 12; 6:10-31; 7. The Jews finally made a general revolt against the monstrous tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes. A large army was raised under Judas Maccabaus, who gained a victory over Lysias, the Antiochian general, and the Jews re-entered Jerusalem, b.c. 165. 2 Mace. 8.

At the death of Judas Maccabseus, b.c. 161, the city again had a period of disturbance and trouble, caused by the dissensions of local rulers, until the time of John Hyrcanus, b.c. 135, when it was attacked by the king of Syria, who encircled it with seven camps, erected on the north a hundred towers of attack, each three stories high, and partially undermined the wall. A truce was, however, secured; the Syrians were induced to end the siege, and the walls were carefully repaired. After the death of Hyrcanus the city was the scene of murderous strifes and bloody wars between the petty rulers and the two leading sects, the Pharisees and Sadducees, no fewer than 50,000 persons having fallen in these feuds in six years.

The city was captured, b.c. 63, by the Roman Pompey, who left the valuable 440 treasures of the temple intact; Crassus, in b.c. 54, however, plundered the temple and city of the treasures which Pompey had spared, amounting, it is computed, to 10,000 talents, or from $8,000,000 to $10,000,000. The city was captured by the Parthians under Antigonus, b.c. 40, but the next year Herod, afterward the Great, laid siege to Jerusalem, supported by a Roman army; the outer walls and lower city were taken in less than 60 days, and after prolonging the siege for five months the citadel and temple were captured by storm. Later, Herod was made king by the Romans. He speedily began to improve and beautify the city, one of the chief of his works being the enlarging of the temple, which occupied 46 years. Under his rule the city was restored to something like its ancient magnificence.

  1. Jerusnlem in N.T. Times. - Jerusalem, in the time of our Lord, stood in all the strength and grandeur to which it had been brought by Herod. This king died a few months after the birth of Jesus, but the royal palace, the renewed temple, the fortress of Antonia, built from the older Baris tower, the grand theatre where games were instituted in honor of Caesar, the three great towers of Hippicus, Phasaelus, and Mariamne, the bridge of Herod, between the upper city and what had been a portion of Solomon's palace, - these magnificent structures of Herod remained. The ruin

Robinson's Arch.

now known as "Robinson's Arch" is a part of the bridge of Herod. Except the aqueduct built under Pilate for the better supply of the city with water, no important improvements were made from the time of Herod the Great until the reign of his grandson, Herod Agrippa, a.d. 41. The second wall enclosed the northern part of the central valley of the city; beyond this lay Bezetha, or "new town," which Agrippa enclosed by a third wall, that doubled the size of the city. After his death Judaea again became simply a Roman province, ruled by reckless and oppressive procurators, and Jerusalem was the scene of discontent, insurrections, riots, and petty rebellions, until Vespasian and Titus began a war to put down the insurrection. Jerusalem was besieged. The terrible sufferings and agony of the Jews shut up in the invested city, the loss of upward of 1,000,000 lives in the siege, the complete destruction of the city, a.d. 70, form one of the darkest pages in the history of this remarkable people. The rebellion was kept up for about 3 years after the fall of the city, when the Jewish power was completely destroyed and the Jews denied access to their ancient capital.

  1. Jerusalem under Roman and Christian Emperors. - The city and kingdom having been destroyed by Vespasian and Titus, a new Roman Jerusalem was founded by Hadrian upon the site of the ancient city, and called AElia Capitolina; a temple of Jupiter was erected on the ruins of the temple of Jehovah. The Jews were not allowed to enter the city, and this law continued until the country came under the rule of the Christian emperors of the Eastern empire. Constantine restored the old name Jerusalem, and his mother, the empress Helena, devoted herself to re-discovering the lost sites of importance to Christians, erecting costly churches to commemorate some of the supposed holy places. In the reign of Julian - commonly called the Apostate - an attempt was made to rebuild the temple, but an earthquake and other supernatural occurrences caused the work to be abandoned, and the event has been regarded as a judgment of God upon an impious attempt to falsify the words of Christ. Ammianus Marcellinus, a heathen historian, philosopher and a soldier of Julian, thus describes the failure of this attempt to rebuild the temple: "Whilst Alypius, assisted by the

governor of the province, urged with vigor and diligence the execution of the work, horrible balls of fire breaking out near the foundations, with frequent and reiterated attacks, rendered the place from time to time inaccessible to the scorched and blasted workmen; and the victorious element continuing in this obstinately and resolutely bent, as it were, to drive them to a distance, the undertaking was abandoned." Chrysostom declares that persons of his time were witnesses of this defeat of the effort to rebuild the temple, and that the above occurrences were the reason assigned for the failure of the project. This view has been strongly advocated by Bishop Warburton. The emperor Justinian founded a fine church in honor of the Virgin, a.d. 529, which some would locate upon the site of the mosque el-Aksa. In a.d. 614 the Persians, under Chosroes II., captured Jerusalem, slew thousands of the monks and clergy, and destroyed the churches.

  1. Jerusalem of the Crusaders and Turks.— In a.d. 637 the city fell into the hands of Caliph Omar, and Christians were allowed to worship there, but not to erect churches. After unusual severities upon Christians by a Turkish ruler, the Crusaders captured the city in a.d. 1099; it was reconquered, 1187, by the Mohammedans under Saladin. Thrice afterward it was in Christian hands; in 1517 it came into the possession of the Osmans, and has remained in the hands of the Turks until the present time. (A description of modern Jerusalem will be found near the close of the article.)

    V. Topography. — The Jerusalem of to-day is built upon the ruins of several successive cities, each erected and destroyed upon the same site, and each adding to the debris of some former town. The foundations of the Jerusalem of the O.T. and of Christ and his apostles, so far as they exist, are far below the surface of the present town. "The city shall be builded upon her own heap," said Jeremiah, Jer 30:18; and this we know has been fulfilled many times. Owing to this repeated burial of the Jerusalem of the various periods described above, the precise location of the biblical sites and ancient holy places in and about the city has led to long and sharp controversy. Even the location of Zion and Moriah has been disputed with great ability and learning. The energetic and successful explorations of the English Palestine Fund proved that remains of the ancient enclosing walls about the temple still exist, about 80 feet below the present surface. Upon these immense stone blocks, lying at that depth upon a rocky foundation, there were discovered Phoenician quarrymarks. The shafts sunk by Captains Warren and Wilson have since been filled up, and Jerusalem topography is still confused by the mazes of many conflicting opinions. A brief statement of the general divisions and features of Jerusalem has already been given under Physical Features, p. 434.

The theory of Mr. Fergusson, in Smith's Dictionary, which would identify Zion with the hill on which the temple stood, has been generally rejected by scholars. The lower eastern hill, known as Mount Moriah, is the site of Solomon's temple; west of it was the higher hill of Zion, called also the city of David. Bezetha was on the north of Zion, according to Josephus.

Walls of David and of Nehemiah. — As the walls of the old city rebuilt by Nehemiah were, it is believed, upon the old foundations, the city, as renovated after the great captivity; must have been upon the same site, and have covered nearly the same area as the Jerusalem of David and Solomon. Dr. Howard Crosby, in Johnson's Cyclopedia, says of the city as restored by Nehemiah: "Eliashib the high priest is first mentioned as leading the workers at the sheep-gate, and at the wall as far as the tower of the Hundred (Ho Meah) and the tower of Hananeel. These places we must, of course, find in the templeregion. . . . The description in Nehemiah follows the wall from the centre of the east side of the city northward. The sheep-gate must have been in the centre of the temple-precinct wall. . . . If the probatika of John 5:2 be the sheep-gate, and the Pool of Bethesda be the Fountain of the Virgin, with its intermittent flow, then we should suppose the sheep-gate to be farther south; but the Pool of Bethesda may have been within the temple-precinct, and the present Fountain of the Virgin may receive to-day the intermittent effects which in former times showed themselves 442 in another pool, now filled up. We are inclined to think that this sheepgate is the same as the Mishneh, or 'second gate,' of Zeph 1:10, and the 'college' of 2 Kgs 22:14, where the prophetess Huldah lived. In this case the fish-gate would be the first gate (see Zeph 1:10), and would represent the north-eastern corner of the city, opposite the Mount of Olives. Between the fish-gate and the sheep-gate would stand the tower of Hananeel and the tower of Meah (or the Hundred). The 'old gate' would be found next as we follow the north wall north-westward. The course would be along the 'second wall' of Josephus, for the first or old wall seems to have been the northern fortification of Zion. The 'old gate' may be really the Jeshanah gate. 2 Chr 13:19. . . . The 'gate of Ephraim' comes next in Nehemiah (not in his account of the building, but in his record of the dedication, Neh 12:39), and may have occupied the site of the present Damascus gate. Then follows the 'broad wall' (some local peculiarities of the wall, perhaps for defence), and then we reach the 'Tower of the Furnaces,' which may have stood over the western valley, as the towers of Hananeel and the Hundred overlooked the eastern. The 'valley-gate' would correspond with the present Jaffa-gate. Near this was the 'Dragon-well.' Neh 2:13. The 'dung-gate' (if our suppositions above are correct) would be 1000 cubits south of the Jaffa-gate, Neh 3:13 — that is, on the south-western part of Zion, over against the Birket es-Sultan (Pool of the Sultan). The 'fountain-gate' would lie on the opposite side of Zion, facing the Pool of Siloam. The 'stairs' that go down from the city of David would be found between the fountain-gate and the south-western temple-corner. They were probably an ascent from the king's gardens to the Davidian palace on Zion. The sepulchres of David, the 'king's pool,' Neh 2:14, and the house of the mighty were probably at the corner of Zion, over against the south-western temple-corner, where the wall crossed the Tyropceon. The 'armory' is in this neighborhood, at the very corner where the wall turns abruptly southward to encircle Ophel. The 'house of the high priest' and the 'house of Azariah' are near this. After turning the extreme corner of Ophel southward we reach the 'tower which lieth out from the king's high house,' which may be the extra tower discovered by Capt. Warren's subterranean explorations (Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 229). As he himself suggests, it may have been built out in order to guard the fountain of the Virgin. The 'water-gate' would be so called in relation to this fountain. By this watergate, on Ophel, was a broad street or square, where assemblies could be held in the immediate vicinity of the temple. Neh 8:1, Num 1:3, Ex 17:16. Near by was the 'horsegate,' famous as the spot where Athaliah was put to death. . . . The gate 'Miphkad ' may mark some angle of the walls connected with the division, as a special corner is here mentioned, Neh 3:32, before we reach the sheepgate again."

The next important view of Jerusalem topography is that during our Lord's day, and until its destruction by the Romans, a.d. 70. The only full description of the city near that date which has come down to us is found in Josephus. The city was defended on the east, south, and west by a single wall; upon the north three walls were successively built, the second outside of the first, and the third outside of the second. The position of these walls is one of the disputed questions in Jerusalem topography. In reconstructing the city as it appeared in our Lord's day the reader must remember that the third wall, which enclosed the new city, Bezetha, on the north, was built by Herod Agrippa, about a.d. 42, and therefore after the crucifixion and ascension of Christ. All the three walls noticed by Josephus are upon the north of the upper city, or Zion, but there is much controversy respecting the course of these walls, particularly the second and the third wall. It must be further borne in mind that the ancient walls probably included the southern portions of the hills of Zion and of Ophel, which are outside the present walls of the city.

The following description of the city before its destruction by Titus is condensed from Josephus, Jewish War, v., 4; several of his points in the course have not been identified.

"1. Jerusalem was fortified with three walls on such parts as were not


Eastern Wall of Jerusalem and Muslim Tombs. (After Photograph by Bonfils.)

There are many cemeteries, sepulchres, and tombs about Jerusalem, but the favorite burying-place of the Muslims is along the east wall, adjoining the Haram esh-Sherif, since, according to their traditions, the general judgment will take place in this locality. They say that all men will then assemble in the Valley of Jehoshaphat (at the left of the picture). A thin wire rope will be stretched across the valley to the Mount of Olives. Christ will sit on the wall and Mohammed on the mount, as judges. All men must pass over the intervening space on the rope. The righteous will be kept by the angels from falling, while the wicked will be precipitated into the abyss of hell. Near the centre of the picture can be seen the Golden Gate, which has been kept closed from a very early period.

The Interior of the Jaffa-Gate. (After Photograph by Bonfils.)

The Jaffa-gate, called also "Yafa-gate," "Hebron-gate," and by the Arabs Bab el-Khalil, is on the west side of Jerusalem. It consists of a massive square tower, the entrance to which from without is on the northern side, and the exit within on the eastern. All the roads from the country south and west converge to this gate. One street — and it is generally the one first trodden by Western pilgrims — leads from the Jaffa-gate eastward past the space by the citadel, and down the side of the ridge and across the valley to the principal entrance of the Haram. This street is called by some the "Street of David." Outside the Jaffa-gate is the usual camping place of all travellers reaching Jerusalem by way of Jaffa and from Hebron or Bethlehem. 444 encompassed with impassable valleys; in such places it hath but one wall. The city was built upon two hills. Of these hills, that which contains the upper city is much higher, and was called the citadel by King David, but it is by us called the upper market-place. The other hill, which was called Acra and sustains the lower city, is of the shape of a moon when she is horned. Over against this there was a third hill, but naturally lower than Acra, and parted formerly from the other by a broad valley. However, in those times when the Asmoneans reigned they filled up that valley with earth, and had a mind to join the city to the temple. They then took off part of the height of Acra, that the temple might be superior to it. Now, the Valley of the Cheesemongers, which distinguished the hill of the upper city from that of the lower, extended as far as Siloam, a fountain that hath sweet water. But on the outsides these hills are surrounded by deep valleys; and by reason of the precipices to them belonging on both sides, they are everywhere impassable.

"2. Now, of these three walls, the old one was hard to be taken, both by reason of the valleys and of that hill on which it was built. But besides that great advantage as to the place where they were situated, it was also built very strong, because David and Solomon and the following kings were very zealous about this work. Now, that wall began on the north at a tower called Hippicus, and extended as far as the Xistus, and then, joining to the council-house, ended at the west cloister of the temple. But if we go the other way westward, it began at the same place, and extended through a place called Bethso to the gates of the Essenes; and after that it went southward, having its bending above the fountain Siloam, where it also bends again toward the east at Solomon's Pool, and reaches as far as a certain place which they called Ophlas, where it was joined to the eastern cloister of the temple. The second wall took its beginning from that gate Gennath which belonged to the first wall; it only encompassed the northern quarter of the city, and reached as far as the tower Antonia. The beginning of the third wall was at the tower Hippicus, whence it reached as far as the north quarter of the city and the tower Psephinus, and then was so far extended until it came over against the monuments of Helena, queen of Adiabene, the daughter of Izates; it then extended farther to a great length, and passed by the sepulchral caverns of the kings, and bent again at the tower of the corner, at the Monument of the Fuller, and joined to the old wall at the valley called the Valley of Cedron. Agrippa added to the old city, by this wall, a fourth hill, called Bezetha, or 'new city.' It lies over against the tower Antonia, but is divided from it by a deep valley, which was dug to strengthen the tower. The father of the present king, Agrippa, began the third wall, but he left off building it when he had only laid the foundations, out of the fear he was in of Claudius Caesar, lest he should suspect that so strong a wall was built in order to make some innovations in public affairs; for the city could no way have been taken if that wall had been finished in the manner it was begun, as its parts were connected together by stones 20 cubits long and 10 cubits broad, which could never have been either easily undermined by any iron tools or shaken by any engines. The wall was, however, 10 cubits wide; after that it was erected with great diligence by the Jews as high as 20 cubits, above which it had battlements of 2 cubits, and turrets of 3 cubits' altitude, insomuch that the entire altitude was 25 cubits."

This third wall is said to have been defended by 90 towers. The strongest of these was the Psephinus tower, at the north-western angle, which was upward of 100 feet in height and stood on the highest ground in the city (2572 feet above the sea).

The First Wall. — In respect to the course of the first wall there is, in the main, greater agreement among scholars than in respect to either of the other two. This wall began at the tower of Hippicus on the west, ran to the south around the pinnacle of the hill, enclosing Siloam, and extended to the eastern wall of the temple-precincts. South of this north wall stood the palace of Herod, the Xistus, and the bridge which crossed the Tyropoeon to the temple. Another 445 wall ran down on the western margin of the Tyropoeon to defend the upper part of the city.

The Second Wall and Site of Calvary. — No certain traces of the second wall have been discovered. Respecting the course of this wall there has been sharp dispute, for upon it depends the question of the genuineness of the "holy sepulchre" and of the site of Calvary. Robinson, Tobler, Hupfeld, Arnold, John Wilson, Thomson, Barclay, Bonar, Fergusson, Porter, Meyer, Ewald, Schaff, Crosby, Conder, and others, dispute the traditional site of the holy sepulchre, since in their view the second wall included its site within the city. On the other hand, Roman Catholics, as De Vogue, De Saulcy, and Sepp, and able Protestants, as Rev. Geo. Williams, Krafft, Ritter, Schultz, Rosen, Von Schubert, Raumer, Furrer, F. A. Strauss, and Lewin, argue that the second wall excluded the site of the holy sepulchre, and therefore they accept the old tradition that it is the true site of the crucifixion. From the account in the Gospels it is clear that the place of the crucifixion was outside the city. Matt 28:11; Mark 15:20-21; Luke 23:26; John 19:17; Heb 13:12-13, but it was also nigh to the city, John 19:20, and near a common thoroughfare frequented by many, Matt 27:39; Mark 15:22; John 19:20; and again, it was on a conical elevation (hence called "Place of a Skull" or Calvary, but not Mount Calvary, for which there is no Scripture warrant). Matt 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33; John 19:17; and lastly, it was in a garden which had a sepulchre hewn in a rock, where Christ was buried. Matt 27:60; John 19:38-42.

Several writers of the fourth and fifth centuries ascribe the discovery of the site of Calvary to Helena, mother of Constantine, who found three crosses there, and who also discovered which was the true cross of our Saviour by a miracle of healing which its touch produced upon a sick woman. Helena caused a splendid church to be erected on the spot, a.d. 335. It has since been several times destroyed and rebuilt, but tradition has fixed upon this spot as the place of Christ's crucifixion and burial. The advocates of this tradition must prove that the old city excluded this site. The Rev. Geo. Williams sums up the arguments in favor of the traditional view, and Robinson presents, with marked ability, the objections to it. Dr. Schaff, in Through Bible Lands, says: "The old city was much larger and more densely inhabited than the present, and consequently more likely to include the site of that church [Holy Sepulchre] than to exclude it. ... The champions of the tradition, therefore, are bound to prove that the location of the city has greatly changed, and that the second wall of Josephus (which ran circuitously from the gate Gennath — i.e. the garden-gate, near the tower of Hippicus — to the fortress of Antonia, on the north of the temple-area) excluded the church of the Holy Sepulchre. This has not been proved. It is possible, but very improbable. Diligent search for wall foundations has failed so far. The ruins near the church of the Holy Sepulchre, which have been supposed by Williams and others to be fragments of the second wall, have proved to be portions of a church, and the old arch called the gate Gennath is a comparatively recent building." See Calvary. The precise course of the second wall can only be unquestionably settled by further excavations, and this, if settled, would decide whether the church of the Holy Sepulchre covers the true site of Calvary, as tradition claims, or whether Calvary must be sought elsewhere, as the weight of scholarship now seems to require. Some of those who reject the traditional site locate Calvary a few minutes' walk north of the present Damascus-gate, not far from the Grotto of Jeremiah. Here is a skull-shaped, rocky elevation, about half a mile from the fortress Antonia (Pilate's judgment-hall), and the same distance from Mount Zion (Herod's palace) and on the highway to Damascus. The spot is encircled by rock-caverns and tombs. It answers all the requirements of the Gospel narratives, and is accepted by Bishop Gobat of Jerusalem, Conrad Schick, Schaff, and others, and a similar view was advocated by Fisher Howe of Brooklyn, 1871, and more recently by Conder, 1878.

The Third Wall -situation of the third wall is likewise disputed by topographical writers. Some, as Kiepert, Fergusson, Wilson, and others, make it reach to, and possibly include, 446 the so-called royal tombs and the whole northern mountain-plateau, on which many ruins and cisterns lie scattered. Robinson places the third wall about the middle of this locality; to this Baedeker objects on strategical grounds. Others suggest that this third wall occupied about the same site as the present north wall of Jerusalem, which view is claimed to accord with the distances given by Josephus (4 stadia to the royal tombs, 7 stadia to the Scopus), but Josephus is not always accurate. Capt. Warren advocates this latter view, that the positions of the third wall and of the present northern wall are identical, though he acknowledges that he found no decisive evidence on the subject. The reader will not be surprised at the general uncertainty which prevails in regard to the ancient walls and sacred sites in the Holy City when he remembers that it has been 27 times besieged and 17 times conquered, and often desolated. The present walls are of recent date, being built by Suleiman the Magnificent in 1542.

Plans of the City, — Mr. Besant, secretary of the Palestine Exploration Fund, received 18 different reconstructions of ancient Jerusalem, by as many eminent scholars, yet all based on the authors' views of the statements in the Bible, Josephus, and by late explorers. The most important plans are those of Robinson, Schultz, Williams, Furrer, Barclay, Van de Velde, Tobler, British Ordnance Survey, and Schick. Fergusson's plan (Smith's Bible Dictionary), although the view of a distinguished architect, is too untenable to be of value or interest to the ordinary student. The chief of these plans are given upon another page.

The Temple-site. — The site of the temple has long been a subject of controversy among scholars, but nearly all agree that it was on Mount Moriah, which is at present occupied by the Haram, wherein stands the mosque of Omar. Some place it in the south-western corner of the area now known as the Haram esh-Sherif, but the discovery of immense stones at the base of the south-eastern corner of the present Haram wall, lying in place on a rocky foundation cut out to receive them, 80 feet below the present surface, and bearing Phoenician quarry-marks, seems to confirm the earlier view that remains of the buildings of Solomon still exist there, and that Solomon's temple stood upon the centre of the Haram area or the site of the mosque of Omar, and shows the fallacy of Mr. Fergusson's view that the temple-area reached only 600 feet east from the south-western corner of the present Haram area, since these discovered stones at the southeastern corner are 900 feet eastward. The explorations of Capts. Wilson and Warren prove that the south-eastern corner is unchanged, while the southwestern has undoubtedly been added, probably by Herod. Beneath the Haram area there are aqueducts, subterranean passages, and tanks, some of them constructed, doubtless, for proper drainage and use of the temple; hence the inference from recent discoveries is that the present Haram area very nearly coincides with that of the old temple area.

Zion and the Tyropaeon. — Two other places of interest in the Holy City besides Calvary — which has been noticed under the second wall — are the hill of Zion and the Tyropaeon Valley. Zion is a broad hill with an abrupt front nearly 400 feet high at one point above the southern valley, the hill having a length of 2400 feet to the Jaffa-gate, and from the Tyropaeon to the western valley a breadth of about 1600 feet. The "first wall" was built along the northern brow of Zion. The plateau of Zion included about half the ancient city. Zion is scarcely 200 feet lower than Olivet. The Tyropaeon valley, known also as the "Valley of the Cheesemongers," extended from the junction of the Hinnom and Kedron valleys northward, dividing Zion from Moriah, and, according to one view, continued northward toward the present Jaffa-gate, but, according to another view, turned toward the present Damascus-gate; while a third view supposes that it covered the two branches reaching to the two gates above named. The portion of the valley between Zion and Moriah increased rapidly in depth as it extended southward, and at the south-western corner of the temple-area the bed of the valley was 90 feet below the present surface, giving an entire altitude of wall amounting to 150 feet, and in Herod's time to over 200


Plans of Ancient Jerusalem.

The five plans given above indicate the views of some of the best authorities in regard to the topography of ancient Jerusalem.

The first wall enclosed the old part of the town, or "upper city," upon Mount Zion, and extending to the Walls of the temple-enclosure.

The second wall enclosed the old suburb, or "lower city," upon Acra. The plan of Sepp (Roman Catholic) puts the site of the present church of the Holy Sepulchre outside that wall, in accordance with the traditional view. The other plans include that site within the second wall, in which case it cannot have been the place of the crucifixion, which took place outside of the city.

The third wall was built by Agrippa, eleven years after the death of Christ.

Date of plans: Robinson, 1841-1856; Sepp, 1873; Tobler, 1849-1858; Schick. 1876; Conder, 1879.

For the Church of the Holy Sepulchre as the genuine Calvary are: De Vogue, De Sauley, Sepp (Roman Catholic), Williams, Ritter, Krafft, Schultz, Strauss (Protestants); also Furrer, in Schenkel's Bibellexikon, ii. 506.

Against the traditional view: Robinson, Tobler, John Wilson, Thompson, Barclay, Bonar, Fergusson, Porter, Van de Velde, Meyer, Ewald (all Protestants); also Schaff, Through Bible Lands, p. 259, and Conder, in Handbook of the Bible, p. 350. 448 feet; so that the statement of Josephus no longer seems a foolish exaggeration: "If any one looked down from the top of the battlements, he would be giddy, while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth." The gates, pools, and environs of the Holy City may be appropriately noticed under the description of modern Jerusalem.

VI. Modern Jerusalem.— The present city is built upon the ruins of the ancient Holy City. The buildings, walls, towers, and bridges of the city of David and Solomon, of Hezekiah, of Nehemiah and Ezra, of the Maccabees, and of Herod, have been demolished, so that the depth of the rubbish around the temple-walls is nearly 100 feet; on the hill of Zion the rubbish is 40 feet deep, and on the Via Dolorosa it is from 15 to 30 feet deep. The buildings, walls, streets, and towers now standing on these sacred hills cannot with any certainty be identified with the structures which adorned the city 2000 years ago, and whose very foundations, so far as discovered, lie buried many feet below the present surface.

Environs of Jerusalem. — To gain a clear view of the places immediately around modern Jerusalem we may begin on the east side of the city, near the Mount of Olives. Passing by the Birket-Israel, identified by some as the Pool of Bethesda, we go out of St. Stephen's gate, and cross a bridge leading over the Kedron or "black brook," which runs southward through a deep valley, now dry above the springs. This valley is also called the Valley of Jehoshaphat, and an old tradition makes it the scene of the last judgment, founded on a misinterpretation of Joel 3:2. At the resurrection the sides of the valley, according to this tradition, will move apart to give suffcient room for the vast assembly. Beyond the Kedron is the modern chapel of the Tomb of the Virgin, near which is the traditional Cavern of Agony, and a short distance farther on, upon the slope at the foot of Olivet, is the garden of Gethsemane. It is now enclosed and in charge of Franciscan monks. It contains a number of venerable olive trees, whose large trunks, some of them 19 feet in circumference, are burst from age, and have been shored up with stones. These trees are said to date from the time of Christ; but this is questionable, since it is certain Titus and Hadrian cut down all the trees about Jerusalem. They are, however, of great age, and may be the descendants of some trees that were standing here in our Lord's day. See Gethsemane. From this garden three roads lead up the slopes of Olivet — one to the south, around the top of the mount, another to the north, and a third, or middle path, leads up the steepest part to the summit. See Olivet. The view of Jerusalem from Mount Olivet is the finest that can be secured. Bethany lies a short distance east of the summit of Olivet. See Bethany. In the valley south of Olivet are the Tombs of the Prophets, no doubt belonging to the Jewish period. To the west of Gethsemane a road leads down the Kedron valley, by which stands the so-called Tomb of Absalom (see Absalom), and beyond are the Tomb of Jehoshaphat and the Tomb or Pyramid of Zacharias. Above these, to the east, the whole slope of the hill is covered with Jewish tombstones, and to the south of these lies the village of Silcan, or Siloah. The southern part of the Mount of Olives, on which this village is situated, is called also the Mount of Offence, from 1 Kgs 11:7. To the west are the valleys of Jehoshaphat and of Hinnom. To the south, down the Valley of Jehoshaphat, is the Pool of Siloah and St. Mary's Well, which is fed by an intermittent spring; still farther down the valley is Job's Fountain, probably the "En-rogel" or fullers' spring of Josh 15:7 and 1 Kgs 1:9. To the west of this is the mouth of the Valley of Hinnom, always dry, on the south of which is the Mount of Evil Counsel, upon which tradition, probably correctly, places Aceldama, "potter's field" or "the field of blood." Matt 27:7-8. The hill is full of rock-tombs. At the foot of this mount, the bottom of the Valley of Hinnom was called Tophet. 2 Kgs 23:10; Isa 30:33; Jer 7:31; Jer 19:11. North of this valley, and upon the southern portion of the hill of Zion — which was formerly included within the walls of the city, but is now outside the city (as the present walls only embrace the northern portion of Zion) — are the Jewish and Christian burying-grounds. In the portion of Zion outside the city walls 449 Porter saw oxen ploughing, in fulfilment of the prophecy, "Zion shall be ploughed like a field." Jer 26:18; Mic 3:12. An old aqueduct runs past Zion's gate and into the city between that gate and the gate eastward of it, supposed to be the dung-gate. Across the Valley of Hinnom, to the westward, is the large Jewish hospice, a modern structure founded by Sir Moses Montefiore, while between this and the south-western corner of the present wall is the Pool of the Sultan, 175 yards long, 73 yards wide, and from 35 to 41 feet deep, partly filled with rubbish. This pool is by some identified with the "lower pool" of Isa 22:9. North of this pool is a conduit, which runs from Solomon's pools into the city, a Greek monastery, a leper hospital, and the Birket-Mamilla, or "Mamilla pool." 291 by 192 feet, and 19 feet deep, which may be the "upper pool" Gihon, Isa 7:3, or, as Baedeker proposes, the Serpent's pool of Josephus. These are upon the south side of the road, leading from Jaffa (Joppa) into Jerusalem by the Jaffa-gate on the west side of the city. Crossing this road to the north are the Kussian buildings, a church, a monastery, and a hospice: outside the city, and farther north, in the city wall, is the Damascus-gate, to the north of which, outside the wall, is the Grotto of Jeremiah, near which many place the true site of Calvary. Farther from the city wall, to the north, are the so-called Tombs of the Kings, and beyond these the hill Scopus, which is the northern extension of Olivet and completes our circuit of the city.

The City and its Divisions. — The present city of Jerusalem stands upon the northern portions of the hill of Zion and of Moriah, the part of the old city known as Acra, and upon Bezetha, a portion of Jerusalem which dates from Agrippa, a.d. 42, The walls now exclude the southern sections of the hill of Zion and of Ophel. The city is also divided into four quarters by the main streets, and these quarters are named from the classes of inhabitants which dwell in Jerusalem. The largest division, in the north-eastern part of the city, is known as the Mohammedan quarter; west of this is the Greek and Frank, or Christian quarter; to the south of it lies the Armenian quarter; while to the east of the Armenian and to the south of the Mohammedan lies the Jewish quarter.

Jerusalem is now enclosed by a wall (dating from Suleiman in the sixteenth century), 38 1/2 feet high, having 34 towers and 7 gates. The town as thus walled in forms an irregular quadrangle of about 2 1/2 miles in circumference, around which a person can easily walk in an hour. The city has few open spaces; the streets are generally narrow, crooked, and poorly paved; and the narrower streets are mere blind-alleys, exceedingly filthy after a rain. The chief streets form the boundaries of the principal quarters of the town. The Damascus and Bazaar streets, from the north, separate the Moslem from the Christian or Greek quarter, and farther south divide the Jewish from the Armenian quarter. The main street, running from the Jaffa-gate to the Haram area, first divides the Christian from the Armenian quarter, and to the eastward separates the Moslem from the Jewish quarter. See Baedeker's Palistine. The seven important gates are: in the west wall, (1) The Yafa or Jaffa gate; in the north wall, (2) the Damascus gate, and (3) Herod's gate, closed for 25 years, but of late opened a portion of the year; in the east wall, (4) St. Stephen's gate and (5) the Golden gate, long since walled up; in the south wall, (6) Babel-Mayharibeh, or the so-called dung-gate, and (7) Sion's gate. There are also other gates, now closed up; as, the triple gate, the double or Huldah gate, and another old gate adjoining it, walled up.

The city has no springs, but it is supplied with water by cisterns filled from the rain-falls on the roofs of the houses, by pools, of which there are six or more in and about the city, and by conduits and wells or springs outside the town. The chief pools have been already noticed. They may be here grouped together:The Birket-Mamilla, Birket Sultan, Pool of Siloam, Fountain or Pool of the Virgin, Birket-Israel, and the Pool of Hezekiah. "The Birket-Mamilla," says Crosby, "is supposed to be the upper pool, Isa 7:3; 2 Kgs 18:17. It lies 2000 feet west of the Jaffa-gate, The Birket-Sultan is a section of the great western valley dammed up for more than 500 feet. The Pool of Siloam, Neh 3:15 John 9:7, is in the mouth of the 450 Tyropaeon, at its junction with the Hinnom and the Kedron valleys. It was probably used to irrigate the king's garden. It is connected, by a long, rude, and crooked subterranean passage, with

Pool of Hezekiah, inside the Jaffa-gate. (After a Photograph by Bonfils.)

the Fountain of the Virgin, on the other side of Ophel, from which the water flows softly. . . . The Fountain of the Virgin is a pool on the eastern side of the Ophel rock, to which is a descent of 28 steps. The water comes into it from the direction of the temple, but has never been traced. It has a periodic and sudden rise of a foot in height, the periods varying from two to three times a day to once in two or three days. This periodic troubling of the water seems to mark the Fountain of the Virgin as the Pool of Bethesda, unless we may suppose that a pool farther up on the temple-mount formerly received this intermittent flow. The requirements of the sheep-gate (see above) seem to put Bethesda farther north. The Birket-Israel, just inside St. Stephen's gate and north of the Haram (supposed by Robinson to be the trench of Antonia), is the damming up of the valley that runs east of Bezetha in a south-eastern direction, originally under the north-eastern corner of the Haram into the Kedron. . . The Pool of Hezekiah is north of the Jaffa-gate street; ... is supplied by an aqueduct from the Birket-Mamilla. ... A system of wells and aqueducts in the Kedron ravine below Jerusalem (the En-rogel of antiquity) presents features of peculiar interest. One of the several ancient aqueducts still conducts the water from Solomon's pools beyond Bethlehem to the city." Crosby in Johnson's Cyclopaedia, vol. ii. p. 1398.

The Buildings. — The houses in Jerusalem are built chiefly of stone, and are two or three stories high, and owing to the scarcity of timber even many of the roofs are also of stone. The roofs are generally flat, supported by vaults and arches below. Some, however, are domeshaped. There are few windows opening on the streets; these openings are chiefly toward the interior open court of the house. The more important buildings are — those in the Haram enclosure on Mount Moriah: the "Dome of the Rock" or mosque of Omar, mosque El-Aksa, the mosque known as the Throne of Solomon; those in the Christian quarter: the church of the Holy Sepulchre, Coptic convent, Abyssinian monastery, Muristan, or ruins of the knights-hospitallers, nine convents, and two hotels; those in the Mohammedan quarter: church of Mary Magdalene, church of St. Anne, two convents, Pilate's hall, two mosques, the city prison; in the Jewish quarter: two synagogues, three hospitals, and a spot of the deepest interest, known as the "Jews' Wailing-place;" in the Armenian quarter: tower of David, tower of Hippicus, four convents, the lepers' quarter, and the church of St. James.

Haram esh-Sherif. — The extent of this enclosure, which covers the ground on which the temple stood, is, according to the British Ordnance Survey, on the north wall, 1042 feet; east, 1530 feet; south, 922 feet; west, 1601; or a total circumference of 5095 (nearly a mile), and the total area is .35 acres. Near the centre of the enclosure is a raised platform, upon which once stood the temple of Solomon, later the less glorious temple of Zerubbabel, and last the temple of Herod, which was built in the time of Christ, and was destroyed by the Romans, a.d. 70. The attempt to rebuild the Jewish temple under Julian the Apostate, a.d. 362, was a complete failure, as already noticed. See p. 440. During the reign of Hadrian, a.d. 136, a temple of Jupiter occupied this sacred spot, and a shrine of Venus was placed upon the site of the Holy Sepulchre. In place of the temple now stands the Kubbet es-Sakhara,


The Mosque of Omar and the Haram Area. 452 "Dome of the Rock," or mosque of Omar — "perhaps", says Hepworth Dixon, "the very noblest specimen of building-art in Asia." "It is," says Schaff, "the most prominent as well as the most beautiful building in the whole city, it stands out conspicuously in every picture of Jerusalem. ... It is the second mosque of Islam, inferior only to that of Mecca, as Jerusalem is its second sacred city. . . . The mosque stands on an irregular base of 10 feet in height, and is approached by three flights of steps, which terminate in elegant arcades, called 'scales,' because, according to tradition, the scales of judgment are to be suspended here. The mosque is an octagonal building, each side measuring 67 feet. "Baedeker says: "Each of the eight sides is 66 feet in length, and is covered externally as far as the pedestal with porcelain tiles of the Persian style, and lower down with marble. Each tile has been written upon and burned separately. Passages from the Koran, beautifully inscribed in interwoven characters, run round the building like a frieze." The whole structure is 170 feet high, and is surmounted by a dome supported on 4 great piers and 12 Corinthian columns. The design of the building is Byzantine, and Sepp regards it as originally a church of Justinian; others trace its origin to Omar. It has four gates, facing the four cardinal points of the compass. The most interesting object in the mosque is the rock beneath the dome, which is 57 feet long and 43 feet wide, and rises from 1 to 5 or 6 feet above the mosaic marble pavement. It is enclosed by an iron railing. Jewish tradition marks this spot as the place where Melchizedek offered sacrifice, where Abraham offered Isaac, where the ark of the covenant in the holy of holies stood, where the unspeakable name of God was inscribed upon the rock, which Jesus was able to read, and which gave him his power to perform miracles; and finally, that this spot was the centre of the earth. The Mohammedans, not to be outdone by the Jews, accept all these traditions or have improved on them. The excavations of Capts. Wilson and Warren have thrown much light on this portion of Jerusalem, covered as deeply with traditions as with rubbish. By means of a shaft sunk at the west wall and southern extremity of Wilson's Arch, Warren found twenty-one courses of bevelled stones, from 3 feet 8 inches to 4 feet high, making in all 75 feet above the foundation-rock, and all these were in their original position, but covered with debris. These stone blocks, of which the topmost are from 35 to 55 feet below the present surface, are hewn smooth on every side except the outside, where they are bevelled, and are jointed with mortar or cement, but so accurately that a knife cannot be introduced between them. The wall is not perpendicular, but slopes outward toward its base. He inferred that this formed a part of the wall of Solomon's temple. The southern wall, from the double gate to the south-eastern angle, he also regarded as of Solomonic age and as forming a part of Solomon's palace. The south-western portion was more modern, and he supposes a square of 300 feet was added by Herod, and that Herod's temple occupied the whole southern portion of the present sanctuary. On the south-east are immense vaults, and beneath the temple-area immense cisterns were found, of which thirty-three were described. They were cut out of the soft rock, and had a depth of from 25 to 50 feet and a capacity estimated at from 10,000,000 to 12,000,000 of gallons— enough to furnish a year's supply of water for the whole city. A single cistern, called the "Great Sea," would hold 2,000,000 gallons. The water was supplied partly by the rain and partly by an aqueduct, which connected these reservoirs with Solomon's Pools, beyond Bethlehem and 13 miles from Jerusalem. The overflow from these cisterns was conducted through a rock-cut channel into the valley of the Kedron, which also served as a sewer to carry away the refuse arising from sacrifices of the temple. In the eastern wall of the Haram area a stair ascends to the top of the wall, and the stump of a column built in horizontally may be seen protruding from the wall. The Moslems say that all men will assemble in the Valley of Jehoshaphat when a trumpet blast proclaims the last judgment, and that from this column a thin wire will be



(From the Palestine Memoirs.)

  1. Wady Umm el 'Anab (or Wady es Samar).

  2. Wady el Hamarah.

  3. 'Ain el Madowerah.

  4. Ras es Sillim.

  5. Ras el Madbaseh.

  6. Ard es Samar.

  7. Ras el Mesharif (Scopus).

  8. Bir el Mesharif.

  9. Ras Abu Halawi.

  10. Khallet el 'Ajuz.

  11. 'Ain es Suwan.

  12. Ras Umm et Tal'a.

  13. 'Akabet es Suwan.

  14. Bir el Ka'ah.

  15. Kusr el Kutb.

  16. Kusr esh Shehabi.

  17. Kusr el Khatib.

  18. Kusr el Ka'ah.

  19. Kusi el Mufti.

  20. Bir eth Thogherah.

  21. Bir Zeitunat el Haweileh.

  22. Bir er Rasasyeh.

  23. Sheikh Jerrah.

  24. 'Akabet Sheikh Jerrah.

  25. Bir el Yehudiyeh (and Tomb of Simon the Just).

  26. Bir Sheikh Jerrah (in Court of 23)

  27. Tombs of the Judges (or Sanhedrin).

  28. Kabur es Salatan (Helena's Tomb).

  29. Rujm el Kehakir.

  30. Mugharet el 'Anab.

  31. Sheikh Kamir.

  32. El Muskobiyeh (Russian buildings).

  33. St. Stephen's (Ruins).

  34. El Heidhemiyeh (Place of Execution).

  35. Kurm esh Sheikh.

  36. Bir el Huwarah.

  37. Bir el Kos.

  38. Birket Mamilla.

  39. Birket es Sultan.

  40. Deir es Salib (Convent of the Cross).

  41. Khallet et Tarhah.

  42. Khurbet el Bedr.

  43. Khurbet es Salah.

  44. Khallet el Kusab.

  45. Bir Abu Shalbek.

  46. Kurm Ahmed.

  47. Ras en Nadr.

  48. Kusr el Kurmeh.

  49. Wady Umm Ahmed.

  50. Kusr Ishenar (Schneller's Orphanage).

  51. Sheikh Bedr.

  52. Khurbet el Khamis.

  53. Wady el Wely.

  54. Khurbet el Khazuk.

  55. El Hawieh.

  56. Jebel Deir Abu Tor (Mount of Evil Counsel).

  57. Sheikh Ahmed et Toreh (at 56).

  58. Bir Eyub.

  59. Wady Kadum.

  60. Bir el Khulil.

  61. Wady Deir es Sonneik.

  62. Batn el Howa.

  63. Sheikh Selman el Farsi.

  64. Kefr et Tor (Village, and Church of Ascension).

  65. Russian House on Olivet.

  66. Pater Noster Chapel.

  67. New Convent of the Latins.

  68. Tombs of the Prophets.

  69. Bethphage Chapel.

  70. Jebel el Tor (Mount of Olives).

  71. El K'adi (where Christ sat).

  72. Rus Mesa'adet Sidna 'Aisa.

  73. Ahbal el Kibrit.

  74. Kubr Sitti Miriam (Virgin's Tomb).

  75. El Khelweh (the Hermitage).

  76. Gethsemane.

  77. Wady es Sahel.

  78. Silwan (the village of Siloam).

  79. 'Ain Umm et Deraj (En Rogel and Gihon).

  80. Tantur Fer'on (Absalom's Pillar).

  81. 'Ain Silwan (Pool of Siloam).

  82. Neby Daud (the Coenaculum).

  83. Wady en Nar (Kedron).

  84. Wady et Rababeh (Hinnom).

  85. Hummam Tubariya (Protestant Cemeterv).

  86. Wady Tubl (by 61).

  87. Khurbet Abu W'air.

  88. Sheikh el Mensi.

  89. Almshouses for Jews.

  90. Zahweileh (Zoheleth at 78).

  91. Rujum el Behimeh (near N. E.).

  92. 'Akabet el Ghuzlan (near last).

  93. Kubhet el 'Abd (by 38).

  94. Birket es Sitti Miriam.

  95. 'Arak et Tireh.

  96. Hakk ed Dumm (south of 84 Aceldama).


stretched to the opposite Mount of Olives, that Christ will sit on the wall and Mohammed on the mount as judges, and that all men will be compelled to pass over the intervening space; the righteous, preserved by angels, will pass quickly and safely over, but the wicked will fall and be thrown into the abyss of hell.

The mosque El-Aksa also stands within the Haram area, and is a complex pile of buildings, "the principal axis of which forms a right angle with the southern wall of the temple-precincts. It dates from Justinian, but has been several times partially in ruins and rebuilt. . . . The building is altogether 270 feet long and about 198 feet in width. The dome is of wood covered with lead, and the windows are in part of stained glass of about the sixteenth century."

Just outside of the enclosure of the mosque El-Aksa, and near Robinson's Arch, is the noted Wailing-place of the

The Wailing-place of the Jews. (From photographs.)

Jews. The cyclopean foundation-wall of the temple which bears this name is 156 feet in length and 56 feet in height. Nine of the lowest courses of stone consist of huge blocks; above these are fifteen layers of smaller stones. Some infer, and others deny, that these lower external layers are very ancient. The blocks are certainly old and of vast size, one in the western part being 16 feet, and another in the southern part 13 feet, in length. On Friday numbers of the Jews, old and young, male and female, gather here, kissing the stones, watering them with their tears, and bewailing the downfall of their city, while they read or repeat from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah and suitable Psalms, as the 76th and 79th. The following is an extract from their litany:

Leader: For the palace that lies desolate:

— Response: We sit in solitude and mourn.

L. For the palace that is destroyed:—

R. We sit, etc.

L. For the walls that are overthrown:—

R. We sit, etc.

L. For our majesty that is departed:—

R. We sit, etc.

L. For our great men who lie dead:-

R. We sit, etc.

L. For the precious stones that are burned :—

R. We sit, etc.

L. For the priests who have stumbled:—

R. We sit, etc.

L. For our kings who have despised Him:—

R. We sit, etc.

Another antiphon is as follows: —

Leader: We pray Thee, have mercy on Zion :

— Response: Gather the children of Jerusalem.

L. Haste, haste, Redeemer of Zion!—

R. Speak to the heart of Jerusalem.

L. May beauty and majesty surround Zion! —

R. Ah! turn thyself mercifully to Jerusalem.

L. May the kingdom soon return to Zion! —

R. Comfort those who mourn over Jerusalem.

L. May peace and joy abide with Zion! —

R. And the branch (of Jesse) spring up at Jerusalem.

See Baedeker's Palestine.

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre ranks next to the temple-area in interest to the Christian. It is a "collection," says Schaff, "of chapels and altars of different ages, and a unique museum of religious curiosities from Adam to Christ.. . . In the centre of the rotunda, beneath the dome, is a small marble chapel, where pilgrims from every land in a ceaseless stream are going in and out, otfering candles and kneeling before and kissing the empty [reputed] tomb of Christ." The church is also claimed to possess a piece of marble of Christ's sepulchre, the stone of anointment, three holes in which the crosses of Christ and of the two robbers were inserted, a cleft in the rock caused by the earthquake, the very spot where Christ was scourged, where his friends stood afar off, where his garments were parted, where the gardener appeared to Mary, the rockhewn tombs of Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea, the tombs of Adam, Melchizedek, and John the Baptist, and "the centre of the world." It is of course


Ecce Home Arch, Via Dolorosa 456 claimed as the site of Calvary. See p. 445.

The Citadel and the Tower of David, opposite the Jaffa-gate, consist of an irregular group of five square towers, originally surrounded by a ditch. The foundations of the towers are of thick walls rising at an angle of about 45°; for 39 feet from the bottom of the moat the masonry is of large drafted blocks with rough surfaces, and the forms of the stones higher up indicate that these foundations are ancient. In the northeastern corner stands an ancient tower, bearing the name of David, but probably the remains of one of the towers of Herod's palace. Robinson and Baedeker suggest that the building answers to the description given by Josephus of the Hippicus tower, but others regard its dimensions as agreeing better with those of the tower of Phasselus.

The Castle of Goliath is at the northwestern angle of the present wall, and upon the highest ground within the city limits. The Via Dolorosa, or "street of sorrows," is a portion of the street along which it is said our Saviour was led to his crucifixion; but the name dates only from the fourteenth century.

Tombs. — Some of the rock-tombs about the city have already been noticed. The ground in the vicinity of Jerusalem has been described as one "vast cemetery" In the days of King Josiah "the graves of the children of the people" were in the valley of the Kedron. 2 Kgs 23:6. The great Jewish cemetery is on the slope of Olivet; the Tombs of the Prophets are near the southern peak of Olivet; the Tombs of the Kings are half a mile north of the Damascus gate; and about a mile beyond are the Tombs of the Judges. Portions of the western side of the valley of the Kedron are still full of tombs.

The Inhabitants. — The present population of Jerusalem is variously estimated, as no census has been taken. Robinson, in 1841, made the total population 11,500, but later was inclined to place it at 17,000. Drake (1874) puts it at 20,900, Baedeker 24,000; Dr. Neuman, a Jewish physician 15 years a resident of the city, estimates it at 36,000. Baedeker distributes the 24,000 as follows: 13,000 Moslems, 7000 Christians, 4000 Jews. The Turkish statistics of 1871 give the number of families or houses: 1025 Moslem, 630 Jewish, 299 Orthodox Greek, 179 Latin, 175 Armenian, 44 Coptic, 18 Greek Catholic, 16 Protestant, and 7 Syrian — in all, 2393 families. Dr. Neuman distributes his estimate of 36,000 into 15,000 Mohammedans, 13,000 Jews, and 8000 Christians, including 5000 Franks. In the Easter season about a dozen languages are now heard there besides the vernacular Arabic, illustrating the scene during the Pentecost. Acts 2:7-11. Drake estimates that the Jews are increasing in Jerusalem at the rate of 1200 to 1500 per year.

The religion of the people also represents various faiths. The Greek Church is the strongest in wealth, numbers, and influence, having the support of the Russian power. Its members are chiefly Arabs, speaking Arabic, while the clergy are mostly foreign Greeks, speaking modern Greek. The Church has several monasteries, churches, two hospices, and two schools. The Old Armenian Church has a resident patriarch, a large monastery, with a printing-oflSce, and a seminary with about 40 students, a nunnery, and a smaller monastery. The Coptic, Ancient Syrian,and Abyssinian Churches each has a small religious community. The Latins, or Roman Catholics, are said to number 1500. In their Franciscan monastery is a printing-press, chiefly used for printing school-books in Arabic, a school for boys, and the Latins also have a hospital and three other schools in the city. The Jews have four holy cities in Palestine: Jerusalem, Safed, Tiberias, and Hebron. In Jerusalem they live largely on the charity of their European brethren. They are divided into three sects; their quarter of the city is squalid, dirty, and uninviting. In Jerusalem, and there only, is the Hebrew language used (by the Jews) in ordinary conversation. The only newspapers printed in the city are in the Hebrew language. The Protestant community in Jerusalem is very small. There is a bishop jointly supported by the Prussian and the English Churches, which maintain a mission and have a church, schools, orphanages, and hospitals. The first Protestant bishop was Alexander, the second, Gobat (died 1879), the third, Barclay (consecrated 1879). There are three Protestant 457 Churches, the English Church of Sion, the native Arab Church, and the German Church, on the property of the Prussian government.

This is Jerusalem in her decay. Of Jerusalem in her grandeur we can only gain more certain knowledge by further thorough archaeological explorations. The Palestine Exploration Fund, under careful and extended excavations by Capts. Wilson (1864) and Warren (1867), made a noble beginning. Among the results of their work were: (1) That the ancient city lies deeply buried beneath the present surface; (2) that the height of the temple-walls was great, as Josephus declares; (3) that Phoenician workmen were employed in building the temple, as stated in the book of Kings. (4) Strong proofs as to the location and extent of the temple-area have been furnished, especially showing the views of Mr. Fergusson and others, that the temple occupied a square of only 600 feet in the south-western angle of the area, to be erroneous. (5) The conjecture of Robinson respecting the location of the bridge over the Tyropaeon has been verified. (6) The water-supply of the city, and particularly of the temple, has been proved to be very extensive and quite abundant.

For the history of Jerusalem, ancient and modern, the following are among the works which may be consulted: Josephus; Eusebius's and Jerome's Onomasticon, French ed., 1862; Reland's, Palaestina ex Monumentis Veteribus Illustrata, Traj. Batav. 1714, 2 vols. sm. 4to; W.H. Bartlett, Walks in and about Jerusalem, 4th. ed., London, 1852, roy. Svo, and his Topography of Jerusalem, 1845; E. Robinson, Biblical Researches, New York, 1841, 3 vols. Svo, and his later Biblical Researches, 1856, Svo; W. Krafft, Die Topocfraphie Jerusalems, Bonn, 1865; Fergusson, Essay on the Ancient Topography of Jerusalem, London, 1847, imp. Svo, and The Holy Sepulchre and the Temple at Jerusalem, Svo; Early Travels in Palestine, edited by T. Wright. London. 1848, post Svo; G. Williams, The Holy City, London, 1849, 2 vols. Svo; J.T. Barclay, The City of the Great King, 1 vol. Svo, pp. 627, 1857; Churchill, Mount Lebanon, London, 1855-62, 4 vols. Svo: W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, New York, 1858, 2 vols. 12mo, new ed. 1879; Pierotti, Jerusalem Explored, London, 1864, 2 vols. fol.; Lewin, Siege of Jerusalem by Titus, London, demy Svo; H. B. Tristram, The Land of Israel, London, 1865, demy Svo; Titus Tobler's Palestinse Descriptiones, 1869, Svo; and Topographic con Jerusalem, Berlin, 1854, 2 vols.: Captains Wilson and Warren, Recovery of Jerusalem, London, 1871, demy Svo; Reynolds, The History of the Temple of Jerusalem (Public. Oriental Trans. Com., vol. 451 ); J. L. Porter, Syria's Holy Places, 12mo, 1873; Thrupp's Ancient Jerusalem; A.Thomson, In the Holy Land, London, 1874, 12mo; Captains Wilson, Anderson, Warren, etc., Our Work in Palestine, London, 1875, Svo; Murray's Handbook of Syria and Palestine, 1875; Besant and Palmer, History of Jerusalem, London, or. Svo; Ordnance Survey of Jerusalem, with Notes by Captain Wilson, London, 2 vols, Baedeker, Palestine and Syria, Leipsic, 1876; Warren's Underground Jerusalem, 1876; C.E.T. Drake, Modern Jerusalem, London, 1877, Svo; Schaff, Through Bible Lands, New York, 1878, 12mo; C. R. Conder, Tent-work in Palestine, 2 vols. 12mo, 1878; Quarterly Statements Palestine Exploration Fund, 1872-1880, and the large Maps of that Society with the Memoirs, 1884.

Jerusalem, New, Rev 21:2, is a term employed metaphorically to represent the spiritual Church in the state of triumph and glory. The ancient Jews regarded the tabernacle, the temple, and Jerusalem itself, as descending directly from God, and they suppose that there is a spiritual tabernacle, temple, and city corresponding with them. Comp. Gal 4:26; 2 Pet 3:10-13; Rev 21. Jerusalem of old was the city of God; and Jerusalem above is called "the city of the living God," or "the heavenly Jerusalem." Heb 12:22; Rev 3:12. The sublime and most comforting description of the new Jerusalem with which the Bible closes has given rise to some of the sweetest Christian hymns of homesickness after heaven.

JERU'SHA, or JERU'SHAH (possessed), the mother of Jotham, king of Judah. 2 Kgs 15:33; 2 Chr 27:1.

JESA'IAH (saving). 1. One of David's posterity. 1 Chr 3:21. 2. A Benjamite. Neh 11:7.


JESHA'IAH (help of Jehovah, same as Isaiah).

  1. A son of Jeduthun, and chief of the eighth division of the singers. 1 Chr 25:3, 1 Chr 25:15.

  2. A Kohathite Levite, a descendant of Moses, 1 Chr 26:25; called Isshaiah in 1 Chr 24:21.

  3. One who came back with Ezra. Ezr 8:7.

  4. A Merarite Levite who also returned. Ezr 8:19.

JESH'ANAH, a town which, with its dependent villages, was one of the three taken from Jeroboam by Abijah, 2 Chr 13:19, and identified by Swartz with al-Samin, 2 miles west of Bethel; but this requires confirmation.

JESHAR'ELAH (right toward God), the head of the seventh division of the Levite musicians. 1 Chr 25:14. In 1 Chr 25:2 he is called Asarelah.

JESHEB'EAB (seat of one's father), the chief of the fourteenth division of the priests. 1 Chr 24:13.

JE'SHER (uprightness), one of the sons of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:18.

JESH'IMON (the waste),- a name designating the position of Pisgah and Peor, which are described as "looketh toward Jeshimon." Num 21:20 Num 23:28. The word may not be a proper name, but a general term for any wilderness, and may thus be applied to different places at different times. Grove would place Jeshimon on the west side of the Dead Sea, toward En-gedi; Porter suggests that there may have been two Jeshimons, one east of the Jordan connected with Pisgah, and another west of the Jordan; Conder, with Grove, proposes to identify Jeshimon with the plateau above the Dead Sea, on its west side, and called el Bukein', the most desolate country in Palestine.

JESHISH'AI (offspring of an old man), a Gadite. 1 Chr 5:14.

JESHOHAI'AH (whom Jehovah bows down), a Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:36.

JESH'UA, in one case JESH'UAH (whom Jehovah helps).

  1. The chief of the ninth division of the priests. Ezr 2:36; Neh 7:39. He is called Jeshuah in 1 Chr 24:11.

  2. A Levite in Hezekiah's reign placed over a city of the priests "to distribute the oblations of the Lord." 2 Chr 31:15.

  3. A high priest after the Captivity, son of Jehozadak. He was probably born in Babylon, as his father was a captive. 1 Chr 6:15. He returned with Zerubbabel, and was active in rebuilding the temple and in re-establishing the ordinances of religion. Ezr 2:2; 2 Sam 3:2, etc.; Ruth 4:3; Esth 6:2; Neh 10:18; Neh 7:7; Neh 12:1, etc. By Zechariah he is represented as a type of Christ. By this prophet and by Haggai he is called Joshua. See Zech 3:1, Num 1:3, Acts 19:8-9; Hag 1:1, Jud 4:12, 2 Kgs 22:14; Gen 2:2, Hab 2:4.

  4. The head of the most numerous family that returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:6; Neh 7:11.

  5. Head of a Levitical house. Ezr 2:40; Neh 7:43.

  6. A Levite. Ezr 8:33.

  7. One whose son helped repair the wall. Neh 3:19.

  8. A Levite who read the Law. Neh 8:7; Neh 9:4-5; Neh 12:8, Matt 12:24.

  9. Joshua, the son of Nun; mentioned thus Neh 8:17.

JESH'UA (Jehovah the salvation), one of the towns reinhabited by the people of Judah after their return from captivity. Neh 11:26. Conder proposes S'awi, a ruin near Beer-sheba, as the site of Jeshua.

JESH'URUN (dearly beloved), a symbolical name for Israel,Deut 32:15; Deut 33:5, Deut 33:26, and once, by mistake, Jesurun. Isa 44:2. The "he" in Deut 33:5 refers not to Moses, who is never called a king, but to the Lord, who was the Head of the theocracy.

JESI'AH (whom Jehovah lends).

  1. A Korhite, one of David's mighty men who came to him in Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:6.

  2. A Levite, same as Jeshaiah of 1 Chr 26:25; 1 Chr 23:20.

JESIM'IEL (whom God has set up), a prince of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:36.

JES'SE (strong), the father of David, and the grandson of Ruth. His genealogy is twice given in the 0. T.. Ruth 4:18-22; 1 Chr 2:5-12, and twice in the N.T. Matt 1:3, 1 Chr 6:5; Luke 3:32-34. He is usually called "Jesse the Bethlehemite," 1 Sam 16:1, 1 Sam 16:18; 1 Sam 17:58, but his full and proper designation is Jesse "that Ephrathite of Bethlehem Judah." 1 Sam 17:12. This latter verse calls him "an old man" at the time of David's fight with Goliath. He was the affectionate father of eight sons, and a man of wealth and position. 1 Sam 17:17-18. It is remarkable that David is 459 called "the son of Jesse" after his own fame was established. 1 Chr 29:26; Ps 72:20. Jesse was through David the ancestor of the Judaic kings, and thus of Christ. The prophets announced this in so many words. Isa 11:1, Neh 11:10.

JES'UI (level), an Ashcrite, founder of the Jesuites. Num 26:44. Elsewhere he is called Isui, Gen 46:17, and Ishuai. 1 Chr 7:30.

JES'UITES, THE, descendants of Jesui. Num 26:44.

JES'URUN. See Jeshurun.

JE'SUS, the Greek form for Hebrew "Jehoshua," contracted to "Joshua." This term means "Saviour." Matt 1:21. It occurs only in the N.T.; and though it is not exclusively applied to Christ, it should be, for in Acts 7:45, Col 4:11, and Heb 4:8, "Joshua," and not "Jesus," is the proper rendering, although the two names have originally the same meaning.

In the evangelical history our Saviour is designated by the name of "Christ" alone in nearly 300 passages; by the name of "Jesus Christ," or "Christ Jesus," less than 100 times; and by the name of the "Lord Jesus Christ" less than 50. See Christ Jesus.

JE'SUS, called Justus, a Jew, who was Paul's fellow-worker and a comfort to him in Rome. Col 4:11.

JESUS, SON OF SIRACH, BOOK OF. See Ecclesiasticus.

JE'THER (excellence).

  1. In margin of Ex 4:18. See Jethro.

  2. The eldest of Gideon's 70 sons. Jud 8:20.

  3. The husband of Abigail, David's sister, and father of Amasa, captain of Absalom's host, 2 Sam 17:25; called "Ithra, an Israelite," in that verse, but in 1 Chr 2:17, more correctly, "Jether the Ishmaelite."

  4. A member of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr 2:32.

  5. Another member. 1 Chr 4:17.

  6. One of the sons of Asher. 1 Chr 7:38; probably identical with the Ithran of 1 Chr 7:37.

JE'THETH (a nail), one of the dukes of Edom. Gen 36:40; 1 Chr 1:51.

JETH'LAH (high, exalted), a city of Dan. Jos 19:42. Drake proposed the village of Shilta, north-west of the lower Beth-Horon, as the site of Jethlah; Conder, on a weak similarity of names, proposes Beit Tul as its site. Either view requires further confirmation.

JE'THRO (His excellence), a priest or prince of Midian, and father-in-law of Moses. Ex 3:1. He is called Raguel, Num 10:29, and Reuel, Ex 2:18, and was probably known by either name, while Jethro was his official title. It is highly probable, too, that he was a descendant of Abraham by Keturah, the mother of Midian, Gen 25:2, but what was the nature of his office as priest (or prince, as some say it should be rendered) we know not. See Hobab.

JE'TUR (an enclosure), one of the sons of Ishmael. Gen 25:15; 1 Chr 1:31; 1 Chr 5:19. See Iturea.

JE'UEL (treasured of God), one of the descendants of Judah. 1 Chr 9:6.

JE'USH (to whom God hastens).

  1. A son of Esau by Aholibamah, and one of the Edomitish phylarchs or "dukes." Gen 36:5, Gen 36:14, Gen 36:18; 1 Chr 1:35.

  2. The head of a Benjamite house in David's reign. 1 Chr 7:10.

  3. A Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 23:10-11.

  4. A son of Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:18-19.

JE'UZ (counselling), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:10.

JEWELS. This term is applied to ornaments made of the precious metals and used to adorn the person. We find them among the presents which the servants of Abraham made to Rebekah and her family when they sought her in marriage for Isaac. Gen 24:22. It is probable that much skill was attained at a very early period in the manufacture of metal ornaments, such as chains, bracelets, ear-rings, etc. Num 31:50; Eze 26:12; Hos 2:13. The word is figuratively used to denote anything peculiarly precious; as, the chosen people of God, Mal 3:17, or wisdom, Prov 20:15.

JEWRY, a word elsewhere rendered "Judah" and "Judaea." It occurs once in the 0.T., Dan 5:13, where it might be rendered "Judah," and several times in the Apocryphal and N.T. books. See Judah and Judaea.

JEWS. The word first occurs in 2 Kgs 16:6, and denotes the Judaeans, or men of Judah, in contradistinction from the seceding ten tribes, who retained the 460 name of Israel. The name Israelites was applied to the 12 tribes, or descendants of Jacob (Israel) as a body; but after the separation of the tribes, the above distinction obtained until the Babylonish captivity, which terminated the existence of the kingdom of Judah, and thenceforward, until the present day, the descendants of Jacob are called Jews, and constitute one of the two classes into which the whole human family is frequently divided - viz., Jews and Gentiles. "It is a more comprehensive term than Hebrew, for Hellenists (Grecians) might be Jews, nor is it quite synonymous with 'Israelites,' which term seems, sometimes at least, to express more decidedly covenant hopes and relationships. John 1:47; 2 Cor 11:22." - Ayre. See Hebrews.

JEZANI'AH (whom Jehovah hears), a Jew, Jer 40:8; Jer 42:1; called Azariah, Jer 43:2. See Jaazaniah, 1.

JEZ'EBEL (chaste), the wife of Ahab, king of Israel, was the daughter of a Zidonian king, 1 Kgs 16:31, and of course educated in the idolatrous practices of her native country. She was the virtual ruler of Israel. She introduced the worship of Baal and other idols, maintaining 400 priests of Astarte at her own expense, while Ahab maintained 450 priests of Baal. 1 Kgs 18:19.

She resolved on the extermination of all the prophets of God. Obadiah, who was a pious man and principal officer of Ahab's household, rescued one hundred of them at one time from her grasp, and supplied them with bread and water while they were concealed in caves. 1 Kgs 18:3-4, 1 Kgs 18:13. Soon after this, Elijah caused the 450 priests of Baal supported by Ahab to be put to death. For this proceeding Jezebel threatened to take the life of Elijah, but her purpose was frustrated. Soon afterward she planned and perpetrated the murder of Naboth; and by using the king's name and authority with the leading men of Jezreel, she secured their co-operation in the flagrant crime. 1 Kgs 21:1-13. Her doom was predicted by Elijah, and was in due time visited upon her to the very letter. 2 Kgs 9:30-37. See Ahab, Elijah, Jehu.

In Rev 2:20 the name Jezebel is used symbolically, and with us it is common as a name of infamy. Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth is often, though improperly, compared to Jezebel.

JE'ZER. (frame), one of the sons of Naphtali. Gen 46:24; Num 26:49; 1 Chr 7:13.

JE'ZERITES, THE, the descendants of the above. Num 26:49.

JEZI'AH (whom Jehovah sprinkles), one who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:25.

JE'ZIEL (assembly of God), a Benjamite archer who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:3.

JEZLI'AH (whom Jehovah delivers), a Benjamite who lived in Jerusalem. 1 Chr 8:18.

JEZ'OAR (shining), one of the tribe of Judah. 1 Chr 4:7.

JEZRAHI'AH (whom Jehovah brings forth), the Levite who led the singers at the dedication of the wall. Neh 12:42.

JEZ'REEL (God hath planted, or scattered).

  1. A name in the genealogies of Judah. 1 Chr 4:3.

  2. The eldest son of the prophet Hosea. Hos 1:4.

JEZ'REEL (God hath planted).

  1. A city in the plain of the same name between Gilboa and Little Hermon. It was a boundary of Issachar. Josh 19:18. Ahab chose it for his chief residence. The selection shows the ability of this wicked king. Near by were a temple and grove of Astarte, with an establishment of 400 priests supported bv Jezebel. 1 Kgs 18:19; 2 Kgs 10:11. The palace of Ahab, 1 Kgs 21:1; 1 Kgs 18:3, probably containing his "ivory house," 1 Kgs 22:39, was on the eastern side of the city. Comp. 1 Kgs 21:1; 2 Kgs 9:25, 2 Kgs 9:30, 2 Kgs 9:33. Jezebel lived by the city wall, and had a high window facing eastward. 2 Kgs 9:30. It had a watch-tower, on which a sentinel stood. 2 Kgs 9:17. An ancient square tower, now among the hovels of the modern village, may be on its site. The gateway of the city on the east was also the gateway of the palace. 2 Kgs 9:34. The vineyard of Naboth was on the vineclad hill outside the city to the eastward, according to Baedeker; but this is not certain. A spring near is now called 'Ain-Jalud, or the "Spring of Goliath," and is the "fountain" or "spring" in "Jezreel." 1 Sam 29:1. After the fall of the house of Ahab, Jezreel also fell into

a decline. It is now a miserable village of a dozen houses, and known as Zerin. Around the village are many (some say 300) cisterns and subterranean granaries, but ruins of the ancient royal buildings have not been discovered. The ground would indicate that careful excavations might bring rich results.

  1. A town in Judah, in the neighborhood of the southern Carmel. Josh 15:56. Here David in his wanderings took Ahinoam the Jezreelitess for his second wife, 1 Sam 27:3; 1 Sam 30:5.

JEZ'REEL, VALLEY OF, a triangular plain of central Palestine, called by Josephus "the great plain," extending from the Mediterranean to the Jordan, and from the range of Carmel and Samaria to the mountains in Galilee. It is about 25 miles long from east to west, and 12 miles wide from north to south.

It is a classic battle-field. There Barak and Gideon triumphed, Deborah sung her war-song; Saul and Jonathan fell near by, on the mountains of Gilboa; here King Josiah was mortally wounded by the Egyptians. It furnished the apostle with a mystic name for the final battle-field of the Almighty, Rev 16:14-16, and here Napoleon gained a fruitless victory over a Turkish army of 30,000. On the west side is a narrow pass, opening into the plain of 'Akka. From the base of this triangular plain three branches stretch out eastward, divided by two bleak gray ridges, one called Mount Gilboa, the other Little Hermon, The central branch is the richest as well as the most celebrated. It is the "Valley of Jezreel" proper — the battle-field where Gideon triumphed and Saul and Jonathan were overthrown. Jud 7:1, 'sq.; 1 Sam 29 and 1 Sam 31. The plain is noted for its wonderful richness. The modern Greek name of the plain Esdraelon is not found in the O.T. or N.T., but occurs in the Apocrypha. It is now uninhabited, and only a small portion is cultivated. "Next to the plain of Sharon," says Schaff, "it is the most fertile district of Palestine, looking in spring like a green velvet carpet, . . . sadly neglected, and exposed to the ravages of the wild Bedouin, who from time to time make raids and pitch their black tents, kill peasants, plunder crops, and then ride back with their booty on camels and horses to their lairs in the Hauran."

Dr. N. Macleod writes concerning the plain of Jezreel: "On or near the spot where Ahab's palace is likely to have stood is an ancient tower, built I know not when nor by whom. We ascended to its upper story, and there, through three windows, opening to the east, west, and north, obtained an excellent view of all the interesting portions of the surrounding landscape. Beneath us lay the famous plain, a rolling sea of verdure, yet lonely-looking, being without inhabitants. We saw no villages or huts dotting its surface, not even a solitary horseman, but only troops of gazelles galloping away into the distance, and some birds of prey, apparently vultures, wheeling in the sky, and doubtless looking out for work from their masters, the Bedouins. This green prairie stretches for upward of 20 miles toward the Mediterranean. It is the more striking from its contrast with the wild, bare hills among which we had been travelling, and with those which look down immediately upon it. It separates the highlands of southern Palestine from the hill-country of the more lowland north, as the plain along which the railway passes from Loch Lomond to Stirling separates the highlands of Rob Roy from the lowland hills of the Campsie range, that rise above the valley of the Clyde."

JIB'SAM (pleasant), a descendant of Issachar. 1 Chr 7:2.

JID'LAPH (weeping), a son of Nahor, and nephew of Abraham. Gen 22:22.

JIM'NA, or JIM'NAH (good fortune), the eldest son of Asher. Gen 46:17; Num 26:44. He is also called Imnah in 1 Chr 7:30. His descendants are the Jimnites. Num 26:44.

JIPH'TAH, one of the cities of Judah toward the sea-coast. Josh 15:43.

JIPH'THAH-EL(God opens),the name of a valley forming one of the landmarks for the boundary of Zebulun and Asher. Josh 19:14, Josh 19:27. Dr. Robinson suggests that Jiphthah-el was identical with Jotapata, the fortress which Josephus defended and where he was captured, and that they survive in the modern Jefat, a village in the 463 mountains, 15 miles west of the Lake of Galilee, and halfway between the Bay of Acre and the lake.

JO'AB (whose father is Jehovah).

  1. The eldest of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and the commander-in-chief of his army. 1 Chr 2:10; 1 Chr 11:6. He was evidently a valiant man, but ambitious and revengeful. To revenge the death of his brother Asahel, whom Abner had killed in self-defence, 2 Sam 2:23, he treacherously assassinated this distinguished general. 2 Sam 3:27. He brought about a reconciliation between Absalom and his father after the murder of Amnon; but when Absalom rebelled, Joab adhered to his master, and under his generalship the troops of David, though much inferior in numbers, obtained a complete victory over the army of Absalom, and, contrary to the express orders of David, Joab put him to death with his own hand as he hung suspended from the oak tree. 2 Sam 18:14. After this event David promoted Amasa to be his general-in-chief, by which Joab was deeply offended, and secretly resolved on the death of his rival, and took the first opportunity of assassinating him as he had done Abner. 2 Sam 20:10. David after this seems to have taken him again into favor. 2 Sam 24:2. When David the king had become old, however, Joab combined with Abiathar the priest and others to set Adonijah on the throne in defiance of the will of David, who had, by divine direction, resolved to make Solomon king. 1 Kgs 1:7. The plot was seasonably defeated, and Solomon was proclaimed king the same day. But Joab now seemed to David so evidently an object of the divine displeasure that he solemnly charged Solomon to punish him for all his enormous crimes, and especially for the murder of two valiant men, both better than himself, Abner and Amasa. Joab, conscious that his life was forfeited, sought an asylum at the horns of the altar, which position he absolutely refused to relinquish, and Benaiah, now advanced to be the captain of the host, slew him by the altar, agreeably to the command of the young king. He was buried in his own house in the wilderness. 1 Kgs 2:5-34.

  2. A descendant of Kenaz. 1 Chr 4:14.

  3. One whose posterity returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:6; Rom 8:9; Neh 7:11.

JO'AH (whose brother, i.e. helper, is Jehoivah).

  1. The son of Asaph, the royal recorder under Hezekiah. 2 Kgs 18:18, 2 Kgs 18:26, 2 Kgs 18:37, Isa 36:3, Isa 36:11, Isa 36:22.

  2. A Gershonite, 1 Chr 6:21; probably same as Ethan, 1 Chr 6:42.

  3. A Korhite porter. 1 Chr 26:4.

  4. A Gershonite Levite who took part in Hezekiah's reforms. 2 Chr 29:12.

  5. The son of Joahaz, and recorder to Josaiah. 2 Chr 34:8.

JO'AHAZ (whom Jehovah holds), the father of Joah, the recorder to Josaiah. 1 Chr 34:8.

JOAN'NA (whom Jehovah has graciously given).

  1. One of the ancestors of Christ. Luke 3:27. He has been identified with Hananiah. 1 Chr 3:19.

  2. The wife of Chusa, the steward of Herod Antipas, and one who ministered unto our Lord, and who brought spices and ointments for his embalming. Luke 8:3; Luke 24:10. She seems to have been the subject of some miraculous cure by Christ, whom she followed, and to whom she ministered. Luke 24:10.

JO'ASH 2 Kgs 13:1, or JEHO'ASJH, 2 Kgs 12:1 (whom Jehovah bestowed).

  1. The father of Gideon, who had his own altar to Baal. His idolatry, however, would not seem very sincere, since he defended Gideon in destroying the idol. Jud 6:11, etc.

  2. One of the sons of Ahab. 1 Kgs 22:26; 2 Chr 18:25.

  3. The son and the successor of Ahaziah, king of Judah. Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, 2 Chr 22:11, the wife of Jehoiada, the high priest, his aunt, preserved him from the murderous designs of Athaliah, his grandmother, when he was but a year old, and kept him hid six years in a chamber belonging to the temple. 2 Kgs 11:2-3. See Athaliah. When he was seven years of age, Jehoiada entered into a solemn covenant with Azariah and others to set up young Joash for their sovereign, and dethroned Athaliah. After preparing matters in the kingdom, and bringing the Levites and such others as they could trust to Jerusalem, they crowned him in the court of the temple with great solemnity. 2 Kgs 11. Joash behaved himself well while Jehoiada, the high priest, lived and was his guide, but no sooner


was this good man removed, than he began to listen to the counsels of his wicked courtiers. The worship of God fell into neglect and idolatry prevailed. Zechariah, the priest, son of Jehoiada, warned him of his sin and danger, but in consequence of his fidelity he was, by order of Joash, stoned to death between the temple and the altar. When dying he assured them that God would avenge his death, 2 Chr 24:20-22, to which event our Saviour is generally supposed to refer. Matt 23:35. Hazael invaded the kingdom, but Joash, with a large sum of money, including all the treasures and furniture of the temple and palace, redeemed his capital from plunder. 2 Kgs 12:18. After suffering other injuries from the Syrians, and after being loaded with ignominy, he was murdered by his own servants, after a reign of 41 years, b.c. 878-838. 2 Chr 24:24-27.

  1. 2 Kgs 13:9. Son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, and grandson of Jehu. He was associated with his father in the government for 2 years, but 14 years he reigned alone, making in all 16 years, b.c. 840-825.

He was a wicked prince, though he was successful in three campaigns against the Syrians, and recovered the cities which they took from his father, according to the prediction of Elisha. 2 Kgs 13:15-25. He was also signally successful in a war with Amaziah, king of Judah (see Amaziah), soon after the termination of which he died. 2 Kgs 14:12-16.

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:22

  2. A Benjamite, one of David's heroes 1 Chr 12:3.

JO'ASH (to whom Jehovah hastens i.e., with help).

  1. The son of Becher, and head of a house of Benjamin in the time of David. 1 Chr 7:8.

  2. An officer of David who was over the oil-cellars. 1 Chr 27:28.

JO'ATHAM. Matt 1:9. The Greek form of Jotham, 2, which see.

JOB (desire?),the third son of Issachar. Gen 46:13; called Jashub, 1 Chr 7:1.

JOB (one persecuted), the famous patriarch of Uz (probably in eastern Edom), whose sorrows and whose words find faithful and immortal record in the book of Job. He lived in very primitive times — at least was unacquainted with the Mosaic law and the Jewish worship. He appears in the book as a holy outsider, who was yet, like Melchizedek, a worshipper of the true God. We have reference to Job as an historical character in Eze 14:14, Eze 14:16, Eze 14:18, Eze 14:20, and Jas 5:11. These references must be accepted as conclusive not only as to his reality, but likewise as to his recovery. They are supported by Arab and Mohammedan traditions. But this view does not compel us to accept all the details, and especially all the speeches (which are too highly poetical to have been extemporized), as strictly historical. The book is a poem on an historical basis. He was a patriarchal prince of great wealth, piety, integrity, and happiness. By God's permission Satan tried him, destroying his property, his children, and his health, and visiting him with the most loathsome form of leprosy (elephantiasis). But as he abode faithful, God grandly vindicated his righteousness, reversed Satan's sentence, gave him back all he had lost and much more. With daughters renowned for their beauty, with sons to perpetuate his name, with fulness of days and abundance of honor did he pass away, 140 years after his great trial. Hales places him before the birth of Abraham, Usher about 30 years before the Exodus, b.c. 1521.

Book of. It is the record of Job's experiences. It is a didactic poem with a narrative prologue and a narrative epilogue in prose. The poem itself has a dramatic drapery, several speakers being introduced, who carry on a metaphysical contest on the mysteries of divine government. It has been called a Hebrew tragedy and theodicy. Its poetic merit is of the highest order, and ranks it, with Homer's Iliad, Dante's Divina Commedia, Shakespeare's dramas, and Goethe's Faust, among the immortal masterpieces of genius. Thomas Carlyle calls it "one of the grandest things ever written by man, a noble book — a book for all men. Such living likenesses were never since drawn. Sublime sorrow, sublime reconciliations; oldest choral melody, as of the heart of manhood; so soft and great, as the summer midnight; as the world with its seas and stars, — there is nothing written, I think, of equal literary merit." With the exception of the beginning and end, it is in 465 poetry. It is uncertain who wrote it, but surely it is very old. Some ascribe it to Moses while in Midian, others carry it down to the age of Solomon. The speeches of Job and his friends discuss the problem of evil and its punishments, and the justice of God in the unequal distribution of happiness and misery. Why do the righteous suffer and why do the wicked prosper in this world? The friends of Job charge him with secret crimes; he in vain protests his innocence. All the speakers are silenced at last by almighty God, who appears as umpire on the scene and overwhelms Job with a sense of his infinite power and wisdom.

The practical lessons of the book may be stated as follows:

  1. Not all the sufferings are punishments for sin. This is the one-sided view of the three friends of Job, who are for this reason censured by Jehovah and required to make an atonement for the injustice done to Job. Job 42:7. The general principle of the connection of sin and suffering is true enough, but the error and injustice consist in the application of this principle to all individual cases of suffering. Without sin there would have been no suffering; but in a fallen world sufferings are used by God as a school of discipline.

  2. The sufferings of the righteous are not punitive, but disciplinary and corrective. They are prompted by God's love rather than his justice. "Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth." Prov 3:12; Heb 12:6.

  3. Affliction is the necessary condition for the development of disinterested virtue and the heroism of patience. As a means for such an end it is foreordained by God.

  4. The sufferings of the righteous are but temporary and lead to an abundant reward even in this life, or certainly in the life to come.

  5. It is wicked presumption in man to murmur against God and to find fault with his dealings or to call him to an account, instead of humbly adoring him and submitting to the mysteries of his almighty power and wisdom.

  6. The final solution of all the remaining mysteries of divine government is reserved for the future life. This idea is at least hinted at in that remarkable and most comforting passage which stands right in the middle of the book, as the kernel in the shell, Job 19:23-27, and which teaches, if not the resurrection of the body, at all events the immortality of the soul.

"Oh that my words were written down!

Oh that they were inscribed in a book!

That with an iron stile and lead,

They were graven in a rock for ever!

Yea, I know that my Redeemer liveth,

And will stand the last upon the dust (the


And after this, my skin is destroyed,

Even without (or, from off) my flesh, I shall

see God.

Yea, I, for myself, shall see him.

And my eyes behold him, and no stranger.

(For this) my heart is consumed within me."

We add an analysis of the book of Job, which has suffered much from the traditional division into chapters:

*The Prologue.*

Job's character and prosperity, Job 1:1-5. The divine decree to try Job through Satan by taking away his possessions, Job 1:6-22, and his health, Job 2:1-10. The visit of his friends and their mute sympathy, Job 2:11-13.

*The Poem.*

I. The outbreak of Job's despair, ch.3:1-26.

II. First series of controversies, ch. 4-14.

Eliphaz's address, chs. 4 and 5.

Job's reply, chs, 6 and 7.

Bildad's address, ch. 8.

Job's reply, chs. 9 and 10.

Zophar's address, ch. 11.

Job's reply, chs. 12-14.

III. Second series of controversies:

Eliphaz's address, ch. 15.

Job's reply, chs. 16 and 17.

Bildad's address, ch. 18.

Job's reply, ch. 19.

Zophar's address, ch. 20.

Job's reply, ch. 21.

IV. Third series of controversies:

Eliphaz's address, ch. 22.

Job's reply, chs. 23 and 24.

Bildad's address, ch. 25.

Job's reply, ch. 26.

V. Job's closing address to the vanquished friends, chs. 27 and 28.

VI. Job's soliloquy, chs. 29-31.

VII. Elihu's four discourses in condemnation of Job and his friends, and in 466 vindication of the divine justice, chs. 32-37.

VIII. Jehovah's addresses to Job, chs. 38, 39, 40, and 41.

IX. Humiliation of Job and penitent confession of his sin and folly, Job 42:1-6.

The Epilogue, or historical conclusion, Job 42:7-17. Vindication of Job before his friends, Job 42:7-10; the restoration of his former dignity and honor, Job 42:11-12; the doubling of his former earthly prosperity and happiness, Job 42:12-17.

JO'BAB (a desert).

  1. A son of Joktan. Gen 10:29; 1 Chr 1:23.

  2. A king of Edom. Gen 36:33-34; 1 Chr 1:44-45.

  3. A king of Madon, who joined the league against Joshua. Josh 11:1.

4., 5. Two Benjamites, heads of their respective houses. 1 Chr 8:9, 1 Chr 8:18.

JOCH'EBED (whose glory is Jehovah), the mother of Aaron, Moses, and Miriam, was the wife and aunt of Amram, and the daughter of Levi. Ex 6:20; Num 26:69.

JO'ED (his witness is Jehovah), a Benjamite. Neh 11:7.

JO'EL (Jehovah is his God).

  1. The first-born of Samuel. 1 Sam 8:2; 1 Chr 6:33; 1 Chr 15:17. By a curious error his name is given as Vashni, which means "second," in 1 Chr 6:28, the word Joel having dropped out. The verse, therefore, should read "The first-born Joel, and the second Abiah."

  2. A Simeonite chief. 1 Chr 4:35.

  3. A Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:4, 1 Chr 5:8.

  4. A Gadite chief. 1 Chr 5:12.

  5. A Kohathite, 1 Chr 6:36, but probably merely a corruption of Shaul in 1 Chr 6:24.

  6. One of Issachar's posterity. 1 Chr 7:3.

  7. One of David's heroes; called Igal in 2 Sam 23:36; 1 Chr 11:38.

  8. A Gershonite chief. 1 Chr 15:7, 1 Chr 15:11.

  9. The Gershonite appointed with his brother over the treasures of the house of the Lord. 1 Chr 23:8; 1 Chr 26:22.

  10. A Manassite chief on the west of Jordan. 1 Chr 27:20.

  11. A Kohathite in Hezekiah's reign. 2 Chr 29:12.

  12. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:43.

  13. The Benjamite overseer of those of his tribe and that of Judah who lived in Jerusalem. Neh 11:9.

  14. The son of Pethuel, one of the minor prophets. Nothing is recorded of his personal history but the most likely conjectures assign him to the reign of Uzziah and make him reside in Judah.

Joel, Book of. It may be divided into two parts: I. Joel 1:1-2:17 describes a sore judgment which is to come upon the land, and grounds upon it a call to repentance. II. Joel 2:18-3:21 contains the blessings which Jehovah will confer upon the chosen people, and announces when the Messiah has come, the outpouring of the Spirit and the complete conquest of Judah over her foes, resulting in absolute and unbreakable peace. The second chapter contains a prophecy of a terrible plague of locusts, but a symbolical use is made of the incursion to foretell the attack of Judah's foes. Joel's style is classical; "it is elegant and perspicuous, and at the same time nervous, animated, and sublime." - Ayre. The fulfilment of his Messianic prophecies is noticed in the N.T. Acts 2:16-21; Rom 10:13.

JOE'LAH (whom Jehovah helps), a Benjamite chief who united his forces to David's at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:7.

JOE'ZER (whose help is Jehovah), a Benjamite who was a Korhite, who came to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:6.

JOG'BEHAH (elevated), a place in the tribe of Gad, Num 32:35; Jud 8:11, east of the Jordan, and near where Gideon overcame Zebah and Zalmunna; it may be identical with Jebeiha, a ruin about 4 miles north of Amman.

JOG'LI (exiled), the father of a chief of Dan. Num 34:22.

JO'HA (whom Jehovah revives).

  1. A chief of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:16.

  2. The Tizite, one of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:45.

JOHA'NAN (to whom Jehovah is merciful). 1. One of the captains of the army of Judah who came with their men unto Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar had appointed governor, and declared themselves "servants of the Chaldees." 2 Kgs 25:23-26. Having heard of the intention of Ishmael to kill Gedaliah he told the governor, at the same time requesting permission to kill Ishmael, but Gedaliah did not believe the report, and accused Johanan of lying. After 467 Gedaliah was assassinated Johanan again took the lead, regathered the fugitives, and, although warned by Jeremiah against going down to Egypt, carried off the prophet and other Jews into that land, where he died. Jer 40:7-10; Jer 41, Jer 42, and Jer 43.

  1. One of Josiah's sons. 1 Chr 3:15.

  2. One of David's posterity. 1 Chr 3:24.

  3. Son of Azariah, of the high-priestly line. 1 Chr 6:9-10

5., 6. A Benjamite and a Gadite who came to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:4, 1 Chr 12:12.

  1. The father of an Ephraimite chief in the reign of Ahaz. 2 Chr 28:12.

  2. One who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:12.

  3. One of the chief Levites, in whose chamber Ezra mourned for the transgressions of the captives. Ezr 10:6; Neh 12:23.

  4. The son-in-law of Meshullam. Neh 6:18.

JOHN, identical with JOHA'NAN (whom Jehovah loves; comp. the German Gottlieb).

  1. One of the high priest's kindred. Acts 4:6.

  2. The Hebrew name of Mark the evangelist. Acts 12:25; Josh 13:5; Acts 15:37.

  3. John the Baptist, more properly "the Baptizer." Matt 3:1. The son of a priestly family on both sides, his father, Zacharias, being a priest of the course of Abiah, and his mother, Elisabeth, being of the daughters of Aaron, the prophet and forerunner of our Saviour, and the Elias of the N.T. His parents were old when they received the promise of his birth. Luke 1:18. See Zechariah. He was born about six months before Christ. His birth and work were predicted by the angel Gabriel, Luke 1:5-15, and by Isaiah, Isa 40:3, and Malachi. Mal 4:5. He grew up in solitude, and when about 30 years of age began to preach in the wilderness of Judaea, and to call men to repentance and reformation. By divine direction he baptized with the baptism of repentance all who came unto him confessing their sins, Luke 3:8; and many supposed he might be "the Christ." John 1:19-28. His manner of life was solitary, and even austere; for he seems to have shunned the habitations of men and to have subsisted on locusts and wild honey, while his dress was made of the coarse hair of camels, and a leathern girdle was about his loins. John, moreover, announced to the Jews the near approach of the Messiah's kingdom, called the "kingdom of heaven." Matt 3:2. Multitudes flocked to hear him, and to be baptized of him, from every part of the land; and among the rest came Jesus of Nazareth, and applied for baptism John at first hesitated on account of the dignity of the person and his own un worthiness; but when Jesus told him that it was necessary, John acquiesced; heaven was opened, and the Holy Ghost descended on Jesus in the likeness of a dove, and a voice was heard from heaven, saying, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." Matt 3:17. By this, John knew most certainly that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah, and afterward pointed him out to his own disciples and announced to the people that he was then among them. John 1:26-36.

John was a man of profound humility; and although he foresaw that his fame would be eclipsed by the coming of Christ, as the brightness of the morning star is dimmed by the rising of the sun, yet he rejoiced sincerely in the event, saying, "He must increase, but I must decrease." The testimony of John to the divine nature and offices of the Redeemer is full and distinct. John 1:29; John 3:28-32. The message he sent by his disciples while he was in prison was for their sakes rather than his own, although it is not impossible that his own faith was temporarily clouded by the gloom of the prison. Matt 11:1-6. The preaching of John was awakening and alarming, and produced a deep impression on the minds of his hearers, but with most it was but temporary. They rejoiced in his light only for a season.

Among the hearers of John was Herod, the tetrarch of Galilee. This wicked prince not only heard him, but heard him with delight, and reformed his conduct in many points in consequence of his solemn warnings, Mark 6:20; but there was one sin which he would not relinquish. He had put away his own wife, and had married Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip, who was still living. For this iniquity John faithfully reproved the tetrarch, by which he was so much offended that he would have killed the preacher had he not feared an insurrection of the people, 468 for all men held John to be a prophet. Matt 14:5. He went so far, however, as to shut him up in prison. The resentment of Herodias was still stronger and more implacable toward the man who had dared to reprove her sin. She therefore watched for some opportunity to wreak her vengeance on this prophet of the Lord. On Herod's birthday, when all the principal men of the country were feasting with him, Salome, the daughter of Herodias, danced so gracefully before the company that Herod was charmed beyond measure, and declared with an oath that he would give her whatever she asked, even to the half of his kingdom. She immediately asked the advice of her mother, who told her to request the head of John the Baptist. Herod, whose resentment against him seems to have subsided, was exceedingly sorry, but out of regard to his oath, as he said, and respect for his company, he caused John to be beheaded. His head was brought on a platter and presented to the young dancer, who immediately gave it to her mother.

Thus terminated the life of him who, of all the prophets of old, came nearest to Christ, and was in this sense the greatest born among women, yet less than "least in the kingdom" of Christ. Matt 11:11. He was the promised Elijah - i.e. gifted with his power and spirit. He summed up the whole meaning of the Jewish dispensation, the Law, and the prophecy in its direct termination in Christ, who came to fulfil the Law and the promise.

Josephus, the Jewish historian, says of John, he "was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue both as to righteousness toward one another, and piety toward God, and so to come to baptism." He also speaks of his "great influence over the people, who seemed ready to do anything he should advise." Josephus also confirms the gospel account of the murder of John. Antiq., xviii. 5^2.

  1. John, the apostle and evangelist, was the son of Zebedee and Salome, and probably a cousin of Jesus (if Salome was a sister of Mary), as may be inferred from John 19:25, "his mother's sister." Comp. with Matt 27:56; Mark 15:40; Luke 23:49. He was probably born at Bethsaida. Matt 4:18, Matt 4:21. His parents were in comfortable circumstances, for his father had hired servants, Mark 1:20, and a partnership in business. Luke 5:10. His mother was one of the women who gave of their substance for the support of Jesus, Luke 8:3, and came with spices to embalm his body. Mark 16:1.

The apostle himself was acquainted with the high priest and his court, John 18:15, and had property in Jerusalem. John 19:27. He with James, his brother, carried on the business of fishing with their father. But the fame of the new prophet, John the Baptist, reached Galilee, and with his friends, Peter, Andrew, and Philip, he eagerly advocated the claims of the Baptist, and became one of his followers.

In this school he was prepared for a far higher service. He who faithfully obeyed the Forerunner was brought soon to the Lord. Doubtless John was one of the "two disciples" who heard the Baptist declare of Jesus, "Behold the Lamb of God!" John 1:36. He followed Jesus unto his abode, saw the marvellous works he performed, and from that hour was a convert to the new faith. But not as yet was he called. He resumed his trade for a time, until Jesus, walking by the Sea of Galilee, caught a glimpse of his old acquaintances, Peter and Andrew, James and John, and by the same command, "Follow me," counted them among the twelve apostles who form the first layer of God's spiritual building. Eph 2:20. Unto John was the tender and expressive epithet given, "The disciple whom Jesus loved." This was intimated in his very name, "Jehovah is gracious." Comp. the German Gottlieb. Did we know nothing more of him than this, we should know enough to stamp him as the worthiest of sinful mortals; he who was the chosen friend of the sinless One must have possessed rare qualities of heart and mind. He was, along with James and Peter, the spectator of all the more private events of the Saviour's life. He saw the glories of the transfiguration, rejoiced in the restoration of Jairus's daughter, wondered at the resurrection of Lazarus, leaned on the Saviour's breast at the Last Supper, and was nearest to him in the garden. He alone of the apostles attended the crucifixion. It was, then, fitting that to him, at the cross, should be committed the care of the widowed mother of Jesus. John 19:26 469 With Peter he hastens to the sepulchre on Easter morning, is among the disciples when Jesus appears, and at our last glimpse of him in the Gospels he stands near to Peter, and the words are borne to us, "If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?" John 21:22.

After the ascension Peter, James, and John are the pillar apostles. Gal 2:1-9. They work miracles, are the sources of counsel, and the heads of the infant Church. In the year 50, Paul meets them, and how cordial a greeting would the ardent lover of Jesus receive from John, whose mind was stored with those precious memories he was destined to write down for the edification and enjoyment of all future time! But when Paul for the last time visited Jerusalem, in 68, John was not there - so do we interpret Luke's silence. Acts 21:18 - having entered upon those wider labors which made him so much beloved.

He made Ephesus the centre of his operations, and had, after Paul's martyrdom, according to unanimous tradition, the supervision in general of the churches of Asia Minor. This oversight began in the year 64. Under Nero, a.d. 54-68, in the year 68, he was banished to Patmos, a solitary, barren, rocky island in the AEgean Sea. There he had the visions recorded in Revelation. Rev 1:9. The usual view assigns the Revelation to the close of Domitian's reign, a.d. 95, and his return to Ephesus to the reign of Nerva, a.d. 96; but strong internal evidence favors a date prior to the destruction of Jerusalem, a.d. 70.

One of the beautiful stories which are told of the aged apostle John is that when he was too old to preach, he was accustomed to say to the congregation the characteristic words, "Little children, love one another;" and when asked why he always repeated this sentence only, he replied, "Because it is the commandment of the Lord, and enough is done if this one command be obeyed." Another story relates to an earlier period. It is said that once, on entering the bath at Ephesus, he perceived in it the heretic Cerinthus, the early Gnostic, whereupon John cried out, "Let us flee, that the roof do not fall upon us under which lingers Cerinthus, that enemy of the truth." These stories serve well to reveal the permanency of those traits of character which come out in the Gospels. Down to the close John was "the son of thunder," intense in his feeling and vehement in his affection, and the "beloved disciple," of open mind and tender heart, of profound thought and burning zeal. When we compare him with the other apostles we learn his marked individuality. John is the "good" man, while James is the righteous man. John is the pensive, quiet, thoughtful man, while Peter is the active, practical man. "Both these disciples loved the Lord with all the heart, but, as Grotius finely remarks, Peter was more a friend of 'Christ,' John of 'Jesus' - that is, the one revered and loved the Saviour chiefly in his official Messianic character, the other was attached most of all to his person, and was therefore personally still nearer to him, being, so to speak, his bosom-friend. John and Paul have depth of knowledge in common. They are the two disciples who have left us the most complete systems of doctrine. But while Paul is the representative of genuine scholasticism in the best sense of the term, being an exceedingly acute thinker and an accomplished dialectician, John is a representative of all true mysticism, learning from intuition and contemplation. Not inaptly has Peter been styled the apostle of hope, Paul the apostle of faith, and John the apostle of love. The first is the representative of Catholicism, the second of Protestantism, the third of the ideal Church in which this great antagonism shall resolve itself into perfect harmony." - Shaff: Apost. Ch., pp. 410,411.

Full of days and of honors, highly privileged and richly endowed, about the close of the century "the disciple whom Jesus loved" was summoned by the Master to resume their loving companionship.

John, Gospel of. It was the last Gospel written, and was probably composed, or at least put in its present shape, at Ephesus, between a.d. 70 and 95. The particular design of it is expressed by the author to be that we might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that, believing, we might have life through his name. John 20:31. Hence the subjects and discourses of this book have special relation to our Lord's character and offices, and are evidently intended to prove his 470 nature, authority, and doctrines as divine. John probably had the other Gospels before him, or was familiar with their general contents. This fact affords substantial evidence of the genuineness of these writings, and also accounts for the omission of many important occurrences which are particularly stated by the other evangelists. We should not regard John, however, as attempting to correct the other evangelists, or merely to supplement them. This idea is at once contradicted by his having many points in common with them. His work is all one effusion, and though it serves as a valuable complement to the other Gospels is yet a complete whole in itself. John wrought on a fixed plan. He grouped all the events around the several Jewish feasts, mentioning three - indeed, probably four - Passovers, John 2:13; Jud 5:1; Am 6:4; John 11:55; Neh 12:1; Acts 13:1, one feast of tabernacles, John 7:2, and one feast of dedication, Num 10:22, But there is likewise a certain inward order, a progressive development of the relation of Jesus to his disciples and the world; especially is this to be traced in the growth of love and devotion on the one hand, and of hate and rage of the unbelieving Jews on the other. All through the history we hear the sound of the hammer in the making of his cross, but more loudly the shouting of the coming saints.

The Gospel contains - A. The prologue, ch. 1:1-18; B, The history, ch. 1:19 to ch, 21. 1. The preparation for Jesus' public ministry, (a) by John, 1:19-36; (b) by the choice of disciples. 1:37-51. 2. The public labors of Jesus in doctrine and miracle, chs. 2-12, 3. Jesus in the private circle of his disciples, chs. 13-17. 4. The history of the passion and resurrection or public glorification of the Lord, chs. 18-21.

"The Gospel of John is the Gospel of Gospels. It is the most remarkable as well as most important literary production ever composed. . . . It is a marvel even in the marvellous Book of books. It is the most spiritual and ideal of Gospels. It brings us, as it were, into the immediate presence of Jesus. It gives us the clearest view of his incarnate divinity and his perfect humanity." - Special Introd. by Dr. Schaff to Lange on John.

The Gospel of John is a battlefield of modern criticism, but the fight is in the main between belief and unbelief. It must also be confessed that the latter is fairly defeated. Both parties recognize the crucial character of the Gospel, Grant to it authenticity and genuineness, then the divinity of Christ, to which the Gospel testifies in the plainest, simplest, but also profoundest way, must be acknowledged as taught in the N.T. It is this fact which gives bitterness to the frequent and often learned and plausible attacks made upon it. The attempt has been made to assign it to some great "unknown" author in the second century, but at that time it was already widely known, and the second century is so far below the apostolic age that it could not possibly have produced such a work. Up to a quite modern date the genuineness of this Gospel was undisputed. The verses John 21:24-25 give the contemporary Ephesian testimony. 2 Pet 1:14 alludes to John 21:18. Ignatius, Polycarp, the Epistle to Diognetus, Basilides, Justin Martyr, Tatian (especially in the light of the recent discovery of a commentary of Ephraem Syrus on Tatian's Diatessaron), impliedly quote from it. This carries the date up to the middle of the second century, when it was in current use. The external evidence is in favor of John's authorship, while internally it is so befitting the known character and opportunities of John that it is either from him or else it is a forgery. But it cannot be a forgery; it is too self-possessed, too well-balanced, too original, too profound, too divine. The heart of Christ throbs in no liar's breast. The high-priestly prayer came from the hand of no hypocritical or designing man. Read the Gospel and compare it with the productions of the Fathers, and you will endorse the statement, "Verily, no man in the second century, or of any other subsequent century, could have written the work. No man in the first century but John the apostle could have written it, and even John himself could not have written it without inspiration." - Schaff. And in this conclusion the heart of Christendom will always abide.

The Epistles of John are three in number. They were written in Ephesus, after the Gospel, though before the date 471 of the Revelation. Dr. Lange assigns them between the years 96 and 100. The First has always been attributed to John, though his name is neither prefixed nor subscribed. It is a kind of practical application of the Gospel. It is addressed to Christians, and does not aim, therefore, to produce, but to nourish, the Christian life, to warn them against all errors, and to induct them into the mysteries of redeeming love and into the principles and duties which the religion of Christ enjoins, and to furnish them with certain signs or criteria by which to determine the genuineness of their faith.

The Second Epistle is addressed to the "elect lady and her children." The elect lady is supposed to have been some honorable woman distinguished for piety, and well known in the churches as a disciple of Christ. Some, however, have thought some particular church and its members might be denoted. Those who adopt the latter opinion apply the term to the church at Jerusalem, and the term "elect sister" 2 John 13, to the church at Ephesus.

The title of "elder" was indicative of the apostle's office, with a reference also to his great age, then not far from 100 years, as it is supposed. The substance of this letter is an exhortation to continual obedience and an admonition against deceivers, especially against a new form of error, that Christ was a man in appearance only, and not in reality, and therefore his sufferings and death were not real.

The Third Epistle, which is addressed to Gaius, or Caius, a private individual, and is commendatory of his piety, was written about the same time with the others.

John, Revelation of. See Revelation.

JOI'ADA (whom Jehovah favors), one of the high priests. Neh 12:10-11, John 12:22.

JOI'AKIM (whom Jehovah has set up). The name is a contraction of Jehoiakim. A high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua. Neh 12:10, Josh 12:12, Neh 12:26.

JOI'ARIB (whom Jehovah defends).

  1. A man commissioned by Ezra to bring "ministers for the house of our God," priests qualified to give instruction. Ezr 8:16.

  2. A descendant of Judah. Neh 11:5.

  3. The founder of one of the courses of priests. Neh 11:10. In 1 Chr 9:10 his full name is given, Jehoiarib.

JOK'DEAM (possessed by people?), a city in the mountains of Judah, Josh 15:56, apparently south of Hebron.

JO'KIM (whom Jehovah has set up), one of Shelah's sons, and Judah's grandsons. 1 Chr 4:22.

JOK'MEAM (*gathered by the people), a city of Ephraim given to the Levites. 1 Chr 6:68. From 1 Kgs 4:12; (where the A.V. incorrectly reads "Jokneam" for "Jokmeam"), it must have been in the Jordan Valley, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea.

JOK'NEAM (gathered by the people), a city of the tribe of Zebulun, allotted with its suburbs to the Levites. Josh 21:34. Its modern site is Tell Kaimon, near the east end of Carmel and about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth. See Jokmeam.

JOK'SHAN (a folder), the son of Abraham by Keturah. Gen 25:2-3; 1 Chr 1:32.

JOK'TAN (who is made small), a descendant of Shem, ancestor of the Joktanite Arabs. Gen 10:25-30; 1 Chr 1:19-23.

JOK'THEEL (subdued of God).

  1. A city in the territory of Judah, and near Lachish, on the Philistine plain. Josh 15:38.

  2. The name given to Sela after it was taken by Amaziah, 2 Kgs 14:7; 2 Chr 25:11-12; perhaps the stronghold of Petra. See Sela.

JO'NA (whom Jehovah bestows), the father of Peter. John 1:42. See Jonas, 2.

JON'ADAB (whom Jehovah impels).

  1. The son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. "He seems to have been one of those characters who, in the midst of great or royal families, pride themselves and are renowned for being acquainted with the secrets of the whole circle in which they move." — Stanley. He advised the rape of Tamar. 2 Sam 13:3-5.

  2. The form, oft repeated, in Jer 35 for Jehonadab, which see.

JO'NAH (dove), the prophet, son of Amittai, and born at Gath-hepher. Jon 1:1; 2 Kgs 14:25. Nothing certain is known of his history beyond what is recorded in his book. He was sent by the 472 Lord about b.c. 825 to Nineveh, the metropolis of ancient Assyria, to preach repentance. Instead of obeying the command, he took passage at Joppa for Tarshish (Tartessus in Spain). In punishment, God caused a great storm to arise. The sailors cast lots to find out who was the guilty one. The lot fell upon Jonah, who confessed his sin and told them to cast him into the sea; so should the storm cease. Although loth to do it, they after a time obeyed. Jonah was swallowed by "a great fish," probably a shark or sea-dog, since these creatures are found in the Mediterranean. After three days he was vomited out upon the dry land. The Lord's command being repeated, Jonah went to Nineveh, delivered his message, and then sat down to see the destruction of the city. But the Ninevites repented; the threatened punishment was averted, and Jonah was very angry. He withdrew from the city and sat down under a booth he built. The Lord, greatly to his comfort, caused a gourd to grow up, but then to wither away; and this singular book ends with the debate carried on between Jehovah and his servant, in which the gourd is mentioned, and in which the divine mercy extending over all creatures is plainly declared. See Gourd. And so the most intensely Jewish of the Hebrew prophets is compelled by the Spirit to pen words of a truly Christian import. See Nineveh.

The difficulty with the book is the story of the great fish. The miracle is not that he was swallowed by a fish — for horses have been found whole in the bellies of sharks — but that he was kept alive within it for three days. But this miracle receives the strongest possible confirmation to a Christian from the use made of it by our Lord, who sees in it a type of the resurrection. Matt 12:39-41; Lev 16:4. He also refers to the preaching of Jonah. Luke 11:29-32.

Jonah, the Book of consists of two parts: I. Jonah's commission, refusal, and miraculous escape from death; his prayer in the great fish. Chs. 1 and 2. II. His second commission, obedience, the repentance of the Ninevites, and Jonah's hard spirit. The book is variously regarded; it has been called a fiction, a myth, a parable, but it is hhtory, as is proven by its place in the Jewish canon, and by Christ's use of it, as already quoted. Some infidels went so far as to deny there was a city called Nineveh, but all such objectors have been grandly

Traditional Tomb of Jonah.

silenced by the excavations of Layard, Botta, and others, which have caused this old city on the Tigris to live again.

The lesson of the book is that God's providence and his mercy extend beyond the covenant people unto the heathens. Although Jonah was at first the narrowest of Jews, his book is the most catholic in the O.T. It approaches most nearly the catholicity of Christianity.

JO'NAN (whom Jehovah bestows), son of Eliakim, in the genealogy of Christ. Luke 3:30.


  1. The Greek form of Jonah. Matt 12:39-41; Lev 16:4; Luke 11:30-32.

  2. The father of Peter and Andrew, John 21:15-17; called also Jonah, John 1:42.

JON'ATHAN (whom Jehovah gave).

  1. A Gershonite Levite who became by request the priest of Micah and afterward went with the Danites to Laish, where he and his posterity were priests. Judges 17:7-13 and Judges 18.

  2. The son of Saul, and distinguished for piety and valor. He and his armor bearer, being encouraged by an intimation from God, attacked a Philistine garrison, slew 20 men, and put the garrison to flight. Having ignorantly violated a decree of his father (the king) that no man should stop, on pain of death, in


the pursuit of the enemy to taste of food, the people interposed, and saved him from the penalty, which his father was ready to inflict. 1 Sam 14:37-45.

After David's defeat of the giant, Jonathan became acquainted with him, and their friendship for each other was so remarkable as to be minutely described by the sacred historian. 1 Sam 18:1-4; 1 Sam 19:2. The opportunity to show their friendship for each other was greatly extended by the bitter and relentless hostility of Saul to David. 1 Sam 19, 1 Sam 20, etc. Jonathan fell with his father and two brothers in the battle at Gilboa. The lamentation of David for his friend, 2 Sam 1:17-27, is justly regarded as inimitably pathetic and beautiful, and his treatment of Mephibosheth, Jonathan's son, shows the sincerity and strength of his affection for the father. 2 Sam 9.

  1. The son of Abiathar, the high priest. 2 Sam 16:27, 2 Sam 16:36; 2 Sam 17:17, 2 Sam 17:20; 1 Kgs 1:42-43.

  2. David's nephew, who slew a giant in Gath. 2 Sam 21:20-21; 1 Chr 20:6-7.

  3. One of David's valiant men.2 Sam 23:32; 1 Chr 11:34.

  4. A descendant of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr 2:32-33.

  5. One of David's uncles. 1 Chr 27:32

  6. The father of one who returned with Ezra. Ezra 8:6.

  7. One who, with Ezra, investigated the mixed marriages. Ezra 10:15.

  8. A high priest for 32 years, Neh 12:11; called Johanan in Neh 12:22-23.

  9. A priest. Neh 12:14.

  10. A priest, and the father of one who joined in the dedication of the wall. Neh 12:35.

  11. He in whose house was Jeremiah's prison. Jer 37:15, Jer 37:20; Jer 38:26.

  12. A son of Kareah, and brother of Johanan. Jer 40:8.

JO'NATH-E'LEM - RECHO'KIM (a dumb dove of distant places), part of the title to Ps. 56; not found elsewhere in the Bible. Most likely it was the name of some popular melody to which tune the Psalm was to be sung.

JOP'PA (beauty), an ancient maritime city in the territory of Dan, on the Mediterranean, about 30 miles south of Caesarea, 35 miles north-west of Jerusalem, and upon a promontory, 116 feet high, jutting out into the sea. From its summit there is a fine view of the coast and the sea. Ezr 3:7; Jon 1:3; Acts 9:36-43; Acts 10:5-32; Acts 11:5-13. It is also called "Japho," Josh 19:46; 2 Chr 2:16, margin. The modern name of the city is Yafa or Jaffa.

History. — Joppa is said to be one of the oldest towns in the world. A Roman writer says that it antedates the deluge. When the chosen people divided the Holy Land amongst the several tribes, Japho, a Phoenician colony in the land of the Philistines, was one of the landmarks designating the territory of the tribe of Dan. Josh 19:46. It was the seaport to which wood from Lebanon was brought for the building of Solomon's temple, 2 Chr 2:16, and when the house of the Lord was rebuilt after the Captivity. Cedar trees were brought from Lebanon to Joppa. Ezr 3:7. It was at this port also that Jonah took ship for Tarshish. Jon 1:3. Thus the city is mentioned four times (once as Japho) in the O.T.

In an inscription relating the victorious campaigns of Sennacherib, the town is called Ja-ap-pu, and its situation is correctly described. The Maccabees brought the city under the Jewish yoke. Afterward it fell successively under the Greek and the Roman sway. The Romans took it b.c. 63. In the N.T., Joppa is only mentioned in the book of Acts, and in connection with two events: (1) The raising of Tabitha to life by Peter, Acts 9:36-43; (2) Peter's vision on the housetop. Acts 10:11. Several bishops of Joppa are mentioned as having attended various Church synods. During the Crusades, Joppa was several times captured by opposing forces, and partially destroyed. Toward the end of the eighteenth century the town was surrounded by walls, which enabled the inhabitants to resist for several days the attacks of the French army under Kleber. The place was taken by storm, and 4000 prisoners were massacred by order of Napoleon, March 4, 1799.

Present Appearance. — To the traveller approaching Joppa by sea the city presents a beautiful appearance, but a closer contact is disappointing. Steamers are obliged to anchor half a mile from the quay, and passengers and baggage are 474 taken ashore in boats. The quay is very badly paved, and becomes a pond of mud after a rain. The streets are narrow, dirty, crooked, and steep. The houses, built of tufa-stone, are crowded together without any order. Among the prominent buildings are the Greek monastery, the Latin hospice (founded in 1654), and the Armenian monastery. The traditional "house of Tabitha" and "the house of Simon the tanner" are still pointed out.

Exterior of the supposed house of Simon The Tanner. (From Photograph of Pal. Fund.)

The open space is the little courtyard at the rear of the house, between the house and the wall overlooking the sea. The spectator has his back to the sea. The well from which Peter is said to have baptized is sunk in the ground on the right.

In population Joppa has greatly increased within 25 years. A Turkish calendar enumerates 865 Moslem, 135 Greek, 70 Greek Catholic, 50 Latin, 6 Maronite, and 5 Armenian families, which would give a total of about 8000 inhabitants. To these must be added a flourishing German Protestant colony of the Temple Society, which settled there in 1857 under the lead of Rev. Christopher Hoffman, and introduced various industries. Miss Arnot, a Scotch lady, conducts a good school for girls. A considerable trade is carried on with Egypt, Syria, and Constantinople. But one of the chief means of livelihood for the people is the annual passage of numerous pilgrims and travellers through the town. It is the landing-place of most travellers to Palestine, and is connected with Jerusalem by a rough carriage-road — the only one in that country. A railroad has been projected and may be built before many years. The oranges of Joppa are famous and supply the market at Jerusalem.

JO'RAH (early rain), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:18.

JO'RAI (whom Jehovah teaches), a chieftain of Gad. 1 Chr 5:13.

JO'RAM (whom Jehovah has exalted).

  1. A son of Toi, the king of Hamath, sent to congratulate David on his victory over Hadadezer. 2 Sam 8:10.

  2. The son of Ahab. 2 Kgs 8:1, See Jehoram, 2.

  3. The son of Jehoshaphat. 2 Kgs 8:24. See Jehoram, 1.

  4. A Levite of David's day. 1 Chr 26:25.

JOR'DAN (the descender), the great river of Palestine, as the Nile is of Egypt.

Name. — "Jordan" (the Hebrew Yarden) signifies, from its derivation, "the descender." It is always joined with the article in the 0.T., with two exceptions, Ps 42:6; Job 40:23. The Arabs call it esh-Sheriah, or "the watering-place." A tradition as old as St. Jerome, a.d. 400, says that the Jordan derived its name from two rivers, the Jor, rising at Banias, and the Dan, rising at Tell el-Kadi. But this tradition seems to be erroneous; for according to Gen 13:10, the river was known to Abraham as the Jordan long before the children of Dan gave their name to Leshem, Josh 19:47, or Laish. Jud 18:29.

Sources. — The Jordan rises among the mountains of Anti-Lebanon, and has four sources: (1). The Hambany, which issues from the large fountain 'Ain Furar, near Hasbeya, at an altitude of 1700 feet above the sea. This pool, which the natives say is 1000 feet deep, Macgregor found to have a depth of 11 feet. (2) The Banias, which rises near the ruins of Banias (Caesarea-Philippi), at the base of Mount Hermon, 1140 feet above the sea-level. (3) The Seddan, rising in a large fountain on the west side of the Tell el-Kadi ("hill of the judge," the site of the city of Dan). In the midst of a thicket of oleander bushes is a large pool, 50 or 60 yards wide, with the water bubbling out of the ground in a full-grown stream. This, which Josephus calls the Little Jordan, is the most copious source. (4) The Esh-Shar, a minor tributary, only one or two yards broad. Besides the


[image -4, 32, 285, 460, 19382] 476 above four sources, there are numerous small streams from the springs of Lebanon, which find their way into the swamp above Lake Huleh, and contribute to swell the Jordan.

Course of the Stream. — At a point about 4 miles below Tell el-Kadi the Hanbany unites with the other two principal sources. At this point the Jordan is 45 feet wide, and flows in a channel from 12 to 30 feet below the level of the plain. After emerging from a broad morass the waters expand into Lake el-Huleh, 4 1/4 miles long, 2 3/4 miles wide, having descended 1434 feet. See Merom, The Waters of. Issuing from the lake in a sluggish current, the descent soon makes it a rapid torrent, which in a course of 9 miles descends 897 feet to the Sea of Galilee, 682 1/2 feet below the Mediterranean. See Galilee, Sea of.

The popular notion that the waters of the river do not seem to mingle with those of the lake, "but pass through in a united stream, is a "fable." From the Sea of Tiberias to the Dead Sea there is one deep depression, the hills from the east and west nearly meeting in many places. This depression is filled up to a certain level with an alluvial deposit, forming a vast plain called the Jordan Valley, or Ghor (the hollow). This is the " upper plain." It varies in width from 1 to 12 miles. The river has cut out for itself a plain lower than the preceding by some 50 to 100 feet, and from a quarter of a mile to a mile wide. This is the "lower plain," through which the river, some 60 yards wide, winds its way. During the spring floods this lower plain is inundated. Although the distance in a straight line between Tiberias and the Dead Sea is only 66 miles, the actual distance the stream flows, on account of its many windings, is 200 miles, and the fall 667 feet. Twenty-seven threatening rapids were counted by Lieut. Lynch, besides many others of minor importance. The whole distance from the sources of the river to its mouth is not more than 136 miles in a straight line. The whole descent is 2999 feet to the Dead Sea, which, according to the latest determination of the British Survey, is 1292 feet below the sea-level, although Lynch had reported it at 1317 feet. See Salt Sea. The width of the stream varies from 45 to 180 feet, and its depth from 3 to 12 feet.

Tributaries. — Between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea two considerable rivers enter the Jordan from the east. (1) Wady Mandhur (the Jarmuk or Yarmuk of the Rabbins, and the Hieromax of Pliny). This stream formerly divided Bashan and Gilead. (2) Wady Zerka, the Jabbok, which enters the Jordan 20 miles north of Jericho and was formerly the northern boundary of Amnion. Between the above two Dr. Selah Merrill found "no less than eleven living streams, more than half of which can be called large ones." Between the Jabbok and the Wady Nimrin there are no streams and the region is barren, but below the Wady Nimrin several living streams were noted. Hot springs of considerable size have been found in as many as ten different localities in the Jordan Valley. The temperature of those at El-Hama, near the Yarmuk, is from 100 to 115 degrees.

Bridges and Fords. — There are the remains of several bridges crossing the river, which date back to Roman times. One of these, a few hundred yards above Damieh (the "Adam" of Josh 3:16), marks the crossing-place of the great road from central Palestine to the East. Dr. Merrill says there is reason to believe that this bridge existed in Christ's time, and it is on the road by which the Saviour went from Galilee to Jerusalem. Below Lake Hileh is a bridge called "Bridge of Jacob's Daughter," probably built in the fifteenth century.

There are four principal fords over the river: the lower one, opposite Jericho, near the famous bathing-place of the pilgrims; another, eastward of Sakut; and two others, nearer the Sea of Galilee. At low water there are many other points at which the river might be easily forded, and the British Survey discovered evidences of various fords. During the floods the Arabs are frequently obliged to swim their horses across the river.

Climate and Vegetation. — The great depression of the Jordan Valley gives to it a semi-tropical character. "In its natural products it stands unique, a tropical oasis sunk in the temperate zone." Under the intense heat vegetation advances with wonderful rapidity,


Source of the Jordan. (After plans by Major Wilson, R.E.)

The figures denote the heights in feet above the sea-level. 478 but is as quickly scorched wherever the water-supply is not abundant. In the marshes of Huleh are acres of papyrus, the reeds sometimes reaching 16 feet in height. This reed is now wholly extinct in Egypt, according to Tristram (Natural History, p. 11), and to find it again one must travel either to India or to Abyssinia. Farther south along the river's course are the jujube (a tropical tree), date-palm, oleander, tamarisk, "zukkum," or false balm of Gilead, osher, henna, etc. Even in the depth of winter the thermometer ranges from 60 to 80 degrees.

Scripture History. — The first mention

Course of the Jordan from Sea of Galilee to Dead Sea.

(After plans by Major Wilson, R.E.)

of the Jordan is in " Gen 13:10, where Lot beheld the plain of the Jordan as the garden of the Lord; "Jacob crossed and recrossed it, Gen 32:10; the Israelites passed over it in entering the Promised Land, Josh 3, Josh 4; Ps 114:3. The phenomenon of the river overflowing its banks at the time of harvest is still witnessed. The snows from Lebanon melt in the spring-time and swell the current of the Jordan at the time of the harvest, which, in the hot climate of the Jordan Valley, comes in April. Prof. Porter of Belfast, at a visit in the middle of April, found it impossible to cross the river at the usual ford near 479 Jericho, and was compelled to go a day's journey up the banks to Damieh. Among those who crossed over the Jordan were Gideon, "faint yet pursuing" after Zebah and Zalmunna, Jud 8:4-5; the Ammonites, invading Judah, Jud 10:9; Abner, in flight, 2 Sam 2:29; David, in flight, 2 Sam 17:22, and returning to his capital, 2 Sam 19:15-18 (mention is here made of a ferryboat, probably only a raft, the only time in Scripture); David, to war with the Syrians; Absalom, in pursuit of his father, 2 Sam 17:24; Elijah and Elisha, parting the waters with the mantle. 2 Kgs 2:6-14. As two and a half tribes of Israel dwelt east of the river, the amount of crossing and recrossing must have been considerable, and the best fords were well known. Comp. Josh 2:7; Jud 3:28; Num 7:24; Jud 12:5-6. The river was known to Job, Job 40:23, and Jeremiah speaks of "the swelling of Jordan." Jer 12:6; Jer 49:19; Jer 60:44. Noteworthy miracles, in addition to those already mentioned, were the curing of Naaman, 2 Kgs 6:14, and the making the iron to swim. 2 Kgs 6:6.

The Jordan is mentioned about 180 times in the O.T. In the N.T. it is mentioned 16 times. The chief events noted in connection with it in the N.T. are John's baptism of the multitudes. Matt 3:6, and especially his baptism of Jesus. Mark 1:9. In commemoration of this latter event it is the custom for Christian pilgrims in great numbers to bathe in the Jordan not far from Jericho at Easter.

The cities mentioned in Scripture in connection with the Jordan are few. The chief ones near it were Jericho and Gilgal, Succoth and Bethshan. Traces of several towns have been noted on the east side, in the valley between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea.

The Jordan has been several times navigated in a boat in modern times — by Costigan, 1835; by Molyneaux, 1847; by Lieut. Lynch, 1848; by J. Macgregor (Rob Roy), 1869. "The sight of the Jordan," says Schaff, " is rather disappointing. It bears no comparison in majesty and beauty to the great rivers of Europe and America. Naaman thought the clear rivers of his native Damascus far superior, yet the Abana and Pharpar could not wash away his leprosy. Its chief importance is historic. In this respect the Jordan surpasses the Hudson and the Mississippi, the Rhine and the Danube, and even the Nile. It marks the termination of the wanderings of the children of Israel from the banks of the Nile, and the beginning of their history as an independent nation in their own home. It blends the memories of the old and new Covenants as the culmination of John's testimony and the inauguration of Christ's kingdom." — Through Bible Lands, p. 299. "Surely," says Macgregor, "the Jordan is by far the most wonderful stream on the face of the earth, and the memories of its history will not be forgotten in heaven." — Rob Roy on the Jordan, p. 406. It is a sacred stream alike to Jew, Ishmaelite, Christian, and Mohammedan, and in this surpasses in interest any other river in the world.

JO'RIM (Jehovah exalts?), one in the ancestry of Christ. Luke 3:29.

JOR'KOAM (paleness of the people), probably the name of a person; but if a place, it is a town in the territory of Judah. 1 Chr 2:44.

JOS'ABAD (whom Jehovah gives), a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:4.

JOS'APHAT, Greek form of Jehoshaphat (see Jehoshaphat, 3) in Matt 1:8.

JO'SE, in Luke 3:29, for Joses, which see.

JOS'EDECH (whom Jehovah makes just). Hag 1:1. See Jehozadak, Jozadak.

JO'SEPH (he will add).

  1. The first son of Jacob and Rachel, born in Padan-aram after his mother had been long barren, but "God hearkened to her." Gen 30:24. The name she gave him indicated her confidence that God would give her another son — a confidence justified by the birth of Benjamin. Ps 35:17. The two sons of Rachel, Jacob's favorite wife, were the patriarch's delight. In the case of Joseph this fondness led to evil consequences, because it excited the envy of his brothers. The story of Joseph's life is told with so much simplicity and graphic power that he is numbered among our acquaintances. We enter with the liveliest sympathy into all his troubles. He is ever the innocent

victim of spite and cruelty, and from the time he comes before us in his long coat with sleeves — not "coat of many colors" — down to the day the mourning of Egypt bursts forth over his corpse, his life has for us the interest of a romance heightened by the knowledge that it is truth. Instead of repeating the twice-told tale — every one knows it, and the inspired record cannot be improved — we present a condensed translation of the article on "Joseph" by Prof. Ebers, the Egyptologist, in Riehm's Handworterbuch Des Biblischen Altertums, (1878), which interprets the Egyptian setting and shows its complete harmony with modern researches.

It is worthy of note that the money paid for Joseph by the Midianites corresponds exactly to the extreme price set by Moses upon a slave of his age. Comp. Gen 37:28 with Lev 27:5. The captains of the guard, of whom Potiphar was one, were commanders of regiments of 2000 men, and so long as they were in office as the king's body-guard the commander was the chief inspector of the state-prisoners, and chief executioner of corporal and capital punishment. Potiphar was a "eunuch." The word, however, may express nothing more than an officer.

The Egyptian monuments make us acquainted with the daily life of an "overseer," which Joseph led in Potiphar's household. Everything was conducted with the most scrupulous regularity — at least, in the pictures — and the position was one of great responsibility. The story of Joseph's trial of virtue is strikingly illustrated by an Egyptian tale of similar contents written for a son of Rameses II. (See Brugsch, Geschichte AEgyptens, p. 249). The belief in dreams, in revelations of the divine will, the office of chief baker and chief butler, the custom of granting pardons and other favors upon Pharaoh's birthday, — all are confirmed by the monuments. The magicians and wise men consulted by Pharaoh after his two dreams — which are thoroughly Egyptian: seven was a sacred number — belonged to the priest caste. That Joseph, before appearing in the presence of Pharaoh, must shave himself, face and head, and change his raiment, brings out the Egyptian passion for cleanliness.

The exaltation of Joseph receives explanation from the fact that the priests shared in the government, particularly- in the allotment of the taxes, and for the latter purpose inspected the material condition of the country. Joseph's rank was described by two terms, "father" and "lord of all Egypt." "Father" was the usual term. Every feature of the following scenes in the narrative, all the circumstances of the investiture, are true to the life. The new name, or rather title, which he received — Zaphnath paaneah — is interpreted "creator" or "preserver of life." The name of his wife is the genuinely Egyptian, and very common, feminine name of Sant or Snat. It is impossible to say how far Joseph became an Egyptian. He conformed to many of their customs, but ever retained his belief in Israel's God. His position during the famine resembles that of a certain Baba, who in his epitaph tells us: "I gathered grain, a friend of the god of harvest. I was watchful at the seed-time. And during a famine which lasted through many years, I distributed the grain through the town to every hunger-stricken one." Brugsch, indeed (Gench. AEgyptens, p. 246), believed the famine referred to here is that of Genesis.

The charge Joseph brings against his brethren was one often made, doubtless, at a time when there was constant dread of the irruption of the wandering tribes to the eastward of Egypt. That the Egyptians would not eat with the Hebrews and that the latter were regarded with aversion are traits in keeping with the monumental records. But these show us that shepherds formed a separate caste and were not shunned, except the swineherds, who could not enter a temple. But the nomadic shepherds, as the Israelites, were ever looked upon with fear and disgust. Joseph's claim to the gift of divination was just what one would expect. The bubbles and movements of the water of a cup into which one had thrown a coin or a ring, or any other object, were watched, and by certain rules the future read therefrom. The arrangements which Joseph made during the years of plenty and of famine, by which eventually the entire nation became the purchase of Pharaoh, and the land, with the exception of that of 481 the priests, passed to the crown, have been much criticised. But they were not unparalleled in Egypt. Considering the fertility of the land, the fifth part taken up during the plentiful years was not at all excessive, Gen 41:34, Gen 41:47-49; when the famine came it was natural and proper to sell so long as there was any money left to buy therewith. And that it was the case in Egypt that the king and the priests owned all the land is asserted by the monuments and ancient historians. These latter also speak of the priests being free from tax. We see, then, in Gen 47:22, Gen 47:26, the statement of a fact and the explanation of a subsequent phenomenon.

The question. Who was the Pharaoh of Joseph? does not admit of a decisive answer. The name "Pharaoh," being a generic title of the sovereigns, does not help us any. The most satisfactory answer is that he belonged to an altogether different dynasty from that of the persecuting Pharaoh of Exodus. This throws the time back to some dynasty of the Shepherd-kings. Of these tradition singles out Apophis, one of the last of them. Manasseh and Ephraim, sons of Joseph by his marriage with Asenath, became the founders of the powerful tribes that bear their name, and Jacob's blessing was fulfilled.

Joseph died at the age of 110, but his bones, by express command, were carried with the host, and not buried until the Israelites had conquered Canaan, Gen 50:25, when they were deposited in Shechem. Josh 24:32. His tomb is shown within a stone's throw of Jacob's Well. But the Mohammedans claim that the body of Joseph is in the Machpelah, in Hebron, having been transported thither from Shechem.

  1. The father of Igal, who was the spy from Issachar. Num 13:7.

  2. One who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:42.

  3. A priest. Neh 12:14.

5., 6., 7. Three persons in the ancestry of Christ. Luke 3:24, Acts 11:26, 1 Kgs 20:30.

  1. The husband of Mary, the mother of Christ, was by occupation a carpenter. Matt 13:55, at which trade our Lord himself labored until he entered upon his public ministry. Mark 6:3.

Joseph is called a "just man," "a man of uprightness," Matt 1:19. He was informed by an angel that Mary was to be the mother of the promised Messiah, and accompanied her to Bethlehem to be registered in the tax-books, according to the command of the emperor, when Christ was born. When the babe was 40 days old, Joseph and his wife went with him to Jerusalem, in observance of the Law of Moses; and when about returning again to Bethlehem, he was divinely admonished to go into Egypt, for Herod, the king, was resolved to destroy the infant Redeemer if he could get him into his power. After the death of Herod they set out again for Judaea, but, apprehensive that the king's successor, Archelaus, might be equally cruel, they went into Galilee, and took up their abode at Nazareth, their old home. When Jesus was 12 years of age, Joseph and Mary took him with them on their journey to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast of the Passover. After that we find nothing more of Joseph in the sacred history. It is generally supposed he died before Christ began his public ministry, as he is not mentioned with Mary, and as Christ commended her to the care of one of the disciples. John 19:25-27.

  1. Joseph of Arimathea, Matt 27:57, Ps 57:59, a wealthy citizen, probably residing in the vicinity of Jerusalem, a member of the Sanhedrin, and a man of eminent wisdom and piety. Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51. He was a disciple of Christ, though he did not appear openly as such. John 19:38.

It is said that the Jews, as a mark of ignominy, did not allow the bodies of those executed as malefactors to be deposited in the tombs of their fathers except tne flesh had been previously consumed. It may have been to prevent this use of the body of Christ that Joseph so early asked leave to remove it and place it in his own tomb.

  1. A disciple called Barsabas, one of the candidates for Judas's place in the college of the apostles. Acts 1:23.

JO'SES (whom Jehovah helps).

  1. One of our Lord's brethren. Matt 13:55; Matt 27:56; Mark 6:3; Mark 15:40, Josh 15:47. See James, 2.

  2. Acts 4:36. See Barnabas.

JO'SHAH (whom Jehovah lets dwell), a chief of Simeon. 1 Chr 4:34.

JOSH'APHAT (whom Jehovah judges), 482 one of David's warriors. 1 Chr 1 Chr. h:43.

JOSHAVI'AH (whom Jehovah makes to dwell), one of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:46.

JOSHBEK'ASHAH(seat in hardness), the head of the sixteenth course of musicians. 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:24.

JOS'HEB-BAS'SEBET (he loho sits in the seat), in the margin of 2 Sam 23:8. See Jashobeam.

JOSH'UA (whose help is Jehovah).

  1. The successor of Moses, was the son of Nun of the tribe of Ephraim, and was born in Egypt. He is called the "minister" of Moses, Ex 24:13, from the fact that he assisted him in the exercise of his office. The original name was "Oshea," Num 13:8, but was changed to "Jehoshua," Num 13:16, and he is also called "Hoshea." Deut 32:44. "Joshua" is a contraction of "Jehoshua," and "Jeshua," or "Jesus," is the Greek mode of writing "Joshua," as in Acts 7:45 and Heb 4:8, in which passages the Hebrew word "Joshua " ought to have been retained.

Joshua is introduced to us at the time the Israelites were about to contend with the Amalekites at Rephidim. He was appointed by Moses to command the forces of Israel on that occasion. Ex 17:9. He was then about 44 years of age, though considered a young man. Ex 33:11. Afterward he was the spy from his tribe, and he and Caleb were the only ones who told the truth. Num 14:6-9.

In prospect of the death of Moses, Joshua was set apart to succeed him as the leader and deliverer of God's chosen people. Num 27:16-18; Deut 31:7-14; Deut 34:9. At the age of 84 he passed over the Jordan at the head of the hosts of Israel, and entered the land of promise. For six years he carried on a successful war against the Canaanites, and after conquering them he divided the land among the Israelites. We see in this long struggle the union of divine help and human exertion. If, on the one hand, Jericho falls without a blow, on the other, Ai is only taken after one repulse and by a stratagem. Josh 8. Again, there is no protection against mistakes. The Gibeonites, by trickery, succeed in saving their lives, albeit they become slaves. The conduct of Joshua in keeping his oath is very noble, but it was a salutary lesson upon the folly of human wisdom unaided by divine light. Josh 9. At the termination of the war 6 nations, with 31 kings, had been prostrated. There remained, however, "very much land to be possessed." The "Promised Land," in its complete extent, was not then, and never was, conquered. After a period of rest, Joshua, feeling the approach of death, gathered the people together on two occasions, and delivered the solemn and touching addresses recorded in Josh 23-24. In so doing he imitated the example of his great predecessor, Moses. The influence of Joshua upon his generation is brought out by the statement: "Israel served the Lord all the days of Joshua, and all the days of the elders that overlived Joshua, and which had known all the works of the Lord that he had done for Israel." Josh 24:31.

Traditional Tomb of Joshua, near Timnath. (From Photograph Pal. Fund.)

Joshua was a worthy successor of Moses. His presence was ever the harbinger of the divine favor. Piety was his characteristic, and earth and heaven repeat with fervor the famous vow of obedience to God: "As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord." Josh 24:15. But at last to him, as to us all, came the end, and he died, being 110 years old, "and they buried him in the border of his inheritance in Timnathserah. which is in Mount Ephraim." Ch. Matt 24:30.

  1. The dweller in Beth-sheniesh in whose field stopped the two milch-kine which were drawing the cart containing the ark on its way back from the Philistines. 1 Sam 6:14.

  2. A governor of Jerusalem, previous to Josiah's day, who gave his name to one of the gates. 2 Kgs 23:8.

  3. A high priest after the Captivity. Hag 1:1, etc. Ezra and Nehemiah call him Jeshua. See Jeshua, .3.

Joshua, The Book of. It may be divided into three parts: I. The conquest of the land, chs. 1-12; II. The partition of the land, chs. 13-22; III. The final addresses of Joshua, his death and burial. Chs. 23, 24. It embraces a period variously estimated at from 17 to 30 years. As to the authorship of the book, the name "Joshua" in the title may imply no more than that he is the hero of it. Still, in connection with ch. 24:26, "And Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God," the title may be allowed to weigh something more, and we may attribute the book, if not to Joshua, at least to one of his elders who was well acquainted with him. This theory is not inconsistent with a subsequent revision.

The two difficulties in the book relate to the sun standing still, ch. Josh 10:13; and to the wholesale slaughter of the Canaanites by the command of God. In regard to the first, the difficulty is manufactured out of — it does not exist in — the text. The passage is a poetical quotation from the book of Jasher, which was probably a collection of sacred songs. This will be evident from a revision of the A.V.

Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon,

And thou, moon, upon the valley of Ajalon !

And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed her course, Until the people were avenged of their enemies.

And the sun tarried in the midst of the heavens.

And hasted not to go down for a whole day.

The day was probably one of extraordinary brightness, as well as of extraordinary anxiety, hence it would appear to be prolonged.

The second difficulty is only one of the many chapters in the mysterious government of Providence, which permits the ravages of war, famine, and pestilence.

JOSI'AH (whom Jehovah heals).

  1. The son and successor of Amon, king of Judah, began to reign when he was only 8 years of age, and reigned 31 years, b.c. 641-610. 2 Kgs 22:1-2; 2 Chr 34:1,

  2. He was remarkable for his integrity and piety. He gradually abolished the idolatrous customs of his predecessors, 2 Chr 34:3, and in the eighteenth year of his reign began a thorough repair of the temple. In the progress of this work Hilkiah the high priest found a "book of the law of the Lord given by Moses." 2 Chr 34:14. What book it was is uncertain; probably it was Deuteronomy. Josiah seems to have been ignorant of its existence; but when it was read to him by one of his officers he was overwhelmed with grief to find how far they and their fathers had departed from the right way. He, however, humbled himself before God, and sent to inquire of the Lord through Huldah the prophetess. In Jehovah's name she assured him that evil was determined of the Lord, but that he should not see it. 2 Chr 34:23-28. He then assembled the people and published the Law in their hearing, and they all united with the king in a solemn vow of obedience. After this he utterly destroyed every vestige of idolatry, both images and temples, and then, by divine command, caused the feast of the Passover to be celebrated with such solemnity as had not been known since the days of Samuel. 2 Chr 35:3-18.

When Pharaoh-Neeho went up from Egypt to Carchemish, Josiah, probably as the ally or vassal of the king of Assyria, opposed him, and, mistrusting Necho's message from God, gave the Egyptian battle at Megiddo, but was mortally wounded, and was brought to Jerusalem, where he died, and was buried in one of the sepulchres of his fathers. No king, perhaps, was ever more deservedly beloved, and certainly we know of none who was more sincerely and tenderly bewailed by his people. Indeed, his death was the end of prosperity to the kingdom of Judah. Jeremiah the prophet was greatly affected by it, and composed an elegy on the occasion, 2 Chr 35:25, and all those accustomed to celebrate in song the worth and achievements of men of great eminence, both men and women, mourned for Josiah for ages after his death. Indeed, the mourning was such as to become 484 proverbial. Zech 12:11. He was only 39 years of age when he died.

  1. The man in whose house the symbolical crowning of Jeshua took place. Zech 6:10.

JOSI'AS, Greek form of Josiah in Matt 1:10-11.

JOSIBI'AH (whom Jehovah lets dwell), a Siraeonite chief. 1 Chr 4:35.

JOSIPHI'AH (whom may Jehovah increase!), the father of Shelomith, who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:10.

JOT, Matt 5:18, or YOD (in Greek Iota). This is the name of the Hebrew letter i, which letter is the least of all the letters of the alphabet, being shaped not unlike our comma (,), and proverbially used by the Hebrews to signify the least thing imaginable; and hence the text expresses the idea that not the least requirement of the commandments of God shall in any wise be dispensed with; they shall all stand to the very letter.

JOT'BAH (goodness, pleasantness), a place where Haruz resided, 2 Kgs 21:19. perhaps the same as Jotbath.

JOT'BATH, or JOT BATHAH (goodness, pleasantness), a station of the Hebrews in the desert, Num 33:33, and on the west side of the Arabah, "a land of rivers of waters." Deut 10:7.

JO'THAM (Jehovah is upright).

  1. The youngest son of Jerubbaal, or Gideon, the only one who escaped from the massacre at Ophrah, Jud 9:5; and this he did by concealing himself. See Abimelech.

  2. The son and successor of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah. 2 Kgs 15:32. He actually reigned 23 years, being associated with his father for 7 years before his death. His sole administration of the government was only for 16 years, b.c. 758-741. Comp. 2 Kgs 15:30, 2 Kgs 15:32-33. His example was holy; his reign was peaceful and prosperous, and of course beneficial to the kingdom. 2 Chr 27:2-6.

  3. One of Judah's descendants. 1 Chr 2:47.

JOUR'NEY. The Orientals travel in the morning early or in the evening, often into the night, resting during the heat of the day. A day's journey was from 10 to 20 miles, Deut 1:2; a sabbath day's journey was 2000 paces, or three-quarters of a mile. But it is at least probable that the phrase in the Bible, "a day's journey," does not mean any definite length, but simply as far as was travelled on that particular day.


Num 9:17-23. See Exodus, Sinai, and Wilderness of the Wanderings.

JOY is an agreeable affection of the soul, 1 Sam 18:6, arising from the possession or prospect of good. Ezr 6:16; Esth 8:16. It is reckoned among "the fruit of the Spirit," Gal 5:22, and is chiefly used by the sacred writers, especially of the N.T., to signify a religious emotion. That which springs from a sense of pardoned sin and a union of the soul to Christ is pure, Luke 15:9-10; certain, John 16:22; unspeakable, 1 Pet 1:8; and eternal. Isa 61:7. "Believers are commanded to rejoice, Phil 3:1;Phil 4:4, but there is also a worldly, foolish, or hypocritical joy. Job 20:5; Prov 15:21. That which has no better source than in vanity or sin will in the end be turned to bitterness." — Ayre.

JOZ'ABAD (whom Jehovah bestows).

1., 2. Two Manassite chiefs who came to David before the battle of Gilboa. 1 Chr 12:20.

  1. A Levite who was prominent in Hezekiah's reforms. 2 Chr 31:13.

  2. A Levite chief during Josiah's reign who took part in the great Passover. 2 Chr 35:9.

  3. A Levite under Ezra who weighed the gold and silver vessels in the temple. Ezr 8:33.

  4. A priest who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:22.

  5. A Levite chief who had a foreign wife, and one who probably helped Ezra explain the Law. Neh 8:7; Num 11:16.

JOZ'ACHAR (whom Jehovah remembers), one of the murderers of Joash, king of Judah. 2 Kgs 12:21. He is called Zabad in 2 Chr 24:26.

JOZ'ADAK (whom Jehovah makes just), a contraction of Jehozadak; used in Ezr 3:2, 1 Kgs 15:8; Song of Solomon 5:2; Neh 10:18; Neh 12:26.

JUMBAL (music), a son of Lamech, and the inventor of the harp and organ. Gen 4:21.

JUBILEE, YEAR OF, came at the close of seven weeks of years, or eveiy fiftieth year, so that two sabbatical years came together. It commenced on the great day of atonement, and was ushered in by the blast of the jubilee 485 curved trumpets. The remarkable feature of this festival was that it restored individuals, families, and communities, as far as possible, to the same situation they occupied at the beginning of the fifty years. All servants of Hebrew origin were set free, even those whose ears had been bored in evidence of their free service; all pledges were given up, and the inheritances which had been alienated, no matter how often nor for what cause, came back to the hands of the owners. The only exception was in the cases of houses built in walled towns. Lev 25:29-31. The law in regard to this festival is given in Lev 25:8-17, Lev 8:23-55; Lev 27:16-25; Num 36:4. "The jubilee is the crown of the sabbatical system. The weekly and monthly sabbaths secured rest for each spiriturally; the sabbatical year secured rest for the land: the jubilee secured rest and restoration for the body politic, to recover the general equality which Joshua's original settlement contemplated. Hence no religious observances were prescribed; simply the trumpets sounded the glad note of restoration. The leisure of the jubilee year was perhaps devoted to school and instruction of the people, the reading of the Law, and such services." — Fausset: The Englishman's Bible Cyclopedia.

It has been disputed whether there ever was a year of jubilee observed. No direct mention is made of any, but there are evident allusions to it in Isa 61:1-2; Eze 7:12-13; Eze 46:16-18.

JU'CAL (potent). Jer 38:1. See Jehucal.


  1. One of the brethren of our Lord, Mark 6:3; probably identical with James,

  2. He is called Judas in Matt 13:55.

2., 3. Two of our Lord's ancestry. Luke 3:26, Neh 3:30.

  1. The patriarch Judah. Luke 3:33.

  2. The designation of the tribe. Heb 7:14; Rev 5:5; Acts 7:5.

JUDAE'A, OR JUDE'A, PROVINCE OF, a name applied to that part of Canaan occupied by those who returned after the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. The word first occurs Dan 5:13 (A.V. "Jewry"), and the first mention of the "province of Judaea" is in Ezr 5:8; it is alluded to in Neh 11:3 (A.V. "Judah"); in the Apocrypha the word "province" is dropped, and throughout it and in the N.T. the expressions are the "land of Judaea" and "Judaea." In a wider and more improper sense "Judaea" was sometimes applied to the whole country of the Canaanites, its ancient inhabitants, and even in the Gospels we read of the coasts of Judaea "beyond Jordan." Matt 19:1; Mark 10:1. Judaea was strictly the third district, west of the Jordan, and south of Samaria. It was made a portion of the Roman province of Syria after Archelaus was deposed, A.D. 6, and was governed by a procurator, who was subject to the governor of Syria. See Canaan, Palestine, and Judah.

JUDAE'A, THE HILL-COUNTRY OF, the central ridge of mountains stretching from north to south, and forming as it were the backbone of the land of Palestine. Luke 1:65.

JUDAE'A, WILDERNESS OF, a wild and desolate region extending from the hill-country near Jerusalem south-east to the Dead Sea, and averaging about 15 miles in breadth. Matt 3:1. It is a limestone country, rough and barren, with only patches of grass. It seems never to have had many inhabitants, and no cities. The traditional scene of the temptation of Christ is in this district, on a high mountain behind Jericho, frightfully desolate, and now infested with beasts and reptiles. See Matt 4:1; Mark 1:13.

JU'DAH (praise). 1. The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, was born in Mesopotamia. Gen 29:35. The name was given as an expression of the mother's gratitude. We know more of him than of the other patriarchs except Joseph, whose life he saved, advising the sale. Gen 37:26-28. His marriage, an incident in his son's life, and his liaison with Tamar are recorded in Gen 38. Judah became the surety for the safety of Benjamin on the second journey to Egypt. Gen 43:3-10. His conduct is worthy of all praise, and his plea for Benjamin's liberty is one of the most touching speeches in the Bible.Gen 44:14-34. He went down into Egypt with three sons. Gen 46:12. The tribe of Judah was always large and prominent, vying with Ephraim for the supremacy.

The prophetic blessing which his father pronounced on Judah, Gen 49:8-12, 486 is very remarkable. It describes the warlike character and gradually increasing strength of the tribe, comp. Num 2:3; Josh 14:11; Isa 15:1; Judges 1:1-2:1 Chr 14:17; Ps 18:40; Isa 29:1 (where its capital is called Ariel, "lion of God"), Rev 5:5; the duration of its power — viz. until the coming of Christ, when Judaea became a province of Rome, comp. Luke 2:1-7; John 18:31: Acts 5:37; and the destruction of their city, a.d. 70, when the Christian dispensation had become established, comp. Matt 24:14; Acts 2:8; Rom 10:18, in the glory and triumph of the Messiah.

His descendants took the southern section of Canaan, from the Jordan to the Mediterranean Sea, and northwardly to the territory of Benjamin and Dan. Josh 15:1-63.

In the catalogue of the cities of this tribe we have the "uttermost cities," or those nearest Edom, on the south; cities "in the valley" — that is, on the lowlands, near the coast; cities "in the mountains" — that is, up in the interior; and cities "in the wilderness," or along the shores of the Dead Sea. Josh 15:21, Josh 15:33, Josh 15:48, Josh 15:61.

Of the cities of Judah, several continued in the possession of the natives (as Ashdod, Gaza, Askelon, and Ekron), or, if conquered, were afterward recovered.

  1. Father of two Levites who were overseers of the temple-work. Ezr 3:9.

  2. A Levite who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:23; Neh 12:8, Neh 12:36.

  3. A Benjamite. Neh 11:9.

JU'DAH, LAND OF. See Canaan.

JU'DAH, THE KINGDOM OF. Extent. — The kingdom of Judah embraced not only the territory of the tribe of Judah (see above), but also included the larger part of Benjamin on the north-east, Dan on the north-west, and Simeon on the south. The area thus under the dominion of Judah is estimated at 3435 square miles. Besides this, Edom, subdued by David, continued faithful to Judah for a time, and the Red Sea ports furnished an outlet for commerce.

The kingdom had at the start the great advantages of having the former capital of the whole country, and in it the temple, the religious centre, the whole body of the priests who conducted the worship; then, too, the eclat of the Davidic family. It was, too, much less exposed to attack, its population was hardy and united. But these advantages did not remain of force. Samaria, the capital of the northern kingdom, proved equally attractive; indeed, very likely under the later kings it was a more magnificent city. The temple was rivalled by the shrines for the golden calves and for Baal and Astarte; the priesthood of these false faiths usurped the position of that of the true, and the glare of temporary worldly prosperity blinded the people to the consequences of their sin, while Judah fell under idolatry at times.

The family of David furnished all the 19 kings of Judah, but the eldest son did not always succeed. Judah outlasted Israel 135 years. The reasons for this are partly given above, but the Bible assigns as the cause the long-suffering of God and his unwillingness to remove the house of David. But although at last Judah had fallen, yet in the mercy of God there was a continuance; the independent national life was no more, but still a national life remained. The Lord turned the captivity of Zion. He heard the sighing of his prisoners, and so from under the yoke they returned, and from a weak handful again developed into a nation, although they never were what they had been. For the history of these Jews, see Jews.

History. — After the division of the kingdom, b.c. 975, Judah maintained its separate existence for 389 years, until b.c. 586. During this period there were 19 rulers, all of the lineage of David, excepting Athaliah. During the first three reigns Israel and Judah were in an attitude of hostility. Israel under Jeroboam was signally defeated. 2 Chr 13. Later, an alliance was formed by the marriage of Jehoshaphat's son with Ahab's daughter, Athaliah, 1 Kgs 22; 2 Chr 18, who usurped the crown. The two kingdoms combined against Syria. The two great foes of Judah were Egypt on the south and Assyria on the east. From Egypt came Shishak, who humbled Judah, 2 Chr 12:2-12; Zerah, whose million of men were routed by King Asa, 2 Chr 14:9-12; and Josiah was slain at Megiddo. 2 Chr 35:23. 487 The children of Aramon, Moab, and Mount Seir also invaded Judah during Jehoshaphat's reign, but they only destroyed one another. 2 Chr 20:22-25.

The armies of Assyria met with varied fortune. Tilgath-pilneser distressed Judah during the reign of Ahaz, 2 Chr 28:20; Sennacherib's host of 185,000 men was destroyed by the angel of the Lord in Hezekiah's reign, 2 Chr 32:21; 2 Kgs 19:35; Manasseh was carried away captive into Babylon, 2 Chr 33:11; Jehoiachin was also made captive; Zedekiah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, and was defeated, his sons slain before his eyes, and he made captive; Jerusalem was taken in b.c. 586, and the history of the kingdom of Judah was ended. For later events see Jerusalem, Palestine.


Situation and Extent. — The district assigned to the tribe of Judah in the Promised Land, with its cities, is described in Josh 15. It extended across the whole of Western Palestine, from the Dead Sea on the east to the Mediterranean on the west. The northern boundary extended from Beth-hogla (the present 'Ain Hajleh, a little to the south-east of Jericho), entered the hills near the present road from Jericho, ran westward to Enshemesh (below Bethany), thence over the Mount of Olives to Enrogel, and along the ravine of Hinnom (just south of Jerusalem), thence by the water of Nephtoah, Kirjath-jearim, Beth-shemesh, Timnah, and Ekron to Jabneel, on the sea-coast, some 4 miles below Joppa. See Josh 15:6-11. The Nahr Rubin, "River of Reuben," a winding, reedy river, the only real stream south of Jaffa, seems to have constituted the natural boundary.

The southern boundary-line is more difficult to trace, since some of the places mentioned in Josh 15:2-4 cannot be identified with certainty. It left the Dead Sea at its southern end, and extended westward to the river of Egypt, Wady el Arish. The average extent of this district was 50 miles from east to west and 45 miles from north to south, and its area about half that of the State of Connecticut. A portion of this territory was subsequently cut off for Simeon, which thus became the frontier tribe of the south. Josh 19:1-9. A portion of the north-western part was also given to Dan. Comp. Josh 19:40-48.

Physical Features. — The territory of Judah comprised four regions quite distinct in physical features: (1) The south country, or Negeb, where the fertile land shaded off into the wilderness. (2) The valley, plain, or Shefelah, lying between the Mediterranean and the central hill-country. Josh 15:33-47. This was an exceedingly fertile country, occupied by the Philistines, who constantly disputed possession. (3) The hill-country, occupying the central range of mountains. Josh 15:48-60. This region was favorable for the olive and vine. (4) The wilderness, sloping from the central hills to the Dead Sea, at which it terminates in precipitous cliffs. Josh 15:61-62. This barren tract has evidently been uncultivated and uninhabited from the remotest times, for here alone, of all Palestine, are found no traces of the ruins of former cities. An exception must be made of the fringe of the Dead Sea, where were six cities. Josh 15:21-62. For a more detailed account of its physical geography, see Palestine.

Cities and Towns. — A list of the cities belonging to the territory allotted to Judah is given in Josh 15:21-62. These are grouped in several divisions. There were 29 in the southern district, Josh 15:32. Mr. Wilton, in his book, The Negeb, gives a list of 29. The nearly 40 names in the received version are diminished by noting that some of the names standing for separate towns are really compound words. The towns of most note in Judah were Hebron, Bethlehem, Kirjath-jearim, Lachish, and Libnah. Thirteen of the cities of Judah, Benjamin, and Simeon were allotted to the priests. Josh 21:9-19. The Levites also had cities in other tribes.

History. — Under Joshua a part of the plain and some of the hill-towns were taken. Josh 10:28-35, Josh 10:38-40; Jer 11:21, Ex 11:23. After his death Judah and Simeon captured some of the Philistine cities and sacked Jerusalem. Jud 1:1-20. During the time of the Judges little is heard of Judah. Only one judge, Othniel, is certainly known to have belonged to that tribe. Jud 3:9-11. That its people were cowed by the Philistines appears from their conduct concerning Samson. Jud 15:9-13. Judah furnished a small 488 contingent for the army of King Saul the Benjamite. 1 Sam 15:4. David was made king at Hebron, and for seven years and a half ruled over Judah from that city. 2 Sam 2:11. After the splendid reigns of David and Solomon over the united tribes came the division and the separate kingdom of Judah, which is treated above.

JU'DAH, TRIBE OF, the largest of the tribes that came out of Egypt. Num 1:27. Judah, by reason of its size, and conscious, too, of the prophecy of the dying Jacob, Gen 49:8-12, assumed the position of leader. It was manifestly under the divine favor. When Moses gave his blessing upon the tribes, he said of Judah, "Hear, Lord, the voice of Judah, and bring him unto his people: let his hand be sufficient for him; and be thou a help to him from his enemies," Deut 33:7 — a prayer that God would help Judah successfully to lead the tribes. The tribe sent as their spy the faithful Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. Num 13:6. In the conquest Judah led, but the history only touches upon three points which particularly affected this tribe: (1) Achan was of Judah, Josh 7:1, Josh 7:16-18; (2) Caleb's conquest of Hebron, Josh 14:6-15; and (3) Othniel's (the nephew and son-inlaw of Caleb) conquest of Debir. Josh 15:13-19. These are the only instances of the special reservation of any portion of the country to its conquerors. Judah received the first allotment on the partition of the territory. Josh 15:1. Upon the death of Joshua, Judah undertook with Simeon the conquest of the interior. Jud 1:1-3. Judah seems to have been unmolested during the greater part of the period of the Judges. This state of things may have lessened its interest in the troubles of other tribes; at all events, Judah did not take much, if any, part in the different wars, except on the first occasion, when Othniel, who was a Judite, delivered Israel from Chushan-rishathaim. Jud 3:9. He was the only judge from this tribe, unless the Bethlehem from which Ibzan came be Bethlehem-Judah. It is markworthy that although Judah did not assist Barak, Deborah does not rebuke them. In the destruction of the Benjamites, Judah was selected by God to head the other tribes. Jud 20:18. In fact, Judah was independent, self-contained, strong, and determined all through its history. It was a nation in itself. It absorbed some of the surrounding peoples, as the Kenites, Jud 1:16; cf. 1 Sam 15:6; 1 Sam 30:29, and the Jerahmeelites. 1 Sam 27:10; 1 Sam 30:29. From the Kenites came Jael, Jud 4:17, and the Rechabites. 1 Chr 2:55. When the choice of the king fell upon a man of Benjamin, Judah may have been displeased; at all events, they preserved during Saul's reign a very independent position, but when Saul was dead they with others offered the crown to David, who was of their own flesh and blood. Under Solomon they were quiet, although heavily taxed, because they held the greater proportion of the state appointments. With the revolt of Jeroboam the history of Judah as a tribe ceases; their history as a kingdom begins, for which, see Judah, Kingdom AND Territory of.

JUDAH, THE CITY OF. 2 Chr 25:28. Several manuscripts, and all the versions except the Chaldee, read "city of David," which was a name of Mount Zion at Jerusalem, where were the tombs of the kings.

JUDAH UPON JORDAN, a town in Naphtali. Josh 19:34. Why it was so called is not known. Some regard it as an error in the text, but the manuscripts do not prove this; others suppose there was a town, in one tribe, named after another tribe, and refer this to Havoth-jair, see Num 32:41, near the Jordan. Dr. Thomson found a place near Banias marked by ruins and a tomb called by the Arabs Seid Yehuda, "My Lord Judah," which he believes is the site of ancient Judah upon Jordan, with its name perpetuated.

JU'DAS (praise). 1. The patriarch Judah. Matt 1:2-3.

  1. The betrayer of Christ. Matt 10:4; Mark 3:19; Luke 6:16. Nothing is known of his early history. His name has been variously interpreted, but best as from Ish Kerioth, "the man of Kerioth," a town of Judah. Josh 15:25. He is called the son of Simon. John 6:71. His executive ability led to his choice as treasurer, but the office stimulated and increased his avarice. John 12:6; John 13:29. This trait is shown very strikingly in his regret over Mary's "waste." It has been suggested that

the loss, as he regarded it, of the 300 denarii which the ointment cost may have made him the more willing to accept the 30 shekels (the price of a slave) which he received for the betrayal of Christ. Matt 26:15. The best explanation of the awful crime is that of our Lord: he was under the influence of Satan. John 6:70-71. Judas returned after making the infamous bargain, and mingled again with the disciples. He was present at the paschal supper, though probably not at the institution of the Lord's Supper. His familiarity with the habits of Jesus enabled him to guide the attendant mob directly to the garden of Gethsemane, and there, with the moisture of Jesus' lips still wet upon his own, to give the command, "Take him." Matt 14:43-45. But when the deed was done there came on the reaction. He knew and confessed that he had betrayed "innocent blood." He could not endure the strain of a conscience on the rack. He flung the money to the priests and went and hanged himself, but was not suffered to present an unmangled corpse, for, the rope breaking, his body fell headlong and all his bowels gushed out. Comp. Matt 27:5 with Acts 1:18. The 30 shekels were not put into the treasury, since they were "the price of blood;" accordingly, the priests bought a field with them. Matt 27:7. This is the purchase attributed to Judas himself by Peter. Acts 1:18.

Aceldama, where he committed suicide, is shown on the southern slope of the valley of Hinnom. Some have attempted to extenuate his guilt by supposing that he wished to hasten the crisis and to force Christ to set up his kingdom. But our Lord, the most merciful of beings, calls him "the son of perdition," for whom it would have been good "if he had not been born." He is branded in history as the most ungrateful of traitors, although the wisdom of God overruled his treason for the crucifixion of Jesus, whose death is our salvation.

  1. The one called Juda in Mark 6:3.

  2. A brother of James, and one of the apostles; called also Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus and Jude. Matt 10:3; Mark 3:18: Luke 6:16; John 14:22; Acts 1:13; Matt 13:55.

  3. Judas of Galilee, a leader of an insurrection "in the days of taxing" — i. e. the census — a.d. 6, and who, according to Gamaliel, was very successful for a time, but was ultimately completely defeated. Acts 5:37. We find in Joscphus an allusion to a man, who is there said to have been born in the city of Gamala in Gaulanitis, and to have been the founder of a new sect, which did not differ from that of the Pharisees save in a fanatical love of liberty and refusal to support the Roman state.

  4. The one whose house in Straight Street, Damascus, sheltered Paul during his blindness. Acts 9:11, Acts 9:17. This Judas may have kept an inn; it is unlikely that he was a disciple.

  5. Judas, surnamed Barsabas, a "chief man among the brethren," a "prophet," who was chosen along with Paul and Barnabas and Silas to carry the decisions of the council of Jerusalem, a.d. 50, to Antioch. Acts 15:22-33.

JUDE was one of the apostles, and the brother of James the Less, Jude 1. He is called "Judas," Matt 13:55; John 14:22; Acts 1:13, and elsewhere "Lebbaeus," Matt 10:3, and "Thaddaeus." Mark 3:18.

Epistle of, was written about a.d. 65. The author calls himself "a servant of Christ and a brother of James," who was a brother of Christ and was also called the Just and the bishop of Jerusalem. See James. The epistle is intended to guard believers against prevalent errors, and to urge them to constancy in the faith once delivered to the saints. This is done by a vivid exhibition of the terrors of God's judgments upon the wicked, and by a recurrence to that great principle of our religion, dependence on Christ alone, to keep us from falling. In Jude 9 we read: "Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said. The Lord rebuke thee." This incident is not elsewhere recorded in Scripture, and is probably quoted from the Apocalypse of Moses. In Jude 14 Jude quotes a prophecy of Enoch, the seventh from Adam.

There is a striking resemblance between 2 Peter and Jude. Both are warnings against errorists.


  1. This was the title of a class of magistrates among the Israelites.

They were appointed originally by Moses, at the suggestion of his father-in-law, to relieve him of a part of the duties of the chief magistracy. Ex 18:13-26. The judicial authority was primarily administered by the elders and by the heads of families. After the kingdom was established the king became the supreme source of justice, "consulting, very probably, on occasion, the high priest as to the interpretation of the Law, the right of asking counsel of God through the priest being claimed as a royal prerogative." — Ayre. See Num 27:21; 1 Sam 14:18 (ephod, not ark); 1 Sam 22:10, 1 Sam 22:13, 1 Sam 22:15; 1 Sam 23:6. But under him there were local judges, many of whom were Levites. 1 Chr 23:4. The great reform of Jehoshaphat included a sort of supreme court sitting in Jerusalem. 2 Chr 19:5-11. In later times the Sanhedrin was this court. Numerous exhortations are given in the Bible concerning judicial fairness. Deut 16:19; Prov 24:23; Ps 82.

  1. Besides these, there were others called Judges, whose history is given in the book of that name, but they were a class of men raised up in special emergencies and invested with extraordinary civil and military powers, not unlike the archons of Athens and the dictators of Rome. See Hebrews. They were given to the Israelites about the space of 450 years, until Samuel the prophet. Acts 13:20.

List of Judges, and probable Term of Service.


Othniel, about b.c. 1400........................40

Under Eglon ......................................18

Ehud, etc ........................................80

Under the Philistines ............................unk.

Shamgar ..........................................unk.

Under Jabin ......................................20

Deborah and Barak ................................40

Under Midian ......................................7

Gideon ...........................................40

Abimelech .........................................3

Tola .............................................23

Jair .............................................18

Under the Ammonites ..............................18

Jephthah ..........................................6

Ibzau .............................................7

Elon .............................................10

Abdon .............................................8

Under the Philistines ............................40

Samson ...........................................20

Eli ..............................................40

Under the Philistines ............................20

Samuel, about ....................................12

Saul, the first king, b.c. 1091.

It is only proper to add that the chronology of the Bible is very uncertain until we get to David's reign, and that these 15 specified Judges may not all have been successive. The period of the Judges was a semi-barbarous age, where might was right, and every one did what seemed good in his sight. But it was also a period of divine interpositions and deliverances. It was the heroic age of Jewish history.

Judges, Book of, derives its title from the fact that it gives us the history of the Israelites under the administration of 15 Judges, viz. from 18 or 20 years after the death of Joshua to the time of Saul. The chronology is uncertain. This book has been well styled a commentary upon the text "Righteousness exalteth a nation; but sin is a reproach to any people." Prov 14:34. It may be divided into two parts: I. Chs. 3-16, an account of God's successive deliverances; II. Chs. 17-21, an account, detached from the preceding and out of chronological order, of the invasion of Laish by the Danites, in connection with the story of Micah and his priest, Jonathan, chs. 17 and 18; and an account of the revenge of the insult to the Levite, chs. 19-21, the whole prefaced with an introduction, chs. 1-3. The book is quite evidently a compilation from existent and trustworthy materials. Its date is uncertain.

JUDGMENT, JUDGMENTS. These are words of frequent occurrence in the sacred Scriptures, and the sense of them is generally determined by the connection. When God's judgments are spoken of, the term may denote either the secret decisions of the divine will, Ps 10:5; Isa 36:6, or the declarations of God's will revealed in the Scriptures, Ex 21:1; Deut 7:12; Neh 9:13, or the inflictions of punishment on the wicked. Prov 19:29: Eze 25:11.

JUDG'MENT-HALL, a room or office in the palace of the Roman governor where causes were tried and justice administered, John 18:28. The Jews declined to enter it when they were prosecuting their murderous purpose against the Redeemer, lest they should be defiled by an approximation to the person of a heathen.

The Judgment-seat, Matt 27:19, was an elevated place in the hall of judgement 491 which sentence was pronounced.

Judgment, Breastplate of. See Breastplate.

Judgment of Urim. See Urim.

Judgment, Day of. Matt 10:15, that important day which is to terminate the present dispensation of grace, when time shall be no more and the eternal state of all men shall be unchangeably fixed. That such an event is necessary to vindicate the justice of God, Luke 16:25, and that such a day is appointed, is abundantly evident. Eccl 11:9; Matt 12:36; Acts 17:31; 2 Thess 1:7-10; Heb 9:27; 2 Pet 2:9: 2 Pet 3:7; 1 John 4:17. That Jesus Christ will officiate as Judge is also evident. Matt 25:31-32; Matt 26:64; John 5:22; Acts 17:31: Rom 2:16; 2 Cor 5:10. That the judgment will be universal appears from Eccl 12:14; John 5:28-29; Rom 14:10-11; 2 Cor 5:10; Rev 20:12-13. That its decision will be final and irreversible, admitting the righteous to the joys of Christ's kingdom and dooming the wicked to outer darkness and eternal despair, appears from the foregoing Scriptures, and also from Matt 26:14-46; 1 Cor 15:52-57; 1 Thess 4:14-17; Heb 6:2.

JU'DITH (Jewess), a wife of Esau. Gen 26:34.

JUDITH, THE APOCRYPHAL BOOK OF, one of the earliest specimens of historical fiction, relates the brave action of Judith, a Jewish widow distinguished for her beauty, her virtue, and her patriotism. When Holofernes, a general of Nebuchadnezzar, was besieging Bethulia, a city of Judaea, and had already reduced the inhabitants to great straits, she determined to deliver her people. To this end she managed to get admission into the enemy's camp, to win the confidence of Holofernes, and at last to kill him with her own hand while he lay drunk. She then escaped to the city, and showing the head aroused their courage; and thus the discomfited enemy were put to flight.

The book of Judith is pure fiction. It was written in Hebrew during the days of the Maccabees, for the purpose of encouraging the people in their struggle. But its morality is sadly defective. The author is unknown.

JU'LIA (feminine of Julius), probably the wife of Philologus, whom Paul salutes. Rom 16:15.

JU'LIUS, the captain of the Roman guard to whom Festus, governor of Judaea, committed Paul to be conveyed to Rome, Acts 27:1. Julius appears to have had great regard for Paul. He suffered him to land at Sidon and visit his friends there, and in a subsequent part of the voyage he opposed the violence of the soldiers, directed against the prisoners generally, in order to save the apostle. Acts 27:43.

JU'NIA, a Christian at Rome saluted by Paul. Rom 16:7.

JU'NIPER. Unquestionably, the original intends the re-tem (Retama raetum), a shrub of the broom family, attaining a height of about 12 feet. This bush grows in the sandy regions of Arabia, northern Africa, and Spain, but is especially abundant in the desert

Retem or Juniper Bush. (After Tristram.)

of Sinai, and is often the only possible shelter. Under its shade travelers are glad to creep on a sultry day for a noontime nap, and thus Elijah lay and slept after his long journey. 1 Kgs 19:4-5. The retem has no main trunk, but consists of many stems, mostly small. The roots are disproportionally massive and 492 dense, and from them the Bedouins manufacture charcoal, which is sold in Cairo and other towns, where it brings the highest price, since, of all charcoal, it produces the most intense heat, Ps 120:4. In Job 30:4 we read of hunger so extreme that the bitter roots of this shrub are used for food. During the wanderings of the Israelites one of their stations was named Rithmah, doubtless from the abundance of the retem at that place. Num 33:18.

JUNIPER, COALS OF. See above, and Armor.

JU'PITER, the highest and mightiest of the Olympian gods, reputed as the powerful ruler of the world, the father of gods and men, is twice mentioned in the N.T.

  1. The incident at Lystra, Acts 14:12. When the Lystrians saw the impotent man instantly healed, they were disposed to regard the apostles as gods in the likeness of men; and as there was a tradition among them that their province was once visited by Jupiter and Mercury, they were inclined to regard this as a repetition of the favor. Acts 14:12. So they called Barnabas "Jupiter," and Paul, who was the chief speaker, "Mercury," the god of eloquence. The priest of Jupiter, the tutelar deity of the city, whose image or temple was before the gates, brought the usual sacrifices decked out for the altar, and would have joined the people in the religious worship of the apostles had they not been persuaded to desist by their solemn warnings.

  2. The image of Diana at Ephesus was said to have fallen from Jupiter, Acts 19:35. See Diana.

JU'SHAB-HE'SED (whose love is returned), one of David's posterity, 1 Chr 3:20.

JUS'TIFY, JUSTIFICA'TION, Rom 4:25. These terms involve one of the fundamental principles of the Christian faith. They stand opposite to "condemn" and "condemnation." In their evangelical use they denote that act of God's sovereign grace by which he accepts and receives those who believe in Christ as just and righteous. Justification includes the pardon of sins and the imputation of the righteousness of Christ. The merits of Christ are the only ground of justification; faith is the only means of justification; good works are the necessary fruit or evidence of justification. The Epistles of Paul to the Galatians and the Romans give the fullest exposition of this doctrine. The Roman Catholic divines identify justification with sanctification, and hence teach progressive justification by faith and good works. They appeal especially to Jas 2:24. But James opposes a dead faith which remains "alone," Heb 2:17, and which even demons have. 1 Kgs 2:19. It is only living or working faith by which we can be justified (comp. Gal 5:6, "faith which worketh by love").

JUS'TUS (just).

  1. A surname of Joseph called Barsabas, Acts 1:23. See Joseph, 10.

    1. The Jewish proselyte in Corinth in whose house Paul preached - not lodged, for he stopped with Aquila, Acts 18:7.

    2. A surname of Jesus, a fellow worker of Paul, Col 4:11.

JUT'TAH, a town in the mountains of Judah, in the same group with Maon and Carmel, Josh 15:55. It was allotted to the priests, Josh 21:16. Eusebius describes it as a large village, 18 miles southward of Eleutheropolis. Reland conjectured that this was the " city of Juda," Luke 1:39, in which Zacharias, father of John the Baptist, resided. But there is no positive evidence of this. Juttah is identified with Yutta, on a hill 5 miles south of Hebron.

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