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A and O, or ALPHA and OMEGA, the first and the last letters of the Greek alphabet, are four times used by Christ, Rev 1:8, Rev 1:11[omitted in oldest MSS.] ;Rev 21:6; Rev 22:13, just as the phrase "The first and .... the last" is used by Jehovah, Isa 41:4;Isa 44:6, to express the idea of eternity, and also of divine causality. The Church very early adopted these two letters as a symbol of the eternal divinity of our Lord, and used it extensively on monuments of every description, sometimes alone, but more frequently in connection with the cross and the monogram of Christ in its various forms, as

AA'RON (mountaineer, or more probably, from another root, enlightened), the first high priest of the Jews; eldest son of Amram, the grandson, and Jochebed, the daughter, of Levi; brother of Miriam, who was several years older, and of Moses, who was three years younger. Ex 6:20 ; cf.Ex 2:1, Ex 6:4;Ex 7:7;Num 26:59. The family of Aaron belonged to the Kohathite branch of the tribe of Levi, the most numerous and powerful. This gave them prominence, so that the leadership naturally fell to them. When first mentioned he is called, Ex 4:14, the "Levite," which implies that he was a recognized leader in his tribe, and, as the first-born son, he would be the priest of the household. Aaron's wife was Elisheba, daughter of the prince of Judah, and he had four sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. Ex 6:23. The greater portion of his life is passed over in silence by the Bible writers, and he was eighty-three years old before he is introduced to us. Moses had timidly declined to be the leader of his people out of captivity, and had assigned as a reason that he was "slow of speech and of a slow tongue," Ex 4:10; whereupon God tells him that Aaron, his brother, was coming toward him, evidently under divine direction, and that he would act as his mouthpiece, because he possessed in a high degree popular gifts of speech and argument.

Thus brought together, and understanding their respective functions, the brothers started for the court of Pharaoh, and from that time on Aaron played a very prominent part in the drama of Israel's deliverance. Side by side Moses and Aaron stand before the Lord, before Pharaoh, before the enraged elders of Israel. Furnished with words, Aaron utters them in these several presences, works miracles, and evinces courage. His work was by no means easy, but he carried it on successfully.

On the way to Sinai the battle with Amalek was fought, and Aaron joins Hur in holding up the weary arms of Moses. Ex 17:9,Ex 17:13. With his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, he and Moses saw the Lord.Ex 24. But when Moses was not with him, then he showed himself weak, and it will always be told, to his discredit, that he made the golden calf — not, indeed, as a substitute for Jehovah, but rather as a concession. He proclaimed a feast to the Lord, but the people ran into great excesses, and as Moses was descending from the mount it was the noise of the dancing and music which so raised his anger. Ex 32. Notwithstanding this grievous sin Aaron and his sons were consecrated as the first priests of the Israelites. 10 Ex 40:12-15; cf. Ex 28; Lev 8.

See Priest. He was forbidden to mourn for his sons, Nadab and Abihu, who were destroyed for offering strange fire. Lev 10. Miriam, becoming jealous of Moses' wife, probably because her influence was weakened, induced Aaron to murmur against Moses on the ground that he assumed too much authority. Aaron deeply repented when rebuked, and joined with Moses in a prayer for Miriam's recovery. Num 12. See Miriam. Twenty years later the Lord interposed to vindicate Aaron's authority against Korah and his company, and by a miracle, the budding rod, confirmed the original choice. Num 16, Num 17. The plague which broke out was stopped by Aaron's atonement. He stood between the living and the dead.

Aaron fell under the influence of whichever strong nature was nearest to his at the time. So he was carried away by Moses into sin at the waters of Meribah, and in punishment they were both kept out of the Promised Land. Aaron died first, upon Mount Hor, from whence he could obtain a distant view of Palestine, and there, in the presence of Moses, who stripped him of his priestly garments and put them upon Aaron's son, Eleazar, the first high priest, who for nearly forty years had discharged his sacred office, in spite of his faults thus highly exalted, fell, at the age of one hundred and twenty-three, under the dominion of the universal conqueror, and was buried upon the mountain. Num 20:23-29. A Mohammedan mosque marks the supposed grave of Aaron, on one of the two tops of Mount Hor, which is near Petra, in the desert. See Hor, Mount.

Aaron is called the "saint of the Lord " with reference to his official character, Ps 106:16, but, as the most superficial study of his life shows, he was far from perfect. He was a better servant than master. He was weak in command, but faithful in duty. He yielded like wax to the impressions of the moment. Yet it may readily be believed that the people loved him, perhaps more than Moses, and that the mourning over his death, which lasted thirty days, Num 20:28, was sincere. One of the fasts of later Judaism was one in his memory, held on the first day of the fifth month, Ab, our July or August.

The Jewish priesthood began in the family of Aaron and remained its possession, though not uninterruptedly, in the line of Eleazar; it passed into the family of Ithamar, the brother of Eleazar, in the person of Eli; but, in consequence of the excesses of Eli's sons, God declared that it should be taken from his family, 1 Sam 2:30, and this prophecy was fulfilled in the time of Solomon, who took the priesthood from Abiathar and restored it to Zadok, of the line of Eleazar. 1 Kgs 2:27.

AA'RONITES. 1 Chr 12:27. Levites of the family of Aaron: the priests who served the sanctuary. Eleazar, Aaron's son, was their chief. Num 4:16.

AB. See Month.

ABAD'DON (destruction), the Hebrew name for the angel of the bottomless pit, and answering to the Greek name Apollyon, the destroyer. Rev 9:11.

ABAG'THA (derivation doubtful; probably God-given), one of the seven chamberlains of the court of Ahasuerus. Esth 1:10.

AB'ANA (stony), a river of Damascus, 2 Kgs 5:12, and supposed to be identical with the Amana of Song of Solomon 4:8. Probably the modern Barada, which the Greeks called the Chrysorrhoas (golden stream). It rises in the mountains of Anti-Libanus, about 23 miles N. W. of Damascus, runs through the city in several streams or canals, thence across the plain, and 18 miles east of Damascus falls by several branches into the marshy Bahret-el Kihliyeh, or so-called "Meadow Lakes." The river is a clear, limpid, copious, and perennial stream, and is the chief source of the fertility of the plain of Damascus, making it a garden in the desert. It falls 1149 feet, and waters 800 square miles of territory containing about 14 villages.

AB'ARIM (mountains beyond, or of the fords), a range of mountains east of the river Jordan, in the land of Moab, opposite Jericho. Num 27:12 ;Num 33:47; Deut 32:49. Nebo, Peor, and Pisgah belong to this range. In Jer 22:20 the word is translated "passages." Ijo-abarim in Num 21:11


Sketch-Map of the Abana and Pharpar Rivers.

means heaps or ruins of Aharim, and was near the same range.

AB'BA, the Chaldee form of the Hebrew word ab, signifying father. Applied to God in the New Testament by Christ, Mark 14:36, and by Paul, Mark Rom. 8:15; Gal 4:6. The syllable ab, in the sense of "possessed of," "endowed with," frequently occurs in the composition of Hebrew proper names; e. g. Abner, Absalom.

AB'DA (servant, Chaldee form). 1. Father of Adoniram. 1 Kgs 4:6.

  1. Son of Shammua, Neh 11:17; called Obadiah in 1 Chr 9:16.

AB'DEEL (servant of God), father of Shelemiah. Jer 36:26.

AB'DI (my servant). 1. A Merarite Levite, and ancestor of Ethan the singer. 1 Chr 6:44.

  1. A Levite of the same family, father of Kish. 2 Chr 29:12.

  2. One of the sons of Elam, who had taken a foreign wife. Ezr 10:26.

AB'DIEL (servant of God), a chief of Gad. 1 Chr 5:15.

AB'DON (servile). 1. An Ephraimite who judged Israel, Jud 12:13-15; perhaps the same with Bedan of 1 Sam 12:11.

  1. A Benjamite, son of Shashak. 1 Chr 8:23.

  2. A Benjamite, son of Jehiel, of Gibeon. 1 Chr 8:30; 1 Chr 9:36.

  3. A son of Micah, one of Josiah's officers, 2 Chr 34:20; called Achbor. 2 Kgs 22:12,2 Kgs 22:14.

AB'DON (servile), a city in the territory of Asher, assigned to the Levites. Josh 21:30; 1 Chr 6:74. It may be located at the modern Ahdeh, ruins 10 miles N. E. of Accho.

ABED'-NEGO (servant of Nego, perhaps the same as Nebo, the Chaldean name of the planet Mercury, who was worshipped as the scribe and interpreter of the gods), the Chaldee name given by an officer of the king of Babylon to Azariah, one of the four youths mentioned in the book of Daniel who were taken captive at Jerusalem, b. c. 604, and carried to Babylon, where they were trained for the royal service. Dan 1:7. The names of the others were likewise changed. Daniel was called Belteshazzar; Hananiah, Shadrach; and Mishael, Meshach. Daniel, promoted in consequence of his interpretation of the king's dream, secured positions for his three companions. These three are immortal because on the occasion of the dedication of a golden image by Nebuchadnezzar they refused to bow down and worship it. Accordingly, they were cast into a burning fiery furnace, from which they were miraculously delivered unscathed. Dan 3. See Daniel.

A'BEL( Heb. Hebel—i. e. breath, 12 vapor), the second son of Adam and Eve, so called perhaps from the fleeting character of his life, or because, since Cain was not the promised seed, as Eve expected at his birth, life itself seemed of little worth; it was but "a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away." Gen 4:2. He was a keeper or feeder of sheep, and in process of time brought of the firstlings or first-fruits of his flock an offering unto the Lord. God accepted his offering and gave him evidence of it. Heb 11:4. Not so with Cain. Either his sacrifice, or the manner of presenting it, offended God, and the offering was rejected. 1 John 3:12. Cain, exceedingly angry, and filled with envy, embraced an opportunity when they were in the field together to take his brother's life. Gen 4.

Our Saviour distinguishes Abel by the title "righteous." Matt 23:35. He is also one of the faithful "elders" mentioned in the Epistle to the Matt 23:Hebrews, ch. 11 , and is justly called the first martyr.

A'BEL (meadow), a prefix in the names of several places, as below.

A'BEL, of the vineyards, see margin, Jud 11:33, or "plain of the vineyards," as the text reads, was a place east of the Jordan, perhaps the present Merj Ekkeh.

A'BEL, and A'BEL-BETH-MA'ACHAH (meadow of the house of oppression), a town in the north of Palestine near Cesarea Philippi, the modern Ahil-el-Kamh, a ruin on a stream north of the waters of Merom. It was attacked by Joab, 2 Sam 20:14, 2 Sam 20:15; by Benhadad, 1 Kgs 15:20; and by Tiglath-pileser. 2 Kgs 15:29.

A'BEL-MA'IM (meadow of waters), another name for Abel-BethMaaehah. 2 Chr 16:4.

A'BEL - MEHO'LAH (meadow of the dance), a place in the Jordan valley between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. 1 Kgs 4:12 . Gideon pursued the Midianites near it, Jud 7:22; and it was the home of Elisha. 1 Kgs 19:16. Van de Velde locates it 10 miles south of Bethshean; Conder, in Wadi Maleh, on the road from Beisan to the Jordan, at Aio Helweh.

A'BEL-MIZ'RAIM (meadow of Egypt), a name given by the Canaanites to the floor of Atad, where Joseph mourned for his father, Jacob. Gen 50:11. It was "beyond " — that is, west of — the Jordan, as the writer was on the east side. Some place it at Beth-hoglah, or near Jericho; others think it was near Hebron.

A'BEL- SHIT'TIM (meadow of the acacias), the name of the last halting-place of the Israelites before entering Canaan, and in the plain of Moab, near the Jordan. Num 33:49. It is also called Shittim. Num 25:1.

A'BEL, STONE OF. 1 Sam 6:18. A place near Beth-shemesh, where the ark of the Lord was set down.

A'BEZ (tin ? or lofty), a town of Issachar. Josh 19:20. Some think it the same as Thebez, Jud 9:50, near to En-gannim and Shunem; others identify it with Kuehiz, three miles S. W. of Iksal. Conder suggests el-Beida.

A'BI (father = progenitor), the mother of Hezekiah, 2 Kgs 18:2; called more fully Abijah. 2 Chr 29:1.

ABI'A, ABI'AH, and ABI'JAH (whose father is Jehovah) are all the same name.

ABI'A. 1. Abijah, king of Judah, so called in 1 Chr 3:10; Matt 1:7.

  1. The Greek form of Abijah, head of one of the courses of priests. Luke 1:5. See Abijah.

ABI'A, COURSE OF. Luke 1:5. In 1 Chr 24 we have an account of the divisions of the priests into twenty four classes, courses, or orders, who ministered at the altar in rotation. The courses were distinguished by the name of the most prominent member of the family from which the course was taken. The eighth of these courses fell to the family of Abia or Abijah; and to this course belonged Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist.

ABI'AH. 1. Second son of Samuel. 1 Sam 8:2; 1 Chr 6:28.

  1. The wife of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:24.

  2. Son of Becher, Benjamin's son. 1 Chr 7:8.

A'BI-AL'BON (father of strength, i. e. strong), one of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:31; called Abiel. 1 Chr 11:32.

ABI'ASAPH (father of gathering, i. e. gathered), a Levite, one of the sons of Korah, and head of one of the 13 Korhitic families,Ex 6:24: called Ebiasaph in 1 Chr 6:37 and 1 Chr 9:19.

ABI'ATHAR (father of abundance, i. e. liberal), the tenth high priest of the Jews, and fourth in descent from Eli. 1 Sam 22:20. He was the son of Ahimelech, and the only one who escaped when Doeg at Saul's command slew the priests at Nob in revenge for Ahimelech's service to David in inquiring of the Lord for him, and in giving him the shew-bread to eat, and Goliath's sword.1 Sam 22. Abiathar fled to David at Keilah, and told him what Saul had done. David received him, and he afterward became high priest. Thus there were two high priests in Israel at the same time — Abiathar, in the party of David, and Zadok, in the party of Saul, 2 Sam 8:17; but, in consequence of his supporting Adonijah in his pretensions to the throne of David, Solomon, upon becoming king, thrust Abiathar out of the priesthood, 1 Kgs 2:27, and conferred the office exclusively upon Zadok. See Zadok. Thus was fulfilled the word of God to Eli, 1 Sam 2:31; for Abiathar was the last of the priests of the house of Ithamar, to which Eli belonged; and Zadok, who succeeded him, was of the family of Eleazar; and so the priesthood passed into its former channel. Abiathar, mentioned in Mark 2:26, has been supposed by some to be the same with Ahimelech. The most probable solution of the difficulty is, perhaps, that Abiathar and Ahimelech may have been hereditary names in the family, and therefore were both borne by the same person. Hence the name Abiathar, being that of David's friend, would be more commonly used than Ahimelech. This theory also accounts for the substitution of one name for another in 2 Sam 8:17; 1 Chr 18:16, and 1 Chr 24:3, 1 Chr 24:6, 1 Chr 24:31. The facts to which the Gospel alludes in the passage cited are fully stated in 1 Sam 21.

A'BIB (month). SeeMonth.

ABI'DA, or ABI'DAH (father of knowledge, i. e. wise), a son of Midian. Gen 25:4; 1 Chr 1:33.

AB'IDAN (father of the judge), prince of Benjamin. Num 1:11;Num 2:22; Num 7:60, Num 1:65;Num 10:24.

ABI'EL (father of strength, i. e. strong). (1). The father of Kish and Ner. 1 Sam 9:1;1 Sam 14:51.

(2). One of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:32. See Abi-albon.

ABIE'ZER (the father of help, i. e. helpful), the eldest son of Gilead, Josh 17:2; Num 26:30; or of a sister of Gilead, 1 Chr 7:18; founded a family at Ophrah, from which sprang Gideon. Jud 8:32.

ABIEZ'RITE (the father of help), a family descended from Abiezer. Jud 6:11, Jud 6:24;Jud 8:32.

AB'IGAIL (father, i. e. source, of joy). (1). The wise and beautiful wife of the churlish and wicked Nabal, a wealthy man of Carmel. 1 Sam 25:3. When her husband had exposed himself to the anger of David by his rude and contemptuous treatment of his messengers, Abigail hastened to meet him while he was on his way with four hundred men to revenge the insult. She managed the affair with so much prudence as to pacify David and obtain his blessing. About ten days after her return the Lord visited Nabal with sickness, and he died, and Abigail became David's wife.

(2). One of David's sisters, married to Jether, and mother of Amasa. 2 Sam 17:25;1 Chr 2:17.

ABIHA'IL (father of strength, i. e. the strong one). (1). The father of Zuriel, " chief of the . . . house of the families of Marari." Num 3:35.

(2). The wife of Abishur. 1 Chr 2:29.

(3). The son of Huri, of the tribe of Gad. 1 Chr 5:14.

(4). The wife of Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:18.

(5). The father of Esther. Esth 2:15; Esth 9:29.

ABI'HU (whose father is He, i. e. God), the second son of Aaron, who with his elder brother, Nadab. his father, and 70 of the elders of Israel, went upon Mount Sinai with Moses. Ex 6:23; Ex 28:1. He was afterward set apart by God, with his brothers, Nadab, Eleazar, and Ithamar, to the priesthood. Soon after they entered on their sacred duties. Nadab and Abihu violated God's commands respecting the manner of offering incense, and were instantly consumed. Lev 10:1, Lev 10:2. This event happened in the wilderness of Sinai. The nature of their offence is very obvious; they used common fire instead of the fire which burnt continually 14 upon the altar of burnt-offering, and some suppose they were drawn into this presumptuous sin by the too free use of wine. Their father and brothers were forbidden to make public mourning for them.

ABI'HUD (whose father is Judah, i. e. renown), the son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:3.

ABI'JAH (whose father is Jehovah). (1). A son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel, who died under interesting circumstances in early life. 1 Kgs 14:1. See Jeroboam.

(2). Abijah or Abijam, 2 Chr 13:1, the son of Rehoboam and Michaiah, succeeded his father as king of Judah b. c. 959. He made war against Jeroboam, king of Israel, for the purpose of getting back the kingship of the ten tribes, and defeated him, with a loss of 500,000 men. These figures are probably through a mistake made too large; the loss, it is likely, was not greater than 50,000. He began to reign in the 18th year of Jeroboam, and was succeeded by his son Asa in the 20th year of Jeroboam, so that he reigned only a part of three years. The apparent contradiction in respect to the parentage of this person, as it is given in 1 Kgs 15:2 and 2 Chr 13:2 may be explained by supposing that his mother Maachah (or Michaiah) was the daughter of Uriel and the granddaughter of Absalom, who is called Abishalom.1 Kgs 15:2. The term "daughter" is given in the Bible to other relatives than one's own child; e. g. to a niece, granddaughter, or great granddaughter.

(3). The head of one of the courses of priests, 1 Chr 24:10; Neh 12:17; termed Abia in Luke 1:5.

(4). The mother of Hezekiah,2 Chr 29:1 also called Abi in 2 Kgs 18:2.

(5). One of the priests who "sealed the covenant;" i. e. appended their seals unto it to signify that they were parties to it. Neh 10:7.

(6). A priest who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon. Neh 12:4,Neh 12:17.

ABI'JAM(father of the sea, i. e. a maritime person). 1 Kgs 15:1, 1 Kgs 15:7, 1 Kgs 15:8. See Abijah (2).

ABILE'NE (from Abila), a small district of Palestine on the eastern slopes of Anti-Libanus, of which Abila on the river Barada was the capital. It was governed by Lysanias in the time of John the Baptist. Luke 3:1.

ABIM'AEL (father of Mael), a descendant of Joktan, and supposed progenitor of the Arabian tribe Mali. Gen 10:28; 1 Chr 1:22.

ABIM'ELECH (father of the king). (1). A king of the Philistines at Gerar. Gen 20:2. Being deceived by Abraham, he took Sarah, Abraham's wife, to be his wife. God warned him, however, in a dream of Sarah's relation to Abraham, and thus withheld him from the commission of sin, because he did it in ignorance. Gen 20:6. Abimelech, having rebuked Abraham, restored Sarah to him with many gifts, and offered him a dwelling-place in any part of the land. God afterward remitted the punishment of the family of Abimelech.

(2). At a subsequent period, Abimelech, a successor of the preceding, was deceived in like manner by Isaac, respecting his wife Rebekah, while they dwelt in Gerar during a time of famine in Canaan. Gen 26.

(3). A son of Gideon, who, after the death of his father, persuaded the men of Shechem to make him king. Jud 8:31; Jud 9:18. He afterward put to death seventy of his brothers who dwelt in his father's house at Ophrah, leaving only Jotham, the youngest, alive. On learning of his exaltation to the kingship of the Shechemites, who had formed themselves into an independent state, Jotham told them the fable of the trees, Jud 9:7, etc., which is the oldest fable extant. The Shechemites in the third year of his reign rebelled against him during his absence, but he put the revolt down on his return. Shortly afterward, while storming the fortress of Thebez, he was mortally wounded by a piece of a millstone thrown upon his head by a woman from the top of a tower. That it might not be said a woman slew him, he called to his armor-bearer to stab him with his sword, and thus he died. Jud 9:54-57.

(4). A son of Abiathar. 1 Chr 18:16.

(5). The name given to Achish in the title of Ps 34.

ABIN'ADAB (father of nobleness, i e. noble). (1). A Levite of Kirjathjearim, with whom the ark of the Lord was deposited when it was brought 15 back from the Philistines. 1 Sam 7:1 and 1 Chr 13:7.

(2). The second of the eight sons of Jesse, and one of his three sons who followed Saul in battle. 1 Sam 16:8.

(3). One of Saul's sons who was slain at the battle of Gilboa. 1 Sam 31:2.

(4). The father of one of the twelve officers appointed by Solomon to provide alternately, month by month, food for the king and his household. 1 Kgs 4:11.

AB'INER (father of light). 1 Sam 14:50, margin, same as Abner.

ABIN'OAM (father of pleasantness), the father of Barak. Jud 4:6, Jud 4:12; Jud 5:1, Jud 4:12.

ABI'RAM (father of height, i. e. renowned). (1). One of the sons of Eliab, the Reubenite, who were destroyed with Korah for a conspiracy against Moses. See Korah. Num 16:1.

(2). The first-born of Hiel the Bethelite. 1 Kgs 16:34. His death at the time his father began the rebuilding of Jericho fulfilled the first part of Joshua's curse. Josh 6:26.

AB'ISHAG (father of error), a fair woman of Shunem, in the tribe of Issachar, who was selected by the servants of David to minister to him in his old age and to cherish him, 1 Kgs 1:1-4. After David's death and the ascension of Solomon to the throne, Adonijah desired Abishag in marriage, but Solomon perceived his policy (see Adonijah), and caused him to be put to death. 1 Kgs 2:25.

ABISH'AI (father of a gift), the eldest son of Zeruiah, David's sister, and among the chief of his mighty men. 2 Sam 2:18. He accompanied David to the camp of Saul, and counselled him to take Saul's life, which David refused to do, 1 Sam 26:5-12, and was probably with David during the latter's wandering life. He was associated with Joab in the assassination of Abner. 2 Sam 3:30. The victory over the Edomites in the valley of Salt, which is ascribed to David in 2 Sam 8:13, is ascribed to Abishai in 1 Chr 18:12. Probably Abishai actually obtained the victory, but as he was an officer under David, it might also with propriety be spoken of as David's achievement. Abishai, with Joab his brother, attacked and defeated the Syrians and the children of Ammon. 2 Sam 10. David appointed him, in conjunction with Joab and Ittai, to the command of the people when they went forth to battle against Israel in the wood of Ephraim. 2 Sam 18:2. He afterward rescued David from the giant Philistine, Ishbi-benob, whom he smote and killed. 2 Sam 21:16, 2 Sam 21:17.

ABISH'ALOM (father of peace), father of Maachah; called Absalom in 2 Chr 11:20, 2 Chr 11:21, and undoubtedly the same person. 1 Kgs 16:2, 1 Kgs 16:10.

ABISH'UA (father of deliverance). (1). Son of Phineas the high priest. 1 Chr 6:4, 1 Chr 6:5, 1 Chr 6:50; Ezr 7:5.

(2). A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:4.

AB'ISHUR (father of the wall, i. e. stronghold), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:28, 1 Chr 2:29.

AB'ITAL (whose father is the dew), one of David's wives. 2 Sam 3:4; 1 Chr 3:3.

AB'ITUB (father of goodness), a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:11.

ABl'UD (whose father is Judah), a descendant of Zerubbabel, mentioned in our Lord's genealogy. Matt 1:13.

AB'NER (father of light), the son of Ner, was a first cousin of Saul, and a faithful and distinguished general of his armies. 1 Sam 14:50. We first hear of him, particularly, as the captain of the host, of whom Saul inquired concerning the stripling, David, whose victory over Goliath had excited his astonishment; and after a little time Abner introduced David to Saul, with the head of the giant Philistine in his hand. 1 Sam 17:57. It was through the want of vigilance in Abner that Saul's life was placed in David's power in the wilderness of Ziph. 1 Sam 26. See David, Saul. After David was anointed king of Judah, Abner procured the appointment of Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, as king of Israel; and in process of time the army of David, under Joab, and the army of Israel, under Abner, arrayed themselves on either side of the pool of Gibeon. While occupying this position twelve men of each army met and fought desperately. This contest was followed by a general battle, which resulted in Abner's defeat. He fled, but was pursued by Asahel, who "was light of foot as a wild roe."




When in the heat of pursuit, Abner counselled him to desist, and threatened to turn upon him and slay him if he did not, but Asahel refused to turn aside, and Abner, '' with the hinder end of the spear," smote him so that he died. Joab and Abishai were also engaged in the pursuit, but at Abner's entreaty they desisted and returned. 2 Sam 2.

As David's strength increased, the house of Saul, though faithfully served by Abner, became gradually weaker, till at length Ish-bosheth charged Abner with an offence against Saul's family. 2 Sam 3:7. He had taken Rizpah, the concubine of Saul, into his harem, and this act was interpreted according to Oriental ideas as an attempt to seize the throne. He was exceedingly irritated by the charge, and immediately forsook the interests of Saul's house and espoused the cause of David. David received him cordially, and sent him away in peace to persuade Israel to submit to David's government.

While he was gone on this errand, Joab returned ; and hearing what had been done, he went to the king and warned him against Abner as a spy and traitor. Soon after, and without David's knowledge, Joab sent for Abner ; and when he arrived, took him aside privately, and murdered him in revenge of the death of his brother Asahel ; and they buried him in Hebron. The estimation in which he was held by the king and people appears from the sacred history. The king wept and refused his food, and all the people wept; "And the king said unto his servants. Know ye not that there is a prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel ?" 2 Sam 3:38.

ABOMINABLE, ABOMINA'TION. 1. An abomination, or an abominable thing, is a thing hateful or detestable, as the employment or calling of shepherds was to the Egyptians. Gen 46:34.

  1. Under the Mosaic law those animals and acts are called abominable the use or doing of which was prohibited. Lev 11:13 and Deut 23:18.

    1. Idolatry of every kind is especially denoted by this term. Jer 44:4 and 2 Kgs 23:13.

    2. So of sins in general. Isa 66:3. The Abomination of Desolation, Matt 24:15 and Dan 9:27 and Dan 12:11. probably refers to the ensigns or banners of the Roman army, with the idolatrous,

Roman Standards. (After Fairhairn's "Imperial Dictionary.")

and therefore abominable, images upon them, the approach of which would warn the city of its desolation. When the city should be besieged, and these idolatrous standards should be seen " in the holy place," or, more strictly, in the vicinity of the holy city, thus threatening a complete conquest and speedy destruction, it would be time for the men of Judea to flee to places of refuge to save themselves from tribulation and death. The words are hard to interpret. To the explanation given it is objected that unless the standards were worshipped they would not properly be " abominations." Others say the words refer to the "internal desecration of the temple by the Jewish zealots, under pretence of defending it."

A'BRAM (father of elevation), A'BRAHAM (father of a multitude), the greatest, purest, and most venerable of the patriarchs, held in equal reverence by Jews, Mohammedans, and Christians. Gen 11:27. The leading trait in his character is unbounded trust in God ; hence he is called "the friend of God" and " the father of the faithful." He was the son of Terah, born at Ur, a city of Chaldea, which has been identified with Mugheir. The family was probably idolatrous, but all trace of monotheism may




not have been lost. Abram would seem always to have been the consistent servant of the one God. While he was dwelling in his father's house at Ur, God directed him to leave his country and kindred and go to a land which should be shown him; promising, at the same time, to make of him a great nation, and to bless him, and to make his name great, and that in him all the families of the earth should be blessed.

Obedient to the heavenly calling, Abram took Sarai his wife, and, with Terah his father and other members of the family, left Ur to remove to Canaan, and stopped at Haran in Mesopotamia. There Terah died. Abram, who was then seventy-five years old, with his wife and Lot, his nephew, pursued his journey to Canaan; and having reached Shechem, one of the oldest cities of Palestine (see Shechem), the Lord appeared to him, and repeated his promise to give him the land. Gen 12:7.

A grievous famine soon visited the country, and Abram was obliged to go into Egypt. Fearful that Sarai's beauty might attract the notice of the Egyptians, and that, if they supposed her to be his wife they would kill him to secure her, he proposed that she should pass for his sister. It happened as he expected. The servants of Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, commended her beauty so much that he sent for her, and took her into his house, and loaded Abram with tokens of his favor; but the Lord punished him (Pharaoh) severely, so that he sent away Abram and his wife, and all that he had. His stay in Egypt was probably very brief.

Having become very rich in cattle, silver, and gold, he returned from Egypt to Canaan, and encamped between Bethel and Ai, in Southern Palestine. Lot, his nephew, had been with him, and shared his prosperity ; and it happened that his servants fell into some strife with the servants of Abram. Their property being too great for them to dwell together, Abram generously proposed to his nephew to avoid controversy by an amicable separation. He offered Lot his choice of the territory, on the right or left, as it pleased him — a rare illustration of meekness and condescension. Lot chose to remove to the eastward, and occupy that part of the fertile plain of Jordan where Sodom and Gomorrah stood, having, perhaps, a desire to quit the wandering life.

Then the Lord appeared again to Abram, and renewed the promise of the land of Canaan as his inheritance in the most explicit manner. He thence removed his tent to the oak-groves of Mamre in Hebron. In an invasion of the cities of the plain by several of the petty kings of the adjoining provinces, under the leadership of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, Sodom was taken and Lot and his family carried captive. When Abram received intelligence of it he armed his trained servants, born in his house (three hundred and eighteen in number), defeated the kings, and brought Lot and his family back to Sodom ; restoring to liberty the captives who had been taken, with all their property, of which he generously refused to take any part as the reward of his services or as the spoils of victory. On his return he was met by Melchisedek, king of Salem and priest of the most high God, to whom he gave a tenth of all that he had. Gen 14. See MELCHISEDEK.

While in Hebron the Lord appeared again to Abram in a vision, repeated to him the promises, and accompanied them with the gracious declaration of his favor. He appointed a certain sacrifice for him to offer, and toward night caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, attended by a horror of great darkness, during which there were revealed to him some of the most important events in his future history and in that of his posterity, which were all accomplished in due time and with wonderful exactness. The revelation related — 1. To the captivity of Israel by the Egyptians and their severe and protracted bondage ; 2. To the judgments which Egypt should suffer because of their oppression of God's chosen people, and the circumstances under which they should leave Egypt; 3. To Abram's death and burial; and, 4, to the return of his posterity to the promised land.

In the same day the covenant respecting the land of promise was renewed and confirmed with the strongest expressions of divine favor. Sarai, however, was childless, and she proposed to Abraham that Hagar, an Egyptian woman living





with them, should be his concubine ; by whom he had a son, called Ishmael. He was then in his eighty-sixth year. Gen 16.

At ninety-nine years of age he was favored with another remarkable vision. The Almighty was revealed to him in such a manner that he was filled with awe and fell upon his face, and we are told that "God talked with him." The promise respecting the great increase of his posterity and the possession of Canaan was repeated in the most solemn and explicit terms; his name was changed from Abram (a high father) to Abraham (father of a great multitude), and the circumcision of every male child at eight days old was established as a token of the covenant between him and God. See CIRCUMCISION. At the same time the name of Sarai (my princess) was changed to Sarah (the princess), and a promise was given to Abraham that Sarah should have a son and be the mother of nations and kings.

It seemed so entirely out of the course of nature that they should become parents at their advanced age that Abraham, filled with reverence and joyful gratitude, fell upon his face "and said in his heart, Shall a child be born unto him that is a hundred years old? and shall Sarah, that is ninety years old, bear?" Nevertheless, against hope he believed in hope; and being not weak in faith, he staggered not at the promise of God, but was fully persuaded that what he had promised he was able also to perform; and his faith was imputed to him for righteousness. Rom 4:18-22.

Abraham, finding that the blessings of the covenant were to be bestowed on his future offspring, immediately thought of Ishmael, in whom he had probably before supposed the promises were to be fulfilled, and he uttered the solemn and affecting prayer, "O that Ishmael might live before thee!" God heard him, and almost while he was yet speaking answered him by making known to him his great purposes respecting Ishmael. Gen 17:20 and Gen 25:16.

As soon as the vision had closed, Abraham hastened to obey the divine command, and with Ishmael, his son, and all the men of his house, was circumcised in the self-same day. He was not long without another divine communication. As he sat in the door of his tent in the heat of the day three men approached him. He received them with all the courtesy and hospitality customary in the East, and after they had refreshed themselves they inquired of him respecting Sarah and repeated the promise respecting the birth of her son.

It was on this occasion, or in connection with these circumstances, that a divine testimony was given to the patriarchal character of Abraham. Gen 18:19. It was because of his faithfulness that he was favored with a revelation of God's purposes respecting the devoted cities of the plain, and with an opportunity to plead for them; and it was for Abraham's sake, and probably in answer to his prayers, that Lot and his family were rescued from the sudden destruction which came upon Sodom.

After this, Abraham removed to Gerar, perhaps because the Amorites, with whom he was in alliance, had been driven from Hebron by the Hittites. Here he made a second attempt to have Sarah taken for his sister. See ABIMELECH. Here, also, the prediction was fulfilled respecting the birth of a son. Sarah had a son, whom he called Isaac, and who was duly circumcised on the eighth day.

When Isaac was weaned, Abraham made a feast. Ishmael, being then a lad of thirteen years, mocked Isaac, quite possibly without malicious intent. This roused the jealousy of Sarah, who urged Abraham to drive out Hagar and her son. Abraham, although unwilling to do this injustice, at last obeyed at the command of God. Thus it came to pass that the prophecy of the wild life Ishmael was to lead was realized.Gen 21:10-13.

Abraham so obviously enjoyed the favor and blessing of God in all that he did that Abimelech, the king, proposed to make with him a covenant of perpetual friendship; and a matter of wrong about a well, of which Abimelech's servants had violently deprived Abraham, was thus happily adjusted. This transaction was at a place which was there after called Beer-sheba (the well of the oath, or the well of swearing). Gen 21:23-31.



The events of many years are now passed over in silence, but the scene next related shows how worthy Abraham was to be called the father of the faithful. He was commanded to take his son, his only son, Isaac, then a young man, and to offer him up for a burnt-offering upon a distant mountain. Without an inquiry or murmuring word, and with a prompt submission, Abraham obeyed the command. A journey of three days was accomplished. Every preparation for the offering was made, and the knife was uplifted to slay his son, when his purpose was arrested by a voice from Heaven requiring him to spare the lad. A ram was provided in the neighboring thicket, which he took and offered up ; and, after having been favored with special tokens of the divine approbation, he returned with his son to Beer-sheba. This grand trial and proof of the patriarch's faith took place upon Mount Moriah (or, as others suppose, on Mount Gerizim). In commemoration of it he gave to the place the name Jehovah-jireh {the Lord will provide), intimating a general truth respecting the divine faithfulness and care, and in prophetical allusion to the great sacrifice which was to be offered for the sins of mankind. Gen 22:14.

At the age of one hundred and twenty-seven years Sarah died, and Abraham purchased the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron at Hebron, for a family burial-place, and there buried his wife. Gen 23:19, Gen 23:20,

Isaac had now arrived at mature age, and Abraham called one of his servants, probably Eliezer, Gen 15:2, and made him promise to obtain a wife for Isaac, not among the Canaanites, but in Abraham's native country and from among his own kindred. This enterprise terminated successfully, and every desire of the patriarch respecting Isaac's marriage was answered. Gen 24.

Abraham married a second time and had several sons, but he made Isaac his sole heir, having in his lifetime distributed gifts among the other children, who were now dispersed. He died in peace at the age of one hundred and seventy five years, and was buried by Isaac and Ishmael in the same sepulchre with Sarah, in the cave of Machpelah. Gen 25:8.

Abraham's Oak, near Hebron. Gen 13:18

It is now in the possession of the Mohammedans, and jealously guarded by them as a most sacred spot beneath the great mosque of Hebron. See Machpelah On Abraham's Oak, see Hebron.

Abraham's Bosom. See Bosom.

AB'SALOM (father of peace) was the third son of David by Maacah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur. 2 Sam 3:3. He was remarkable for his beauty, and for his hair, which is said to have weighed 200 shekels when cut off every year. But if the royal shekel equal the sacred shekel, this would make 6 pounds, which is incredible. The difficulty is not removed by reducing the value of the shekel one-half or one-third.



The simplest explanation is that by the error of a copyist the 200 was written for 20, the difference between the figures being very slight in Hebrew notation.

Absalom's fair sister, called Tamar, having been violated by Amnon, his half-brother, he meditated revenge, since he was her natural avenger; and after brooding over the outrage for two years, he at last took Amnon's life at a feast to which he had invited him, and then at once fled to Talmai, his maternal grandfather, at Geshur, where he stayed three years.

Joab, in order to secure Absalom's return and restoration to his father's favor, employed a woman of Tekoa to appear before David and feign a case similar to the situation of Absalom, and having obtained his decision, to apply the principle to the real case. After a favorable decision was obtained in the feigned case, the woman began to plead for Absalom's return. The king suspected Joab's concern in the plot, and the woman confessed that it was wholly planned by him. David, however, directed Joab to go to Geshur and bring Absalom back to Jerusalem, but would not receive him into favor nor admit him to his presence, nor did he see his face for two years more.

Wearied with his banishment, Absalom often attempted to obtain an interview with Joab, but for some cause Joab was not disposed to go to him. To compel him to come, Absalom resorted to a singular expedient; he directed his servants to set fire to Joab's fields. Joab immediately came to Absalom, was persuaded to plead with the king in his behalf, succeeded in his effort, and Absalom was received into full favor.

Absalom then showed the object of his ambition was to obtain his father's throne. He was jealous of the favor his father gave to Solomon, Bath-sheba's son, for, since he was the oldest living son of David, he was by birth the rightful heir to the kingdom. To this end he lived in great pomp, procured chariots and horsemen and other appendages of royalty, and stood in the public places courting the favor of the people by the meanest arts, persuading them that their rights were not regarded by the government, and that it would be for their interest to elevate him to power, that equal justice might be administered to all. By these and other means Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel.

In pursuing his traitorous design, and with a pretended regard to filial duty, he asked his father's permission to go to Hebron and pay a vow which he said he had made. The unsuspicious king consented, and Absalom immediately sent men throughout Israel, who were, at a given signal, to proclaim him king in Hebron. He also took two hundred men with him from Jerusalem, though they did not know his plan, and then sent for Ahithophel, who was David's counsellor, that he might have his advice and assistance. Absalom's party increased rapidly, and intelligence of the conspiracy was communicated to the king, and so alarmed him that he fled from the city.

At length David persuaded Hushai to go to Absalom, who had now come back to Jerusalem with his party, and become his servant, and when opportunity occurred to give such counsel as should defeat Ahithophel's plans and bring confusion and discomfiture upon Absalom. By a train of providential interpositions Absalom's ruin was hastened.

Before David's men went out to battle with the revolted party, he gave them special charge respecting Absalom, and commanded them to deal gently with him for his father's sake. The two parties met in the wood of Ephraim, and the battle was bloody. Absalom rode upon a mule, and in passing under the thick boughs of an oak he was caught by his head in the fork or angle of two branches, and the mule passed onward, leaving him suspended in the air. Joab, one of David's chief captains, being informed of it, took three darts and thrust them through the heart of Absalom while he was yet alive in the midst of the oak; and they took his body and cast it into a pit in the wood, and covered it with stones.

ABSALOM'S PLACE, or PILLAR, was in the "king's dale," or valley of the Kedron. 2 Sam 18:8. "The Tomb of Absalom," now standing east of Jerusalem, at the foot of Mount Olivet, is supposed by the Jews to be the one erected by Absalom during his lifetime, and is pelted by them with stones, as they pass by, in




execration of his treason; but the monument betrays Grajco-Latin architecture

Absalom's Tomb. (From original Photographs. Bonfils.)

(especially the Ionic columns), and is not mentioned before A. D. 333.

AC'CAD (fortress), one of the four cities in the kingdom of Nimrod. Gen 10:10. It was in the land of Shinar, and George Smith locates it at Ayudi, on the Euphrates, north of Babylon. Rawlinson places it at Aker-Kuf, 10 miles west by north of Bagdad. Others had regarded it as identical with Celeriphon.

AC'CARON, the same as Ekron.

AC'CHO (heated sand), a seaport town of Phoenicia, about 8 miles north of Mount Carmel, given to Asher.Jud 1:31. In New Testament times it was called Ptolemais. Acts 21:7. It now has about 6000 inhabitants, and is called Acre (Arabic, Akkn).

ACEL'DAMA (Field of blood), the "potter's field'' purchased with the money given to Judas for betraying Christ. Matt 27:7 ; Acts 1:18,Acts 1:19. Tradition locates it on the southern slope of the valley of Hinnom, near the pool Siloam, and now Hakk ed Dumm.

ACHA'IA (trouble), a Roman province in the New Testament times nearly co-extensive with the modern kingdom of Greece. Paul visited the churches in that region. Acts 18:12,Acts 18:27 ;Acts 19:21 ; Rom 15:26 ;Rom 16:5 ; 2 Cor 1:1; 2 Cor 9:2;2 Cor 11:10 ; 1 Thess 1:7,1 Kgs 15:8. For its towns see Corinth, Cenchrea.

ACHA'ICUS (belonging to Achaia), a Christian mentioned in 1 Cor 16:17.

A'CHAN, or A'CHAR (troubler), son of Carmi, of the tribe of Judah, whose concealment of a part of the spoils of Jericho in violation of the divine command. Josh 6:18, brought defeat upon his countrymen at Ai. Josh 7:18;1 Chr 2:7. He was providentially convicted, and with his family was stoned to death, and his property, together with their remains, was burnt. The valley in which this event occurred was called after him. See Achor.

A'CHAZ, Matt 1:9, the Greek form of Ahaz.

ACH'BOR (mouse). 1. The father of Baal-hanan, king of the Edomites. Gen 36:38,Gen 36:39 ; 1 Chr 1:49.

  1. An officer of Josiah, 2 Kgs 22:12,2 Kgs 22:14; Jer 26:22; Jer 36:12; called Abdon in 2 Chr 34:20.

A'CHIM (Hebrew form is Jachin, a contraction of Jehoiachin, the Lord will establish), an ancestor of Christ. Matt 1:14.

A'CHISH (serpent-charmer ?), a king of Gath, called Abimelech in the title of Ps 34, to whom David fled twice. The first time, being in danger, he feigned madness, whereupon he was dismissed. 1 Sam 21:10. The second time Achish received him cordially because of his supposed hostility to Saul, gave him Ziklag, and took him on his campaign against Saul, but finally dismissed him, with commendations of his fidelity, because of the mistrust of his princes. 1 Sam 27,1 Sam 27:29.

The Achish to whom Shimei went seeking for his servants may have been this same king, but much more probably his grandson, since David's first flight took place fifty years before. 1 Kgs 2:39,1 Kgs 2:40.

ACH'METHA, a city of Media. Ezr 6:2. See Ecbatana.

ANCHOR (trouble), a valley near Jericho where Achan was stoned. Josh 7:24. Probably the Wady Kelt.




ACH'SA (anklet), daughter of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:49.

ACH'SAH (anklet), the daughter of Caleb the son of Jephunneh, married to Othniel, her cousin or uncle (who took Kirjath-sepher or Debir), in accordance with Caleb's promise to give her hand to whomsoever should first smite the city. Achsah after her marriage obtained the upper and lower springs, with the fields in which they were, in addition to her dowry. Josh 15:15-19 ;Jud 1:11-15. See Othniel.

ACH'SHAPH (enchantment), a city of Canaan, Josh 11:1 ,Josh 12:20, allotted to Asher. Josh 19:25. Some have located it at Khaifa, near Mount Carmel : Robinson at El-Kesaf, above the sources of the Jordan; the Palestine Fund "Memoirs " give Kesaf, as Khurhet-Iksaf, and accept Robinson's suggestion.

ACH'ZIB (false). 1. A town of Asher, Josh 19:29, now ez-Zib, 20 miles north of Acre, on the Mediterranean.

  1. A city of Judah, Josh 15:44 ; Mic.Josh 1:14 ; perhaps identical with Chezib. Gen 38:5. Conder locates it at the modern Ain Kezbeh.

ACRAB'BIM. Josh 15:3, margin. See Maaleh-acrabbim.

ACTS OF THE APOS'TLES, the fifth book in the New Testament. It is supposed to have been compiled by Luke the evangelist in Rome, during Paul's imprisonment or shortly after, a.d. 63, and may be regarded as a continuation of his Gospel. It contains the history of the Christian Church from Jerusalem to Rome, or the establishment of Christianity among the Jews by Peter, and among the Gentiles by Paul. It begins with the ascension of Christ and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and concludes with the first imprisonment of Paul in Rome, 61 to 63. It is the first history of the Christian Church, and contains the only trustworthy account of the missionary labors of the apostles.

The book of Acts has been subjected to very rigid and critical examination in connection with the apostolic Epistles, and the genuineness of both is proved by coincidences so minute and yet so undesigned, so obvious and yet so remote, that no unprejudiced mind can entertain a doubt of their truthfulness.

The period of time embraced in this history is about thirty-three years, and includes the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. See the Missionary Map at the close of the volume.

AD'ADAH (boundary, or festival), a town in the south of Judah, Josh 15:22 ; probably either the modern el-Foka or Adadah.

A'DAH (ornament). 1. One of the two wives of Lamech in the line of Cain. Gen 4:19.

  1. One of Esau's wives, a Hittitess, daughter of Elon, Gen 36:2, Ex 6:4, etc. ; called Bashemath in Gen 26:34.

ADAI'AH (whom Jehovah adorns). 1. The maternal grandfather of King Josiah. 2 Kgs 22:1.

  1. A Levite. 1 Chr 6:41.

  2. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:21.

  3. A priest. 1 Chr 9:12.

  4. A descendant of Bani who had taken a foreign wife.Ezr 10:29.

  5. Another descendant guilty of the same offence. Ezr 10:39.

  6. A man of Judah. Neh 11:5.

  7. An ancestor of Maaseiah, a captain who supported Jehoiada. 2 Chr 23:1.

ADALI'A (strong of heart ?), a son of Haman. Esth 9:8.

AD'AM (red earth), a city in the Jordan valley near Zaretan. Josh 3:16. It has been located at ed-Damieh, but Drake suggests Khurbet-el- Hamrath, or "the red ruin," 1 mile south of Tell Sarem.

ADAM (red, or earth-born). The word is used in the Bible in two senses : 1. Man generically, including woman (in the English Version translated man). Gen 1:26, Gen 1:27 ; Jud 5:1; Gen 6:1; Job 20:29: Job 21:33; Ps 68:18;Ps 76:10.

  1. Man historically, or, as a proper name, Adam individually, the first man, who was at the same time the representative man. Gen 2:7; Gen 3:8. Adam was not born, but created ; not in feeble, helpless infancy, but in the maturity of his physical and intellectual nature ; not a sinful, diseased, dying creature, but pure and free from sin, yet liable to temptation and in need of trial in order to be confirmed in his innocence. He was the crown of creation, made on the sixth day, after the vegetable and animal world. Adam was the root of hu

manity, and all that affected him affected his posterity. His sin tainted their blood and poisoned their nature; while the Saviour promised to him was the Saviour of all who came after him. His mortality in consequence of sin has remained as a permanent fact in man; his immortality in consequence of faith upon the promised Saviour will be shared in by all of like belief. In him God put humanity to the test. If Adam had kept his first estate, the world would never have been darkened by sin and guilt.

Adam was also the beginning of a new order of beings. He was of the earth, earthy — the earth is called ada mah in Hebrew in Gen 2:7 — dust from dust, as to his physical organization, but into him God had breathed a living soul; he was an immortal spirit, made in the very "image and likeness of God." This is the noblest conception of man. The "image of God" means man's personality, his rational, moral, and immortal nature, which is destined for the glory and communion of God and for everlasting felicity. It also includes dominion over the creatures.

God created Eve to be a help meet for Adam. He dreamt of woman, and awaked to find her at his side. The pair lived together in happiness and innocence, the keepers of a garden which yielded abundantly of fruit and flowers for their nourishment and pleasure. The fruit of one tree only, the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, was forbidden to them. But the prohibition piqued their desire. Eve listened to the specious arguments of Satan, who had come to her under the form of a serpent; "she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat." Gen 3:6; comp. 2 Cor 11:3 ; 1 Tim 2:14 ; John 8:44.

In this simple language does the Bible describe the most momentous event in history previous to the birth of Christ. For then happened the Fall; sin was let loose to ravage the world; a blight had fallen upon the race. The first proof of sin was shame. The wretched folly of all attempts to cover sin is symbolized by the fig-leaf aprons of our first parents; they were no coverings at all. The second proof of sin was their fear before God. They stood condemned, and owned his dreadful sentence just. They were banished from Paradise. The ground was cursed for their sake. In the hardship of toil and labor, in the care and suffering of childbirth and parentage, they began to feel at once the woes their transgression involved. All the burdens of life, the heavy cross, sickness, disaster, trouble, death, come from the action of that fatal day. They are the dread reminders of our fallen state. Our first parents involved all their posterity in that ruin they first experienced.

But in the narrative of the Fall there stands also the promise of a deliverer, the woman's seed (the son of Mary), who should crush the serpent's head—that is, destroy the power of sin and Satan. Gen 3:15. This promise, which is called the "first gospel," was fulfilled in the Crucifixion. Christ is the second Adam, as Paul shows in Rom 5:12 ff. and 1 Cor 15:45. He undid the work of the first. He abolished the power of sin and death for believers, and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. 2 Tim 1:10. The redemption by Christ is the glorious solution of the fall of Adam. Christ has given us much more than we lost by Adam. Paradise regained is better than Paradise lost, and can never be lost again. God in his infinite wisdom and mercy overruled the fall of man for the revelation of his redeeming love, which in turn calls out the deepest gratitude and bliss of the redeemed.

"In Christ the tribe of Adam boast

More blessings than their father lost."

AD'AMAH (earth), a fortified city of Naphtali, Josh 19:36 ; probably Damieh, west of the Sea of Galilee.

AD'AMANT. Eze. 3 : 9. This word means the unconquerable, and denotes some very hard stone. The same substance in Jer 17:1 is called diamond, which it cannot be, for the Hebrew name there used is never mentioned with precious stones. Probably it was the mineral emery, one of the hardest of rocks.

AD'AMI (earth, or human), a place on the border of Naphtali, Josh 19:33; probably the modern Khurbet Admah.

A'DAR (height), a town on the southern boundary of Judah, [scripture]Josh. 24 15: 3[/scripture], and the same as Hazar-addar, Num 34:4; possibly the modern Ais el-Kadeirat.

A'DAR. See Month.

AD'ASA, or HAD'ASHAH, a town in Judah, Josh 15:37, near Beth-horon; now 'Adaseh.

AD'BEEL (miracle of God), a son of Ishmael, Gen 25:13; 1 Chr 1:29.

AD'DAN (stony), Ezr 2:59; called also Addon. Neh 7:61. Its site is unknown.

AD'DAR (chief), a son of Bela,1 Chr 8:3; called also Ard in [scripture]Num. 26: 40.

AD'DER. The word translated thus in various passages of the Bible does not always mean what the English word denotes. 1. In Gen 49:17 it indicates a venomous serpent (perhaps the cerastes, or horned snake) which lurks in the path. The usual habit of the cerastes is "to coil itself on the sand, where it basks in the impress of a camel's footmark, and thence suddenly to dart out on any passing animal. So great is the terror which its sight inspires in horses, that I have known mine, when I was riding in the Sahara, to suddenly start and rear, trembling and perspiring in every limb, and no persuasions would induce him to proceed. I was quite unable to account for his terror until I noticed a cerastes coiled up in a depression two or three paces in front, with its basilisk eyes steadily fixed on us, and no doubt preparing for a spring as the horse passed." — Tristram.

  1. In Ps 58:4 and Ps 91:13 the Egyptian cobra is probably meant, for it is found in southern Palestine, dwells in holes, is used by snake-charmers, and is very dangerous. This is the animal seen on Egyptian monuments, symbolizing immortality, and always connected with the winged globe. In the former passage above, there is reference to the fact that there are serpents of some kinds or particular individuals which will not yield to the charmer. Though capable of hearing, they will not hear, and are properly termed "deaf." See Asp.

  2. Still other kinds of serpents are referred to under this name in Ps 140:3; Prov 23:32 — species of viper, it is thought.

AD'DI (ornament), one of the progenitors of Christ. Luke 3:28.

A'DER (flock), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:15.

AD'IDA, a fortified town overlooking the low country of Judah and near Jerusalem, noticed in 1 Macc 12:38, and used by Vespasian in his siege of Jerusalem; probably the same as Hadid. Ezr 2:33. Conder locates it at the modern Hadithek .

A'DIEL (ornament of God). 1. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:36.

  1. A priest. 1 Chr 9:12.

  2. The ancestor of David's treasurer, Azmaveth. 1 Chr 27:25.

A'DIN (delicate), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:15; Ezr 8:6; Neh 7:20; Neh 10:16.

AD'INA (slender), a Reubenite, one of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:42.

AD'INO THE EZNITE. 2 Sam 23:8. See Jashobeam.

ADITHA'IM (double booty), a town of Judah. Josh 15:36; afterward called Hadid, which see.

ADJURE'. 1. To bind under a curse. Josh 6:26.

  1. Solemnly to require a declaration of the truth at the peril of God's displeasure. Matt 26:63. Such is the interpretation of the language of the high priest, "I adjure thee," etc., or, "I put thee to thy oath," addressed to our Saviour when he declined to answer the false accusations of his persecutors. Compare 1 Sam 14:24 and 1 Kgs 22:16 with Josh 6:26.

AD'LAI (justice of Jehovah), the father of one of David's chief herdsmen. 1 Chr 27:29.

AD'MAH (earth, or fortress), one of 25 the five cities in the vale of Siddim taken by Chedorlaomer, Gen 10:19; Gen 14:2, and destroyed with Sodom.Deut 29:23; Hos 11:8; now cd Damieh.

AD'MATHA (earthy ?), one of the seven Persian princes. Esth 1:14.

AD'NA (pleasure). (1). One who married a foreign woman, Ezr 10:30.

(2). A priest. Neh 12:15.

AD'NAH (pleasure). 1. A Manassite captain of Saul who followed David. 1 Chr 12:20. 2. A captain of Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:14.

ADON'I-BE'ZEK. Jud 1:5. Lord or king of Bezek, a city of the Canaanites. See Bezek. His name was a title, not a proper name. He fled from the armies of Judah, but was caught and his thumbs and great toes cut off, so that he could neither fight nor flee. He was then carried to Jerusalem, where he died. He seems to have regarded the maiming he suffered as a just requital of his own cruelty, he having mutilated seventy kings or chieftains in the same inhuman manner.

ADONI'JAH (my Lord is Jehovah). 1. David's fourth son. 2 Sam 3:4. He was born at Hebron, and after the death of his brothers, Amnon, Chileab, and Absalom, he made pretensions to the throne of his father, because he was then the oldest living son of David. He prepared himself with horses and chariots and other marks of royalty, and took counsel with Joab and Abiathar how he could best accomplish his purpose. Bath-sheba, Solomon's mother, fearing that her son's title to the throne might be disturbed, immediately informed the king of Adonijah's revolt; and Nathan the prophet having confirmed the statement of the matter, David gave Bath-sheba the strongest assurances that her son should reign after him; and he caused Solomon to be anointed and proclaimed king amid general rejoicings. 1 Kgs 1:39.

Adonijah was just ending a feast when he heard the noise of the shouting, and Jonathan came in and told him all that had taken place. His guests fled precipitately, and Adonijah himself ran and caught hold of the horns of the altar, which from long-existent custom was regarded as a place of safety. But Solomon sent for him, and pardoned him on condition that he showed himself "a worthy man." 1 Kgs 1:52. This was an act of rare clemency.

After David's death, Adonijah persuaded Bath-sheba to ask Solomon, her son, who was now on the throne, to give him Abishag for his wife. This request was, according to Oriental court-etiquette, equivalent to a fresh attempt on the throne. So Solomon caused him to be put to death by the hand of Benaiah. 1 Kgs 2:25.

  1. A Levite in Jehoshaphat's time. 2 Chr 17:8.

    1. One who sealed the covenant.Neh 10:16.

ADON'IKAM (lord of the enemy), one whose descendants came back with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:13; Ezr 8:13; Neh 7:18.

ADONI'RAM. See Adoram.

ADON'I-ZE'DEK (lord of justice), the Amorite king of Jerusalem at the time the country was entered by the Israelites. Josh 10:1. The name was probably the official title of the Jebusite kings of Jerusalem. Hearing of Joshua's victories over Ai and Jericho, and finding that the inhabitants of Gibeon, one of the most important cities of the kingdom, had made a league with him, he called four other kings of the Ammonites to his aid and laid siege to Gibeon, with a view to destroy it as a punishment for their conduct.

But Joshua came to the assistance of the Gibeonites; hailstones fell upon the armies of the five kings, and after a hard battle they were overthrown. See Joshua.

Adoni-zedek, with his allies, fled to a cave at Makkedah, in which they were soon discovered and brought before Joshua, who caused them to be slain and hanged on separate trees until evening, and then their bodies were taken down and cast into the cave in which they had concealed themselves. Josh 10:27.

ADOP'TION is an act by which a stranger is received into a man's family as his own child, and becomes entitled to the peculiar privileges of that connection as fully and completely as a child by birth. So Moses was adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, Ex 2:10, and Esther by her cousin Mordecai. Esth 2:7.

In the figurative use of the term by 26 the sacred writers it indicates that intimate relation of the believer to God which follows regeneration and conversion from sin to holiness, when we are received into the family of God and are made, by grace, his children or sons, and heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ. Gal 4:4, 1 Chr 6:5; Rom 8:14-17.

ADORA'IM (double mound), a city of Judah fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:9; supposed to be the modern Dura, about 6 miles west of Hebron.

ADO'RAM, contr. from ADONI'RAM (lord of height). 1. An officer of the customs under David. 2 Sam 20:24.

  1. An officer of Rehoboam's treasury (perhaps the son of the former), who was stoned to death by the people of Israel who followed Jeroboam. 1 Kgs 12:18. Some suppose him to have been the same with Adoniram, 1 Kgs 5:14, who was over the customs in Solomon's reign, and that the people were so indignant at the oppression they had suffered through his agency that they took this method of revenge.

ADORA'TION. The word means to pray to, and is properly applied to the worship of God. Among the Hebrews adoration by outward act was variously performed. We gather from different Scripture passages that it consisted in putting off the shoes, bowing the knee or the head, or in slowly prostrating the body by first falling on the knees and then bending the body until the head touched the ground. But these forms of adoration were not limited to the worship of Jehovah. The Eastern mode of salutation is very obsequious, and so between an inferior and a superior the same ceremonies would be performed, and also between equals. Similar was their conduct in the worship of idols when seeking the good-will of one whom they had offended. Kissing the hand of an idol was a common mode of adoration. These acts were often repeated more than once. In the New Testament we read that our Lord was treated with these outward signs of respect and reverence. So, too, in the case of Peter, to whom Cornelius prostrated himself. See Worship.

ADRAM'MELECH (king of fire). 1. An idol-god of Sepharvaim, supposed to represent the sun, while another idol, called Anammelech, represented the moon. 2 Kgs 17:31. Sacrifices of living children were made to these idols, as to Moloch.

Adrammelech. (From Nimrud. After Layard.)

  1. A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria. Isa 37:38. He and his brother, Sharezer, killed their father while he was in the act of idolatry. Their motive for this parricidal deed is not known. They both fled to Armenia, and Esar-haddon succeeded to the crown.

ADRAMYT'TIUM, named from Adramys, brother of Croesus, a seaport town of Mysia, Acts 27:2-5, on a bay of the Ægean Sea north of Smyrna. It is now a poor village known as Adramyti.

A'DRIA. Acts 27:27. The northern part of the Ionian Sea between Greece, Italy, and Sicily.

A'DRIEL. See Merab.

ADUL'LAM (justice of the people, or biding, or resting-place), a cave not far from Bethlehem in which David hid. 1 Sam 22:1; 2 Sam 23:13; 1 Chron 11:15. Tradition has located it in Wady Khureitun, east of Bethlehem. The cave is said to be well fitted for a robbers' hold, being dry and airy and full of intricate passages. The greatest length of this cave is 550 feet. Lieut. Conder, however, places the cave of Adullam in the valley of Elah, not far from the city of Adullam, about 13 miles west from Bethlehem. Near it are numerous caverns, each as large as an ordinary cottage, which would give room for David and his band. He 27 states that the great caverns at Beit Jibrin, which some have regarded as the cave of Adullam, are damp, cold, and full of bats and creeping things, and carefully avoided by the cave-dwelling peasants, while the smaller caves north and west of Adullam are almost constantly in use, and are from their position strong and defensible. A row of these caves has been found north and west of the city of Adullam capable of holding 200 to 300 men. M. Ganneau first suggested this location in 1872, from the resemblance of the modern name Aid el-Ma, and it seems to answer the requirements of the Scripture narrative.

ADUL'LAM, a royal city of the Canaanites allotted to Judah, Gen 38:1 ; Gen Josh, 12 : 15 ;Gen 15:35 ; fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:7 repeopled by the Jews after the Captivity, Neh 11:30. See also Mic 1:15. Ganneau and Conder locate it in Wady es-Sent, about 2 1/2 miles south of Socoh or Shucoh, where they found heaps of stones and ruined walls, called Aid el-Ma.

ADUL'TERY, the crime forbidden in the seventh commandment. According to Jewish law, it is the unlawful intercourse of a man, whether married or not, with a married or betrothed woman not his wife. The crime was punished in patriarchal times, if Tamar's be a specimen case, by burning.Gen 38:24, or at least capitally. Under the Mosaic law in the case of the free woman both offenders were stoned. But a bondwoman thus guilty was to be scourged, and the man must make a trespass-offering. Lev 19:20,Lev 19:22. The so called "water of jealousy," by which the guilt of the accused woman was proven or refuted, was simply some " holy water," or that from the laver which stood near the altar in an earthen vessel, into which dust from the floor of the tabernacle was sprinkled. This mixture was given to the woman, who was solemnly charged by the priest with an oath of cursing. If she was guilty, then by divine interposition — for it contained nothing injurious — this test proved her guilt. If innocent no effect was produced. The accuser in these cases was the husband. Num 5:11-31. There is no case of the use of this test in Scripture. Adultery is the only ground of divorce recognized by our Lord. Matt 5:32.

Adultery is used in the Bible in a spiritual sense to denote the unfaithfulness and apostasy of the Jews, because the union between God and his people was set forth as a marriage. In the N. T. "an adulterous generation" means a faithless and God-denying people.

ADUM'MIM (red ones), an ascent or steep pass. Josh 15:7, on the road from Jericho to Jerusalem, upon the south side of the Wady Kelt, "over against Geliloth" or Gilgal. Josh 18:17. Our Lord probably refers to this dangerous pass. Luke 10:30-36; now Talat ed Dumm.

AD'VOCATE, or PAR'ACLETE. 1 John 2:1. One who pleads another's cause, a counsellor, an intercessor. It is the term used by Christ to describe the office of the Holy Spirit, John 14:16; John 15:26; John 16:7, but translated in A. V. "Comforter." It is also applied to Christ as our intercessor. 1 John 2:1. The forensic office of advocate was unknown among the Jews before their subjection to the Romans; then they were obliged to conduct their trials before the Roman magistrates after the Roman manner. Their ignorance of their conquerors' law compelled them to employ advocates or lawyers speaking Greek and Latin. Such an advocate was Tertullus, whom the Jews hired to accuse Paul before Felix. Acts 24:1. See Trial.

AE 'NEAS, or ENE'AS, the paralytic at Lydda healed by Peter. Acts 9:33,Acts 9:34.

AE'NON. See Enon.

AFFIN'ITY. 1 Kgs 3:1. Relation by marriage, in contradistinction from consanguinity, which is relation by birth. The degrees of affinity which should prevent marriage under the Mosaic law may be found in Lev 18:6-17. See Marriage.

AG'ABUS (possibly locust), a prophet who foretold in Antioch while Paul and Barnabas were there, A. D. 43. Acts 11:28. A famine took place the following year. It was probably limited to Judaea, where it was severe. The poor Jews were relieved by Helena, the queen of Adiabene, who bought corn for them out of Alexandria. Aid was sent to the Christians in Jerusalem from Antioch. Acts 11:29. Many years after, 28 Agabus met Paul at Cesarea, and warned him of the sufferings he would endure if he went to Jerusalem. Acts 21:10.

A'GAG (flame) was probably the title of the Amalekite kings, like Pharaoh of the Egyptian rulers. Two kings of this name are mentioned in Scripture.

  1. In Num 24:7, the way in which this Agag is referred to indicates that he was very powerful, above all other kings known to Balaam.

  2. An Agag who was captured by Saul, but was spared, contrary to the express prohibition of Jehovah. He was afterward brought to Samuel, who hewed him in pieces. This act was not only the execution of the divine order, but it would seem an act of retributive justice as well, since Agag is charged with infamous cruelty. 1 Sam 15:8, 1 Sam 15:33,

A'GAGITE. Haman is called an Agagite, perhaps because of his ancestry. Esth 3:1.

A'GAR. See Hagar.

AG'ATE. Ex 39:12. A precious stone, variegated chalcedony, translucent or opaque. It is often banded in delicate parallel lines, waving or zigzag in their course, and of white, tendon-like, wax-like, pale and dark brown, black or sometimes bluish colors. It is sometimes clouded, and at other times presents a group of figures disposed with so much regularity as to seem like a work of art, showing trees, plants, rivers, clouds, buildings, and human beings. The name is supposed by some to be derived from the river Achates, in Sicily, where the stone was formerly found in great abundance. The agate of Isa 54:12 and Eze 27:16 (a different Hebrew word) was doubtless the ruby. The agate was the second stone in the third row of the high priest's breastplate. Ex 28:19.

AG'EE (fugitive), the father of one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam 23:11.

AG'RICULTURE. In its special sense, and as here employed, the term denotes the cultivation of grain and other field crops. In a broader meaning, the threefold business of many agriculturists includes, besides such cultivation, the keeping of flocks and herds, and horticulture.

History. — To dress and keep the garden of Eden was the happy employment given to man at his creation. After the Fall, Adam was driven forth to till the ground as the first farmer. This was also the employment of Cain, but Abel was a keeper of sheep. After the Flood, "Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard." The patriarchs and their descendants, till their settlement in Palestine, gave little attention to agriculture. Joseph's words comprehensively describe their occupation; "The men are shepherds, for their trade hath been to feed cattle." With the possession of the cultivated lands of the Canaanites, the Hebrews adopted a more strictly agricultural life, and, in general, the methods of farming of those whom they conquered. Pastoral employments were, however, never wholly abandoned. The tribes east of the Jordan were possessed of "a very great multitude of cattle," and in Judaea and all the more hilly districts shepherds always abounded.

Soil. — Palestine is divided agriculturally, and as to all its physical conditions, into four districts : 1. The maritime plains, including the rich coast lands of Gaza, Sharon, etc., with a mild and equable climate, under which even the orange and banana flourish. 2. The valley of the Jordan, reaching from the waters of Merom to the southern end of the Dead Sea, having a tropical temperature. 3. The hill-country between these divisions eastward of Carmel, bisected by the rich plain of Jezreel, and bosoming many fertile vales, such as those of Nazareth, Shechem, Samaria, Hebron, but often rising, especially southward, into bleak moors and highlands, where snow sometimes falls in winter. 4. Peræa, the rolling and often mountainous plateau east of the Jordan valley, not very different in climate from the last division, but in soil more fertile. In this last region Dr. Merrill reports the tillable area of the Hauran (ancient Bashan) to be 150 by 40 miles in extent, and one vast natural wheat-field. Here he has "seen a peasant plough a furrow as straight as a line, one and even two miles long." In Argob and Trachonitis he saw one of the largest lava-beds in the world, covering 400 or 500 square miles, and the source of inexhaustible fertility. Of Palestine west of the Jordan, which is less in extent than the State of Vermont, Captain Warren says: "The soil 29 is so rich, the climate so varied, that within ordinary limits it may be said that the more people it contained the more it may. Its productiveness will increase in proportion to the labor bestowed on the soil, until a population of fifteen millions may be accommodated there." By others we are told that the very sand of the shore is fertile if watered. The soil of Palestine is enriched by the disintegration of the rocks, which are commonly limestone, often quite chalky.

Seasons. — Of these there are practically but two — the rainy and the dry — nearly divided from each other by the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. The showers begin to fall in November, at the latest, and the rains of the winter months, except it be February, are heavy. These are "the former rain" of Scripture, which rarely fails, while "the latter rain" of March and early April is more uncertain; and as the filling of the ears of grain depends upon it, this "latter rain" is eagerly expected. Job 29:23 ; Zech 10:1. Storms in Palestine are ordinarily brought by the west or south-west wind. 1 Kgs 18:44; Luke 12:54.

Without question, this country was in Bible times better supplied with forests and orchards than now, and its climate was more humid and equable. The hills were generally terraced and provided with reservoirs, as abundant ruins testify, and the sudden torrents, which now wash away what little soil they find, were, by these means and others, dispersed and absorbed by the ground. Many of the most rugged districts were covered with vineyards and olive-orchards, so that Deut 8:7-9 is but a literal description of what the land once was, and, in particular localities, still remains. Unlimited extortion, in addition to heavy taxes upon every crop and every tree, even to the oak upon the hills, the unrestrained pillage of the harvests by Bedouins, with other causes, are fast abandoning this fertile land to denudation, drought, and the desert.

Calendar of Labor. — There have been few changes in the art or instruments of agriculture in Western Asia since ancient times. The present tense may therefore ordinarily be used for the past. Ploughing and sowing grain begin with the rainy season, and, as the ground does not freeze, continue, when the weather permits, till March. Then are sown the podded and garden plants, the melons, and all the crops which demand a warmer soil. Barley-harvest quickly follows the cessation of the latter rain, and then wheat-harvest. The remaining crops having one after another been brought to perfection and gathered, the droughts of summer now end most agricultural operations till the ingathering of the fig, the olive, and the grape in August and September. Occasionally, during the busy season, the husbandman tents upon the land he cultivates. Ordinarily, his home is in some village or walled town, perhaps miles away from his farm. In the early morning he walks or rides to his labor, the patient ass or the camel bearing his light ploughs and other implements. Thus in the parable the "sower went forth to sow." So varied is the character of the soil and climate within short ranges as often greatly to prolong the season of planting and harvesting. Grain frequently requires replanting or replacing with other crops. Where there are permanent streams or opportunities for irrigation, sowing follows harvest, crop succeeds crop through the entire year, and the promises of Lev 26:5 and Am 9:13 are verified.

Crops. — In this fertile soil, with an almost unparalleled variety of climate and exposure, between such points as Jericho, Hermon, and Gaza, there is opportunity for the cultivation of nearly all plants either of the torrid or temperate zones; and we find in the Bible, for such a book, a very extended botanic list. The variety of cultivated species was, however, much less than now. Wheat, barley, millet, and spelt (not rye) were the only cereals. Beans and lentiles were staples, while flax, cucumbers, fitches, cummin, and the onion family were often extensively cultivated. Jewish writers mention peas, lettuce, endives, and melons as ancient garden plants. Fruit- and nut-bearing trees were cultivated for the most part within enclosures.

Methods and Instruments. — As population increased, irrigation, by conducting water to the crops from brooks and reservoirs, became more common. The painful Egyptian labor of raising a supply 30 from a lower level was rarely necessary. Such passages as Jer 9:22 show that the use of dung as manure was not uncommon. In Jer 4:3; Hos 10:12 there is reference to the practice of leaving the land fallow for a time. The former passage, with many others, reminds us of the great variety and abundance of thorny plants in Palestine, said to be one mark of a fertile soil. Rotation of crops seems to have been practised to some extent.

The instruments of agriculture are particularly described under their respective titles. Oriental ploughing does not turn a sod, but merely scratches the earth to the depth of three or four inches at most, which is all the primitive and light plough and the small cattle of the East can do. Often — always in the case of new ground — a second ploughing crosswise was practised; and this is referred to by the word "break" in Isa 28:24. Steep hill-sides were prepared for planting with the mattock or hoe, an iron-pointed instrument of wood resembling in shape the modern "pick." Isa 7:25. Good farmers ploughed before the rains, that the moisture might be more abundantly absorbed. The seed, being scattered broadcast upon the soil, was ordinarily ploughed in, as is still the custom. Light harrowing, often with thorn-bushes, completed the process. In wet ground the seed was trampled in by cattle. Isa 32:20. After its planting there was commonly little further labor bestowed upon the crop till it was ready for the harvest. Weeds were removed by hand when it was safe to do so. Matt 13:28, 1 Chr 2:29. Irrigation was sometimes necessary. As the ingathering drew near, the fields must be protected by the watchman in his lodge from the wild boar and other beasts, and from human marauders. The newly scattered seed and the ripening crop also required to be defended against great flocks of birds. Matt 13:4.

Grain when ripe was, in more ancient times, plucked up by the roots. Later, it was reaped by a sickle resembling our own, either the ears alone being cut off or the whole stalk. The sheaves were never made into shocks ; but this word in Scripture use denotes merely a loose

An Egyptian Threshing-Floor (From Eiehn.)

heap of them. Laborers, animals, or carts bore the harvest to the threshing-floor, where, as elsewhere described, the grain was separated from the ears and winnowed. More delicate seeds were beaten out with a stick. Isa 28:27.

Peculiarities. — Agriculture was recognized and regulated by the Mosaic law as the chief national occupation. Inalienable ownership — under God — of the soil was a fundamental provision, and renting the ground till the year of jubilee was alone possible. "The land shall not be sold for ever; for the land is mine; for 31 ye are strangers and sojourners with me." Lev 25:8-10, Lev 25:23-35. The encouragement such a provision gave to agricultural improvements cannot be exaggerated.

That the land must rest one year in seven was another remarkable and most beneficent requirement. Lev 25:1-7. The Jews were forbidden to sow a field with divers seeds. Deut 22:9. For example, wheat and lentiles must not be mixed, nor areas of them meet. The rabbis describe with minuteness how to vary the position of crops, yet avoid actual contact between them, and prescribe at least three furrows' margin between such divers kinds. The yoking together of an ox and ass was prohibited, but is common enough among the present inhabitants. Horses were never used for farm-work.

Vineyards are enclosed in walls, and gardens are usually protected in the same way, or by banks of mud taken from ditches. Otherwise, in agricultural districts the absence of all fences or enclosures is, and always was, in striking contrast to our own practice. A brook or a cliff may serve as a boundary, but ordinarily large stones almost covered by the soil are the landmarks. Deut 19:14. Exceedingly beautiful to the eye are the vast fertile areas of Palestine, checkered only by cultivation. As cattle find pasture through most of the year, there are no proper barns to be seen. Grass is cut in watered places with a sickle for "soiling," and stock is fed with this or with grain when the fields are dried up. More commonly, during periods of scarcity, the flocks and herds are driven to other feeding grounds. Booths are sometimes provided for inclement weather, and at night cattle are driven into caves or folds.

The permission to pluck and eat a neighbor's grapes or grain, but not to put the former in a vessel nor use a sickle on the latter, is not to be forgotten. Deut 23:24,Deut 23:25. There was also merciful provision that the poor might glean in the vineyard and harvest-field, and that something should be left for them. Lev 19:9, 1 Kgs 16:10 ; Deut 24:19.

Altogether, the agricultural laws of the Pentateuch have been unapproached in their wisdom and beneficence by any similar legislation on record. See Garden, Mowing, Plough, Seasons, Thresh, Vines, etc.

AGRIP'PA. See Herod (3, 4).

A'GUR. (an assembler, i. e. of wise men), a sage mentioned in Prov 30:1. Nothing is known of him. The rabbis identified him, but groundlessly, with Solomon.

A'HAB ( father's brother). 1 . Seventh king of" Israel, b. c. 919-896. 1 Kgs 16:29. Son and successor of Omri. He reigned twenty-two years. His capital was Samaria. He married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre, who had been priest of Astarte, but had seized the throne of his brother. Being a weak man, he was ruled by his ambitious and daring wife. Idolatry was set up in Israel. Ahab built a temple to Baal in Samaria, and Jezebel maintained at her own cost 400 prophets of Astarte. These were allowed to become the relentless persecutors of the servants of Jehovah, so that true religion was almost extinct. In punishment God sent three years of drought. Elijah had prophesied this event, and at its termination appeared before the king, challenged the false prophets to a trial of power, demonstrated their feebleness, amd caused them to be slain. Ahab was deeply impressed, and might have yielded, were it not for Jezebel, who threatened the life of Elijah, and by her energy prevented a reaction in favor of Jehovah. See Elijah. Ahab had a taste for splendid architecture; this he showed by building an ivory palace and several cities. But it was on the city of Jezreel he seems to have spent the most attention. The desire to beautify it led to the affair of Naboth's vineyard. This he coveted, that he might add it to his pleasure-grounds in Jezreel. But Naboth refused to part with the land for money or in exchange, for he was forbidden by the Levitical law. Lev 25:23. Ahab took the refusal to heart. But the scheming Jezebel secured Naboth's murder under orders marked with Ahab's seal. And thus the land passed into his hands. See Naboth. The Lord by Elijah denounced Ahab and Jezebel, and foretold the extinction of their house. But Ahab's remorse and repentance secured the postponement of the sentence. 1 Kgs 21. 32

Ahab fought three wars or campaigns with Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, in the first two of which, only a year apart, both defensive, he was victorious. The second victory put Ben-hadad into his hands, and he was able to exact very favorable terms of peace — viz. that all the Israelitish cities lost should be restored, and in Damascus Jewish officials should be permanently settled in their own houses, in order that they might look after the interests of Ahab and his subjects. This is what is meant by making "streets" in Damascus. 1 Kgs 20:34. For letting Ben-hadad go he was strikingly rebuked by a prophet, and the failure of his hopes prophesied. It was indeed foolish, since no pledge had been given by Ben-hadad; and ungrateful, because God, who had given the victory, was not consulted. For the next three years the kingdom had peace. But then Ahab in conjunction with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, his son-in-law, fought Ben-hadad the third time, in order to recover Ramoth-gilead, which Ahab claimed belonged to him. Lying prophets encouraged him in his enterprise, but at Jehoshaphat's request Micaiah, the prophet of Jehovah, was called, who foretold his death. Ahab in anger imprisoned Micaiah, but still was so impressed that he took the precaution to disguise himself; but a certain man drew a bow at a venture and smote him, so that at eventide he died. His body was carried to Samaria; the dogs licked up his blood as a servant washed it from the chariot. Thus the prophecy of Elijah was partially fulfilled, but more exactly in the case of his son. Ahab left three children by Jezebel, all of whom died violent deaths; also, by other wives, seventy sons, who were slain by Jehu.

  1. Ahab, a false prophet, who deceived the captive Israelites in Babylon, and was burnt by Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 594. Jer 29:22.

AHAR'AH (after the brother), the third son of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:1.

AHAR'HEL (behind the breast work), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:8.

AHAS'AI (probably a contraction of Ahaziah, whom Jehovah holds), a priest, Neh 11:13; called Jahzerah in 1 Chr 9:12.

AHAS'BAI (I will confide in Jehovah), the father of one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:34.

AHASHVE'ROSH. Ezr 4:6, margin; Hebrew form of Ahasuerus.

AHASUE'RUS (probably lion king), the Hebrew form of Xerxes, the name, or perhaps only the title, of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned in the Old Testament.

  1. The father of Darius the Median, and the same with Astyages. Dan 9:1.

  2. Supposed to be the son and successor of Cyrus, probably Cambyses, who reigned seven years and five months from b. c. 529.Ezr 4:6.

  3. The husband of Esther, undoubtedly the Xerxes of profane history. Esth 1:1. The story of his acts of caprice and cruelty recorded in the book of Esther agrees exactly with what we otherwise know of his character, for once he scourged the sea and beheaded the engineers because a storm carried away their bridge, and was guilty of many other crimes. In the third year of his reign he called a council of his nobles, very likely for the purpose of arranging the invasion of Greece. The meeting lasted six months, and was followed by a munificent feast, on the seventh day of which he commanded his queen, Vashti, to show herself unto his drunken nobles. This she properly refused to do, where upon he deposed her. Four years after, he married Esther. The interval is accounted for by supposing the war with Greece intervened. See Esther.

AHA'VA (water), a place or river where Ezra collected the returning exiles and proclaimed a fast. Ezr 8:15, Ezr 8:21, 1 Chr 24:31. Rawlinson suggests that Ahava was identical with Ava and Ivah, the modern Hit, on the Euphrates, east of Damascus.

A'HAZ (possessor). 1. Eleventh king of Judah, son of Jotham, whom he succeeded. 2 Kgs 16:2; 2 Chr 28:1. He reigned sixteen years,b. c. 742-726. He was a gross idolater, and even sacrificed his children to the gods. He remodelled the temple to fit it for idolatrous rites. He kept chariot-horses dedicated to the sun. This course brought upon him and his kingdom severe judgments. God made them to flee before their enemies. Their allies often proved un 33 faithful, and involved them in great distress.

Early in his reign,probably the second year, Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, king of Syria, who, just at the close of Jotham's reign, had confederated for the destruction of Judah, invaded the kingdom with a powerful army and laid siege to Jerusalem.

Isaiah foretold their overthrow and inspired the king. Isa 7. But the allies, though defeated at Jerusalem, captured Elath, wasted Judah, and carried 200,000 into captivity; the prophet Oded caused these to be restored. Ahaz in his extremity made a league with Tilgath-pilneser, king of Assyria, who freed him from his enemies, but at the cost of the Judaic kingdom, which became tributary, and Ahaz sent him all the treasures of the temple and his palace, and appeared before him in Damascus as a vassal. Neglecting the warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he ran to even greater excesses in idolatry, and indeed so lowered himself in the popular esteem that when he died he was refused a burial with his royal ancestors. 2 Chr 28:27. His only permanent service to his people was the introduction of the sun-dial, which was probably connected with the Assyrian astrology and necromancy.

  1. A son of Micah, the grandson of Jonathan. 1 Chr 8:35,1 Chr 8:36 ;1 Chr 9:42.

AHAZI'AH (whom Jehovah sustains). 1. The son and successor of Ahab, and eighth king of Israel, b. c. 896-895. 1 Kgs 22:40. He was an idolater, and for this reason, when he attempted to unite with Jehoshaphat in the gold-trade with Ophir, God caused the ships to be broken in port at Ezion-geber, not allowing this union between his friends and foes. See Jehoshaphat. Under him Moab rebelled. A fall through a lattice, probably from the window of his chamber in his palace in Samaria, occasioned his death. Characteristically, he sent to inquire at Ekron of Baal-zebub whether his injury would be fatal. Elijah met the messengers and told them that he would die. The king sent to take Elijah, and thus two companies of soldiers were destroyed. But with the third, Elijah went and told the king in person of his speedy death. 2 Kgs 1.

  1. Called also Azariah, 2 Chr 22:6, and Jehoahaz, 2 Chr 21:17, was a son of Jehoram and Athaliah, and fifth king of Judah, and at the age of twenty-two succeeded his father as king of Judah. 2 Kgs 8:25. He continued the idolatry of the house of Ahab, and was governed by the advice of his infamous mother. His reign lasted only one year, b. c. 884. He allied himself with his uncle, Jehoram, king of Israel, and attacked Hazael, king of Syria, who defeated them at Ramoth-gilead. Jehoram was severely wounded and carried to his palace in Jezreel. There Ahaziah visited him. Israel meanwhile rebelled under Jehu. The two kings went out to meet him, and Jehu killed Jehoram. Ahaziah fled, and was pursued to the pass of Gur, where he was mortally wounded, but escaped, and died at Megiddo. In this way the slightly differing accounts, 2 Kgs 9:27 and 2 Chr 22:9, can be reconciled.

AH'BAN (brother of the wise), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:29.

A'HER (after, following), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 7:12.

A'HI (brother). 1. A Gadite. 1 Chr 5:15.

  1. An Asherite. 1 Chr 7:34.

AHI'AH (friend of Jehovah). 1. Supposed by some to be the same with Ahimelech, 1 Sam 21:1, was the son of Ahitub, and his successor in the priest's office. 1 Sam 14:3,1 Sam 14:18. See Ahimelech and Ahitub.

  1. The son of Shisha, one of Solomon's scribes or secretaries. 1 Kgs 4:3.

  2. A descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:7.

AHI'AM (father's brother), one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:33 ; 1 Chr 11:35.

AHI'AN (brotherly), a son of Shemidah. 1 Chr 7:19.

AHIE'ZER (brother of help). 1. A prince of Dan. Num 1:12; Num 2:25; Num 7:66; Num 10:25.

  1. A Benjamite chief who joined David. 1 Chr 12:3.

AHI'HUD (brother, i. e. friend, of Judah, i. e. renown), the prince of the tribe of Asher. Num 34:27.

AHI'HUD (different name in Hebrew from the above, brother of union), a descendant of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:7.

AHI'JAH (brother, i.e. *friend, of Je 34 hovah). 1. A prominent prophet, called the Shilonite from his place of residence, who foretold to Jeroboam the disruption of the kingdom and the assignment of the ten tribes to him. 1 Kgs 11:29-39. The prophecy is referred to 1 Kgs 12:15 ; 2 Chr 10:15. To the wife of Jeroboam the same prophet subsequently announced not only the fate of the sick child, but that of the nation. 1 Kgs 14:1-18. A part of this latter prophecy Baasha realized. 1 Kgs 15:29. He left annals of Solomon's reign.2 Chr 9:29.

  1. The father of Baasha, the king. 1 Kgs 15:27,1 Sam 15:33 ; 1 Kgs 21:22 ;2 Kgs 9:9.

  2. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:25.

  3. One of David's "valiant men."1 Chr 11:36.

  4. The Levite "over the treasures of the house of God and . . . the dedicated things." 1 Chr 26:20.

  5. One who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:26.

AHI'KAM (brother of the enemy), a son of Shaphan, and the father of Gedaliah, was an officer at the court of Josiah and Jehoiakim, and one of those whom Josiah sent to Huldah the prophetess to inquire of her concerning the book of the law which had been found in the temple. 2 Kgs 22:12. He afterward protected the prophet Jeremiah. Jer 26:24. See Jeremiah.

AHI'LUD (brother of one born, sc. before him), the father of Jehoshaphat, the official recorder of the reigns of David and Solomon. 2 Sam 8:16 ; 2 Sam 20:24; 1 Kgs 4:3; 1 Chr 18:15. The father likewise, in all probability, of Baana, one of Solomon's twelve commissariat officers. 1 Kgs 4:12.

AHIM'AAZ (brother of wrath). 1. The father of Saul's wife Ahinoam. 1 Sam 14:50.

  1. Son and successor of Zadok the priest.

During the revolt of Absalom, Zadok and Abiathar, the high priests, stayed in Jerusalem with Hushai, David's friend; while Ahimaaz and Jonathan, the son of Abiathar, stationed themselves at En-rogel, a short distance from the city, and the plot was that all that Hushai should hear respecting Absalom's plans he should communicate to Zadok and Abiathar, and they to their sons Ahimaaz and Jonathan, by whom the intelligence should be communicated to David. 2 Sam 15:30. As soon as Absalom had rejected the counsel of Ahithophel, and adopted that of Hushai, Zadok and Abiathar were promptly informed of it, and directed their sons to go with all possible haste to David and tell him to cross Jordan at once. A woman bore the message. Seeing her speak to the men, and noticing that they ran off with haste, a lad informed Absalom of the suspicious event, and accordingly he ordered a pursuit. When they came to Bahurim, they concealed themselves in a well. The woman of the house covered the mouth of the well with a blanket, on which she spread corn to dry ; and when Absalom's messengers came up in the pursuit, and inquired where they were, she told them that the young men had passed on. Thus they escaped, and while their pursuers returned to Jerusalem they hastened to David with their message. 2 Sam 17:15-22.

At his own urgent request, Ahimaaz was employed to carry the intelligence of Absalom's death to David, his father. He outran Cushi, who had been previously despatched on the same errand. Before he had delivered his message, however, Cushi came up, and made known the sad event. 2 Sam 18:19-33. See David.

  1. A son-in-law of Solomon, and one of his commissariat officers. 1 Kgs 4:15.

AHI'MAN (brother of a gift). 1 One of three Hebronitic Anakim, Num 13:22, defeated and killed by Caleb with the help of Judah. Josh 15:14; Jud 1:10.

  1. A Levite porter. 1 Chr 9:17.

AHIM'ELECH (brother or friend of the king). 1. The son of Ahitub, and his successor in the priesthood at Nob. 1 Sam 21:1. He gave David some of the shew-bread and the sword of Goliath when he fled from Saul. For this offence he and all the priests at Nob were slain at the instigation of Doeg the Edomite. 1 Sam 22:11. See Abiathar.

  1. A Hittite who was one of David's friends during his flight from Saul. 1 Sam 26:6.

AHI'MOTH (brother of death), a 35 Kohathite, 1 Chr 6:25 ; called in v.35 Mahath.

AHIN'ADAB (brother of the noble, i. e. noble brother), one of Solomon's commissariat officers. 1 Kgs 4:14. See Abiathar.

AHIN'OAM (brother of pleasantness, i. e. pleasant). 1. The daughter of Ahimaaz, and the wife of Saul. 1 Sam 14:50.

  1. A woman of Jezreel, and one of David's wives. 1 Sam 25:43. She was taken captive by the Amalekites in the siege of Ziklag, and afterward rescued from captivity by David. 1 Sam 30:5, 1 Sam 30:18. She lived with him while he was king of Judah in Hebron, and was the mother of Amnon, his eldest son. 2 Sam 2:2; 2 Sam 3:2; 1 Chr 3:1.

AHI'O (brotherly). 1. A son of Abinadab, who, with his brother Uzzah, was intrusted by David with the transportation of the ark from Kirjath jearim to Jerusalem. 2 Sam 6:3; 1 Chr 13:7. See Uzzah.

  1. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:14.

  2. Another Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:31; 1 Chr 9:37.

AHI'RA (brother of evil), the prince of the tribe of Naphtali. Num 1:15; Num 2:29;Num 7:78, Num 1:83 ; Num 10:27.

AHI'RAM (brother of the high), a son of Benjamin, Num 26:38 ; called Ehi in Gen 46:21, and was possibly the same as Aher. 1 Chr 7:12. His descendants were called Ahiramites. Num 26:38.

AHIS'AMACH (brother of support), a Danite, the father of Aholiab, one of the architects of the tabernacle. Ex 31:6; Ex 35:34;Ex 38:23.

AHISH'AHAR (brother of the dawn), a great-grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr 7:10.

AHI'SHAR (brother of the singer), the controller of Solomon's household. 1 Kgs 4:6.

AHITH'OPHEL (brother of foolishness), a native of Giloh, and the familiar friend, companion, and counsellor of David. Ps 55:12-14; 2 Sam 15:12 ; 1 Chr 27:33. He was the grandfather of Bath-sheba. Cf. 2 Sam 11:3 with 2 Sam 23:34. His wisdom seemed superhuman. 2 Sam 16:23. Absalom persuaded him to join in the conspiracy against his father, David ; but the cunning measures which Ahithophel proposed for the accomplishment of Absalom's ambitious plans were all defeated by the counsel of Hushai. Ahithophel, seeing that the probable issue would be the utter ruin of Absalom and his cause, which would almost necessarily involve his own destruction, returned at once to Giloh and hanged himself. 2 Sam 17:23.

AHI'TITB (brother of goodness). 1. The son of Phinehas, and grandson of Eli. 1 Sam 14:3. Some suppose that he succeeded Eli in the priesthood. See Ahimelech.

  1. The son of Amariah, and the father of Zadok. 1 Chr 6:8.

AH'LAB (fatness, fertility), a town in Asher held by the Canaanites, Jud 1:31; probably the place known later as Gash Halab or Chaleb, and which Robinson locates at el-Jish, near Safed, north-west of the Sea of Galilee.

AH'LAI (would God!), daughter of Sheshan ; married to his slave Jarha ; ancestress of one of David's mighty men. 1 Chr 2:31, 1 Chr 2:34, 1 Chr 2:35; [scripture]11:41 [scripture].

AHO'AH (friendship of Jehovah?), a grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:4.

AHO'HITE, from Ahoah, a patronymic of some of David's warriors.

AHO'LAH (her tent), AND AHOL'IBAH (my tabernacle in her), the names of imaginary harlots; symbolically used for Judah and Samaria. Eze 23:4, 1 Chr 6:5, Eze 23:36,Eze 23:44.

AHO'LIAB (tent of his father), son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, who, with Bezaleel, was divinely appointed to construct the tabernacle and its furniture. Ex 35:34.

AHO LIB 'AMAH (tent of the height). 1. A wife of Esau, and daughter of Anah, Gen 36:2, etc. She was the same with Judith, daughter of Beeri.Gen 26:34. Judith was perhaps her original name.

  1. The name appears in the genealogical list, Gen 36:41 ; 1 Chr 1:52, but it is the name of a district, and not of a person.

AHU'MAI (brother of water, i. e. pusillanimons), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:2.

AHU'ZAM (their possession), the son of Ashur. 1 Chr 4:6.

AHUZ'ZATH (possession), a particular friend of Abimelech, king of Gerar, who attended him when he met 36 Isaac, and made a treaty with him at Beer-sheba. Gen 26:26.

A'I (heap of ruins). 1. A city of the Canaanites, Gen 13:3 ; taken by Joshua, Josh 7:2-5 ; Josh 8:1-29 ; also called Aiath, Isa 10:28, and Aija. Neh 11:31. Abraham pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel. Gen 12:8. The two cities were so far apart that Joshua could place an ambush west of Ai unseen by the men of Bethel, while he was in the valley north of Ai. The city of Ai was east of Bethel, and about 9 miles north of Jerusalem. It is named 38 times in the Bible. It is now Haiyas.

  1. A city of the Ammonites not far from Heshbon. Jer 49:3.

AI'AH (hawk). 1. The father of Rizpah, Saul's concubine. 2 Sam 3:7;2 Sam 21:8,1 Kgs 16:10,Rev 1:11.

  1. The son of Zibeon, 1 Chr 1:40 ; called Ajah in Gen 36:24.

AI'ATH. Isa 10:28. Feminine form of Ai, and probably the same as Ai.

AI'JA. Neh 11:31. See Ai.

AIJ'ALON. See Ajalon.

AIJ'ELETH SHA'HAR (hind of the dawn). These words occur in the title to Ps 22, and probably "indicate, not the subject-matter of the poem, but rather a time for the guidance of the presentor." "There was some poem or lyrical composition extant which bore the name of Aijeleth Shahar — similar names have frequently been given to poems in the East — and according to the well-known measure of that the chief musician was to sing or chant the psalm." — Ayhe: Treasury of Bible knowledge.

A'IN (eye, spring). 1. A place, or probably a fountain, and one of the landmarks on the eastern boundary of Canaan. Num 34:11. It is now known as Ain el-Azy, a remarkable spring, one of the sources of the Orontes, and about 10 miles west of Riblah.

  1. A city of southern Palestine, first given to Judah, Josh 15:32, afterward assigned to Simeon, Josh 19:7, and then to the Levites, Josh 21:16; 1 Chr 4:32. The same place as Ashan, 1 Chr 6:59, and possibly as En-rimmon. Neh 11:29.

A' JAH. See Aiah.

AJ'ALON (place of gazelles). 1. A Levitical city of Dan, Josh 19:42 ; given to the Kohathites, Josh 21:24; held by the Amorites, Jud 1:35 ; noticed in the wars with the Philistines, 1 Sam 14:31; 2 Chr 28:18; fortified by Rehoboam, 2 Chr 11:10 ; then in the territory of Benjamin, as the Danites had extended their territory farther north. See Jud 18:1. Being on the border of the two kingdoms, it is sometimes mentioned as in Ephraim, 1 Chr 6:66, 1 Chr 6:69 and sometimes as in Judah and Benjamin. 2 Chr 11:10 ; 2 Chr 28:18. Its modern name is Yalo, a small village about 14 miles west of Jerusalem, and north of the Jaffa road.

  1. A valley, Josh 10:12, near the above city, now called Merj Ibn Omeir, which is broad and very beautiful. There Joshua fought a great battle. See Gibeon.

  2. A town in Zebulun. possibly named after Elon the judge, who was buried there. Jud 12:12. Its site may be the modern Jalun.

A'KAN (sharp-sighted ?), a descendant of Esau, Gen 36:27 ; called Jakan in 1 Chr 1:42.

AK'KUB (insidious). 1. A descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:24.

  1. One of the porters at the east gate of the temple. 1 Chr 9:17; Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45; Neh 11:19; Neh 12:25.

  2. One of the Nethinim whose family returned with Zurubbabel. Ezr 2:45.

  3. A Levite who assisted Ezra in explaining the law. Neh 8:7.

AKRAB'BIM (scorpions), a range of hills on the southern boundary of Judah, Num 34:4 ; Josh 15:3, and on the border of the territory of the Amorites. Jud 1:36. The "ascent of" and the "going up to" Akrabbim is the famous "Scorpion Pass," where the route from Petra to Hebron passes out of the Ghur, or Wady, el-Fikreh. At the upper end of this winding valley, 10 miles from Maderah, is a wild ascent now called Nahh Kareb, which is regarded as the ancient Akrabbim or "Scorpion Pass." Scorpions still abound in the region. It was also called Maalehacrabbim. Josh 15:3.

AL'ABASTER. Matt 26:7. A white mineral, easily carved and susceptible of a fine polish. It was of two distinct kinds. One was a pure variety of gypsum or sulphate of lime, the rock which is often ground into plaster of


Paris; the other kind was carbonate of lime, a mineral of the same chemical composition as most of the marbles. It was highly valued for its translucency and for its variety of reddish or grayish streakings. The name "alabaster" is from Alabastrou, in Egypt, where this material was found, and where vessels were manufactured from it for holding perfumes. Vases of the same mineral for containing ointments or cosmetics were found at Nineveh by Mr. Layard. The well known sculptured slabs from that city are of alabaster of the gypsum kind. The druggists in Egypt at the present day

Alabaster Vases. (From the British Museum.)

The inscription on the centre vessel denotes the quantity it holds.

use vessels of this substance for the purpose of keeping medicines and perfumes. Theocritus, an ancient profane historian, speaks of gilded alabasters of Syrian ointment. The phrase "she brake the box", used in Mark 14:3, is supposed to mean that she broke the slender neck of the sealed bottle or pitcher. Thus the offering was very costly and appropriate. Box was formerly used in a more general sense than now. The word is said to come from the wood of the same name, and at first was used for any vessel formed from that material.

AL'AMETH (covering), another form of Alemeth, which see. 1 Chr 7:8.

ALAM'MELECH (king's oak), a place in Asher. Josh 19:26. The name seems to be preserved in the Wady Melik, which joins the Kishon not far from the sea and near Mt. Carmel.

ALE'METH (covering), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:36 ; 1 Chr 9:42.

AL'EMETH, and AL'LEMETH, the same as Alameth (covering), a Levitical city of Benjamin, 1 Chr 6:60; called also Almon, Josh 21:18; probably the modern Almit, 4 miles north-east of Jerusalem, and about 1 mile north-east of Anata, the ancient Anathoth.

ALEXAN'DER (man-defender). 1. The son of Simon the Cyrenian. Mark 15:21.

  1. A distinguished Jew who, with others, took part against Peter and John. Acts 4:6.

  2. A Jew of Ephesus who took a conspicuous part in the controversy between Paul and the populace of that city, and attempted, without success, to quell the commotion. Acts 19:33.

  3. A coppersmith and apostate from Christianity, whom Paul mentions in terms of severe reproach. 1 Tim 1:19, Gen 23:20 and 1 Tim 1:2 1 Tim 4:14.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, the famous king of Macedonia and conqueror, died B.C. 323. He brought Europe and Asia into contact, made the Greek the ruling language of civilization, and thus unconsciously prepared the way for the spiritual conquest of the gospel. He is not mentioned by name in the canonical books, but in the Apocrypha, 1 Mace. 1 : 1-9 j 6 : 2, and

Head of Alexander the Great. (On a coin of Lysimachus, king of Thrace.)

is meant in the prophecies of Daniel, where he is represented first as the belly of brass in Nebuchadnezzar's 38 dream of the colossal statue, 1 Tim 2:39, and then in the vision of Daniel, under the figures of a leopard with four wings, and a one-horned he-goat, to indicate his great strength and the swiftness of his conquests, 1 Tim 7:6;1 Tim 8:5-7;Tim 11 : 3, 4. He succeeded his father, Philip, b.c. 336, conquered Syria, Palestine, Egypt, destroyed the Persian empire and substituted the Grecian, but died at the age of 32, from the effects of intemperance, in Babylon, and was buried in Alexandria, which he had founded, b.c. 332. His conquests were divided among his four generals. Josephus relates that after the siege of Tyre he visited Jerusalem; and being shown the prophecy of Daniel concerning himself, he granted the Jews everywhere the most important privileges. But the heathen historians ignore this event.

ALEXAN'DRIA,the Grecian capital of Egypt, founded by and named after Alexander the Great, b.c. 332.

Situation. — It was a noted seaport of Lower Egypt, and was situated on a low, narrow tract of land which divides Lake Mareotis from the Mediterranean, and near the western mouth of the Nile, about 120 miles from the present city of Cairo.

History. — Soon after its foundation by Alexander it became the capital of the Ptolemies and the Grecian kings reigning in Egypt, and one of the most populous and prosperous cities of the East. Its harbor could accommodate vast navies, fitting it to become the commercial metropolis of the entire Eastern world. In front of the city, on the island of Pharos, stood a famous light-house, named after the island and noted as one of the Seven wonders of the world. Alexandria numbered, in the days of its ancient prosperity, 600,000 inhabitants (half of them slaves), and ranked next to Athens in literature. It had the greatest library of ancient times, which contained upward of 700,000 rolls or volumes. The portion in the museum, consisting of 400,000 volumes, was burnt in b.c. 47. The additional or "new library" in the Serapeum, afterward increased to about 500,000 volumes, including the original 300,000 volumes, was destroyed by the fanatical vandalism of the Saracens in a.d. 640. At Alexandria the O. T. was translated into the Greek by seventy learned Jews (hence called the "Septuagint"), in the third century before the Christian era. The Alexandrian Greek dialect, known as Hellenistic Greek, was the language used by the early Christian fathers, and is still the study of the biblical scholar in the pages of the N. T. Alexandria was the birthplace of Apollos, Acts 18:24, and in the apostle Paul's time, it carried on an extensive commerce with the countries on the Mediterranean. Acts 6:9; Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11. The city was the home of Philo, who there blended the Mosaic religion with the philosophy of Plato. Mark founded there a Christian church, which in later years became a patriarchal see, outranking Jerusalem and Antioch, being itself afterward outranked by Constantinople and Rome. In its catechetical school — the theological seminary of those days — Clement and Origen taught the Christian religion, in opposition to the false philosophy of the Gnostic sects. In Alexandria originated the Arian heresy denying that Jesus Christ was divine, and there Athanasius, the "father of orthodoxy," firmly opposed the false and defended the true doctrine of the deity of our Lord. From a.d. 300 to 600 the city was second only to Rome in size and importance, and was the chief seat of Christian theology. It was conquered by the Saracens under Caliph Omar about a.d. 610, when it began to decline. The rising importance of Constantinople, and the discovery of an ocean passage to India by way of Cape Good Hope, contributed to its further ruin, until it was reduced from a prosperous city of half a million to a poor village of only 5000 to 6000 inhabitants. The plan of Alexandria on the next page is taken from Fairbairn's Imperial Dictionary of the Bible.

Present Condition. — It is now an important city of 200,000 inhabitants (including 50,000 Franks), and is connected with Cairo by a railway, and also with Suez, on the Red Sea. The city has a new artificial harbor with a breakwater two miles long. Among the ancient monuments to be seen are the Catacombs, the Column of Diocletian, 94 feet high and named "Pompey's Pillar" — not from the famous Pompey, but from a Roman prefect who erected the 39

column in honor of the emperor Diocletian — and one of the two obelisks or "Needles of Cleopatra," which, however, belong to the time of the Pharaohs and were brought from Heliopolis. One was transferred to London in 1878, and now adorns the embankment of the Thames; the other is to be removed to the city of New York (1880).

ALEXANDRIANS. Acts 6:9. Jews from Alexandria at Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue by themselves, or perhaps the Libertines and Cyrenians worshipped with them.

AL'GUM. See Almug.

ALI'AH (wickedness). See Alvah.

ALI'AN (tall). 1 Chr 1:40. See Alvan.

A'LIEN. See Stranger.

AL'LEGORY. Gal 4:24. A figure of speech, nearly resembling the parable or fable, common in the Scriptures and among all Oriental nations. It properly means a figurative speech which, under the literal sense of the words, conveys a deeper spiritual meaning. But the literal or historic sense is not necessarily denied. Paul gives two examples of allegorical interpretation — the rock in the wilderness of which the Israelites did drink, and which spiritually or mystically means Christ, 1 Cor 10:4 ; and the story of Hagar and Sarah. Gal 4:24, Gal 4:25. In v. 25 the best critical authorities leave out "Agar," and thus rid the verse of much of its difficulty, for it is not asserted that Agar is, but that Sinai is, a mountain in Arabia. See Parable.

ALLELII'IA, Rev 19:1, or HALLELU'JAH, a Hebrew word signifying Praise ye the Lord. It was a common exclamation of joy and praise in the Jewish worship, and begins and concludes several of the Psalms, as 106, 111, 112, 113, 117, and 135. The Psalms 113 to 118 constituted, according to Jewish enumeration, the Hallel, which was sung on the first of the month and at the Feasts of Dedication, Tabernacles, Weeks, and of the Passover.

ALLI'ANCE. The Jews were in intention a peculiar people, designed to live apart from all other nations. But they frustrated this design, and leagued themselves in offensive and defensive treaties with the surrounding governments. We know so little of the details 40 of these affairs that we cannot always be sure just when they took place. But it is noticeable that the decay of the Jewish state in purity is synchronous with a desire to receive outside help. They left God for man. Before the state arose, alliances were indeed formed by the patriarchs, Gen 21:27-32; Gen 26 : 28, 29 ; Gen 31:44-54, but they were of very limited extent. When the Israelites invaded Palestine they were forbidden to ally themselves with the inhabitants, but the Gibeonites fraudulently made a treaty with them, to which Israel abode faithful. Josh 9. David and Solomon made an alliance with Tyre, 2 Sam 5:11;

1 Kgs 5:1-12, but it was for pacific ends. When, however, the disruption took place, both Judah and Israel looked to neighboring states for assistance in their "intestine internecine wars." By means of these foreigners idolatry was introduced, the national purity eventually destroyed, and the anger of God thus excited.

Alliances were made by an oath between the parties, who in solemn fashion passed between the parts of an equally divided victim. Gen 15:10; Jer 34:18-20. A feast followed. Gen 26:30 ; 2 Sam 3:20. Salt, symbol of fidelity to this day in the East, was used; hence the phrase "covenant of salt." Num 18:19 ; 2 Chr 13:5. Once made, these alliances must not be broken. Josh 9:18; the punishment for so doing was severe. 2 Sam 21:1 ;Eze 17:16.

AL'LON (an oak), a place on the boundary of Naphtali, Josh 19:33 ; probably should be rendered the "oak forest." See Zaanannim.

AL'LON (an oak), the son of Jedaiah. 1 Chr 4:37.

AL'LON-BACH'UTH (oak of weeping), an oak tree near Bethel, under which Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried. Gen 35:8.

ALMO'DAD (immeasurable), the Joktanite. Gen 10:26; 1 Chr 1:20.

AL'MON. Josh 21:18. See Alemeth.

AL'MOND (Amygdalus communis), a tree resembling the peach in size, leaf, flower, and fruit. The fruit is green, almost pulpless, and shrivels off in September, leaving the nuts, for which the tree is chiefly valued, and which the sons of Jacob carried down to the governor of Egypt, a country where almonds seem to have been rare. Gen 43:11. "Hazel," in Gen 30:37, probably denotes this tree. The bowls of the sacred candlestick were made like unto almonds, Ex 25:33, by which name of "almonds" English workmen to this day call the pieces of glass used to ornament branch candlesticks. Aaron's rod that budded yielded this fruit. Num 17:8.

In January, before flowers appear on other trees, they adorn the naked twigs of the almond. Hence the allusion of the poet:

"The hope, in dreams of a happier hour. That alights on Misery's brow, Springs out of the silvery almond-flower. That blooms on a leafless bough."

The Hebrew name for this tree, doubtless suggested by its early blooming, means hasten, which explains Jer 1:11, Jer 1:12; "the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, Jeremiah, what seest thou ? And I said, I see a rod of an almond (hasten) tree. Then said the Lord unto me, Thou hast well seen; for I will hasten my word to perform it." The allusion in Eccl 12:5 is by some thought to refer to the beautiful resemblance of the almond tree when in blossom to a hoary head. But as these

Almond. (From Wm. Smith.)

flowers, though white in contrast with peach-bloom, are still pinkish, the opinion now prevails that " as the almond ushers in the spring, so do the signs referred to in the context indicate the hastening of old age and death."


AL'MON-DIB'LATHA'IM (hiding of the two fig cakes), one of the halting-places of the Israelites near the river Arnon; probably the same as Beth-diblathaim. Eccl Num. 33:46, 47; Jer 48:22.

ALMS, ALMS DEEDS. The word is not found in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament, but is frequent in the New Testament. The duty was, however, enjoined very strictly upon the Jews, who by law were required always to leave gleanings in the fields that the poor might be fed. Jer Lev. 19:9, 10; Jer 23:22; Deut 15:11; Deut 24:19;Deut 26:2-13; Ruth 2:2. Every third year the tithe of the produce of the farmers was to be shared with the Levite, the fatherless, the stranger, and the widow. Deut 14:28. Alms-giving is a subject of praise in the Old Testament; e.g. Job 31:17; Ps 41:1 and Ps 112:9. In the temple there was one box for the reception of alms to be dedicated to the education of the poor children of good family. Alms-giving was a part of Pharisaic practice. Our Lord did not rebuke them for it, but for their self-satisfaction in the performance. Matt 6:2. In Acts 10:31; Rom 15:25-27; 1 Cor 16:1-4 the Christian mode of relieving the wants of others is set forth.

AL'MUG TREES, 1 Kgs 10:11, AL'GUM TREES, 2 Chr 2:8; 2 Chr 9: 10, 11. Two forms of the same word. A precious wood used for musical instruments or cabinet-work. Being ordered by Solomon, it was brought from Ophir to Tyre, and thence with cedar of Lebanon to Jerusalem. As to what almug-wood was there are many theories, but some of the best authorities believe it to have been the red sandalwood of India.

AL'OES. Ps 45:8;Song of Solomon 4:14. We may infer that aloes was some fragrant and costly wood or gum entirely different from the medicine which we know by that name. It is believed to have been brought from India, and was used in embalming the dead. John 19:39.

Lign-aloes — that is, wood-aloes, Num 24:6 — is a translation of the same Hebrew word, but probably means a different plant. Balaam appears to refer to a well-known tree whose qualities might illustrate the condition of the Israelites — possibly, to some kind of odoriferous cedar.

Aloes (Aquilaria agallocha. After Dr. Birdwood.)

A'LOTH, a district in charge of Baanah, one of Solomon's officers; perhaps it should be Bealoth. 1 Kgs 4:16; possibly, Alia, near Malia.

AL'PHA. See A and O.

ALPHE'US (exchange ?). 1. The father of the apostle James the Less, Matt 10:3, and husband or father of Mary. John 19:25. Others make him the uncle of Jesus by identifying him with Cleophas and calling his wife a sister of the mother of Jesus ; but it is more likely that "the sister of the mother of Jesus," mentioned John 19:25, was Salome, the mother of John, who was at the cross, according to the synoptical Gospels. Matt 27:36;Mark 15:40.

  1. The father of Levi or Matthew. Mark 2:14.

AL'TAR. Gen 8:20. A structure appropriated exclusively to the offering of sacrifices, under the Jewish law. See Sacrifices. Though sacrifices were offered before the Flood, the word altar does not occur until the time of Noah's departure from the ark.

Altars were of various forms, and at first rude in their construction, being nothing more, probably, than a square heap of stones or mound of earth. The altar on which Jacob made an offering at Bethel was the single stone which had served him for a pillow during the night. Gen 28:18. Primarily for sacrifice, they seem at times to have been built for a witness merely, to mark the spot of God's appearance or other 42 memorable event. Gen 12:7;Ex 17:15, Ex 17:16; Josh 22:10-29. The altar which Moses was commanded to build, Ex 20:24, was to be made of earth. If made of stone, it was expressly required to be rough, the use of a tool being regarded as polluting, Ex 20:25, but this refers only to the body of the altar and that part on which the victim was laid, as is evident from the directions given for making a casing of shittim-wood and overlaying it with brass for the altar of burnt-offering. It was also to be without steps. Ex 20:26. See also Deut 27:2-6 and Josh 8:31. The law of Moses forbade the erection of altars except in the tabernacle; yet even pious Israelites disobeyed the letter of this law, for Gideon, Samuel, David, and Solomon are mentioned as setting up altars. The temple altar was an asylum; e.g. 1 Kgs 1:50. Altars were used in idol-worship; and because they were often erected on high places they acquired the name of "high places."

The structures are different, as well as the apparent ornaments and uses. On representations of them are projections upward at each corner, which represent the true figure of the horns. Ex 27:2; 1 Kgs 2:28; Rev 9:13. They were probably used to confine the victim. Ps 118:27.

The altars required in the Jewish worship were:

(1). "The altar of burnt-offering," or the "brazen altar," in the tabernacle in the wilderness. This altar stood directly in front of the principal entrance. It was made of shittim-wood (acacia), seven feet and six inches square, and four feet and six inches high. It was hollow and overlaid with plates of brass. The horns — of which there was one on each corner — were of wood, and overlaid in the same way. A grate or net-work of brass was also attached to it, either to hold the fire or to support a hearth of earth. The furniture of the altar was all of brass, and consisted of, 1. a shovel to remove the ashes from the altar; 2. a pan to receive them; 3. basins for receiving the blood of the victims and removing it; 4. hooks for turning the sacrifice; 5. fire-pans, or perhaps censers, for carrying coals from the fire or for burning incense. At each corner was a brass ring, and there were also two staves or rods overlaid with brass, which passed through these rings, and served for carrying

Altar of Burnt-Offering in the Tabernacle.

the altar from place to place. The altar is described in Ex 27. The "compass" referred to, v. 1 Chr 6:5, was a ledge running all around the altar about midway from the ground — affording a convenient place for the priest to stand while offering sacrifice — supported by a brass net-like grating. The fire used on this altar was kindled miraculously and was perpetually maintained. It was also a place of constant sacrifice.

In the first temple, which in its general plan was constructed after the pattern of the tabernacle in the wilderness, the altar of burnt-offering stood in the same relative position as in the tabernacle. It was much larger, however, being thirty feet square and fifteen feet high, its particular plan being appointed

Altar of Burnt-Offering; in the Temple. (From Surenhusius's Mishna.)

expressly by divine authority. It was made entirely of bronze plates, which covered a structure of earth or stone. 2 Chr 4:1. In the second temple it occupied the same position, though it was still larger and more beautiful than in the first. An inclined plane led in each case up to the altar, since express command forbade the Jews using steps. Ex 20:26.

(2). The "altar of incense," or the "golden altar," stood within the holy 43 place and near to the inmost veil. Ex 30:1-6. It was made of the same wood with the brazen altar, and was eighteen inches square and three feet high. The top, as well as the sides and horns, was overlaid with pure gold, and it was finished around the upper surface

Altar of Incense.

with a crown or border of gold. Just below this border four golden rings were attached to each side of the altar, one near each corner. The staves or rods for bearing the altar passed through these rings, and were made of the same wood with the altar itself, and richly overlaid with the same precious metal. Upon this altar incense was burned every morning and every evening (see Incense), so that it was literally perpetual. Ex 30:8. The "altar of incense" in Solomon's temple was made of cedar overlaid with gold. Neither burnt-sacrifice, nor meat-offering, nor drink-offering, was permitted upon this altar, nor was it ever stained with blood, except once annually, when the priest made atonement. Lev 16:18, Acts 1:19.

ALTAR TO THE [AN] UNKNOWN GOD, referred to by Paul. Acts 17:23. There were in Athens several altars with this inscription, which were erected during a plague, the Athenians believing they had unconsciously offended some divinity, but not knowing whom.

AL-TAS'CHITH (destroy not). These words are in the titles to Ps 57, Ps 57:58, Ps 57:59 and Ps 57:75, and are probably "the beginning of some song or poem to the tune of which those psalms were to be chanted."

A'LUSH (a crowd of men, or place of wild beasts), an encampment of the Israelites on their way to Sinai, and the last before Rephidim. Num 33:13, 2 Kgs 22:14. See Rephidim.

AL'VAH (wickedness), a chief of Edom. Gen 36:40. Called Aliah in 1 Chr 1:51.

AL'VAN (tall), a descendant of Sier the Horite. Gen 36:23. Called Alian in 1 Chr 1:40.

A'MAD (people of duration), a town of Asher. Josh 19:26. Robinson suggested that it might be located at Shefa Amar, on a ridge of Haifa. Drake proposes to identify it with el-Amud.

A'MAL (labor), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:35.

AM'ALEK (dweller in a valley), the son of Eliphaz, and grandson of Esau, chieftain or "duke" of Edom. Gen 36:16. The Amalekites were not named from him, for they existed long before. Gen 14:7. Arabian tradition makes him the son of Ham.

AM'ALEKITES. 1 Sam 15:6. A powerful people of uncertain origin, first mentioned in connection with the invasion of Chedorlaomer. Gen 14:7. They are called, Num 24:20, the first of all the nations. They were signally defeated in a contest with the children of Israel at Rephidim, and for opposing the progress of Israel they became objects of God's judgments. They were afterward defeated and repulsed by Gideon, Jud 7:22, and by Saul, 1 Sam 15, and by David, 1 Sam 30, till at last the word of the Lord was fulfilled to the very letter, and their name was blotted from the earth. 1 Sam 30:17 and 1 Chr 4:43.

AMALEKITES, COUNTRY OF THE, a region lying between Canaan and Egypt, chiefly south of the mountains of Judah, and from Mount Sinai eastward to Mount Seir and the Salt Sea. Gen 14:7 ; Ex 17:8;Num 13:29;Num 14:25. For the physical features and character of the region see Sinai.

AMALEKITES, MOUNT OF THE. Jud 12:15. A mountain or hilly district in Ephraim, probably so named from an early settlement of the Amalekites or a later invasion by them.

A'MAM (gathering-place), a city in the south of Judah. Josh 15:26. Wilton and others would join this word 44 with Hazor in the preceding verse, and read "Hazor-Aman," but ancient authorities do not support this view. Its precise location is unknown.

AM'ANA, OR AMA'NA (perennial). 1. Margin, same as Abana. 2 Kgs 5:12. See Abana.

  1. A ridge or peak of the Lebanon range in which the river Amana or Abana has its source. 2 Kgs Song. Sol. 4:8.

AMARI'AH {said, i. e. promised). 1. Son of Meraioth, a descendant of Aaron in the line of Eleazar, and father of Ahitub, whose son, Zadok, was made high priest, bringing back the office to his family. 2 Kgs 1 Chr. 6:7, 2 Kgs 5:52.

  1. A high priest later on. 1 Chr 6:11.

  2. A Kohathite Levite. 1 Chr 23:19; 1 Chr 24:23.

  3. The head of one of the twenty-four courses of priests. 2 Chr 31:15; Neh 10:3.

  4. One in Ezra's time. Ezr 10:42.

  5. An ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet. Zeph 1:1.

  6. One of the family of Perez. Neh 11:4.

AM'ASA (a burden). 1. A son of Jether (or Ithra) and Abigail, and nephew of David. He joined in Absalom's rebellion, and was appointed his commander-in-chief. 2 Sam 17:25. Being defeated by Joab, and Absalom being killed, he submitted to David, and was made captain of the host in room of Joab, his cousin, whose part in the death of Absalom and general lack of respect brought him into disfavor. When Sheba revolted David sent Amasa to assemble the people within three days, but his tardiness, owing, perhaps, to his unpopularity, obliged David to despatch his household troops under Abishai in pursuit of the rebel. Joab joined his brother, and meeting Amasa on the latter's return, under pretence of saluting him killed him and put himself again in supreme command. 2 Sam 20:10. See Joab.

  1. A prince of Ephraim, son of Hadlai, in the reign of Ahaz. 2 Chr 28:12.

AMAS'AI (burdensome). 1. A Levite, one of the sons of Elkanah. 1 Chr 6:25.

  1. The chief of a party that came to David at Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:18.

  2. One of the priests who blew the trumpets before the ark. 1 Chr 15:24.

  3. A Kohathite in the reign of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 29:12.

AMASH'AI (burdensome), a priest of the time of Nehemiah, Neh 11:13. Some suppose him to be the same as Maasiai. 1 Chr 9:12.

AMASI'AH (whom Jehovah bears), the son of Zichri, captain of 200,000 men under Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 17:16.

AMAZI'AH (whom Jehovah strengthens). 1. The eighth king of Judah, the son and successor of Joash, commenced his reign in his twenty-fifth year, and reigned twenty-nine years, b. c. 839-809. 2 Kgs 14:1-20. He served the Lord, but not perfectly. He first slew his father's murderers, but not their children, thus observing the Mosaic law. 2 Chr 25:4.

At the commencement of his reign, he showed an outward regard to the law of the Lord, but by power and ambition he fell into a snare, and was destroyed by violence. Amaziah resolved to make war upon the Edomites, who had revolted from the kingdom of Judah several years before. 2 Kgs 8:20. He raised an army of 300,000 men from among his own subjects, and hired 100,000 men of Israel, for whose services he paid 100,000 talents of silver — the first example in Jewish history of a mercenary army. Before he commenced the expedition, however, he was directed by divine authority to dismiss his hired soldiers, or if he did not he should certainly fall before his enemies. After some hesitation he sent them home. Amaziah met the Edomites in a place called the Valley of Salt, and gained a signal victory over them, slaying 10,000 and taking 10,000 prisoners. Elated by his success, and forgetful of God who had given him the victory, he set up the idols of his vanquished enemy as his own gods. The anger of the Almighty was kindled against him, and in a message God exposed and rebuked his sin. 2 Chr 25:15. The king was already hardened enough to question the authority of God's messenger, and even to threaten him with death. Thus given up to follow his own devices, he sought occasion of war with Jehoash, king of Israel. The answer of the king to the challenge was given in the form of a fable expressive of the 45 utmost contempt, and contained at the same time a severe rebuke to the king of Judah for his pride and vainglory. Undeterred, he met the army of Israel at Beth-shemesh, in Judea, but his army was completely routed, and he was taken prisoner, Jehoash then proceeded to break down a section of the city wall six hundred feet in length, and marched through the breach, plundered the temple of its gold and silver vessels, seized the king's treasures, and taking such hostages as he pleased returned in triumph to Samaria. 2 Kgs 14. About fifteen years after this disgraceful defeat, Amaziah fled from Jerusalem to Lachish to escape a conspiracy; but he was followed to the place to which he fled and put to death, and his body taken back to Jerusalem and buried with his fathers. His name is omitted in the genealogy of Christ.

  1. A Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:34.

  2. A Levite. 1 Chr 6:45.

  3. A priest of the golden calf at Bethel who complained against the prophet Amos to Jeroboam, king of Israel, and tried to effect his banishment. Amos 7:10-17. See Amos.

AMBAS'SADOR, a person of the highest rank, appointed to represent his government in the transaction of business with a foreign power. The earliest mention in the Bible is in the case of the Edomites, Num 20:14, to whom Moses sent "messengers," also in the case of Moab, the Amorites, the Gibeonites, and other tribes. See Num 21:21;Josh 9:4; Jud 11:17-19. In the days of the kingdoms they are more frequently mentioned. An injury upon them was an insult to their king. 2 Sam 10:5. Their mission was often pacific or congratulatory, as in the latter incident. Paul calls gospel-preachers the ambassadors of Christ. 2 Cor 5:20.

AM'BASSAGE. Luke 14:32. A public message. The term may include the messenger or ambassador as well as his message.

AM'BER. Eze 1:4, Gen 1:27;Eze 8:2 (better electrum, or bright gold gum). Fossil gum, a beautiful bituminous substance, susceptible of a fine polish, varying in color, but chiefly yellow and orange. It is mined in Prussia, and also washed ashore by the waves of the Baltic Sea. The word here used probably denotes electrum, a metal composed of gold and silver and held in high estimation among the ancients. In the passages cited the allusion is simply to the color of amber, and does not necessarily imply that it is indestructible by fire.

AMEN' (literally, true, firm: metaphorically, faithful), used to denote assent or entire acquiescence, impressing the stamp of absolute truthfulness upon the statement. Deut 27:15. It was used as the solemn affirmative response to an oath. The word was often repeated. It is a matter of tradition that in the temple the "Amen" was not uttered by the people, but that instead, at the conclusion of the priest's prayers, they responded, "Blessed be the name of the glory of His kingdom for ever and ever." Of this a trace is supposed to remain in the concluding sentence of the Lord's Prayer. Comp. Rom 11:36. But in the synagogue and private houses it was customary for the people or members of the family who were present to say "Amen" to the prayers which were offered by the minister or master of the house, and the custom remained in the early Christian Church. Matt 6:13; 1 Cor 14:16. Doxologies and private prayers were appropriately closed with "Amen." It is sometimes translated verily, and was frequently used by our Saviour when he was about to utter some distinct, important, and solemn truth. Its repetition, "Verily, verily, I say unto you" (in John) strengthens the assertion.

The promises of God are amen, because they are made sure and certain in Christ. 2 Cor 1:20. Amen is one of the titles of our blessed Saviour, Rev 3:14, as he is the faithful and true witness.

AM'ETHYST. Ex 39:12; Rev 21:20. A precious stone consisting of crystallized quartz, of a purple or bluish-violet color. Oriental amethyst, a variety of sapphire, is probably included under this latter name.

A'MI (a builder), one who returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:57. He is termed Amon in Neh 7:59.

AMIN'ADAB for AMMIN'ADAB. Matt 1:4; Luke 3:33.

AMIT'TAI (true), the father of Jonah. 2 Kgs 14:25; Jon 1:1.


AM'MAH (head, or waterfall), a hill in front of Giah, near Gibeon, to which Joab pursued Abner. 2 Sam 2:24. See also Metheg-ammah.

AM'MI, explained in the margin correctly, "my people." Hos 2:1.

AM'MIEL (people of God). 1. The spy from Dan. Num 13:12.

  1. The father of Machir, of Lo-debar. 2 Sam 9:4, 1 Chr 6:5;2 Sam 17:27.

  2. The father of Bath-sheba, 1 Chr 3:5; called Eliam in 2 Sam 11:3.

  3. The sixth son of Obed-edom, and a temple-porter. 1 Chr 26:5.

AMMI'HUD (people of Judah). 1. An ancestor of Joshua through Elishama, the chief of Ephraim in the Wandering. Num 1:10;Num 2:18; Num 7:48, Num 1:53; Num 10:22; 1 Chr 7:26.

  1. A Simeonite. Num 34:20.

  2. A Naphtalite. Num 34:28.

  3. Father of Talmai, king of Geshur. 2 Sam 13:37.

  4. A descendant of Pharez, son of Judah. 1 Chr 9:4.

AMMIN'ADAB (one of the people of the prince). 1. The son of Ram or Aram, who was the great-grandson of Judah, and father of Elisheba, the wife of Aaron. He was in the line of Christ's ancestors. Ex 6:23; Num 1:7; Num 2:3; Num 7:12, Num 1:17;Num 10:14; Ruth 4:19, Ruth 4:20;1 Chr 2:10.

  1. A Kohathite, and chief of the 112 sons of Uzziel. 1 Chr 15:10-12.

  2. Put for Izhar, probably by copyist's error, in 1 Chr 6:22.

    AMMISHAD'DAI (one of the people of the Almighty), the father of Ahiezer, prince of Dan. Num 1:12;Num 2:25; Num 7:66,Num 1:71; Num 10:25.

AMMIZ'ABAD (people of the Giver, i. e. Jehovah ), an officer in David's army. 1 Chr 27:6.

AM'MON, AND AMMONITES, LAND OF, etc., a mountainous country on the east side of the Salt Sea, reaching from the river Arnon to the Jabbok. Num 21:24; Deut 2:19,Gen 23:20. It lay to the north of the land of Moab; and "the land," "borders," or "cities" of the children of Ammon are noticed over 15 times in Old Testament history, and frequently with Moab. The precise extent of their country cannot be determined, as they appear to have led a wandering, predatory life similar to that of the wild Arab tribes now in that region. Gilead was the best portion of their land. Among the cities held by them, sometimes, apparently, in common with Moab, were Heshbon, Rabbah, and Minnith. The land which the king of Ammon claimed in the time of the Judges, Jud 11:13, once belonged to a "king of Moab." Num 21:26.

AMMONITES, or CHILDREN OF AM'MON, Gen 19:38, were the descendants of Ben-ammi, a son of Lot. He was born in the neighborhood of Zoar, but his posterity spread northwardly and occupied the mountain regions of Gilead, between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok. Originally their possessions were bounded north by the river Jabbok, west by Jordan, south by Arnon, and stretched eastwardly into Arabia. The Amorites, under Sihon, their king, expelled them from the richest part of their possessions, which lay between the two rivers; but Moses recovered it from the Amorites and divided it between Reuben and Gad. The western boundary of the Ammonites then became a branch of the river Jabbok (on which their capital city, Rabbah or Rabbath-Ammon, stood), and the mountains of Gilead bounded them on the east, while the main stream of the Jabbok continued to be their northern boundary, and the land of Moab the southern. This last is intended by the kingdom of Ammon as used in the sacred history.

The children of Ammon were gross idolaters. Jud 10:6. Their chief idol was Molech, the same with Milcom, and their history is full of the judgments which their sins brought upon them, though they were spared, by God's express command, when Israel passed by them from Egypt, because Lot was their progenitor. Deut 2:19; 2 Chr 20:10. Three hundred years afterward the king of the Ammonites made war upon the Israelites, under the pretence that they had taken their land, Jud 11:13, and after a severe battle the Ammonites were routed with great slaughter. In the beginning of Saul's reign, 1 Sam 11:1, the Ammonites, under Nahash, their king, attacked Jabesh-gilead, but proposed to spare the inhabitants provided they would all consent to lose the right eye. During the time allowed for their answer they collected a sufficient 47 force to meet the Ammonites, and so completely routed them that two of them were not left together. Fifty or sixty years after this one of the kings of the Ammonites died, and David, who seems to have been under some obligation to him, sent a message of condolence to his son and successor. This friendly act was not received kindly, and the messengers of David were grossly abused and insulted. See Hanun. Expecting that David would attempt to revenge the insult, they obtained large supplies of men from the Syrians; and when David heard of their preparation for war, he sent Joab, with a chosen troop from the army of Israel, to meet them. The result was fatal to the Ammonites. They and their allies were subdued, and fled. Rabbah, their capital, and all the rest of their cities were afterward destroyed by the Israelites, the king's crown was taken from his head and put on David's head, and the people were reduced to a state of abject servitude. 2 Sam 12:26-31. In this condition they remained till the reign of Jehoshaphat, when they united with the Moabites and others and made war upon Judah, and were miraculously cut off. 2 Chr 20. Jotham fought and prevailed against them, and made them tributary for several years. Many Jews sought refuge among them in the time of the Captivity, but they do not seem to have decreased their hostile feeling. The most dreadful judgments were threatened against them and their chief city because they seized and occupied a part of the territory of Israel, Jer 49:1-6, and again because they insolently triumphed over the Israelites in the days of their captivity, Eze 25:2-7, 1 Kgs 16:10; and every threat was executed to the very uttermost in due time, as profane history abundantly attests. "During the time of the Maccabees various battles were fought between the Ammonites and the Jews; and during the changes that ensued, first under the Grecian, then under the Roman supremacy, the Ammonites lost their independent position, and gradually became amalgamated with the general Arab population." They were a cruel, remorseless, nomadic people. To their god Molech they offered human sacrifices. See Molech. Where their capital once stood is now the village of Amman, 20 miles south-east of the modern town of ce-Salt.


AM'NON (faithful). 1. The eldest son of David, who was guilty of violating the chastity of his half-sister, Tamar. 2 Sam 13;1 Chr 3:1. See Absalom.

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:20.

A'MOK (deep), a priest who returned with Zerubbabel. Neh 12:7,Ruth 4:20.

A'MON, or A'MEN (the hidden), an Egyptian god, one of the eight of the first order, and the chief of the Theban triad. Nah 3:8, margin. He is

Amon. (After Wilkinson.)

represented as a man clad in a linen tunic, gathered about the waist by a belt. In one hand he holds the symbol of life, in the other the staff of authority, and on his head is a cap with two high Plumes.

A'MON (builder). 1. Governor of Samaria under Ahab. 1 Kgs 22:26; 2 Chr 18:25.

  1. The fourteenth king of Judah, son and successor of Manasseh. He was

twenty-two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two years in Jerusalem. 2 Kgs 21:19. Zephaniah gives a vivid picture of the degradation of the kingdom under this wicked king. He was murdered by his servants and succeeded by his son Josiah.

AM'ORITE (mountaineer), LAND OF THE. The mountainous districts between the Jordan and the Mediterranean were the portion of the Amorites before Canaan came into the possession of the Israelites; the land of the Canaanites being the low plain-country. The Amorites also extended their territory, so that it at one time reached to the foot of Hermon and embraced all Gilead and Bashan. Deut 4:47-49;Deut 3:8, 1 Kgs 16:10. For the physical features of this land see Canaan, Bashan, and Gilead.

AMORITES, correctly EM'ORITES (mountaneers), a Syrian tribe descended from Canaan, and among the most formidable of the tribes with whom the Israelites contended. Gen 10:16. They were of gigantic stature and great courage. Am 2:9. They first inhabited the hill-country south of Jerusalem, the barren and rocky land in which David took refuge; but from there they went into better possessions, and at the time of the Conquest they inhabited one of the most fertile districts of the country, being bounded on three sides by the rivers Arnon, Jabbok, and Jordan. See Ammonites. The Israelites asked permission of their king to travel through their territory, promising to injure nothing, not even to draw water from their wells; but it was refused. The Amorites collected and attempted to oppose their progress, but were defeated, and their territory taken and divided between the tribes of Reuben and Gad. Josh 13:15, 2 Chr 11:21, Jud 6:24, Gen 1:27. Nothing more is heard of them in the Bible, except occasionally as moving in small bands.

A'MOS (burden), one of the lesser prophets, herdsman of Tekoa, a small town in the tribe of Judah, about 12 miles south of Jerusalem. Am 1:1. He lived in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah, and of Jeroboam II., king of Israel, about eight hundred years before Christ. He was a contemporary of Hosea. While employed as a herdsman he was divinely appointed to prophesy against Israel. This kingdom then was in its heyday of prosperity, but by reason of its idolatry rife with the seeds of ruin. It was Amos's duty to speak plain words upon the evils of the state. Being driven from Bethel upon the false representation made to the king by the idolatrous Priest Amaziah. Am 7:10-7, he returned to Tekoa. The time and manner of his death are uncertain.

Amos, Prophecy of, is the thirtieth in the order of the books of the Old Testament, and is full of interest and instruction. It may be considered as a sort of continuation of Joel's. It is a unit. It begins with the declaration of God's judgments against Israel's neighbors. But in this storm of fury Judah does not escape while Israel stands the brunt of it. Am 1-2:6. The sins of Israel are rebuked. Am 2:6-6:14. The rebukes are followed by a series of symbols, which are interpreted. Am 7:1-9:7. But the book closes with the promise of good. The "tabernacle of David" is to be restored. Thus the beauty and perpetuity of the Christian Church are foretold. It has been remarked as a peculiar feature of this prophecy that it abounds with illustrations drawn from husbandry and the scenes of rustic life; it certainly contains some of the most perfect specimens of sublime thought and beautiful expression that are to be found in any language.

A'MOZ (strong), the father of Isaiah. 2 Kgs 19:2 ; Isa 1:1. Jewish tradition makes him the brother of Amaziah, king of Judah.

AMPHIP'OLIS (around the city), a chief city of the southern portion of Macedonia under the Romans. The river Strymon flowed on both sides of the city, hence its name. It was 33 miles south-west of Philippi, and 3 miles from the sea. Paul and Silas passed through it. Acts 17:1. Neo-Khorio, or Neochori, a village of about 100 houses, now occupies a portion of the site of Amphipolis.

AM'PLIAS, a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes. Rom 16:8.

AM'RAM (red?), a descendant of Seir. 1 Chr 1:41.

AM'RAM (people of the exalted). 1. A Levite, father of Moses. Ex 6:18-20. 49 2. One who married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:34.

AM'RAPHEL. Gen 14:1. The Hamite king of Shimar, or Babylonia, who confederated with other kings and made war on Sodom and the other cities of the plain, plundering them and making prisoners of their inhabitants. Among the captives was Lot, Abraham's nephew. Gen 14:9-16. See Lot

AM'ULET. The superstitious character of the Oriental nations has in all periods led them to fear the attacks of imaginary foes, and so, in order to protect themselves, they wear charms of one sort and another. These amulets are indirectly and directly referred to in the Bible; e. g. when in the form of

Egyptian Amulets. (In the British Museum.) 1. Gold. 2. Ring with the word "health" inserted. 3. Scarabaeus. 4. Cornelian serpent's head. 5. Porcelain eyes. 6. Gold pendant, inlaid.

ear-rings. Gen 35:4; Jud 8:24; Hos 2:13. But more commonly they were worn suspended from a necklace as a gem with an inscription or figure of a god upon it. Charms consisted likewise of words written upon papyrus or parchment rolled up tightly and sewed in linen; perhaps these are meant by the "tablets" of Isa 3:20. Phylacteries, some suppose, derived their sanction from the danger of idolatrous practices to which this custom gave rise.

AM'ZI (strong). 1. A Levite. 1 Chr 6:46.

  1. A priest. Neh 11:12.

A'NAB (place of grapes), a place or town of the Anakim, Josh 11:21; Josh 15:50 ; now Anab, 10 miles south-south-west of Hebron, though Lieutenant Conder places it much farther west.

A'NAH (answering), the father of Aholibamah, one of Esau's wives. Gen 36:2, 2 Kgs 22:14, Jud 6:24. The discovery of some warm springs (although in the A. V. the word is translated mules) is attributed to him.

ANAHA'RATH (gorge, or pass), a city of Issachar, Josh 19:19, probably in the northern part of that territory. Meskarah, and also en-Naurah, just east of Little Hermon, have been suggested as the site of Anaharath.

ANAI'AH (whom Jehovah answers). 1. A priest. Neh 8:4.

  1. One of the "heads" of the people who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:22.

AN'AKIM (Anak, sing., neck chain ; Anakim, plur., long-necked persons), a race of giants, the descendants of Arba, who gave the name of Kirjath-arba, city of Arba, to the city which the Jews called Hebron. The name Anak belongs to the race, not to an individual. The race was divided into three tribes, called in common the Anakim, and remarkable for their fierceness and stature. In the time of the Conquest they occupied the territory between Hebron and Jerusalem. Josh 11:21, Josh 11:22. Their gigantic size had terrified the spies Moses sent out. Num 13:28, but they were defeated by the Israelites, who entered into their possessions, Hebron becoming the portion of Caleb. Josh 14:15. See Giants

ANAM'MELECH. See Adrammelech.

A'NAN (a cloud), one who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:26.

ANA'NI (whom Jehovah covers), a descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:24.

ANANI'AH (whom Jehovah covers), 50 an ancestor of one who helped to build the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 3:23.

ANANI'AH (whom Jehovah covers), one of the towns in which the Benjamites dwelt after the Captivity. Neh 11:32. The modern village Beit Hanina, about 3 miles north of Jerusalem, corresponds well in name and situation to this ancient town.

ANANI'AS (the Greek form of Hananiah, whom Jehovah has graciously given). 1. One of the professed converts to the Christian faith under the preaching of the apostles. Acts 5:1-10. When the disciples had thrown their property into a common stock, Ananias sold his estate and brought a part of the purchase-money, pretending it was the whole proceeds of the sale. Being charged by Peter with his sin, he fell down dead upon the spot. His wife Sapphira, who was privy to the fraud of her husband, but ignorant of his dreadful end, being asked for how much their estate had been sold, confirmed the falsehood which Ananias had told, and instantly met the same doom.

  1. A primitive devout disciple who lived at Damascus, and was commissioned to visit Paul soon after his conversion and restore him to sight. Acts 9:10-18; Acts 23:12-16. Tradition makes him subsequently the bishop of Damascus, and a martyr.

  2. The son of Nebedaeus, appointed high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis, a.d. 48. Acts 23:2. In a.d. 62 he was sent to Rome to answer a charge of oppression preferred against him by the Samaritans. He was, however, acquitted, returned, and resumed his office. Paul was tried before him, a.d. 55. He was likewise one of the apostle's accusers before Felix and before Festus. Acts 24:1; Acts 25:2. See Paul. He was shortly after deposed, but retained much power until at the breaking out of the Jewish war, when the Sicarii set fire to his house and compelled him to flee, but followed and killed him, a.d. 67 (Josephus, Jewish Wars, ii. 17, 9).

A'NATH (answer), father of Shamgar, one of the Judges. Jud 3:31; Jud 5:6.

ANATH'EMA (set apart, devoted). In its usual acceptation it means the devoting of an animal, person, or place to destruction. Lev 27:28; Josh 6:17-21. Paul uses it in the sense "cut off", accursed." Rom 9:3; Gal 1:8, Gal 1:9. Hence in ecclesiastic language it means "excommunicated, cut off from the church."

Anathema Maranatha is a Syriac exclamation signifying. Let him be accursed, The Lord is at hand, a reminder that at the coming of the Lord rewards and punishments would be meted out. 1 Cor 16:22.

AN'ATHOTH (answers). 1. A son of Becher the Benjamite. 1 Chr 7:8.

  1. One who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:19.

AN'ATHOTH (answers, or echoes), a Levitical city in Benjamin, [scripture]Josh. 21:18[scripture]; 1 Chr 6:60; the birthplace of Jeremiah, Jer 1:1; Jer 11:21, Jer 1:23; Jer 32:7-9, on the route of the Assyrians, [scripture]Isa. 10:30[scripture]; some of its people returned with Zerubbabel, Ezr 2:23; Neh 7:27; now a village of about 20 houses, 4 miles north-east of Jerusalem, and called Anata. Tradition incorrectly locates Anathoth at Kuriet-el-Enab, near Abu Gush, and between Ramleh and Jerusalem.

ANCH'OR. Acts 27:29. The anchor was formerly cast from the stern of the ship. In the passage cited reference may be had to an anchor with four flukes or arms, such as are sometimes used by boats in shallow water; or it may mean four distinct separate anchors.

The above represents a common anchor with two flukes or arms. There is a strong shank c, at one end of which are two arms b b, terminating in flukes a a. At the other end of the shank is the stock d, supplied with a ring to which a cable can be attached. The stock is designed to give such a direction to the falling anchor that one of the flukes shall enter itself firmly at the bottom. See Ship.

AN'DREW (manly), one of the twelve apostles, John 1:40, the son of 51 Jonas and brother of Simon Peter, was a native of Bethsaida, in Galilee, by trade a fisherman, and originally a disciple of John the Baptist, whom he left to follow our Saviour. When he had found the Messiah, he forthwith sought his brother Simon and brought him to Jesus, and soon after they both attached themselves to the little band of his disciples and followed him till the close of his ministry. The events with which Andrew was particularly connected are recorded in Matt 4:18-20; Mark 13:3 and John 1:35-40; John 6:3-13; John 12:22. Tradition says he preached the gospel in Scythia, Greece, and Asia Minor, and was crucified on a cross of a peculiar shape (hence St. Andrew's cross) in Achaia.

ANDRONI'CUS (victorious man), a Roman Christian whom Paul salutes in Rom 16:7.

A'NEM (two fountains), a Levitical city of Issachar, 1 Chr 6:73; probably the same as En-gannim of Josh 19:21; Josh 21:29. It has been identified with the modern Jenin, on the border of the plain of Jezreel. See En-Gannim (2).

A'NER (boy), one of the three Amorite chiefs who joined Abraham in the pursuit of the four invading kings. Gen 14:13.

A'NER (boy), a Levitical city in Manasseh, west of the Jordan, 1 Chr 6:70; supposed by some to be the same as Taanach, Jud 1:27, and Tanach, Josh 21:25.

AN'GEL. Gen 24:7. This word, both in the Greek and Hebrew languages, signifies a messenger, and in this sense is often applied to men. 2 Sam 2:5; Luke 7:24 and Luke 9:52. When the term is used, as it generally is, to designate spiritual beings, it denotes the office they sustain as the agents by whom God makes known his will and executes his government.

Our knowledge of such beings is derived wholly from revelation, and that rather incidentally. We know, from their residence and employment, that they must possess knowledge and purity far beyond our present conceptions, and the titles applied to them denote the exalted place they hold among created intelligences. Christ did not come to the rescue of angels, but of men. Comp. Heb 2:16. The angels are represented as ministering spirits sent forth to do service to the heirs of salvation. Heb 1:14. They appear at every important stage in the history of revelation, especially at the birth of Christ, Luke 2:9-13, in his agony in Gethsemane, Luke 22:43, at his resurrection. Matt 28:2; Mark 16:5; Luke 24:4, and at the final judgment. Matt 13:41.

Of their appearance and employment we may form some idea from the following passages — viz. Gen 16:7-11. Compare Gen 18:2; Gen 19:1 with Heb 13:2; Jud 13:6; Eze 10; Dan 3:28 and Dan 6:22; Matt 4:11; Matt 18:10 and Matt 28:2-7; Luke 1:19; Luke 16:22 and Luke 22:43; Acts 6:15; Acts 12:7; Heb 1:14; Heb 2:16; 2 Thess 1:7; Rev 10:1, Lev 10:2, 1 Chr 24:6.

Of their number some idea may be inferred from 1 Kgs 22:19; Ps 68:17; Dan 7:10; Matt 26:53; Luke 2:9-14; 1 Cor 4:9; Heb 12:22.

Of their strength we may judge from Ps 103:20; 2 Pet 2:11; Rev 5:2; Rev 18:21; Rev 19:17.

And we learn their inconceivable activity from Jud 13:20; Isa 6:2-6; Matt 13:49; Matt 26:53; Acts 27:23; Rev 8:13.

There is also an order of evil spirits ministering to the will of the prince of darkness, and both active and powerful in their opposition to God. Matt 25:41.

It would seem the proper inference from Matt 18:10 that every believer had a guardian angel. The same idea is suggested in other passages, as Ps 91:11, Jer 1:12; Luke 15:10; Acts 12:15.

They are the companions of the saved. Heb 12:22, Heb 12:23; Rev 5:11, Rev 5:12. They are to sustain an important office in the future and final administration of God's government on earth. Matt 13:39; Matt 25:31-33; 1 Thess 4:16. But they are not proper objects of adoration. Col 2:18; Rev 19:10.

Angel of his Presence, Isa 63:9, by some is supposed to denote the highest angel in heaven, as Gabriel, who stands "in the presence of God," Luke 1:19; but others believe it refers to the incarnate Word.

Angel of the Lord, Gen 16:7, is considered, by some, one of the common titles of Christ in the Old Testament. Ex 23:20. Compare Acts 7:30-32 andActs 7:37, Acts 7:38.


Angel of the Church. Rev 2:1.

The only true interpretation of this phrase is the one which makes the angels the rulers and teachers of the congregation, so called because they were the ambassadors of God to the churches, and on them devolved the pastoral care and government.

Angel of Light. See Devil.

AN'GER, a strong emotion, which is sinful or otherwise according to its object and motive. When ascribed to holy beings it is used figuratively to denote high displeasure at sin. In this sense good men may be angry and sin not, Eph 4:26; Neh 5:6; cf. 2 Pet 2:7,2 Pet 2:8; and even God is said to be "angry with the wicked every day." Ps 7:11. Unjustified anger is reckoned among chief sins, and as such is severely rebuked. Eph 4:31; Col 3:8, and numerous passages in Proverbs.

A'NIAM (sighing of the people), a Manassite. 1 Chr 7:19.

A'NIM (fountains), a town in the mountains of Judah. Josh 15:50. Khirbet el-Jif has been suggested as the site of Anim, but it is more probably at the modern village of el-Ghuwein, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.

AN'IMAL. The Hebrews distinguished between clean and unclean animals, allowing the use of some in sacrifice for food, and forbidding it in the case of others. For the list see Lev 11.

AN'ISE. Matt 23:23. Properly dill (Anethum graveolens), an annual herb bearing small aromatic seeds used in medicine and cookery. Ancient writers mention it as cultivated in Egypt; it grows in the Greek islands, and occurs at the present day in Palestine, both in gardens and wild, or at least uncultivated in fields. — Tristram. Another plant (Pimpinella auisuin) of the same family has been considered, with less probability, to be the anise of the Bible.

The tithe of this herb was scrupulously paid by the Pharisees. A Jewish writer says that the seed, the leaves, and the stem of dill are subject to tithes. See Mint.

ANK'LET. Though this word does not occur in the A. V., anklets are referred to in Isa 3:16, 1 Sam 30:18, Ruth 4:20. They were worn upon each leg and were as

Anise. (After Tristram.)

common as bracelets upon the arms,and were made of much the same


1, 2, 3, 4. Egyptian Anklets. 5. Modern worn by dancing-girls. 6. 7. Assyrian, of iron and Bronze. {From Ninevah. Now in British Museum.) 53 materials. The musical tinkling and jingling which they made as the wearers walked were no doubt the reasons for their use. The ornamental step-chains worn by females, according to Gesenius, caused the short and mincing walk alluded to by the prophet in verse 16. Lane speaks of these ornaments as now worn in the East.

AN'NA (grace), a prophetess, daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher. Luke 2:36. Her husband having died after she had been married seven years, she devoted herself to the Lord, and was very constant in her attendance on the services of the temple. She did not, however, live in the temple itself. At eighty-four years of age she listened to the prophetic blessing which Simeon uttered when he held the infant Redeemer in his arms, and joined in it with great fervor.

AN'NAS, the son of Seth, and a high priest of the Jews. He was appointed by Quirinus, governor of Syria, a.d. 7, and was removed by Valerius Gratius, procurator of Judaea, a.d. 23. The office was originally held for life, but in Judaea's degenerate and dependent position it was one of the spoils of office, to be given to the ruler's favorite, and to be taken away upon the loss of favor. After his deposition Annas continued to hold the title; and although Caiaphas, his son-in-law, was the actual high priest, he was the ruling power. This explains the reference in Luke 3:2. This power he retained for nearly fifty years, having had five sons in succession in the high priest's office. Our Lord was brought first before Annas on the night of his seizure. John 18:13-24. The guilt of Christ's crucifixion rests most upon Annas, since Pilate tried to shield him, and Caiaphas was but his tool. Annas is mentioned as the president of the Sanhedrin, before whom Peter and John were brought. Acts 4:6.

ANOINT' Gen 31:13. The first biblical instance is in the passage cited, and it signifies in that connection the pouring of oil upon the stone which Jacob had set up for a pillar. Gen 28:18.

The anointing of persons, places, and things with oil or ointment of a particular composition was a mode of consecration prescribed by divine authority, and extensively practised among the Hebrews. Ex 28:41. The ingredients of the ointment, embracing the most exquisite perfumes and balsams, are minutely given, Ex 30:23-33, and the common use of it was expressly forbidden. Ex 30:33.

It was customary at festivals, and on other great and joyful occasions, to anoint the head with fragrant oil; hence it became a sign of joy or happiness; the omission of anointing was therefore a sign of grief. For instances see Ruth 3:3; 2 Sam 14:2; Ps 23:5; 92:10; Eccl 9:8; Matt 6:17. Prophets, 1 Kgs 19:16;1 Chr 16:22, priests, and kings were solemnly anointed, and thus set apart to their respective offices. Of the anointing of the latter we have frequent accounts. 2 Sam 19:10;1 Kgs 1:39; 1 Kgs 19:15, Ex 17:16. The perfumed oil or ointment was usually poured upon the head of the person. It was sometimes done privately by a prophet, 1 Sam 10:1;1 Sam 16:1-13; 1 Kgs 19:16; 2 Kgs 9:1-6, and was a symbolical intimation that the person so anointed would at some future day ascend the throne. After the monarchy was established the anointing was done by the priest, 1 Kgs 1:39, probably in some public place, 1 Kgs 1:32-34, and, at least on one occasion, in the temple, surrounded by the royal guards. 2 Kgs 11:12, 2 Kgs 11:13. David was anointed three times — privately by Samuel before Saul's death, to give him a claim to the throne, 1 Sam 16:1-13; again publicly as king over Judah in Hebron, 2 Sam 2:4; and finally, over the whole nation. 2 Sam 5:3. In regard to the priest's anointing, at first it was part of the induction into office of any priest, Ex 40:15 ; Num 3:3, but afterward it was a rite practised only in the case of the high priest. Lev 8:12; Ps 133:2.

It was common to anoint the person, or some part of it, as the head, feet, hair, etc., for the sake of health or cleanliness, or as a token of respect, and also in connection with religious observances. Mark 6:13; Luke 7:46; John 12:3. When practised to show respect, the most expensive materials were used, and the ceremony was performed in such a manner as 54 to denote the most humble and submissive reverence.

The anointing of the sick with oil was also common. The healing properties of oil are well known; and though the cures wrought by the disciples of our Lord were obviously miraculous, they still employed the ordinary means of cure. Mark 6:13. The apostolic direction, Jas 5:14, respecting the anointing of the sick shows us that, together with prayer, the appropriate means of healing should be employed in dependence upon or in the name of the Lord. The ceremony was not in its nature obligatory, and surely no sufficient warrant for the rite of "extreme unction."

The bodies of the dead were often wrapped in spices and ointments to preserve them from corruption. Mark 14:8;Mark 16:1, and Luke 23:56.

The terms "anoint," "anointed," and "anointing" are employed also spiritually to illustrate the sanctifying influences of divine grace upon the soul. 2 Cor 1:21;1 John 2:20,Gen 1:27.

To anoint the eyes with eye-salve, Rev 3:18, is a figurative expression for the gift of spiritual illumination.

The Anointed, or Messiah, who is constituted our High Priest and Intercessor, was anointed with the Holy Ghost, of which anointing that of the priests under the Jewish dispensation is supposed to be typical. Ps 45:7; Isa 61:1; Dan 9:24; Luke 4:18,Ezr 8:21; Acts 4:27 and Acts 10:38. See Messiah.

ANT. Prov 6:6 and Prov 30:25. A small insect remarkable for industry, economy, and architectural skill. These creatures are called by an inspired Writer "exceeding wise," Prov 30:24, and Cicero was so filled with wonder at their wisdom that he declared they must have mind, reason, and memory.

The ants were described by the ancients "as ascending the stalks of cereals and gnawing off the grains, while others below detached the seed from the chaff" and carried it home; as gnawing off the radicle to prevent germination, and spreading their stores in the sun to dry after wet weather." The proverb ''As provident as an ant" was no less common among the people of the Mediterranean shores than "As busy as a bee" is with us. Hesiod spoke of the time-- "When the provident one [the ant] harvests the grain."

Naturalists and commentators for a long time have been accustomed to deny the truth of such ideas. It is, however, now acknowledged that in such warm climates as Palestine these insects are dormant but a short time during the cooler season, and that they do store up large quantities of grain and seed, and dry them after rain. The writer has often seen in Judaea a quart or two of chaff and seeds upon ant-hills. This the ants were bringing out to dry in the morning, and carrying into their nests as it grew damp toward night.

J. T. Muggridge, F. L. S., advances proof to confirm the ancient view, in the case of two species common around the Mediterranean. He has discovered the granaries, sometimes excavated in solid rock, in which the seeds are stored. He has seen the ants in the act of collecting seeds, and traced seeds to the granaries; he has seen them bring out the grains to dry after a rain, and nibble off the radicle from those which were germinating, and feed on the seed so collected. From these granaries Mr.M. collected the seeds of fifty-four species of plants. In one instance the masses of seeds of clover and other small plants taken from a single nest weighed, by careful estimate, over a pound. That the amount of grain gathered by ants was not unworthy of notice appears from the fact that the Mishna, or traditionary law of the Jews, adjudicates upon the ownership of such stores when found by the people.

Of the 104 species of European ants, only two are known to store seeds. But these two, called "harvesting-ants," are abundant in the Levant; hence the familiarity of the ancients with them. The prudence of this insect, as well as its industry, may therefore properly instruct us. That the ant is in every respect "exceeding wise" is evident from its history and habits, which have been investigated by modern naturalists. Their habitations are constructed with regular stories, sometimes to the number of thirty or forty, and have large chambers, numerous vaulted ceilings covered with a single roof, long galleries and corridors, with pillars or columns of very perfect proportions.


The materials of their buildings, such as earth, leaves, and the fragments of wood, are tempered with rain, and then dried in the sun. By this process the fabric becomes so firm and compact that a piece may be broken out without any injury to the surrounding parts; and it is so nearly impervious that the longest and most violent rains never penetrate more than a quarter of an inch.

They are well sheltered in their chambers, the largest of which is placed nearly in the centre of the building. It is much higher than the rest, and all the galleries terminate in it. In this apartment they spend the night and the cold months, during which they are torpid, or nearly so, and require not the food which they lay up.

To illustrate their industry and immense labor, it is said that their edifices are more than five hundred times the height of the builders, and that if the same proportion were preserved between human dwellings and those who build them, our houses would be four or five times higher than the pyramids of Egypt, the largest of which is four hundred and eighty feet in height, and requires a base of seven hundred feet square to support it. The largest of one species of ant (the South American) does not stand more than a quarter of an inch high, while their nests or houses are from twelve to twenty feet high, and large enough to hold a dozen men.

AN'TICHRIST. This word occurs only in the Epistles of John. Etymologically, it may mean either one who is opposed to Christ or one who sets himself up in the place of Christ. Comp. "anti-pope," "rival-king." A comparison of the four passages in which the word is found,1 John 2:18,Lev 19:22;1 John 4:3; 2 John 7, shows that John meant to designate various persons holding heretical opinions in regard to the incarnation of Christ. " very spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God; and this is that spirit of antichrist." 1 John 4:3. He directs his warnings against this spirit as an existent evil; "Even now are there many antichrists," 1 John 2:18; "Even now already is it in the world." 1 John 4:3. We know that in John's day there were in the Church false teachers who denied the union of the divine and human in Christ and resolved the history of Christ into a mere phantom or myth. Such were Cerinthus and the early Gnostics (who have their followers in the modern assailants of the gospel history).

But this use of the word by the apostle does not exhaust its meaning. It can be also applied to all enemies of Christ, and to all those doctrines and influences which tend to set up against the simplicity of gospel truth the traditions or speculations of men, thus weakening or destroying the force of the former.

We should not confound the antichrist of John's Epistles with the beasts from the abyss, or the antagonistic worldpowers described in Daniel and in Revelation. More nearly related to antichrist, and yet distinct, is "the man of sin." 2 Thess 2:3.

AN'TIOCH (from Antiochus), the name of two cities in New Testament times.

  1. Antioch in Syria, founded by Seleucus Nicator, about 300 b. c., and enlarged and newly walled by Antiochus Epiphanes.

Coin of Antiochus Epiphanes.

Situation. — This city was about 300 miles north of Jerusalem, on the left bank of the river Orontes, 16 1/2 miles from the Mediterranean, in a deep pass between the Lebanon and the Taurus ranges of mountains. It was sometimes called "the gate of the East," being on the highway from the countries on the Mediterranean to Mesopotamia and Arabia.

Biblical History. — Next to Jerusalem, no city is of greater interest or importance in apostolic history than Antioch in Syria. At this place the disciples were first called Christians, Acts 11:26; it was an important centre for the spread of the gospel, Acts 13; from it Paul started on his missionary journeys, Acts 15:36; Acts 18:23; important principles of Christian faith and practice were raised and settled 56 through the church at Antioch, Acts 14:26, Acts 14:27; Acts 15:2-30; Gal 2:11-14. It was made a "free" city by Pompey, was beautified by the; emperors with aqueducts, baths, and public buildings; and in Paul's time it ranked third in population, wealth. and commercial activity among the cities of the Roman empire. Christianity gained such strength there, that in the time of Chrysostom, who was born at Antioch, one-half of the 200, 000 inhabitants of the city were Christians.

Antioch in Syria. (After Cassas. From Lewin's "Life of St. Paul")

Present Condition. — Antioch has been besieged and plundered 15 times, and 7 times destroyed by earthquakes, yet the remains of its ancient walls astonish the traveller. They were 50 feet high and 15 feet thick. The old town, which was 5 miles long, is now represented by a mean, shrunken-looking place of about 6000 population, called Antakieh. An earthquake in 1872 overthrew nearly one half of the houses; since then almost a new town has sprung up, and near by is a silk-factory, and on the river water-wheels for irrigating the gardens. Through the Lake of Antioch flows the Nahr el-Aswad, or " black brook," the Melanes of classic history, which empties into the Orontes 3 or 4 miles above Antioch. Though the modern city is on a beautiful and exceedingly fertile plain between the mountains, and watered by the Orontes, the interior of the town appears to consist "of dreary heaps of ruins, and unsightly, patched, and dilapidated houses, interspersed with rubbish and garbage." (See Baedeker's Palestine and Syria, p. 578.)

  1. Antioch in or near Pisidia was also founded or rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator. It was situated on a ridge — Strabo calls it a "height" — near the foot of the mountain-range, and by the northern shore of Lake Eyerdie. Paul preached there, Acts 13:14; Acts 14:21, and was persecuted by the people, 2 Tim 3:11. It was formerly erroneously located at Ak-aber, but has lately been identified with Yalabatch, directly east of Ephesus and northwest of ancient Tarsus. Ruins of walls, theatres, and churches still exist there.

AN'TIPAS (prob. contr. Antipater, for, or like, the father), a martyr of the church in Pergamos. Rev 2:13. Tradition makes him its bishop.


ANTIP'ATRIS (for his father), a city built by Herod the Great in honor of his father, Antipater. It was on the road from Jerusalem to Caesarea, Acts 23:31, about 26 miles south-east of the latter and 10 miles north-east of Joppa, according to ancient authority. Some have located it at Kefr Saba, on the plain, 40 miles north-west of Jerusalem; Wilson and Conder place it at Kala'at Ras el 'Ain, ruins between Lydda and Caesarea, 30 miles south-east of the latter and 11 miles north-east of Joppa. The old Roman road from Jerusalem runs to this place, and thence to Caesarea. "One of the finest springs in the country is near." It did not seem probable to Wilson and Conder that any large town like Antipatris had been at Kefr Saba.

ANTO'NIA, a castle or fortress built by Herod, north-west of the temple in Jerusalem, and named by him after his friend Antony. It may be the "castle" referred to in Acts 21:34.

ANTOTHI'JAH (answers of Jehovah), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:24.

AN'TOTHITE, THE, a native of Anathoth. 1 Chr 11:28; 1 Chr 12:3.

A'NUB (confederate), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:8.

APEL'LES, greeted and commended by Paul. Rom 16:10. Tradition makes him afterward bishop of Smyrna or Heraclea.

APES. 1 Kgs 10:22. Probably a generic term for a variety of animals of the monkey-tribe. The rude resemblance of these creatures to the human race, both in figure and physical capacity, is well known. Apes are not natives of Palestine or adjacent regions, but were among the articles of merchandise imported from Ophir in Solomon's ships.

The ape was an object of worship among the Egyptians, and is still such in many parts of India. We have an account of a temple in India, dedicated to the worship of the ape, supported by seven hundred columns not inferior to those of the Roman Pantheon. An ape's tooth was found by the Portuguese when they pillaged the island of Ceylon many years since, and so desirous were they to redeem it as an object of devout worship that the kings of the country offered nearly seventy-five thousand dollars for it.

APHAR'SATHCHITES, APHAR'SITES, APHAR'SACHITES, colonists from Assyria to Samaria. 1 Kgs Ezra, 4:9;Jud 5:6; 1 Kgs 6:6.

A'PHEK (strength), the name of several towns.

  1. A royal city of the Canaanites whose king was slain by Joshua. Josh 12:18. It was near Hebron, and probably the same as Aphekah. Josh 15:53.

  2. A city of Asher, Josh 19:30, in the north of Palestine, near Sidon, Josh 13:4; supposed to be the same as Aphik, Jud 1:31, and the classical Aphaca, noted in later history for its temple of Venus; now Afka, near Lebanon.

  3. A place where the Philistines encamped before the ark was taken, 1 Sam 4:1; north-west of Jerusalem and near Shocho, now Belled el-Foka.

  4. A place near Jezreel, in Issachar, where the Philistines were, before defeating Saul, 1 Sam 29:1, and cannot be identified with No. 3, as some have suggested.

  5. A walled city in the plains of Syria, on the road to Damascus. 1 Kgs 20:26, 1 Kgs 20:30; 2 Kgs 13:17. It was about 6 miles east of the Sea of Galilee; now called Fik.

APHE'KAH (strong place), feminine form of Aphek. Josh 15:53. See Aphek (1).

APHI'AH (refreshed), one of Saul's progenitors. 1 Sam 9:1.

A'PHIK. Jud 1:31. See Aphek (2).

APH'RAH (fawn, or dust), a place in the low-country of Judah. Mic 1:10. It has been identified by some with Ophrah, but there is evidence that it was west or south-west of, and not far from, Jerusalem.

APH'SES (the dispersion), the head of the eighteenth of the twenty-four courses of priests. 1 Chr 24:15.

APOC'ALYPSE, the Greek word for revelation, used of the Revelation of John. See Revelation.

APOC'RYPHA (hidden), the name applied most commonly to the uncanonical books that have been added to the Old Testament.

  1. Old Testament Apocrypha. — They are

fourteen in number. I. 1 Esdras; II. 2 Esdras; III. Tobit; IV. Judith; V. The rest of the chapters of the book of Esther, which are found neither in the Hebrew nor in the Chaldee; VI. The Wisdom of Solomon; VII. Ecclesiasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach; VIII. Baruch; IX. The Song of the Three Holy Children; X. The History of Susanna; XI. The History of the Destruction of Bel and the Dragon; XII. The Prayer of Manasses, King of Judah; XIII. 1 Maccabees; XIV. 2 Maccabees. They do not exist in Hebrew, but were written in Greek, mostly in Alexandria. Though often quoted by the fathers, they were not esteemed as highly as the Scriptures. They are of great value as conveying historical information and containing many instructive sayings and examples. They fill up the gap between the Old and New Testaments. But they are without divine authority, and cannot be used in support of any doctrine or practice. They are found in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and all Roman Catholic Bibles, since all but the two books of Esdras and the Prayer of Manasses were pronounced by the Council of Trent a part of the canonical Scriptures. They were likewise printed in Protestant Bibles and by the British and Foreign Bible Society until 1826, when, after a long controversy, it resolved to omit them from all future editions. The American Bible Society followed its example.

  1. New Testament Apocrypha. — These are various spurious gospels, histories, biographies, and epistles. They are never printed in Bibles. They are immensely inferior to the genuine books. Many of them are pious frauds, perpetrated with the design of enhancing the glory of Christ and his apostles, but by their nonsensical stories they not only utterly fail of their object, but rather bring their heroes into contempt. They confirm, however, the canonical Gospels, as counterfeits presuppose the genuine coins. See Canon.

APOLLO'NIA (belonging to Apollo), the name of several places in Europe and Asia, of which Apollonia in Illyria was the most celebrated. But the Apollonia through which Paul passed, Acts 17:1, was a city of Macedonia, about 36 miles east of Thessalonica, and 30 miles south-west of Amphipolis. Lewin locates it at the modern Polina.

APOL'LOS (belonging to Apollo), born at Alexandria, in Egypt, of Jewish parents, and described as an eloquent man and mighty in the Scriptures. Acts 18:24. As one of John's disciples he had been instructed in the elements of the Christian faith, but coming to Ephesus, a.d. 54, during the temporary absence of Paul, was more fully taught the doctrines of the gospel by Aquila and Priscilla, who had themselves been favored with the company and instruction of Paul at Corinth and on a voyage from that city to Ephesus. He afterward preached with abundant success in Achaia and at Corinth. Paul had already been instrumental in establishing a church there, to the care of which Apollos succeeded. 1 Cor 3:6. The members of it were divided into parties, some being particularly partial to Paul, others to Apollos, and others still to Cephas or Peter. The rebuke of the apostle, 1 Cor 1:12, is directed against these partialities, in all which the power and grace of God seemed to be overlooked or disregarded. When Paul wrote his Epistle it is likely Apollos was either with him or near him, probably at Ephesus, a.d. 57. From 1 Cor 16:12 we learn that in consequence of these dissensions Apollos absolutely declined to go to Corinth. It has been remarked as an exemplary trait of character of these two eminent apostles that the contentions of their respective friends and admirers had no effect on their love and respect for each other. They both refrained from visiting the church while it was distracted with such prejudices and partialities, though a worldly ambition might have selected it as the field and the season of self-aggrandizement. Apollos is last mentioned Tit 3:13, and very affectionately. He was probably a more brilliant man than Paul. Some scholars consider him to have been the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. But this is a mere conjecture; no exact proof can be given.

APOL'LYON. See Abaddon.

APOS'TLE (one sent forth). 1. This term was given originally to the twelve chief disciples of our Lord. 59 Matt 10:2. Their names were Simon Peter, Andrew, James, and John (sons of Zebedee); Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James, and Lebbeus, who is also called Judas or Jude (sons of Alpheus); Simon the Canaanaean (or Zealot) and Judas Iscariot. Christ's charge to them is recorded in Matt 10:5-42. All the known circumstances of their history will be found under their respective names.

Speaking generally, the apostles were of the lower, but not the lowest, class of the people. They were all laymen. Their learning was rather of life than of books, and yet it is probable they possessed the rudiments of an education. Religious perceptions and piety they doubtless possessed. Yet they needed much instruction and a miraculous endowment before they were able to do the work of the gospel. The Acts of the Apostles tells us of their first independent labors. Paul was called as an apostle, 7 years after the resurrection of Christ, on the way to Damascus. He was not of the Twelve, but was of equal authority. Gal 1:1, Jud 4:12, Ex 17:16; Gal 2:9.

The office and commission of apostles were remarkable in the following particulars: (1.) They were all required to have been eye- and ear-witnesses of what they testified, especially of the resurrection of Christ. John 15:27; Acts 1:21, Josh 11:22 and Acts 22:14, 2 Sam 20:15; 1 Cor 9:1 and 1 Cor 15:8; 1 John 1:3. (2.) They were all called or chosen by our Saviour himself. Luke 6:13; Gal 1:1. Even Matthias is not an exception to this remark, as the determination of the lot was of God. Acts 1:24-26. (3.) They were inspired. John 16:13. (4.) They had the power of miracles. Mark 16:20; Acts 2:43; Heb 2:4; Rom 15:18, Acts 1:19; 2 Cor 12:12.

The word "apostle" is also used in a wider sense of Christian heralds of the gospel. 2 Cor 8:23; Phil 2:25. (A. V. in both cases translates "messenger.")

  1. The term apostle is also applied to our Saviour, Heb 3:1, and with singular propriety, as in the character of Messiah he is emphatically the Sent of God.

APOTH'ECARY. See Perfume.

AP'PAIM (the nostrils), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:30, 1 Chr 24:31.

APPAR'EL. See Clothes.

APPEAL'. The right of appeal was acknowledged in the Jewish law. Deut 17:8, Gal 1:9. For matters of controversy might be referred for final adjudication to "the priests, the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days," in the place chosen of God. But this is not, properly speaking, such an appeal as our law recognizes. Yet we find traces of the principle in the days of the Judges, Jud 4:5, and of the kings. 2 Sam 15:3. Jehoshaphat established a permanent court before which all cases might come. 2 Chr 19:8. This court was re-established by Ezra. Ezr 7:25. The Sanhedrin in later times was the court of final appeal. By the Roman law every accused citizen had a right to carry his cause before the emperor at Rome, by appeal from the judgment of the magistrate. Acts 25:11.

AP'PHIA, a Christian woman addressed by Paul in Phile 2. From the connection in which she stands, preceding a masculine name and linked so closely to Philemon, it has been reasonably conjectured that she was Philemon's wife.

AP'PII FO'RUM (market-place of Appius), a place on the famous Appian Way, 43 miles south-east of Rome, where the disciples met Paul. Acts 28:15. It was at the end of a canal, and hence filled with taverns and boatmen. Its ruins are still seen near Treponti.

AP'PLES, AP'PLE - TREE (Hebrew, breathing forth). Song of Solomon 2:3-5; Song of Solomon 7:8; Song of Solomon 8:5; Joel 1:12. Spoken of in the Scriptures as excellent "among the trees of the wood," of pleasant shadow, with sweet, beautiful, and fragrant fruit. The Hebrew word, by its meaning, is thought to emphasize the latter property. The apple proper is rare in Syria, and its fruit is inferior. Writers have urged the citron, orange, quince, and apricot as the trees meant. The fruit of the latter two alone is specially aromatic, and of these the quince is not sweet in taste.

The apricot is everywhere abundant in the Holy Land, and of it Tristram says: "Many times have we pitched our tents in its shade and spread our carpets secure from the rays of the sun." "There can scarcely be a more deliciously-perfumed fruit than the apricot; and what fruit can better fit the epithet 60 of Solomon, 'apples of gold in pictures of silver,' than this golden fruit as its branches bend under the weight in their setting of bright, yet pale, foliage?" The expression of Solomon just referred to, Prov 25:11, is also supposed to compare fruit in silver baskets, or salvers curiously wrought like basket-work, and perhaps representing animals or landscapes, to seasonable advice wisely and courteously administered.

Apple of the Eye (Hebrew, little man, or pupil of the eye). Prov 7:2; Zech 2:8. Apple here represents an entirely different word from the word of the preceding topic, meaning the front and most sensitive part of the organ of vision. The same figure is used, Deut 32:10 and Ps 17:8, to denote the most complete protection and security. And in Lam 2:18 the phrase ''apple of thine eye" is figuratively used for tears.

AQ'UILA. Acts 18:2. A Jew born at Pontus, in Asia Minor. Being driven from Rome by a decree of the government requiring all Jews to leave that city, he and his wife, Priscilla, came to Corinth, and were dwelling there at the time of Paul's first visit to that city. Acts 18:1. They were of like occupation (tent-makers), and Paul was received and hospitably entertained at Aquila's house; and they also accompanied him from Corinth to Ephesus. On some occasion they rendered Paul very important service, and a very warm friendship existed between them. Rom 16:3-5. See Apollos.

AR, and AR OF MO'AB. Num 21:28. The chief city of Moab, on the east of the Salt Sea; called also Aroer, Deut 2:36; sometimes used for the whole land of Moab, Deut 2:29; burned by Sihon. Num 21:26-30. It has been placed at Rabbah or Rabbath, but good authorities regard it as a different city, and fix Ar on the Arnon, 10 or 12 miles north of Rabbah, at the Wady Lejum. See Rabbah.

A'RA (lion), head of a branch of the house of Asher. 1 Chr 7:38.

A'RAB (ambush), a town in the mountains of Judah, Josh 15:52; perhaps the home of the Arbite. [scripture]2 Sam. 23 35[scripture]. East of Hebron, at er-Rabiyeh, is an ancient site marked by walls, cisterns, and ruins, which Conder regards as the Arab of biblical history.

AR'ABAH (burnt up), a word of frequent use in the Hebrew, though found only once in the English, version. Josh 18:18. It is the name applied to the deep sunken valley which extends from Mount Hermon to the Elamitic Gulf of the Red Sea. This remarkable depression is about 250 miles long, and includes the Sea of Galilee and the Salt, or Dead, Sea, In some passages in Deuteronomy, the plain or "the Arabah" refers to the southern portion of the valley, between the Salt Sea and the Red Sea, Deut 1:1; Deut 2:8; in other passages the word doubtless refers to the northern portion of that valley along the Jordan, which the Arabs now call el-Ghor. See Jordan. Arabah is now applied only to that portion of the valley which stretches from the chalk-cliffs below the Dead Sea southward to the Gulf of Akabah— Elanitic Gulf. It is about 100 miles long and from 4 to 16 miles wide. The limestone walls on the west of the valley are from 1500 to 1800 feet in height; the mountain-wall on the east side of the valley rises from 2000 to 2300 in height, and in Mount Hor to 5000 feet, and is chiefly composed of granitic and basaltic rock. The surface of the valley is covered with loose gravel, blocks of porphyry, and is furrowed with torrents, with scarcely a trace of vegetation. It is oppressively hot, is swept with burning winds, the Sirocco blowing at some seasons without intermission, a region dreary and desolate. The theory that the Jordan once ran through this valley into the Red Sea is now held to be untenable. Arabah in Josh 18:18 has also been mistaken for the name of a city, and confounded with Beth-arabah of Josh 15:61; Josh 18:22; but in v. 1 Sam 30:18 the word has the article before it in the Hebrew, and hence refers to the plain, as elsewhere. See also Zin, Wilderness of, and Salt Sea.

ARA'BIA (arid, sterile), a large peninsula in the south-western part of Asia, between the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Persian Gulf. Its extreme length from north to south is about 1300 miles, its greatest breadth about 1500 miles, though from the northern point of the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf is only about 900 miles. It has the sea on all sides except the north. Its 61 area is estimated at 1,030,000 square miles; and of the three ancient divisions of the country, that known as Arabia Felix was by far the largest and most important, though it is less frequently mentioned by the sacred writers than either of the smaller and northern divisions.

Sketch-Map of Arabia.

Physical Features — Its main features are a coast-range of low mountains or table-land, seldom rising over 2000 feet, broken on the eastern coast by sandy plains; this plateau is backed up by a second loftier range of mountains in the east and south. The mountains are generally barren on their sea side; their outlines are rugged and precipitous; behind the mountains encircling the sea-coast lies a ring of sterile desert, broadest in the east and south, where it is a waste of burning sand, narrower in the west and north, where it is rocky. Within this belt of desert rise tablelands broken by fertile valleys. This central plateau includes about one-third of the Arabian peninsula, the desert another third, and the coast-ranges the remaining portion. The Sinaitic peninsula is a small triangular region in the north-western part, or corner, of Arabia. See Sinai.

Divisions of Arabia. — The ancients divided it into Petroea, Deserta, and Felix; or the Stony, the Desert, and the Happy or Fertile. Modern geographers divide Arabia into a number of large districts, the chief of these being Yemen, which is the most fertile, and Hadramaut in the south, Oman in the east, Shomer and Sinai, or Negeb, in the north, Hedjaz, containing the holy cities of Mecca and Medina, in the west, and Nej'd in the central district. These districts are subdivided into upward of 35 smaller provinces. Some are thickly peopled with an agricultural population or those living in villages, while others are held by tribes of wandering Bedouins, each governed by the sheik.

Productions. — The principal animals are the horse, famed for its form, beauty, and endurance, camels, sheep, asses, dogs, the gazelle, tiger, lynx, and monkey, quails, peacocks, parrots, ostriches, vipers, scorpions, and locusts. Of fruits and grains, dates, wheat, millet, rice, beans, and pulse are common. It is also rich in minerals, especially in lead.

Biblical History. — Arabia in early Israelitish history meant a small tract of country south and east of Palestine, probably the same as that called Kedar, or "the east." Gen 10:30; Gen 26:6; Gen 29:1. Arabia in New Testament times appears to have been scarcely more extensive.Gal 1:17; Gal 4:25. The chief inhabitants were known as Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites. The allusions in the Scripture to the country and its people are very numerous. Job is supposed to have dwelt in Arabia. The forty years of wandering by the Israelites under Moses was in this land. See Sinai. Solomon received gold from it, 1 Kgs 10:15; 2 Chr 9:14; Jehoshaphat, flocks, 2 Chr 17:11; some of its people were at Jerusalem at the Pentecost, Acts 2:11; Paul visited it.Gal 1:17; the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah frequently refer to it. Isa 21:11-13; Isa 42:11; Isa 60:7; Jer 25:24; Jer 49:28,1 Chr 2:29. See Kedar.

Secular History. — Arabia in earliest history was divided into several kingdoms, of which Yemen was the chief. In the fifth century the northern Arabs overran Yemen; later, in A. D. 529, came the great Abyssinian invasion; then the era of Mohammed, 622-632, followed by the conquests of his followers, who swept over Arabia, Palestine, Syria, and the whole of Western Asia, Northern Africa, and into Europe. In the next century their power in Arabia was broken and 62 lost by dissensions, Arabia was disorganized, but rearranged in 929; furnished rulers for Egypt until 1171, in the time of Saladin; in 1517 the Turkish sultan, Selim I., was invested with the Mohammedan caliphate, and Arabia became subject to, and has since continued under, the Ottoman rule.

A'RAD (wild ass), a Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:15.

A'RAD.Jud 1:16. A city in the southern border of Judaea, whose king opposed the passage of the children of Israel, and even took some of them prisoners, for which the inhabitants were accursed and their city destroyed.

A'RAD (place of fugitives), a Canaanitish city. Josh 12:14, on a small hill now called Tell Arad, about 20 miles south of Hebron. In Num 21:1; Num 33:40 the translation should be "the Canaanite king of Arad."

A'RAH (wandering). 1. A chief of Asher. 1 Chr 7:39.

  1. The man whose descendants returned from Babylon, and whose granddaughter married Tobiah the Ammonite. Ezr 2:5; Neh 6:18; Neh 7:10.

A'RAM (high region). 1. A son of Shem. Gen 10:22, Heb 12:23; 1 Chr 1:17.

  1. A descendant of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Gen 22:21.

  2. An Asherite. 1 Chr 7:34.

  3. The son of Esrom, elsewhere called Ram. Matt 1:3, Ex 6:4; Luke 3:33.

A'RAM (highlands), the elevated region north-east of Palestine, toward the Euphrates river. Num 23:7; 1 Chr 1:17; 1 Chr 2:23. It was nearly identical with Syria. Aram-naharaim of Gen 24:10 is translated Mesopotamia in the English version, and refers to the region between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. There were probably several petty kingdoms included under Aram, as Aram-zobah, Aram Beth-rehob, Aram Damascus, Padanaram; all these were gradually absorbed by that of Damascus, which became the capital of all "Aram," or Syria. See Syria, Mesopotamia, and Damascus.

A'RAM-NAHARA'IM.(highlands of the two rivers). Ps 60, title. See Aram.

A'RAM-ZO'BAH. Ps 60, title. See Aram.

A'RAN (wild goat), a descendant of Seir the Horite. Gen 36:28; 1 Chr 1:42.

AR'ARAT (holy land, or high land), a mountainous region of Asia which borders on the plain of the Araxes, and is mentioned (1) as the resting-place of Noah's ark, Gen 8:4; (2) as the refuge of the sons of Sennacherib, 2 Kgs 19:37, margin; Isa 37:38, margin; (3) as a kingdom near to Minni and Ashchenaz, Jer 51:27.

Ararat was a name unknown to Greek and Roman geographers, as it is now to the Armenian, but it was known to others in b. c. 1750 as the ancient name for a portion of Armenia. In Scripture it refers to the lofty plateau or mountain-highlands which overlook the plain of the Araxes. Various views have prevailed as to the Ararat on which the ark rested. Tradition identifies it with the mountain known as Ararat to Europeans, called "Steep Mountain" by the Turks, and Kah-i-Nah, or "Noah's Mountain," by the Persians. It has two peaks, about 7 miles apart; the highest is 17,750 feet, the other about 4000 feet lower. The highest peak is covered with perpetual snow, and is a volcano, having had at least two violent eruptions within a century. The village of Arguri, built on its slopes, is said to be on the spot where tradition claims that Noah planted his vineyard. The mountains of Ararat, Gen 8:4, more properly refer to the entire range of elevated table-land in that portion of Armenia, and upon some lower part of this range, rather than upon the high peaks before mentioned, the ark more probably rested. For (1) this plateau or range is about 6000 to 7000 feet high; (2) it is about equally distant from the Euxine and the Caspian Seas, and between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean, and hence a central point for the dispersion of the race; (3) the region is volcanic in its origin; it does not rise into sharp crests, but has broad plains separated by subordinate ranges of mountains; (4) the climate is temperate, grass and grain are abundant, the harvests quick to mature. All these facts illustrate the biblical narrative. George Smith, however, places Ararat in the southern part of the mountains east of Assyria (Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 289).


View of Ararat. (After Parrot. From I'iehm.)

ARAU'NAH (ark; a large ash or pine), or OR'NAN, was a Jebusite who lived at Jerusalem and owned a threshing-place or floor, where the temple was afterward built. 2 Sam 24:16. David bought it of him because the destroying angel sent to desolate the nation, in consequence of David's sin of numbering the people, stayed his hand at the command of God just as he had reached the floor. Araunah refused at first to receive anything for it, but offered it to him, together with oxen for sacrifices, and the timber of the threshing-instruments for fuel. David refused to receive them as a gift, as he would not offer to the Lord that which had cost him nothing. He therefore bought the oxen for fifty shekels of silver, 2 Sam 24:24, and the whole place for six hundred shekels of gold, 1 Chr 21:25, and offered his sacrifices, which were accepted and the plague stayed. 2 Sam 24:23 may be better translated; "The whole O king, does Araunah give unto the King." But taking the Authorized Version translation as it stands, it favors the view of some that the expression "Araunah the king" implies that he was one of the kings of the Jebusites.

AR'BA. See Hebron.

AR'BAH. Gen 35:27. See Kirjath-arbah and Hebron.

AR'BATHITE, THE, i. e. native of the Arabah 2 Sam 23:31; 1 Chr 11:32.

AR'BEL. Hos 10:14See Betharbel.

AR'BITE, THE, i. e. native of Arab. Paarai was so called. 2 Sam 23:35.

ARCHAN'GEL, the prince or chief of angels. The word only occurs twice in the Bible, 1 Thess 4:16; Jude 9, and it is generally believed that a created, though highly-exalted, being is denoted by the term.

ARCHELA'US (prince of the people), a son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan woman. He with his brother, Antipas, was brought up in Rome. On the decease of his father, b. c. 4, the same year that Christ was born, he succeeded to the government of Idumea, Samaria, and Judaea, with the title of ethnarch. His character was cruel and revengeful. Joseph and Mary on their return from Egypt naturally, therefore, feared to live under his government. Matt 2:22. In the tenth year of his reign he was deposed by the emperor for cruelty, on charges preferred against him by his brothers and subjects, and banished to Yienne, in Gaul, where he died.

AR'CHI. Josh 16:2. A place near Bethel, perhaps settled by a colony from Babylon, and named after Erech 64 in Babylonia. Conder identifies it with the village of 'Ain 'Arek, which is in the required position.

ARCHIP'PUS (master of the horse), a Christian teacher addressed by Paul, Phile 2. Some think he was Philemon's son.

AR'CHITE, THE, the designation always coupled, in the Bible, with the name of Hushai, David's faithful friend, 2 Sam 15:32; 2 Sam 16:16; 2 Sam 17:5-14; 1 Chr 27:33. It is not certain to what it refers—perhaps to "the districts of Erech which lay on the frontier of Ephraim, but this is mere conjecture."

AR'CHITECTURE arises out of the necessities of human life, and before it becomes an art it administers to the primary demands of civilization. Cain built a small city, Gen 4:17, and after the Flood other cities were built. Gen 10:10-12; Gen 11:1-9. Damascus and Hebron existed in the days of Abraham.

Remains of Arch of Bridge between Zion and Moriah, and near the Jews' Wailing-place. (From Photograph.)

The patriarchs, being nomads, lived in tents. During their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews became acquainted with architecture as an art, and they were compelled by force to take part in the construction of huge monuments. Ex 1:11. Hence it was natural that their imagination should be deeply impressed by Egyptian architecture, and that they acquired some knowledge of the science on which it was based. But during their wanderings in the wilderness they had no opportunity to display it, except in the construction of the tabernacle; and at the conquest of Canaan they found forts and cities prepared by other hands. Jud 1:16-26. It was not till the reigns of David and Solomon that Hebrew architecture suddenly started into existence. The influence from Egypt at once made it self felt. David enlarged Jerusalem, improved its fortifications, and built a palace on Mount Zion, perhaps also the original walls of the great mosque at Hebron. Solomon built another palace, "the house of the forest of Lebanon," a palace for his wife, the daughter of Pharaoh, gigantic water-works south of Bethlehem, still known under the name of "Solomon's Pools," and finally the greatest, and we may say the only great, monument of Hebrew architecture, the temple. These buildings were, to a large extent, erected by Phoenician workmen, 2 Sam 5:6-11, and we may easily believe that Phoenician taste has made itself felt in many details. But so far as it is possible to reconstruct the temple after the descriptions given of it in the Bible, it must as a whole have reminded the spectator of Egyptian architecture. The remains of an arch of the bridge between Zion and Moriah, and the remnants of the old wall, called the "Wailing-place of the Jews," show the massiveness of the old Hebrew structures; and from the descriptions it is apparent that everywhere in these buildings, the temple as well as the palaces, the straight line and the right angle were predominant. But massiveness of construction and straightness of form are two of the most prominent features of Egyptian architecture.

The successors of David and Solomon continued to build, and several kings of both Israel and Judah are mentioned as having encouraged architecture. Nor did the nation as a whole forget the art. After the return from Babylon the Jews were able to fortify Jerusalem and rebuild their temple themselves. Ezr 3:8-10; Ezr 6:14; Neh 3; Neh 6:15. Herod the Great was a great builder, and introduced the Greek and Roman styles of architecture. The temple reconstructed by him before and during the life of our Lord was totally destroyed in a.d. 70. For further details see Temple; for details concerning the Jewish architecture, see Dwelling.


ARCTU'RUS, Job 38:32; a star in the constellation Bootes, but in Job it refers to the Ursa Major or Great Bear.

ARD (fugitive ?). 1. A Benjamite; called in Gen 46:21 son, and in Num 26:40 grandson, of Benjamin; name written Addar in 1 Chr 8:3. His descendants are the Ardites.

AR'DON (fugitive), a son of Caleb, the son of Hezron, by his wife Azubah. 1 Chr 2:18.

ARE'LI (heroic), a son of Gad; founder of the Arelites. Gen 46:16; Num 26:17.

AREOP'AGITE,a member of the council of the Areopagus. Acts 17:34.

AREOP'AGUS (hill of Mars), a rocky hill near the centre of the ancient city of Athens, and west of the Acropolis, from which it is divided by a valley. It had its name from the tradition that Mars (Ares), the god of war, was tried here by the other gods on the charge of murder. It was celebrated as the place where the great court of justice, the most ancient and venerable of the Athenian courts, was held, and where Paul made his address to the Athenians. Acts 17:19-34. Near by were the temple of Mars, the Parthenon, the colossal statue of Minerva, and beneath the hill were the caves of the Furies. There are 16 stone steps now to be seen, cut into the rock and leading to its summit, and above the steps there is a bench of stones excavated in the rock, forming three sides of a quadrangle and facing the south. Here the Areopagites sat as judges, in the open air, and from here Paul made known to the Athenians the "unknown God" and converted one of the judges, Dionysius, who is said to have been the first bishop of Athens and the writer of books on mystical Platonic theology and philosophy.

AR'ETAS. 2 Cor 11:32. The king of Arabia Petraia at the time

View of "Mars' Hill," or Aivopamis. {From Lewin's "Life of St, Paul.")

the governor of Damascus attempted to apprehend Paul. Acts 9:24, Gal 4:25. His daughter married Herod Antipas, but was afterward divorced to make room for Herodias. In consequence of this insult, Aretas made war upon Antipas and routed him. The emperor Tiberius then despatched the governor of Syria to the assistance of Antipas, with orders to bring the Arabian to Rome alive, or if dead to send his head. While on the march against him Vitellius learned that Tiberius was dead, a.d. 37. He then dismissed his troops. Antipas was soon after banished and his- kingdom given to Agrippa. It is likely that Aretas was restored to the good graces of the Romans, and that Caligula granted him Damascus, which had already formed part of his predecessor's kingdom. In this way we can account for the fact in Paul's life stated above.

AR'GOB (stony), a small district of Bashan, east of the Jordan; named only four times in the Bible. It is about 30 miles long by 20 miles wide, chiefly a field of basalt (black 66 rock), elevated about 30 feet above the surrounding plain, and bordered by a rocky rampart of broken cliffs. It once contained 60 strong and fortified cities, the ruins of many of them being still to be seen. It is now called the Lejah.

History. — Jair took 60 of its cities. Deut 3:4, 1 Chr 6:5, 14. Absalom fled thither. 2 Sam 13:38. Solomon placed an officer over its 60 great cities with brazen walls. 1 Kgs 4:13. Porter describes this region as "literally crowded with towns and large villages; and though a vast majority of them are deserted, they are not ruined. I have more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest specimens of domestic architecture in the world." (See Giant Cities of Bashan.) But these ruins are now ascertained to belong to the Roman period, and after the Christian era. The American Palestine Exploration Society has explored that East Jordan region, and taken photographs of ruins of theatres, palaces, and temples.

ARID'AI (the strong), the ninth son of Haman. Esth 9:9.

ARID'ATHA (see above), the sixth son of Haman. Esth 9:8.

ARI'EH (lion), a friend of Pekahiah; killed with him by Pekah. 2 Kgs 15:25.

A'RIEL (lion of God), one of Ezra's chief men who directed the caravan which Ezra led from Babylon to Jerusalem. Ezr 8:16. Jerusalem being the chief city of Judah, whose emblem was a lion, Gen 49:9, the word Ariel is applied to that city. Isa 29:1.

ARIMATHE'A (heights), a town in Judaea, and the home of Joseph, who begged the body of Jesus. Matt 27:57; Mark 15:43; Luke 23:51; John 19:38. An old tradition places it at the modern Ramleh, but this is generally discredited. Some identify it with Ramah; others, with less probability, with Renthieh, 10 miles east of Joppa. See Ramah.

A'RIOCH (lion-like). 1. The king of Ellasar, confederate with Chedorlaomer. Gen 14:1-9.

  1. The captain of Nebuchadnezzar's guard. Dan 2:14, 2 Sam 20:15, Dan 2:24, Gal 4:25.

ARIS'AI (lion-like), the eighth son of Haman. Esth 9:9.

ARISTAR'CHUS (best ruler), a Macedonian of Thessalonica who accompanied Paul upon his third missionary journey. Acts 20:4; Acts 27:2. He was nearly killed in the tumult which Demetrius excited in Ephesus, Acts 19:29, and it is said that he was finally beheaded in Rome. Paul alludes to him both as his fellow-laborer and fellow-prisoner. Col 4:10; Phile 24.

ARK. The word indicates three structures. 1. Noah's ark, the vessel constructed at God's command for the preservation of himself and family and a stock of the various animals, etc., during the Flood. Gen 6:14. 2. Moses' ark of bulrushes. Ex 2:3. 3. And usually, the ark of the covenant.

  1. Noah's Ark. — It was four hundred and fifty feet long, seventy-five feet in breadth, and forty-five in height, and was designed, not to sail, but only to float when borne up by the waters. It had lower, second, and third stories, besides what in common vessels is called the hold. A door was placed in the side, and on the roof a series of windows or a window-course in which some translucent substance may have been used.

The ark was constructed of gopherwood, and covered with bitumen or pitch to exclude water.

It is doubtful where the ark was built and as to how long time it took. The weight of opinion is that it was from one hundred to one hundred and twenty years. Compare Gen 5:32 and 1 Tim 7:6; Gen 6:3 with 1 Pet 3:20.

The ark is supposed to have been a long, square-cornered boat with a flat bottom and a sloping roof; and the construction of it has been the subject of much curious, not to say useless, speculation. The proportions of the ark, as those recommended by the experience of centuries of ship-building, are of themselves a proof of Noah's inspiration. In regard to the capacity of the 67 ark, it was large enough to accommodate the eight persons of Noah's family, and all the animals to be saved in it. Some scholars confine the number of animals to the species living in the parts of the world then inhabited by men, excepting, of course, such as live in the water or lie dormant. Traditions of the ark and of the Deluge are found among most ancient nations. See Flood.

  1. Moses's Ark was made of the bulrush or papyrus, which grows in marshy places in Egypt. It was daubed with slime, which was probably the mud of which their bricks were made, and with pitch or bitumen. Ex 2:3.

  2. Ark of the Covenant, Ex 25:10, a chest constructed by the express command of Jehovah, three feet nine inches in length, and two feet three inches in width and height, made of shittim-wood and covered with plates of gold within and without. A border or crown of gold encircled it near the top, and it was surmounted by the

Supposed form of Ark of the Covenant.

mercy-seat, which was of solid gold, and answered the purpose of a cover or lid to the ark. On each end of the mercy-seat was placed a golden image representing a cherub facing inward and bending down over the ark. Two rings of gold were attached to the body of the ark on each side, through which passed the staves or poles, made of the same wood and overlaid with gold, that were used in carrying it from place to place, and these were never taken out. This ark contained originally and in design, 1. A golden pot in which the three quarts of manna were preserved. Ex 16:33. 2. Aaron's rod, which at different places miraculously budded and blossomed and yielded fruit all at once, Num 17:8; and, 3. The tables of the testimony, or the tables of the ten commandments, written with the finger of God and constituting the testimony or evidence of the covenant between God and the people. Deut 31:26; Heb 9:3, 4. Hence it is sometimes called the ark of the testimony, and sometimes the ark of the covenant. Ex 25:16 and Ex 40:21; It is probable that the first two were hopelessly lost before the reign of Solomon. 1 Kgs 8:9. On the mercy-seat which surmounted the ark rested the awful and mysterious symbol of the divine presence. Lev 16:2; Num 7:89. When the Israelites were journeying through the wilderness, the ark was borne in advance of the people, and their route was providentially indicated by "the cloud of the Lord." When the ark set forward, Moses said, "Rise up, Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate thee flee before thee." Num 10:33-36.

After the children of Israel had passed the Jordan, whose waters divided at the approach of the ark. Josh 3:14-17, the tabernacle was set up at Gilgal, and this sacred vessel remained in it for a season. It was then removed to Shiloh, where it was stationary between three and four hundred years, [scripture]Jer. 7:12-15[scripture]; and being then taken out and borne before the army, it fell into the hands of the Philistines at the defeat of the Israelites near Aphek. 1 Sam 4. The Philistines took it to Ashdod and placed it by the side of their idolgod Dagon, 1 Sam 5; but by severe judgments God avenged his insulted majesty, and they were compelled to return the ark to the people of Israel, by whom it was lodged at Kirjath-jearim. 1 Sam 6 and 1 Kgs 15:7. When David had fixed his residence at Jerusalem, the ark was removed thither with sacred ceremonies, and kept until the temple was prepared to receive it. 2 Sam 6; 1 Chr 15:25-28, on which occasion it is supposed the one hundred and thirty-second Psalm was written. Solomon put it in the temple. 2 Chr 5:2-10. Manasseh placed a 68 carved image in the house of God, probably removing the ark to make way for it. Josiah, however, restored it. See 2 Chr 33:7 and 2 Chr 35:3.

The second temple did not contain the ark; whether it was seized among the spoils when the city was sacked, or whether it was secreted and afterward destroyed, does not appear. The Jews think it will be restored when their Messiah appears. Wherever the Jews dwelt or wandered, they always worshipped toward the place where the ark of the covenant rested. Dan 6:10.

ARK'ITE, THE, a Canaanitish family settled in Arka, "a Phoenician town at the north-western base of Lebanon, where the worship of Astarte was practised." Gen 10:17; 1 Chr 1:15.

AKMAGED'DON (mount of Megiddo), a name used figuratively in Rev 16:16, and suggested by the great battle-field noted in the Old Testament and now known as the Plain of Esdraelon.

ARME'NIA (mountains of Minni ?), a name in the English version for a country called Ararat in the Hebrew. 2 Kgs 19:37 Isa 37:38. Armenia is in western Asia, between the Caspian and the Black Seas, and the Caucasus and Taurus ranges of mountains.

Physical Features. — It is chiefly an elevated plateau, about 7000 feet above the level of the sea, the highest peak being Ararat, the lower portions of the plateau being broken by valleys and glens, including the fertile valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. It is watered by four large streams, the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris, and also by numerous lakes, one of the largest, the salt Lake Van, being over 5400 feet above the sea. Its three mountain-ranges abound in volcanic rocks, in lead, copper, iron, silver, rock-salt, and mineral springs. The climate is cold in the highlands, while the heat of summer is intense in the valleys.

History. — Three districts probably included in Armenia are mentioned in the Bible, Ararat, Minni and Ashchenaz. and Togarmah. (1) Ararat was a central region near the range of mountains of the same name. (2 ) Minni and Aschenaz, Jer 51:27, districts in the upper valley of a branch of the Euphrates. (3) Togarmah, Eze 27:14; Eze 38:6, was apparently the name by which the most, or perhaps the whole, of the land was known to the Hebrews. Armenian tradition claims that Armenia was settled by Haik, a grandson of Japhet, about b.c. 2200, The land soon became tributary to Assyria, and so continued until the eighth century b. c.; was again independent until b.c. 325; subject to Macedonia for 130 years; again free until b.c. 34; since then alternately overrun by Romans, Persians, Greeks, Kurds, and Turks, and divided between Russia, Turkey, and Persia. The people have long been nominally Christian. Religious persecution and war have driven great numbers of Armenians from their native land into Asia Minor and Europe. The present number of Armenians is estimated to be from 2,500,000 to 3,000,000, of whom about 1,000,000 live in Armenia. Its chief modern towns are Erzeroum, Erivan, and Van. See Assyria.

AR'MOR. See also War. Weapons or instruments of defence. These were in general the shield or buckler, the target, the coat of mail, the greaves, and the helmet.

Egyptian Shields. (After Eosellini.)

  1. The shield or buckler was probably one of the earliest pieces of armor, for allusion is often made to it by the earliest writers. Gen 15:1; Ps 5:12; Ps 18:2; Ps 47:9. It was of various sizes, and usually made of light wood and covered with several folds or thicknesses of stout hide, which were preserved and polished by frequent applications of oil, Isa 21:5, and often painted with circles of various colors or figures. Nah 2:3. Sometimes osiers, or reeds woven like basket-work, were used to stretch the hide upon, and sometimes the shield was made either entirely of brass or gold, or covered with thick plates of

those metals. 1 Kgs 14:26, 2 Chr 11:21. It was of various forms, but generally circular or oblong. The shield was held by the

1, 2. Assyrian Mail. (Nineveh Marbles.) 3. Part of Chain Mail. (From Kouyunjik.) 4. Greek Cuirass. (From Temple Collections.) 5. Persian Mail.

left arm. The hand passed through under two straps or thongs placed thus, X. and grasped with the fingers another small strap near the edge of the shield, so that it was held with great firmness. A single handle of wood or leather in the centre was used in later times. The outer surface was made more or less rounding from the centre to the edge, and being polished smooth made the arrows or darts glance off or rebound with increased force; and the edges were armed with plates of iron, not only to strengthen them, but to preserve the perishable part from the dampness while lying upon the ground. In times of peace the shield was kept in a covering. In times of engagement the shields were either held above the head or they were placed together edge to edge, and thus formed a continuous barrier.

  1. The target was a long shield, protecting the whole body, larger than the bucklers above described. 1 Kgs 10:16, 2 Sam 21:17. It is usually mentioned in connection with heavy arms, while the shield is spoken of with the sword, dart, and other light arms. It probably resembled the great shield of the Romans, which in some cases was four feet high and two and a half feet broad, and so curved as to fit the body of the soldier.

  2. The coat of mail of Goliath, 1 Sam 17:5, covered the body upon and below the breast and back, and was probably like a shirt covered with rows of brass pieces overlapping one another; and this may have been the usual form. The habergeon of Neh 4:16 is a different translation of the same word. The article so called formed part of the high priest's dress, and "is supposed to have been of linen, thickly woven or quilted, with a binding on the neck, and plated on the breast with mail."

  3. Greaves or boots, 1 Sam 17:6, were for the protection of the legs, being made of brass and fastened by leather thongs over the shins. They are mentioned only as a part of the armor of Goliath, and probably were not in common use among the Hebrews, though they were almost universal among the Greeks and Romans.

  4. Helmet. This was a cap, the diverse shapes of which are seen in the figures of the archers, slinger, bearers of shields. In early times skins of the heads of animals were used, but afterward it was made of thick, tough hide, and sometimes of plated brass, 1 Sam 17:38, and usually crowned with a crest or plume as an ornament.

Armor-bearer. Jud 9:54. An officer selected by kings and generals from the bravest of their favorites, whose service

Egyptian Battle-axes. (From Rosellini and Chattipollion.)

it was, not only to bear their armor, but to stand by them in danger and carry their orders, somewhat after the manner 70 of adjutants in modern service. 1 Sam 16:21 and 1 Sam 31:4.

  1. Egyptian Maces and Clubs.
  2. Assyrian Maces.

ARMS were weapons or instruments of offence. They were the sword, the spear or javelin, dart or lance, the bow

Assyrian Swords or Daggers. (From Nineveh Marbles.)

and arrow, the sling, the quiver, and the battle-axe.

  1. The sword. Gen 27:40. This was a short two-edged instrument resembling what we call a dagger. It was carried in a sheath or scabbard, Jer 47:6; Eze 21:9, 1 Kgs 20:30, and suspended to the girdle or belt. Jud 3:16; 2 Sam 20:8.

Assyrian Spears and Shields. (From Nineveh Marbles.)

  1. Of the spear there were at least three distinct varieties, which differed chiefly in length and size. (1.) The spear,

Assyrian Archers behind a large Shield. (From Nineveh Marbles.)

par-excellence, was a long wooden staff with a stout metal point at one end. The Greek spears were sometimes twenty-five feet long, and the Arabs now use them fifteen feet long. They were required to be long enough to reach beyond the front 71 rank when used by those who were in the second rank. Goliath's spear was said to have a staff "like a weaver's beam." 1 Sam 17:7. This largest sort of spear was used by Saul habitually. It must have had a metallic point at its butt end, because it was stuck into the ground, 1 Sam 26:1, and Asahel was killed "with the hinder end" of Abner's spear. 2 Sam 2:23. It was this kind of spear, and not a "javelin," which Saul threw at David and Jonathan. 1 Sam 18:11; 1 Sam 20:33. There was a somewhat lighter spear, which was carried on the back when not in use. 1 Sam 17:6. (Authorized Version translates target.) (2.) The javelin was a short spear, cast,as is supposed, with the hand. Num 25:7. (3.) The dart was still smaller than the javelin, and used in like manner. 2 Chron 32:5.

  1. The arrow was a slender missile shot from a bow, as in modern days. 1 Sam 20:36. It was used in hunting. Gen 27:3, as well as in combat. Gen 48:22. Those who used the bow were called "archers." Gen 21:20. Arrows were originally made of reeds, and afterward of any light wood. The bows were made of flexible wood or steel, Ps 18:34, and the bowstring of leather, horsehair, or the tendons of animals. Bows were the chief dependence in both an attack and a defence. The point of the arrow was barbed like a fish-hook. Ps 38:2.

Egyptian Archer. (Eosellini.)

Job refers to the use of poisoned arrows. Job 6:4, and fire was often conveyed by the use of juniper-wood, which kindled upon the combustible baggage or armament of the enemy. Ps 91:5; Ps 120:4. It is said that the coals of the

Assyrian and Egyptian Quivers and Bows.

juniper-wood retain their heat for a long time. The Phoenicians and, in later times, the Spaniards have used arrows for the like purpose. Arrows were used in divination. Eze 21:21.

Arrows were kept in a case or box called a quiver, which was slung over the shoulder in such a position that the soldier could draw out the arrows when wanted. The position of the quiver and bow is seen in a preceding cut. The drawing of the bow was a test of strength, and is still so among the Arabians. Hence the allusion in Ps 18:34.

  1. The sling, 1 Sam 17:40, was an early weapon of war, by which stones were thrown with great force and surprising accuracy of aim. This skill was shown in a remarkable degree by the Benjamites, who could employ the left hand in its use with great adroitness. Jud 20:16. The slingers

ranked next to the archers in efficiency, and formed a regular arm of the service.

Assyrian Slinger.

  1. The battle-axe, Jer 51:20, was obviously a powerful weapon of war, but of its ancient form and manner of use we have now no knowledge.

The term "armor," and the various offensive and defensive articles comprised in it, are frequently used figuratively in the Bible, in Eph 6:11-17, where the graces of the Christian character are represented as the armor of God, in which he clothes the believer, and by which he is enabled to fight the good fight of faith with a victorious arm.

AR'MY The armies of the Israelites embraced the whole male population of the country of twenty years and over, Num 1:2,Num 1:3, Num 26:2, and when occasion required, the entire body was readily mustered. Jud 20:1-11; 1 Sam 11:7, 1 Kgs 15:8. This accounts for the prodigious numbers which were often assembled. 2 Chron 13:3; 2 Chron 14:9. See War. The system was minute. Each tribe constituted a division with a separate banner and separate position on the march to the Holy Land, and as near as possible in battle. The army gathered from the tribes was divided into thousands and hundreds under their respective captains. Num 31:14. The kings had body-guards. 1 Sam 13:2; 1 Sam 25:13. In later times a standing army was maintained, and in war troops were sometimes hired. 2 Chr 25:6. But ordinarily the soldiers received no wages, but were armed and supported. 1 Kgs 4:27; 1 Kgs 10:26. Hence their campaigns were short, and generally terminated by a single battle. Horses were not used, it is supposed, until Solomon's time. The manner of declaring war, and the character and occupation of exempts, are minutely stated. Deut 20:1-14;Deut 24:5.

AR'NON (noisy), a stream running into the Dead Sea from the east, and which divided Moab from the Ambrites. Num 21:13; Jud 11:18. The Arnon is about 50 miles long; 90 feet wide, and from 4 to 10 feet deep at its mouth; full in winter, but nearly dry in summer; had several fords, Isa 16:2, and "high places," Num 21:28; Isa 15:2; is referred to 24 times in the Bible. Its modern name is el-Mejib. It runs through a deep ravine with precipitous limestone cliffs on either side, in some places over 2000 feet high. Ruins of forts, bridges, and buildings abound on its banks, and fish in its waters; oleanders and almond trees bloom in its valley, and griffons and buzzards may be seen hovering over its cliff's.

A'ROD (a wild ass), a son of Gad, founder of the Arodites. Num 26:17. He is called Arodi in Gen 46:16.

AR'OER (ruins), the name of several places.

  1. A city on the north side of the river Arnon, given to Reuben. Josh 13:9, Ex 17:16. It belonged to Sihon of the Amorites, Deut 2:36; Deut 3:12; Deut 4:48; Josh 12:2; Jud 11:26; taken by Syria, 2 Kgs 10:33; possessed by Moab, Jer 48:19. It is identified with ruins on the edge of a steep cliff, 13 miles west of the Dead Sea, and called Ara'ir.

  2. A city before Rabbah, built by Gad, Num 32:34; Josh 13:25; it was probably not far west of the modern town of Amman.

  3. Aroer, in Isa 17:2, if a proper name, must refer to a region near Damascus.

  4. A town in the south of Judah, 1 Sam 30:28 ; now Ar'arah, on the road from Gaza to Petra, and 11 miles south-west of Beer-sheba. Four wells are found there.

AR'OERITE, THE. Hothan, the father of two of David's "mighty 73 men,"was a native of Aroer, but it is uncertain of which one. 1 Chr 11:44.

AR'PAD, or AR'PHAD (strong city), a town or region in Syria. near Hamath, 2 Kgs 18:34; Isa 10:9; dependent on Damascus. Jer 49:23. See Arvad.

ARPHAX'AD (stronghold of the Chaldees), a son of Shem, ancestor of Eber, and also, according to Josephus, of the Chaldaeans. Gen 10:22, Jud 6:24; Gen 11:10-13; 1 Chr 1:17, 1 Sam 30:18, Jud 6:24.

ARTAXERX'ES (the great warrior), the name of two kings of Persia mentioned in the Bible. 1.Ezr 4:7-24, the king who stopped the rebuilding of the temple because he listened to the malicious report of the enemies of the Jews. He is supposed to have been Smerdis the Magian, the pretended brother of Cambyses, who seized the throne b. c. 522, and was murdered after 8 months.

  1. Ezr 7:7 and Neh 2:1 both speak of a second Artaxerxes, who is generally regarded as the same with Artaxerxes Longimanus (i.e. the Long-handed), son of Xerxes, who reigned b. c. 464—425. In the seventh year of his reign he permitted Ezra to return into Judaea, with such of his countrymen as chose to follow him; and fourteen years afterward he allowed Nehemiah to return and build up Jerusalem.

AR'TEMAS (contraction of Artemadorus, the gift of Artemis, i. e. Diana), a companion of Paul. Tit 3:12.

ARTIL'LERY. 1 Sam 20:40. Any missile weapons, as arrows, lances, etc. See Arms.

ARTS, Acts 19:19. Pretended skill in the practice of magic, astrology, etc. See Astrology.

AR'UBOTH (windows, or court), a district including Sochoh. 1 Kgs 4:10. See Sochoh.

ARU'MAH (height), a place near Shechem, where Abimelech lived. Jud 9:41. Perhaps el-Armah, 5 miles southeast of Nablous.

AR'VAD (wandering), a small island 2 or 3 miles off the coast of Phoenicia, related closely to Tyre. Eze 27:8, Rev 1:11. See also Gen 10:18; 1 Chr 1:16. Ruins of a huge wall are still found, and Greek inscriptions graven on black basaltic columns. The stones are so immense as to puzzle the best engineers how to move them. The place is now called Ruad, and has about 3000 population. It appears to have been a city since the time of Arvad, son of Canaan, and is probably the same as Arpad and Arphad.

AR'ZA, the steward of King Elah's house. 1 Kgs 16:9.

A'SA (physician) was son and successor of Abijam on the throne of Judah, b. c. 955-914. 1 Kgs 15:8. He reigned forty-one years. Though educated in the principles of a false religion, he showed from the first his decided opposition to idolatry, and even deposed his grandmother, Maachah, because she had made an idol in a grove. The first part of his reign was peaceful, and he improved the opportunity to purify his kingdom from idolatry and to build and fortify several cities; and when Zerah, an Ethiopian king, invaded his territories with an army of a million of men and three hundred chariots, Asa met him at Mareshah with 580,000 men, and defeated him. This battle was one of the most important in Jewish history. 2 Chr 14.

At the suggestion of the prophet Azariah, Asa set about the reformation of every abuse in his kingdom, and appointed a solemn festival of thanksgiving to God, at which all the people were assembled, and entered into a formal covenant with God. Baasha, king of Israel, finding his subjects too much disposed to go into Judah and dwell there, commenced fortifying Ramah, a place near the frontiers of both kingdoms, with a view to cut off the passage of emigrants to Jerusalem and other parts of Judah. Asa, though he had so long enjoyed the favor and protection of God, was now tempted to forsake him. Instead of trusting him for deliverance, as he had done in years past, he sent to Ben-hadad, the king of Syria, and prevailed on him, even in violation of a treaty which existed between Ben-hadad and Baasha, to come to the help of Judah against Israel. The Syrian king, won by the presents which Asa had sent him, immediately attacked and destroyed several important cities of Israel. Baasha, finding his kingdom thus invaded, abandoned the fortification of Ramah that he might 74 protect the provinces of the interior from desolation. Asa seized the opportunity to demolish Ramah and take away the stone and timber which were collected there and use them in the building of his own cities. In the mean time, Hanani the prophet was sent to rebuke him for forsaking Jehovah, and to announce his punishment. But Asa was enraged by the faithful message, and caused the bearer of it to be imprisoned. 2 Chr 16:10. In the latter part of his life Asa had a disease of the feet, perhaps the gout, but "he sought not to the Lord, but to the physicians." We may, however, accept his sufferings as an extenuating circumstance for his occasional acts of tyranny. He died b. c. 914, in the forty-first year of his reign, and was buried with great pomp. 2 Chr 16:14.

  1. A Levite who dwelt in one of the villages of the Netophathites after the Captivity. 1 Chr 9:16.

AS'AHEL (whom God made). 1.David's nephew, Joab's brother, noted for swiftness of foot; one of David's thirty heroes; killed by Abner at the battle of Gideon. 2 Sam 2:18ff.; 1 Chr 11:26; 1 Chr 27:7.

  1. A Levite. 2 Chr 17:8.

  2. Another Levite. 2 Chr 31:13.

  3. The father of one in Ezra's employ. Ezr 10:15.

ASAHI'AH (whom Jehovah made), a servant of King Josiah. 2 Kgs 22:12, 2 Kgs 22:14. Called Asaiah, the same name, in 2 Chr 34:20.

ASAI'AH (whom Jehovah made). 1. A Simeonite chief in Hezekiah's time. 1 Chr 4:36, 1 Chr 4:41.

  1. A Levite of David's time, chief of the Merari, who assisted in bringing up the ark to Jerusalem. 1 Chr 6:30, 1 Chr 24:31; 1 Chr 15:6,Rev 1:11.

  2. According to 1 Chr 9:5, the firstborn of the Shilonite; called, in Neh 11:5, Maaseiah.

  3. 2 Chr 34:20. See Asahiah.

A'SAPH (collector). 1. A Levite who was a chief leader of the temple choir and a poet. 1 Chr 6:39. Twelve of the Psalms are attributed to him — namely, Ps 50 and from Ps 73-83. He is also spoken of as a "seer" in connection with David. 2 Chr 29:30; Neh 12:46. "The sons of Asaph" were probably a school of musicians.

  1. The father of Joah, recorder to Hezekiah. 2 Kgs 18:18, 2 Kgs 18:37; Isa 36:3,Josh 11:22.

  2. The keeper of the king's forest to Artaxerxes. Neh 2:8.

  3. A Levite, an ancestor of Mattaniah. Neh 11:17. Perhaps the same as 1.

    ASAR'EEL (whom God has bound; i.e. by an oath), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:16.

ASARE'LAH (upright toward God), a musician, 1 Chr 25:2; called Jesharelah in v. 2 Kgs 22:14.

ASCEN'SION. See Christ.

AS'ENATH (favorite of Neith or Isis-Neith) (Neith is the Minerva of Egypt), Joseph's wife, the daughter of Poti-pherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, the religious and literary capital of ancient Egypt, a few miles north of Cairo. Gen 41:45; Gen 46:20.

A'SER. Luke 2:36; Rev 7:6. Greek form of Asher.

ASH. Isa 44:14. Mentioned only once. The true ash is not a native of Palestine. This tree, the wood of which was wrought into the images of idolatry, is believed to be a pine.

A'SHAN (smoke), a city in the plain of Judah. Josh 15:42 1 Chr 6:59. The Ashan assigned to Simeon may be another place. Josh 19:7; 1 Chr 4:32. Conder proposes to place one at 'Aseileh, near en-Rimmon, the other at Hesheth.

ASH'BEA (I adjure), a name in the genealogical list in 1 Chr 4:21. Probably the name of a person; but if a place, it should be Beth-ashbea.

ASH'BEL (reproof of God), a son of Benjamin, ancestor of the Ashbelites. Gen 46:21; Num 26:38; 1 Chr 8:1.

ASH'CHENAZ. 1 Chr 1:6; Jer 51:27. See Ashkenaz.

ASH'DOD {stronghold, castle), one of the five confederate cities of the Philistines, allotted to Judah, Josh 15:46, Josh 15:47; the chief seat of Dagon-worship. 1 Sam 5. It was 3 miles from the Mediterranean, and midway between Gaza and Joppa. The place is called Azotus in the New Testament. Acts 8:40. It is now a mean village called Esdud; near it are extensive ruins.

History. — Built by the Anakim; not 75 taken by Joshua, Josh 11:22; allotted to Judah, Josh 15:47; taken by Uzziah, 2 Chr 26:6; by Tartan or Sargon, Isa 20:1; besieged by Psammetichus and destroyed by the Maccabees; given to Salome after Herod's death; Philip preached there, Acts 8:40; bishops of Azotus or Ashdod are noticed in later history; the city is now occupied by Mohammedans.

ASH'DOTH-PIS'GAH (springs of Pisgah), a valley or place near Mount Pisgah. Deut 3:17; Deut 4:49; Josh 12:3. See Pisgah, Springs of.

ASH'ER (happy). 1. The eighth son of Jacob. 2. One of the twelve tribes (see Tribes). 3. A territory extending from Carmel to Lebanon, about 60 miles long and 10 to 12 wide, having 22 cities with their villages. The Phoenicians held the plain by the sea, and Asher the mountains. Josh 19:24-31; Jud 1:31, Jud 1:32. 4. A place on the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh. Josh 17:7. Some locate it at Yasir, 12 miles northeast of Shechem. Drake suggests Asireh as the more probable location.

ASH'ERAH (straight). See Ashtaroth.

ASH'ES. Gen 18:27. To cover the head with ashes, or to sit in ashes, betokens self-abhorrence, humiliation, extreme grief, or penitence. 2 Sam 13:19; Esth 4:3; Job 2:8; Jer 6:26; Lam 3:16; Jon 3:6; Matt 11:21. The ashes of the altar of burnt-offering on the days of the great festivals were suffered to accumulate, and then taken away the next day by a priest chosen by lot to this work. There was a sort of lye made of the ashes of the heifer sacrificed on the great day of expiation, which was used for ceremonial purification. Num 19:17,1 Sam 30:18. See Heifer.

ASH'IMA. 2 Kgs 17:30. The name of the god the Hamathite colonists introduced into Samaria; identified with the Pan of the Greeks.

ASH'KELON, and AS'KELON (migration), one of the five cities of the Philistines; a seaport-town 10 miles north of Gaza; taken by Judah, Jud 1:18; visited by Samson, Jud 14:19; and its destruction predicted in Jer 47:5, 1 Kgs 15:7; Am 1:8; Zech 9:5; Zeph 2:7.

History. — Ashkelon was the seat of worship of the Philistine goddess Astarte, whose temple was plundered by the Scythians, b.c. 625; was the birthplace of Herod the Great; was taken by the Franks, a.d. 1099; partially destroyed by the Moslems; rebuilt by Richard Coeur de Lion; destroyed again in a.d. 1270. Ruins of walls, columns, marble pillars, and inscriptions on stone abound there now, though many of the good building-stones have been dug up and used in Jaffa and Gaza. Sycamores, vines, olives, and fruit trees are found there, and also 37 wells of sweet water. Near the ruins of the old city is Jerah, a village of about 300 population.

ASH'KENAZ (strong, fortified), a district probably in Armenia, the home of a tribe of the same name. In 1 Chr 1:6; Jer 51:27 it is called Ashchenaz. See Armenia.

ASH'KENAZ. Gen 10:3. Son of Gomer, of the family of Japhet, and the probable ancestor of those who inhabited the country of the same name, Jer 51:27, lying along the eastern and south-eastern shore of the Black Sea. The precise district is unknown. See Minni.

ASH'NAH, the name of two cities of Judah. 1. One about 16 miles northwest of Jerusalem, Josh 15:33; 2, the other 16 miles south-west of it. Josh 15:43. Conder locates it at Idbnah, but Ganneau places it at Asalim, near Sara.

ASH'PENAZ (horse-nose?), the master of Nebuchadnezzar's eunuchs, who showed much kindness and forbearance toward Daniel and his three companions, though at considerable personal risk. Dan 1:3.

ASH'RIEL (vow of God). See Asriel.

ASH'TAROTH, AS'TAROTH. 1. A city of Bashan, east of the Jordan, Deut 1:4; Josh 9:10; Josh 13:31; the same as Beesh-terah, Josh 21:27; probably Tell-Ashterah, in Jaulan.

  1. (Ashtoreth, sing.; Ashtaroth, plur. and more usual.) An idol, represented in the subjoined cut, Jud 2:13; called the goddess of the Sidonians. It was much worshipped in Syria and Phoenicia. Solomon introduced the worship of it. 1 Kgs 11:33. The Greeks and Romans called it Astarte. The four hundred priests of Jezebel, mentioned 1 Kgs 18:19, are supposed to have been employed in the service of this idol; and we are told that under this name

Figure of Astarte. (Rawlinson's "Herodotus.")

three hundred priests were constantly employed in its service at Hierapolis, in Syria, many centuries after Jezebel's time. - The worship of Ashtoreth was suppressed by Josiah. It was simply licentiousness under the guise of religion. The goddess was called the "queen of heaven," and the worship was said to be paid to the ''host of heaven." It is usually mentioned in connection with Baal. Baal and Ashtoreth are taken by many scholars as standing for the sun and the moon respectively; by others as representing the male and female powers of reproduction. Asherah, which is translated in the Authorized Version "grove," was an idol-symbol of the goddess, probably a wooden pillar.

ASH'TERATHITE, an inhabitant of Ashtaroth beyond Jordan. 1 Chr 11:44.

ASHTEROTH KAR'NAIM (Ashteroth of the two horns), a city of the giant Rephaim in Bashan, Gen 14:5; perhaps modern Sanamein, 30 miles south of Damascus, though Porter thinks it possibly identical with Kenath and modern Karnaim. Others with greater probability, suggest Tell-Aehtded, 20 miles east of the Sea of Garlilee.

ASH'TORETH, See Ashtaroth.

ASH'UR (black), the father of Tekoa; i. e. the founder of the place. 1 Chr 2:24; 1 Chr 4:5.

ASH'VATH (meaning uncertain), an Asherite. 1 Chr 7:33.

A'SIA, used only in the New Testament. It refers, not to the continent of Asia, nor to "Asia Minor" entire, but to a small Roman province on the coast, in the west of Asia Minor, and included the lesser provinces of Mysia, Lydia, and Caria; its capital was Ephesus. Acts 6:9; Acts 19:10; Acts 27:2; 1 Cor 16:19; 1 Pet 1:1; Rev 1:4. All the "seven churches" were in Asia. See Map.

A'SIEL (created of God), a Simeonite. 1 Chr 4:35.

AS'KELON. Jud 1:18. See Ashkelon.

AS'NAH (thorn-bush), one whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. [scripture]Ezr. 2:50[scripture].

ASNAP'PER (swift?), one mentioned in Ezr 4:10 as "great and noble." Who he was is unknown. It is perhaps best to regard him as the official employed by Esar-haddon to settle the Cuthaeans in Samaria.

ASP. Deut 32:33; Rom 3:13. A small but very poisonous serpent,

Egyptian Cobra. (Naja huge. After Houghton.)

probably the Egyptian cobra, which dwells in holes. The venom of this reptile is cruel, because it is so subtle and deadly, and requires an immediate excision of the wounded part. For an infant child to play up to the hole of 77 such a venomous reptile would seem to be most presumptuous, and hence the force of the figure used by the prophet, Isa 11:8, to represent the security and peace of the Messiah's reign. See Adder (2).

AS'PATHA (meaning uncertain), the third son of Haman. Esth 9:7.

AS'RIEL (vow of God), the son of Gilead, founder of the Asrielites. Num 26:31; Josh 17:2; 1 Chr 7:14.

ASS. Gen 22:3. This animal is among the most common mentioned in Scripture, and constituted a considerable part of the wealth of ancient times. Gen 12:16 and Gen 30:43; Job 1:3; Job 42:12. Asses were sometimes so numerous as to require a special keeper. Gen 36:24; 1 Chr 27:30. The ass and the ox were the principal animals of burden and draught. Ex 23:12. The domestic ass is indeed a most serviceable animal, and in some respects preferable to the horse. He subsists on very coarse food and submits to the meanest drudgery. His skin is remarkably thick, and is used at this day for parchment, drumheads, memorandum-books, etc. The usual color of asses is red or dark brown, but sometimes they are of a silver white, and these last were usually appropriated to persons of dignity. Jud 5:10. So in Gen 49:11 the allusion to the ass and the vine imports dignity and fruitfulness, and the continuance and increase of both in the tribe of Judah. There was a breed of asses far superior to those that were used in labor, and which are supposed to be referred to in most of the passages above cited.

The female, or she-ass, was particularly valuable for the saddle and for her milk, which was extensively used for food and for medicinal purposes. The ass was used in agricultural labor, especially in earing (ploughing) the ground and treading it to prepare it for the seed. Isa 30:24 and Isa 32:20. The prohibition, Deut 22:10, might have been founded in part on the inequality of strength between the ox and the ass, and the cruelty of putting upon them the same burden, but was intended chiefly to mark the separation of the Jews from surrounding nations, among whom such a union of different beasts was not uncommon. So serviceable, and indeed essential, to man was this animal in ancient times that to drive away the ass of the fatherless is reckoned among the most atrocious acts

The Eastern Ass (After Wood. "Animal Kingdom.")

of oppression and cruelty. Job 24:3, as depriving an orphan family of their only cow would be regarded at the present day. The attachment of this animal to its owner is among its remarkable characteristics. In this respect it closely resembles the dog. Hence the severity of the prophet's rebuke. Isa 1:3.

The fact stated in 2 Kgs 6:25 shows that such was the extremity of the famine that the people were willing to give an exorbitant price for the head of an "unclean" animal.

The ass, when dead, was thrown into an open field, and that part of his flesh which was not consumed by beasts and 78 birds was suffered to putrefy and decay. Nothing could be more disgraceful than to expose a human body in the like manner. Jer 22:19; Jer 36:30.

Our Saviour's entrance into Jerusalem riding upon an ass's colt fulfilled the prophecy in Zech 9:9. It is not considered in the East less honorable to ride this animal than a horse. But the latter is chiefly used for warlike purposes, as the ass is not. This peaceful animal was appropriated to the Prince of peace, who came not as other conquerors.

The Arabian ass has a light, quick step. In Persia, Syria, and Egypt ladles are accustomed to ride on asses, and they are particularly valuable in mountainous countries, being more surefooted than horses. Their ordinary gait is four miles an hour.

The ass in its wild or natural state is a beautiful animal. It is often alluded to in the sacred writings. Job 11:12; Deut 24:5 and Job 39:5-8. Asses usually roamed in herds through barren and desolate districts. Isa 32:14;Hos 8:9. One was recently taken in a pitfall in Astrachan, and added to the Surrey zoological collection in England. It is described as having a deer-like appearance, standing high on the legs, very active, of a silvery color, with a dark brown streak along the back.

AS'SHUR. Gen 10:22. The second son of Shem. See Assyria.

AS'SHUR, a Hebrew form for Assyria, and in the prophecies and historical books refers to that empire. See Assyria.

ASSHU'RIM (steps), descendants of Dedan, the grandson of Abraham. Gen 25:3.

AS'SIR (captive). 1: A Levite, the son of Korah. Ex 6:24; 1 Chr 6:22.

  1. A descendant of Korah, and ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr 6:23, 2 Kgs 18:37.

  2. A descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:17.

AS'SOS, a Greek city of Mysia in "Asia," 19 miles south-east of Troas, and on the Mediterranean Sea. Extensive ruins of buildings, citadel, tombs, and a gateway still exist there. Paul visited it. Acts 20:13.

AS'SUR. Ezr 4:2; Ps 83:8. See Assyria.

ASSUR'ANCE. 1. Of the Understanding, Col 2:2, is a full knowledge of divine things founded on the declaration of the Scriptures.

  1. An Assurance of Faith, Heb 10:22, is a firm belief in Christ, as God has revealed him to us in the Scriptures, and an exclusive dependence on him for salvation.

  2. Assurance of Hope, Heb 6:11, is a firm expectation that God will grant us the complete enjoyment of what he has promised.

ASSYR'IA, a great empire of Western Asia, founded by Asshur, Gen 10:10-11, who built Nineveh, Rehoboth (?), Calah, and Resen. Assyria proper appears to have included about the same territory as modern Kurdistan. The empire covered at times a far larger extent of territory, and in its prosperity nearly all of western Asia and portions of Africa were subject to its power.

Physical Features. — The chief rivers of Assyria were the Euphrates and Tigris. The country was well watered. On the east and north were ranges of mountains, the highest covered with snow. The central portions were along the fertile valleys of the two great rivers. There are immense level tracts of the country, now almost a wilderness, which bear marks of having been cultivated and thickly populated in early times. Among its products, besides the common cereals, were dates, olives, cotton, mulberries, gum-arabic, madder, and castor-oil. Of animals, the bear, deer, wolf, lynx, hyena, antelope, lion, tiger, beaver, and camel were common. The fertility of the country is frequently noted by ancient writers.

Biblical History. — Assyria is among the earliest countries mentioned in the Bible, Gen 2:14, and is referred to about one hundred and twenty times in the Old Testament, though only four or five of its kings are noticed by name. Scripture, tradition, and the monuments of the country unite in testifying that Assyria was peopled from Babylon. Gen 10:10-11. From the time of Nimrod until two centuries after the division of the Israelitish kingdom the Scriptures make no mention of Assyria. During the rule of Menahem, Pul, the king of Assyria, invaded Israel and levied a heavy tribute upon it, 2 Kgs 15:19; 79 a few years later, when Pekah was king of Israel, and Ahaz, king of Judah, Tiglath-pileser, another king of Assyria, aided Judah in a war against Israel and Syria. 2 Kgs 16:7-9; 2 Kgs 15:29; 2 Chr 28:6. In the reign of Hoshea the Assyrians under Shalmaneser again invaded Israel, and after besieging its capital, Samaria, for three years, captured it, destroyed the kingdom, and carried the people into captivity, b.c. 721, and repeopled the land by colonies from Babylon, Cuthah, and Hamath. 2 Kgs 17:1-6, Jud 6:24 Sargon, a usurper and great warrior, succeeded Shalmaneser as king of Assyria, and perhaps completed the conquest of Samaria and of Israel undertaken by his predecessor. Sargon deposed Merodach Baladan, king of Babylon, made an expedition against Egypt, when he captured Ashdod, Isa 20:1-4, conquered Syria, and subdued a large portion of western Asia. Under Sargon, Nineveh, the capital of the empire, was repaired and adorned with a royal palace and many magnificent buildings. See illustration on p. 80. He was succeeded by his son, Sennacherib, about b. c. 704, who became the most celebrated of all the Assyrian kings. During his reign of 22 years he crushed the revolt of Berodach Baladan, and drove him from the country; carried his conquests into Egypt, Philistia, Armenia, Media, and Edom. He invaded the kingdom of Judah in the reign of Hezekiah, and his army was miraculously destroyed, and he returned home in shame, and was slain by his two sons. 2 Chr 32:1-21; 2 Kgs 19:35-37. He was succeeded by Esarhaddon, who reigned 13 years, and was succeeded by Assur-banipal (Sardanapalus), a noted warrior and builder, who extended the limits of the empire and erected a grand palace at Konyunjik. After his reign the empire began gradually to decline, until in b.c. 625 (some say 606) it was subdued by the Medes and Babylonians, and the latter became the dominant power during the great Captivity. 2 Kgs 24:1; 2 Kgs 25:1-8; Dan 1:1;Dan 3:1; Jud 5:1;Eze 29:18. See Nineveh and Babylon.

Art, Language, and Religion. — The artistic skill, genius, and magnificence displayed by the Assyrians in architecture and in the arts, as shown bv the exhumed remains of their great cities, are the admiration of scholars. The massive walls and towers which surrounded their towns; the vastness and beauty of their ruined palaces at Khorsabad and Koniyunjik; the elaborate finish and adornments of their temples and other edifices at Nimroud and Kileh Sherghat; the sculptures in marble, stone, bronze, and clay; the remarkable specimens of transparent glass vases; the tables, chairs, and articles of luxury for the home; their chariots and implements of war, — are the wonder of explorers of our day. Canon Rawlinson declares the much lauded Egyptians to be very decidedly the inferiors of the Assyrians, excepting in the one point of the grandeur and durability of their architecture. The language of Assyria was Semitic, and in style derived, according to Rawlinson, from the Chaldaean, but of a less archaic type. It was written without pictorial representations of objects, and in the arrow-headed or wedge-shaped characters, of which over 300 different signs or characters are now known to have been used in the Assyrian alphabet. "Their language and alphabet are confessedly in advance of the Egyptian." — Rawlinson's Five Ancient Monarchies, 1870, i. p. 247. Of their religion the same author says it is "more earnest and less degrading than that of Egypt. Idols and idol-worship prevailed. Of eleven chief gods and an equal number of goddesses, the greatest was Asshur, one of whose symbols was a winged sphere with the figure of a man armed with a bow issuing from the centre. Among the other gods were Bel, Sin the moon-god, Shamas the sun-god, Ishtar, and Nebo. Their idols were of stone and clay, and were worshipped with sacrifices, libations, and offerings, and by fastings of man and beast. The tablets testify to the attention given to religion by the learned, and the records and sculptures indicate the general spirit of worship prevailing among the people, while it also shows their gross idolatry."

Modern Discoveries and General History. — Concerning the history of the Assyrian kingdom and empire, comparatively little was known previous to recent discoveries. The researches of


Assyrian Palace Restored. (After Ferguson.) 81 Botta, 1842-1850; Layard, 1851-1853; Sir H. Rawlinson, 1850-1867; Oppert, 1857-1870; Lenormant, 1868-1873; George Smith, 1872-1877; and those of Rassam, 1878, — have rescued the annals of that country from obscurity, and furnished the materials for a trustworthy history. These records, together with the vast buildings, monuments, and grand palaces, were buried many feet beneath mounds of earth, and their existence for hundreds of years was wholly unknown to the world. By patient excavation the monuments,

temples, palaces, and other evidences of Assyrian greatness have been brought to light within the past forty years; even large portions of the vast libraries of her kings have been discovered, the unknown characters in which they were written have been deciphered, and the inscriptions and records translated into modern languages, not only giving a history of the exploits of this remarkable nation, but also throwing much light on its customs, religious life, and language, and upon the many Scripture references to Assyria.

A vast mass of documents has been dug up from the mounds, written in cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters and in the Assyrian tongue. The inscriptions were upon slabs of stone, which formed the panels of the palace walls, on obelisks of stone, on clay tablets, and on cylinders or hexagonal prisms of terra cotta two or three feet long. These tablets and cylinders were undoubtedly a part of the royal library in the days of Tiglath-pileser and of other noted kings.

"The Assyrian power was a single monarchy from the beginning, and gradually grew by conquering the smaller states around it; and there is consequently a uniformity in its records and traditions which makes them easier to follow than those of the sister kingdom." — George Smith, Assyrian Discoveries, 1875, p. 447. A list of 50 Assyrian kings who reigned from b.c. 1850 to b.c. 607 has been compiled from the royal tablets by George Smith. Of these kings, twenty eight reigned previous to Tiglath-pileser I., b.c. 1120; fifteen reigned from Tiglath-pileser I. to Tiglath-pileser II., b.c. 745; and after his time reigned the following seven, four of whom are certainly mentioned in Scripture history: Shalmaneser IV., Sargon, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, Assur-banipal, Bel-zakir-iskun, and Assur-ebil-ili. The first capital of Assyria was Asshur, on the Tigris, about 60 miles south of Nineveh; its second capital, founded or more probably rebuilt and enlarged by Shalmaneser I., was Calah or Halah. As Assyrian conquests extended north and east, the capital was removed to Nineveh, 82 which became a vast city, and according to Layard covered the present site of Konyunjik, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Karamles. This space would correspond to the measurements of the city given by Diodorus. — Layard: Nineveh, 1849, vol. ii. pp. 243-247. In his view, Nimrud was the original site of Nineveh, whose founder built a new city at Kileh Sherghat. In later periods palaces were built at Khorsabad, Karamles, and the largest of all these structures at Konyunjik. About 630 b.c. the Medes from the north and the Susianians from the south invaded Assyria; after a brief contest they conquered it, and the empire was divided between the conquerors. The kingdom of Assyria extended over a period of 1200 years, though the empire can only at the utmost be considered to have lasted six and a half centuries, and its ascendency in western Asia not more than 500 years, b.c. 1125-625. Of the importance of the recent discoveries it is said, "Every spadeful of earth which was removed from those vast remains tended to confirm the truth of prophecy and to illustrate Scripture. But who could have believed that records themselves should have been found which, as to their minuteness of details and the wonderful accuracy of their statements, should confirm, almost word for word, the very text of Scripture? And remember that these were no fabrications of a later date, on monuments centuries after the deeds which they professed to relate had taken place, but records engraved by those who had actually taken part in the events." — Layard: Address in London on being presented the freedom of the city, 1854. See Nineveh and Babylon

AS'TAROTH. See Ashtaroth.

ASTROL'OGERS. Dan 2:27. A class of men who pretended to foretell future events by observing the motions of the heavenly bodies, which, until a comparatively late period, were supposed actually to influence human life. Star-worship prevailed among Eastern nations, and its priests were astrologers.

ASTRON'OMY (the laws or science of the stars). The Bible gives evidence that its writers were students of the starry heavens, but the Hebrew religion sternly forbids their worship. Some of the constellations are mentioned — e.g. the Pleiades, Orion, the "Great Bear"(Arcturus). Job 9:9; Job 38:31. The Jews do not seem to have divided the stars into planets, fixed stars, and comets. During the Babylonish captivity they encountered the astronomy as well as the astrology of the far-famed Chaldaeans. Indeed, in Chaldaea was the birthplace of the science. In the case of the magi, Matt 2, God used their astrology as a means of grace to lead them to Christ. See Star of Bethlehem.

ASUP'PIM, HOUSE OF (house of gatherings). 1 Chr 26:15, 2 Sam 21:17. It refers either to the chambers of the temple, perhaps where the elders sat, or to some one of the apartments of the temple where the stores were kept. The word is rendered "thresholds" in Neh 12:25.

ASYN'CRITUS (incomparable), a Christian in Rome whom Paul saluted. Rom 16:14.

A'TAD, THRESHING FLOOR OF. Gen 50:10, Rev 1:11. Its name was changed to Abel-mizraim, which see.

AT'ARAH (a crown), one of the wives of Jerahmeel. 1 Chr 2:26.

AT'AROTH (crowns). (1). A town of Gad, east of the Jordan, Num 32:3, Num 32:34, about 7 miles north-west of Dibon; now the ruin Attarus.

(2). A town of Ephraim, Josh 16:2; perhaps the same as Ataroth-adar and Ataroth-addar. Josh 18:13. It may be the modern Atâra, 6 miles north-west of Bethel, though Conder suggests that it is identical with ruins discovered at ed-Dârieh.

(3). In 1 Chr 2:54, Ataroth, the house of Joab, if a place, may refer to one in Judah, which Schwartz would identify with Latrum, between Jaffa and Jerusalem.

AT'AROTH-AD'DAR (crowns of fame). See Ataroth, 2.

A'TER (shut up). (1). One whose children kept the temple-gate. Ezr 2:42; Neh 7:45.

(2). The ancestor of some who came back with Zerubbabel, and who signed the covenant. Ezr 2:16; Neh 7:21; Neh 10:17.

A'THACH (lodging-place), a town in the south of Judah; perhaps the same as Ether. Josh 19:7; 1 Sam 30:30.

ATHAI'AH (probably same as Asaiah, whom Jehovah, made), 83 a descendant of Judah. Neh 11:4.

ATHALI'AH (afflicted by Jehovah), granddaughter of Omri, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, wife of Jehoram, king of Judah, and mother of Ahaziah. 2 Kgs 11:1 ff. She introduced Baal-worship into Judah. Her character was extremely bad. She advised her own son in his wickedness, and after Jehu had slain him (see Ahaziah) she resolved to destroy the children of her husband by his former wives, and then take the throne of Judah, But Jehosheba, a half-sister of Ahaziah, secured Joash, one of the children and heir, and secreted him and his nurse for six years. In the seventh year, everything being prepared for the purpose, Joash, the young prince, was brought out and placed on the throne. Attracted by the crowd of people who had assembled to witness the ceremony, and unsuspicious of the cause, Athaliah hastened to the temple. When the populace had assembled, and when she saw the young king on the throne, and heard the shouts of the people, and found that all her ambitious designs were likely to be defeated, she rent her clothes and cried out, "Treason! Treason!" hoping probably to rally a party in favor of her interests. But she was too late. The priest commanded her to be removed from the temple, and she was taken without the walls of the city and put to death. 2 Kgs 11:16. See Jehoiada and Joash.

(2). A Benjamite. 1 Chr 8:26.

(3). One whose son, Jeshaiah, returned with Ezra in the second caravan from Babylon. Ezr 8:7.

ATH'ENS, the name of several places, but chiefly of the capital of Greece, the metropolis of ancient philosophy and art; named from the goddess Minerva or Athene. For sketch map see Corinth.

Erechtheum. Parthenon. Turkish Tower.

Modern City. Temple of Theseus. South-western part of Modern City.

Athens. (After a sketch.)

Situation. — It was situated about 5 miles north-east of the Saronic Gulf, in the plain of Attica, the south-eastern portion of the Grecian peninsula, between the little rivers Cephissus and Ilissus. The port, Piraeus, is five miles off, and now connected with the city by a railroad. About the plain, on the northwest, the north-east, the south-east, and south-west, were four noted mounts. Within the city were four more noted hills — the Acropolis, Areopagus or Mars' Hill, the Pnyx, and the Museum. The Acropolis is about 150 feet high, with a flat top about 1100 feet long by 84 450 feet wide, having a steep ascent on all sides. West of the Acropolis is Mars' Hill, of irregular form, and on which public assemblies and the chief courts were held. Upon this hill Paul preached. Acts 17:19, Josh 11:22. Beneath it are the Caves of the Furies.

History. — Athens was first settled by some chieftain, perhaps Cecrops, b.c. 1556, who is said to have been succeeded by sixteen legendary kings and twelve archons. Draco made laws for it, b.c. 624. Solon, its noted ''lawgiver," founded a democracy, b.c. 594. The city was taken by Xerxes, b.c. 480; but soon after his defeat it reached its highest prosperity, with a population of from 120,000 to 180,000. Under the brilliant rule of Pericles, b.c. 444 to 429, some of the greatest masters in philosophy, poetry, and oratory flourished, and noted buildings and temples, as that of Zeus, the Odeum, the Parthenon, the Propylaea, were projected or completed. His rule was followed by the Spartan, the Theban, and the Macedonian supremacy, the age of Demosthenes, Philip, and Alexander the Great. In b.c. 140, Athens with Achaia became a Roman province, and so continued through apostolic times. Since then it has been subject to the Byzantines, Franks, Venetians, and Turks, as well as at times independent. Under the misrule of the Turks it sunk down to a miserable village, and in 1832 there was scarcely a house standing. But it arose with the new kingdom of Greece, and is now again a beautiful capital, adorned by new streets and buildings, prominent among which are the royal palace, the Greek cathedral, the Russian chapel, the University, the Library, and the Museum.

At the time of Paul's visit Athens was a "free city," under the Roman rule. It was given to idolatry, having 30,000 idols. Petronius said, "It was easier to find a god in Athens than to find a man." Paul calls them "very religious," Acts 17:22, not "too superstitious," as our version inaccurately reads. But Athens never took a prominent place in church history.

ATH'LAI (whom Jehovah afflicts), one who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:28.

ATONE'MENT. Literally, at-onement, or reconciliation; theologically, the satisfaction or propitiation brought about by the death of Christ as the ground of the accord or reconciliation between God and man. The word occurs often in the Old Testament, but only once in the New (Rom 5:11, where the Greek means "reconciliation," which is the result of the atoning death of Christ). The subject itself is presented in every variety of form both in the Gospels and in the Epistles. Rom 3-8 and Heb 7-10, inclusive.

The great atonement made for sin by the sacrifice of Christ constitutes the grand substantial foundation of the Christian faith. The efficacy of it is such that the sinner, though by nature the child of wrath, by faith in Christ is brought into favor with God, is delivered from condemnation, and made an heir of eternal life and glory. The Hebrew word rendered "atonement" signifies "covering," Ps 32:1, and the Greek version of this Hebrew word is translated "propitiation" in our Bible, and may denote either that our offences are covered or that we are protected from the curse, Christ being made a curse for us. Gal 3:13. Generally, wherever the term occurs, a state of controversy or estrangement is implied; and in relation to the party offended, it imports something done to propitiate. Gen 32:20; Eze 16:63. The idea of making an atonement is expressed by a word which signifies "to make propitiation;" and the apostles, in referring to the death of Christ, use those very terms which in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament are applied to legal sacrifices and their effect, thus representing the death of Christ not only as a real and proper sacrifice, but as the truth and substance of all the Levitical types and shadows — the true, efficacious, and only atonement for sin, 1 John 2:2 and 1 John 4:10; showing that Christ is not only the agent by whom the propitiation is made, but was himself the propitiatory sacrifice.

ATONE'MENT, DAY OF. Lev 16; Lev 23:27-32. The only Jewish fast-day; the annual day of humiliation. It was kept five days before the Feast of Tabernacles, or on the tenth day of Tisri; i.e. in the early part of October. The fast lasted from sunset to sunset. It 85 was kept as a solemn Sabbath. Once a year upon this day did the high priest alone enter the holy of holies. This was the preparation. It was ordained that he should bathe himself, and then dress in holy white linen. He was then to bring forward his sacrifices, which must be his purchases — a young bullock for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt-offering. These he offered for himself and family. Besides these, he brought forward two goats for a sin-offering and a ram for a burnt-offering. These, being for the benefit of the people, were paid for out of the public treasury. The two goats were then led up to the entrance of the tabernacle and lots cast upon them, one lot marked "For Jehovah." the other marked "For Azazel" The latter is a phrase of unusual difficulty. But the best modern scholars agree that it does not designate the goat, but the personal being to whom the goat was sent. See Goat, Scape. The high priest offered the bullock, carried live coals in a censer from the altar, with a handful of incense, into the holy of holies. There he sprinkled the blood with his finger upon the mercy-seat, eastward, and before it seven times. He then killed the goat "for Jehovah" and sprinkled its blood in the same manner. Over the goat "for Azazel" the sins of the people were confessed by the high priest, and then it was sent away by "the hand of a fit man into the wilderness." The ceremony was now over. Accordingly, the high priest again bathed, put on his usual garments, and offered the two rams.

AT'ROTH (crowns), or ''Atroth-Shophan," as it should probably be read without the comma, "Shophan" being added to distinguish it from the "Ataroth" or "Atroth" in the former verse. It was a city of Gad, near Dibon. Num 32:35.

AT'TAI (opportune). (1). A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:35, Eze 23:36.

(2). A Gadite chief. 1 Chr 12:11.

(3). A son of Rehoboam. 2 Chr 11:20.

ATTALI'A, a seaport-town of Pamphylia, Acts 14:25, named from its founder, Attalus; later it was called Satalia, and now Adalia.

AUGUS'TUS (venerable), Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, b.c. 62-a.d. 14. The grand-nephew of Julius Caesar, and first emperor of Rome. It was he who gave the order for the enrolment which was the human occasion of the Bethlehemic birth of Christ. Luke 2:1. He was one of the second so-called triumvirate, with Mark Antony and Lepidus. After the removal of the latter he fought a battle with Antony at Actium, b.c. 31, defeating him. The senate saluted him as emperor, and in b.c. 27 conferred on him the title of "Augustus."

Coin of Augustus in Berlin.

He comes into the New Testament in connection with Herod, whom he had reinstated in his kingdom and greatly honored, although Herod had espoused the cause of Antony. At Herod's death Augustus divided his kingdom in accordance

Marble Statue of Augustus, found in 1863 at Prima Porta, near Rome.

with his will, and even educated two of his sons, since their relations had been very intimate. He reigned forty-one years, and was succeeded by 86 Tiberius Caesar. Luke 3:1. See Caesar

A'VA (ruin). Rawlinson would identify it with Hit, on the Euphrates; probably it is the same as Ahava and Ivah. 2 Kgs 17:24.

A'VEN (nothingness).

(1). A plain, probably of Lebanon. Am 1:6.

(2). Same as Beth-aven. Hos 10:5, 1 Kgs 15:8. See Baalbec.

(3). The city of On or Heliopolis, in Egypt. Eze 30:17.

AVENGE', AVEN'GER. Luke 18:8; 1 Thess 4:6. Vengeance is an act of justice; revenge is an act of passion. Hence injuries are revenged, crimes are avenged. God is avenged of his enemies when he vindicates his own law and government and character and punishes their transgressions. An avenger is the agent or instrument by whom the avengement is visited on the offending party.

Avenger of Blood was a title given to one who pursued a murderer or man-slayer, by virtue of the ancient Jewish law, to avenge the blood of one who had been slain. He must be a near relative of the murdered man. Deut 19:6.

A'VIM (ruins), a city of Benjamin, Josh 18:23; probably near Bethel.

A'VITH (ruins), a city of Edom, Gen 36:35; 1 Chr 1:46; probably in the north-eastern part of Mount Seir.

A'ZAL. Zech 14:5. As the passage reads in the margin, Azal is not a proper name; but if a place at all, it was on or near Mount Olivet.

AZALI'AH (whom Jehovah reserved), the father of Shaphan the scribe. 2 Kgs 22:3; 2 Chr 34:8.

AZANI'AH (whom Jehovah hears), the father of Jeshua the Levite, Neh 10:9.

AZAR'AEL (whom God helps), a Levite musician. Neh 12:36.

AZAR'EEL (whom God helps).

(1). A Korhite who "came to David to Ziklag." 1 Chr 12:6.

(2). A Levite musician of David's time, 1 Chr 25:18; called Uzziel in v. Ex 6:4.

(3). A prince of Dan. 1 Chr 27:22.

(4). One who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:41.

(5). A priest who lived in Jerusalem after the Return. Neh 11:13.

AZARI'AH (whom Jehovah helps).

(1). The grandson of Zadok, and the high priest during the reign of Solomon. 1 Kgs 4:2; 1 Chr 6:9.

(2). A chief officer under Solomon. 1 Kgs 4:5.

(3). A king of Judah, 2 Kgs 14:21; more generally called Uzziah, which see.

(4). A son of Ethan. 1 Chr 2:8.

(5). The son of Jehu, son of Obed. 1 Chr 2:38-39.

(6). The son of Johanan, and high priest under Abijah and Asa. 1 Chr 6:10-11.

(7). In 1 Chr 6:13 the name is probably wrongly inserted.

(8). A Kohathite, and ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr 6:36.

(9). A prophet who stirred up Asa to abolish idolatry. 2 Chr 15:1.

(10, 11). Sons of Jehoshaphat the king. 2 Chr 21:2.

(12). In 2 Chr 22:6 by copyist's error for Ahaziah.

(13). A captain of Judah who helped Jehoiada. 2 Chr 23:1.

(14). The high priest in the reign of Uzziah who resisted with eighty priests the king's attempt to perform priestly functions. 2 Kgs 14:21; 2 Chr 26:17-20.

(15). An Ephraimite chief in the reign of Ahaz. 2 Chr 28:12.

(16, 17). Two Levites in the reign of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 29:12.

(18). The high priest in the days of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 31:10, 2 Kgs 11:13.

(19). One who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. Neh 3:23-24.

(20). A leader in the company of Zerubbabel. Neh 7:7.

(21). A Levite who helped Ezra in the reading of the Law. Neh 8:7.

(22). A priest who sealed the covenant, Neh 10:2, and "probably the same with the Azariah who assisted in the dedication of the city wall." Neh 12:33.

(23). In Jer 43:2 instead of Jezaniah.

(24). The Hebrew original name of Abed-nego.Dan 1:6, etc.

A'ZAZ (strong), a Reubenite. 1 Chr 5:8.

AZAZI'AH (whom Jehovah strengthens).

(1). A Levite musician in the reign of David. 1 Chr 15:21.

(2). An Ephraimite chief. 1 Chr 27:20.

(3). A Levite who had the oversight over the tithes and offerings in the reign of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 31:13.


AZ'BUK (strong devastation), father of Nehemiah (not the governor). Neh 3:16.

AZE'KAH. Josh 10:10-11; Josh 15:35. A city of Judah near Shocoh. Schwarz proposed Tell Zakariya, in the valley of Elah; Conder suggested Deir el-Soshek, 8 miles north of Shoeoh, also in the valley of Elah, as the site of Azekah.

A'ZEL (noble), a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:37-38; 1 Chr 9:43-44.

A'ZEM (bone), a city in the south of Judah, Josh 16:29; afterward allotted to Simeon, Josh 19:3; the same as Ezem in 1 Chr 4:29.

AZ'GAD (strong in fortune). (1). One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel. Ezr 2:12; Ezr 8:12; Neh 7:17.

(2). One who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:15.

A'ZIEL (whom God consoles), a Levite porter; shortened form of Jaaziel. 1 Chr 15:20.

AZI'ZA (strong), one who had taken a foreign wife. Ezr 10:27.

AZ'MAVETH, probably a place in Benjamin, Ezr 2:24; Neh 12:29; called also Beth-azmaveth, Neh 7:28; probably modern Hizmeh, north of Anathoth.

AZ'MAVETH (strong unto death). (1). One of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:31; 1 Chr 11:33.

(2). A descendant of Mephibosheth. 1 Chr 8:36; 1 Chr 9:42.

(3). A Benjamite. 1 Chr 12:3.

(4). David's treasurer. 1 Chr 27:25.

AZ'MON (strong), a place in the south-western part of Palestine. Josh 15:4; Robinson and Trumbull describe "Kasaimeh" or "Qasaymeh," which is probably the site of Azmon.

AZ'NOTH-TA'BOK (ear, or summits, of Tabor), a place in Naphtali; probably the eastern slope of Mount Tabor. Josh 19:34.

A'ZOR (a helper), one of our Lord's ancestors. Matt 1:13-14.

AZO'TUS. Acts 8:40. Greek form of Ashdod. See Ashdod.

AZ'RIEL (whom God helps). (1). A man of renown, head of a house of Manasseh beyond Jordan. 1 Chr 5:24.

(2). The father of a chief of Naphtali. 1 Chr 27:19.

(3). The father of Seraiah. Jer 36:26.

AZ'RIKAM (help against the enemy). (1). One of David's posterity. 1 Chr 3:23.

(2). One of Saul's posterity. 1 Chr 8:38; 1 Chr 9:44.

(3). A Levite. 1 Chr 9:14; Neh 11:15.

(4). The prefect of the palace to King Ahaz, who was killed by Zichri. 2 Chr 28:7.

AZU'BAH (forsaken). (1). The mother of Jehoshaphat. 1 Kgs 22:42; 2 Chr 20:31.

(2). A wife of Caleb, son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:18-19.

A'ZUR (helper). (1). The father of Hananiah, the false prophet of Gibeon. Jer 28:1.

(2). The father of one of the princes against whom Ezekiel prophesied. Eze 11:1.

AZ'ZAH (the strong), same as Gaza, Deut 2:23; 1 Kgs 4:24; Jer 25:20. See Gaza.

AZ'ZAN (very strong), a chief of Issachar. Num 34:26.

AZ'ZUR (helper), one who sealed the covenant. Neh 10:17.

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