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EA'GLE (Hebrew nesher; i.e. a tearer with the beak). There can be little question that the eagle of Scripture is the griffon (Gyps fulvus), or great vulture, a bird very abundant in Palestine and adjacent countries. In spite

Griffon Vulture, the Eagle of Scripture. (Gyps fuivus. After Tristram.)

of its name, it is a much nobler bird than a common vulture, and is little more a carrion-feeder than are all eagles. Indeed, the griffon is used by the Orientals as the type of the lordly and the great.

This well-known bird of prey was unclean by the Levitical law. Lev 11:13; Deut 14:12. The habits of the eagle are described in Num 24:21; Job 9:26; Job 39:27-30; Prov 23:5; Prov 30:17, Acts 1:19; Jer 49:16; Eze 17:3; Ob 4; Hab 1:8; Gal 2:9; Matt 24:28; Luke 17:37.

In these last passages the Jewish nation is compared to a decaying body exposed in the open field, and inviting the Roman army, whose standard was an eagle, to come together and devour it. The eagle was also on the Persian standard. The tenderness of the eagle toward its young is characteristic, and is beautifully and accurately described in Ex 19:4; Deut 32:11. The rapidity of the eagle's flight is alluded to in Deut 28:49; 2 Sam 1:23; Jer 4:13; Jer 48:40; Lam 4:19; its destructive power in Isa 46:11; Hos 8:1; and its great age, and the popular opinion that it renews its plumage in advanced life, are intimated in Ps 103:5 and Isa 40:31.

Many Scripture references are much more clear and forcible if by "eagle" we understand the griffon. The head and neck of this bird are bald. Mic 1:16. Although eagles are attracted by carcasses, it is the griffons which, from their great numbers and superior strength, are pre-eminently the scavengers of the East. Matt 24:28. Of all rapacious 246 birds, these select the loftiest and most inaccessible cliffs. Jer 49:16.

"The griffon is found in all the warmer parts of the Old World, from the Himalaya to Spain and Morocco, and throughout Africa to the Cape of Good Hope. It measures about 4 feet 8 inches in length, and 8 feet in expanse of wing. The nest is sometimes large, but frequently scanty, formed of sticks and turf, and it lays one egg in February or March. Its plumage is a uniform brown, with a fine ruff of whitish down round the lower part of its neck, at the termination of the bare portion. Its beak is hooked and of great power, but its claws and feet are much weaker than those of the eagle, and are not adapted for killing prey." — Tristram.

The pains which such birds take in teaching their young to fly, as well as such passages as Isa 40:31, are illustrated by the following narrative: "I once saw a very interesting sight above the crags of Ben Nevis. Two parent eagles were teaching their offspring, two young birds, the manoeuvres of flight. They began by rising from the top of the mountain in the eye of the sun. It was about midday, and bright for the climate. They at first made small circles, and the young birds imitated them. They paused on their wings, waiting till they had made their flight, and then took a second and larger gyration, always rising toward the sun, and enlarging their circle of flight so as to make a gradually-ascending spiral. The young ones still and slowly followed, apparently flying better as they mounted; and they continued this sublime exercise, always rising, till they became mere points in the air, and the young ones were lost, and afterward their parents, to our aching sight." — Sir Humphry Davy.

EARNING is an old English word for ploughing. Gen 45:6; Ex 34:21; Deut 21:4; 1 Sam 8:12.

EAR'NEST. This is something going before or given in advance as a pledge of more in reserve; thus, earnest, or earnest-money, is a sum paid in advance as a pledge of full payment at a future time. In a spiritual sense, it denotes those gifts and graces which the Christian receives as a pledge or earnest of perfect holiness and happiness in the future world. 2 Cor 1:22; Eph 1:14.

EAR'-RINGS. The ordinary Hebrew word for "ear-ring" means also "nose-ring," and the context must decide between these interpretations. There are two other words which mean more specifically an ear-ring. The one occurs Num 31:50; Eze 16:12. This word describes a circle of gold, such as is found portrayed upon the sculptures of Egypt and Persepolis; the other word, though literally translated a "charm," seems to indicate ear-rings, which were worn as amulets. They were given up to Jacob at his request, along with the "strange gods," when, at the divine command, he went to Bethel from Shechem. Gen 35:4. This fact proves their superstitious use. Such ear-rings, bearing talismanic characters and figures, are found to-day in the East. Ear-rings were made of gold, were usually, though by no means always, circular, sometimes had jewels hanging from them, and were larger and heavier than those worn with us. In Bible-times ear-rings were ornaments for both sexes. Ex 32:2. The same is true to some extent to-day. See Amulet.

EARTH. The word first occurs Gen 1:2. The Hebrews made the usual distinction between the earth as the planet which we inhabit and the earth as the soil which we cultivate, by employing altogether different words for these different ideas. But like other ancient nations, they had vague and inaccurate ideas in regard to the size of the earth. The phrases "the ends of the earth," all the "kingdoms of the earth," "the whole world," really took in only a limited extent. Geographical terms were loosely used. For example, the same word (yam, which means "sea") is applied to the Mediterranean, to the lakes of Palestine, and to great rivers such as the Nile. But they were much more definite when describing localities with which they were intimately acquainted, and these descriptive words for the minor features of the country are often singularly correct, and at the same time poetical. We can mark a progression in geographical knowledge from the days of the patriarchs to those of 247 the N.T. Jews. As nation after nation was brought into contact with them their notions of the character and extent of the world enlarged.

Owing to the highly poetic nature of the language in which descriptions of the earth as a whole are given, it is impossible to decide upon the ordinary ideas on this subject. Like other nations of antiquity, and like most people in all ages, the Hebrews viewed the world from a geocentric standpoint, as if the earth were the centre of the universe, every other heavenly body being formed for it and playing a subsidiary part. The heavens were conceived of as an inverted bowl, which rested on the flat earth at its edges, holding up the snow and rain, which came through when a window was opened. Gen 7:11; Isa 24:18. All natural phenomena are traced directly to the almighty will of God, without taking into account (yet without denying) secondary causes. The thunder is his voice, the lightning his arrows, the storm and the wind his messengers. Job 37:5; Ps 77:17; Ps 148:8. When he drew near, the earthquake, the eclipse, and the comet were the signs of his presence. Joel 2:10; Matt 24:29; Luke 21:25. We should remember that this is to this day the language of poetry and religion, and that it represents one and the most important aspect of truth, the primary cause; while prose and science view the other aspect, the secondary and finite causes — that is, the laws of nature, which are the agencies of the almighty will of God.

If all things in heaven above and earth beneath were created by the word of God, they were as certainly created for the sons of God — for man. To the Hebrew nothing existed independent of some effect, good or bad, upon man. Ps 104:14, Heb 12:23 expresses in poetry his sober opinion.

The earth spoke to him likewise of orderly and preconcerted progress. From one day to the other, as he read the account in Genesis, there was development of higher from lower forms, until, as the crown and lord of all creation, man stood in Eden.

EARTHQUAKE. Korah and his companions were destroyed by the rending asunder of the ground where they stood, thus engulfing them in the cavity, Num 16:32; in other words, by an earthquake. The earthquake mentioned in Am 1:1; Zech 14:5 is also mentioned by Josephus, who adds that it divided a mountain near Jerusalem, and was so violent as to separate one part some distance from the other. The earthquake was among the fearful signs which attended the crucifixion of our Saviour. Matt 27:51-54.

Earthquakes are mentioned among the calamities which should, and did, precede the destruction of Jerusalem. Matt 24:7. Earthquakes, in prophetical language, denote revolutions and commotions in states and empires.

An earthquake, "conveying the idea of some universal and unlimited danger," as Humboldt says, was an appropriate illustration of the awe which strikes the soul when God seems to draw nigh. It is therefore a fitting token of his presence, IKgs 19:11, and is used in Scripture, poetry, and prophecy in descriptions of the coming of Jehovah. Jud 5:4; 2 Sam 22:8; Ps 77:18; Ps 97:4; Ps 104:32; Am 8:8; Hab 3:10.

EAST, EAST COUN'TRY. Gen 11:2; Job 1:3; Eze 47:8; Matt 2:1. The Hebrews used the word kedem, or "east," to describe any country which was before or in front of another — that is, to the east of it; and it generally refers to the region around and beyond the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, including portions of Arabia, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia.

EAST'ER (originally the festival of the Anglo-Saxon goddess Eostre), a mistranslation for "Passover," the Jewish feast. Acts 12:4. See Feast.

EAST SEA. Eze 47:18; Joel 2:20. See Salt Sea.

EAST WIND. See Wind.

EAT, EAT'ING. The Hebrews were scrupulous about eating and drinking with those of another religion or another nationality. They would not eat with the Egyptians, any more than the Egyptians would with them, Gen 43:32, nor with the Samaritans, John 4:9, nor with "publicans and sinners," Matt 9:11,and the refusal to eat with one implied an entire separation. 1 Cor 5:11.

Anciently, the Jews sat at table; but when they encountered the practice of 248 reclining upon couches during meals, resting the body on the left elbow and using chiefly the right hand, they appear to have adopted it. This peculiar position makes the scene described in Luke 7:36-50 perfectly natural, and also shows how one of the guests could repose his head on another's bosom.

Bomau Triclinium, illustrating Jewish Method of Eating.

John 13:23. Women were never present at Jewish meals as guests.

The Jews, in O.T. times, appear to have taken their principal meal at night, after the heat of the day was over. This, to be sure, is largely conjecture, since we have no detailed information given us in the Bible. See Ruth 3:7; Ex 16:12; Ex 18:12-13. The institution of the paschal feast in the evening likewise helps to confirm the opinion. Ex 12:6, 1 Sam 30:18. They made their other meal in the morning. In N.T. times they did not ordinarily breakfast until 9 o'clock, Acts 2:15, and on the Sabbath, as Josephus says, not before noon, because not till then was the service of the synagogue completed. In the evening the more substantial meal took place. In general, the Jews led the simple, abstemious life of the modern Oriental, eating the fruits of the earth in the morning, and meat only once a day, if at all. But besides this occasional reference to the ordinary life of the Jews, the Bible contains notices of numerous feasts in honor of all the events which broke the monotony of their existence. Leaving out of account the religious festivals and the formal banquets at the ratification of treaties and on other public occasions, we read of feasts given at marriages, Gen 29:22; Jud 14:10, etc., on birthdays, Gen 40:20; Job 1:4, etc., burials, 2 Sam 3:35; Jer 16:7, sheep-shearing, 1 Sam 25:2, Eze 23:36; 2 Sam 13:23, and at other times. According to the means of the host, an elaborate meal was prepared. The guests were formally invited, and when the day came they were invited a second time. Prov 9:23; Matt 22:3. The guests were received with a kiss, their feet and hands were washed, their person was perfumed with ointment. Luke 7:44-46. The parable of the Man without the Wedding-garment has led to the conjecture that it was customary, or at least usual, in certain cases for the host to provide robes. Matt 22:12. The present mode of eating among Eastern nations illustrates some passages of the N.T. In Syria the guests use their fingers, a knife, spoon, and plate being used only by foreigners, and that as a special privilege. The bread, which is very thin, is dipped in the vegetable soup; and if there is a dainty morsel on the table, the master of the house takes it in his fingers and presents it to the mouth of his guest. From Matt 26:23 we presume that Judas was near enough to our Lord to use the same dish and receive the sop from our Lord's hand, according to the custom above described. John 13:26-27. See Feast.

To eat a meal together is regarded in the East as a pledge of mutual confidence and friendship; hence the force of the expression Ps 41:9. The expression John 6:53-58 is evidently metaphorical. "Eating and drinking " here means believing, or appropriating the life of our Lord by faith. He is the Bread of life for our souls.

E'BAL (stone). 1. A descendant of Seir the Horite. Gen 36:23; 1 Chr 1:40.

  1. A descendant of Eber, 1 Chr 1:22; called Obal in Gen 10:28,

E'BAL (stone, stony), one of the two mountains upon which Israel stood pronouncing blessings and cursings. Deut 11:29; Josh 8:30-35. Ebal and Gerizim are opposite each other, nearly meeting at their bases, but are a mile and a half apart at their summits. Mount Ebal, the northern peak, is rocky and bare; it rises 3070 feet above the sea and 1200 feet above the level of the valley, which forms a natural amphitheatre. From repeated experiments it has been found that the voice can be heard distinctly from the top of one mountain to the other and in the valley between. In the valley lay ancient Shechem, now Nablus. The summit of Ebal is a plateau of some extent, reaching its greatest height toward the west, from which there is an extensive view of the country from Hermon on the north to the heights of Bethel on the south, and from the plain of the sea on the west to the Hauran plateau on the east. Conder suggests that the site of Joshua's altar may be represented by the modern sacred place called Amad-ed-Dia, "monument of the faith," on the top of Ebal. See Gerizim and Shechem.

E'BED (slave). 1. The father of Gaal, who conspired with the Shechemites against Abimelech. Jud 9:26, Acts 20:28, Jud 9:30-31, Ex 28:35.

  1. A companion of Ezra on the Return. Ezr 8:6.

E'BED-ME'LECH (slave of the king), an Ethiopian eunuch of Zedekiah, king of Judah, who was instrumental in saving the prophet Jeremiah from death by famine, and who for his kindness in his behalf was promised deliverance when the city should fall into the enemy's hands, Jer 38:7; Jer 39:15-18. His name seems to have been an official title.

EB'EN-E'ZER (stone of help), set up as a memorial by Samuel, 1 Sam 4:1; Jud 5:1; Num 7:12, between Mizpeh and Shen. The curious fact that the name of this place occurs twice, 1 Sam 4:1; Jud 5:1, before the account of the naming of it, is explained by the familiarity of the place to the writer of the narrative, who of course lived sometime subsequent to the battle. While the Israelites were worshipping God at Mizpeh they received intelligence that the Philistines were approaching them with a formidable army. In this emergency they betook themselves to sacrifice and prayer, and God interposed in a most signal manner for their deliverance. 1 Sam 7:5-12. In commemoration of this event, Samuel erected a monument near the field of battle, and called it "Eben-ezer," or the stone of help, saying, "Hitherto hath Jehovah helped us." Hence it is often said, "Here we will set up our Ebenezer." Conder places Ebenezer at Deir Aban, 3 miles east of Ain Shems. Birch disputes this, and proposes Khurbet ??Sanwil??.

E'BER (beyond). 1. The great-grandson of Shem, Gen 10:21, Jud 6:24; Gen 11:14-17; 1 Chr 1:19, and the ancestor of Abraham in the seventh generation. See Hebrews, Heber.

  1. Son of Elpaal, and one of the builders of Ono and Lod, with the adjacent villages. 1 Chr 8:12.

  2. A priest of the days of Joiakim. Neh 12:20. See also Heber.

EBI'ASAPH (father of gathering), a Levite. 1 Chr 6:23, 2 Kgs 18:37; 1 Chr 9:19. See Abiasaph and Asaph.

EB'ONY. Eze 27:15. A black, heavy, and very hard wood, which was brought to ancient Tyre from India. It is susceptible of a fine polish, and is used for musical instruments and ornamental work. Ebony is the heart-wood of a tree (Diospyros ebenus) of the same genus with the persimmon of our warmer States, and, like that tree, bears an edible fruit.

EBRO'NAH (passage), a station of the Israelites near Ezion-geber, Num 33:34-35; site not known.

ECBAT'ANA. Ezr 6:2, margin. The name of two cities.

  1. The capital of northern Media, now known as the ruins Takht-i-Suleiman, about 75 miles south-west of the Caspian Sea.

  2. The larger city was the metropolis of lower Media, now called Hamadan, one of the most important cities of Persia, having from 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Both cities are referred to in the Apocryphal books.

ECCLESIAS'TES (Koheleth), OR (as the name signifies) THE PREACHER, was written by Solomon toward the close of his splendid and eventful career as monarch of Israel, or by a later author, who impersonates Solomon and gives us the 250 practical lesson of his sad experience. It corresponds to the old age of Solomon, as the Canticles to his youth and the Proverbs to his mature manhood. The design of the author evidently is, (1) To demonstrate the folly and madness of making this world, its pleasures, or its pursuits the objects of affection or hope; (2) To show the character, influence, and advantages of true wisdom or religion. The key-note is struck in the opening lines, repeated at the close, Ecc 12:8:

"O vanity of vanities ! the Preacher saith;

O vanity of vanities ! all is vanity."

The practical lesson of the book is summed up in the concluding words, Ecc 12:13-14, which, literally rendered, read thus:

"Fear God and keep his commandments.

For this is all of man."

The writer looks from the vanity beneath the sun to the eternal realities above the sun, and from the shifting scenes of this life to the judgment-seat of God, who will judge "every work, yea, every secret deed, both good and evil." The book represents Hebrew scepticism subdued and checked by the Hebrew fear of God and reaping lessons of wisdom from the follies of life. It is an ethical or philosophical treatise in prose, with regular logical divisions, but full of poetic inspiration, and in part also poetic in form, with enough of rhythmical flow to awaken a deep and emotional interest in these sad soliloquies of the author.

ECCLESIAS'TICUS, the title, in the Latin Vulgate, of the Apocryphal book called in the Septuagint "The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach." Both titles are given in the English translation. The Latin title, "The Ecclesiastical Book," designates it as a book that was read for edification in the churches. The original Hebrew is not now extant, although Jerome asserts he saw a copy of it. The Hebrew text was composed by Jesus, the son of Sirach, between b.c. 190-170. His grandson translated it into Greek about the beginning of the second century.

In general, its contents resemble the Proverbs of Solomon, only with much greater particularity of detail, extending to all spheres of religious, civil, and domestic life, and giving rules for the conduct of the same. Along with the maxims are discussions and prayers. The book closes with two discourses, one, chs. 42:15-43, etc., "the praise of God for his works" the other, chs. 44-50, "the praise of famous holy men," from Enoch to Simon the high priest, the son of Onias. The final chapter is a thanksgiving and a prayer. The book is of great value as an indication of the current Jewish theology and ethics at the time of its composition.

ED (witness). This word printed in italics, is inserted in Josh 22:34 as the name given to the altar set up by the trans-Jordanic tribes, but it does not occur in the received Hebrew text, which, literally translated, reads, "And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named the altar: 'It [i. e. the altar] is a witness between us that Jehovah is God.'" Some place the altar on the east or Moab side of the Jordan. Conder put it on the west side, at Kurn Surtaheh, 11 miles north-east of Shiloh, but this identification is disputed.

E'DAR (tower of the flock). Gen 36:21. Conder would place it on the Shepherds' plain, about 1 mile east of Bethlehem; Jerome states that it was 1000 paces from that city.

E'DEN " (pleasantness).

  1. The home of Adam and Eve before their fall. Gen 2:15. Its site has not been fixed. Two of its rivers are identified, the Euphrates, and the Hiddekel or Tigris; the others are disputed. Some say Gihon was the Nile and Pison the Indus. The best authorities agree that the "garden of Eden eastward" was in the highlands of Armenia, or in the valley of the Euphrates, but its precise location cannot be determined. The Bible, after the history of the fall of our first parents, withdraws paradise lost from our view, and directs our hope to the more glorious paradise of the future, with its river of life and tree of life. Rev 22:2.

  2. A region conquered by the Assyrians, 2 Kgs 19:12; Isa 37:12; probably in Mesopotamia, near modern Balis, and same as the Eden of Eze 27:23.

  3. The house of Eden. Am 1:5. See Beth-eden.

E'DEN (pleasantness), a Levite in the days of Hezekiah. 2 Chr 29:12; 2 Chr 31:15.

E'DER (flock), a Merarite Levite in 251 the days of David. 1 Chr 23:23; Matt 24:30.

E'DER (flock), a town of Judah near Edom. Josh 15:21. Not the same as Arad; modern site is 'Adar.

E'DOM (red), called also Idumaea and Mount Seir. The country extended from the Dead Sea southward to the Gulf of Akabah, and from the valley of the Arabah eastward to the desert of Arabia, being about 125 miles long and 30 miles wide.

Physical Features. — A mountain-range of porphyritic rock forms the backbone of the country; above this rises sandstone, assuming fantastic forms, while on either side of these formations are limestone hills. On the west, along the valley of the Arabah, the hills are low; on the east the mountains attain their highest

The Approach to Edom from the East. (After a Photograph hy Frith.)

elevation, and border on the great plateau of Arabia. The country is well watered, rich in pasturage, abounding with trees and flowers, reminding us of Isaac's prophecy: "Thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth." Gen 27:39.

Cities. — Its principal towns were Bozra, Elath, Maon, Ezion-geber, Selah, or Petra. A description of them will be found under their proper titles. For a history of the people see Esau and Idumaeans.

ED'REI (strength, stronghold).

  1. A capital city of Bashan. Num 21:33; Deut 3:1-10. It was in the territory of Manasseh beyond (east of) Jordan. Num 32:33. It is not noticed in later Bible history, although it was an important city until the seventh century of the Christian era. Its ruins, called Edhra, cover a circuit of 3 miles. Without a spring, river, or stream, without access except over rocks and through nearly impassable defiles, without tree or garden, it is a place of security and strength. Among the ruins are remains of churches, temples, and mosques. The place has now about 500 population.

  2. A town of Naphtali. Num 19:37. Porter identifies it with Tell Khuraiheh, near Kedesh; Conder with Yater.

EDUCA'TION. Of secular education, in our sense of the word, the Jews knew little, but they enjoined the duty and enjoyed the privilege of religious and moral training at home and in public worship far more than any nation of antiquity. They learned from their parents and their public teachers, the Levites, and later the Rabbins, to read and write and commit the Law. During the Captivity they were brought into contact with the extensive learning of the Chaldaeans. Moses derived his knowledge from Egyptian priests, and Solomon was both a scholar and a wise man, to whose open mind the gathered treasures of instruction and the books of nature and human 252 life brought lessons of priceless wisdom. The people at large must have been ignorant of things outside of religion, and their religious exclusiveness would tend to keep them so, but there were men among them acquainted with mensuration, Josh 18:8-9, and with foreign languages, 2 Kgs 18:26, and who were skilled in writing, like the chronialers of the various kings, and in keeping accounts, like the scribes who are often mentioned. In the days of the monarchy the advantages of education were secured by many in the so-called "schools of the prophets." After the Captivity the Rabbins regularly gave instruction in the synagogues upon the Bible and the Talmud. In the entire history it holds good that boys remained up to their fifth year in the women's apartments and then their fathers began to instruct them in the Law. Later, the boys began at this age the Rabbinical books. The Captivity was in many respects an incalculable blessing to the Jews. It taught them that there was something worth learning outside of the Mosaic books. Hence, after their return, they were a greatly-improved people. It was then that synagogues sprang up, furnishing practical instruction. After Jerusalem fell the Jews kept up these schools, and they exist even in this day. One valuable custom was the learning of a trade on the part of each one. Well known is the instance of Paul, who, although well trained, a pupil of Gamaliel, still could, and did, make tents. Acts 18:3; Acts 22:3.

Girls were generally without much more education than the rudiments, yet they could attend the schools and learn more than to do needle-work, keep house, and care for the children. Women were far higher in the social scale among the Jews than at present among the Orientals.

The sect of the Essenes, by preference celibates, took great pains to instruct children, but confined their attention chiefly to morality and the Law. The Rabbins taught the physical sciences. In these schools the teachers sat on raised seats; hence Paul could say literally that he was brought up at the feet of Gamaliel. Luke 2:46; Acts 22:3. Unmarried men and women were forbidden to teach boys.

The ancient Jews enjoyed more advantages in mental training than other contemporary nations. And if they knew little about matters of common information among us, they knew more than did the great mass of people living outside of Judaea.

EG'LAH (a heifer), one of David's wives. 2 Sam 3:5.

EG'LAIM (two ponds), a place on the border of Moab, Isa 15:8; probably the same as En-eglaim.

EG'LON (calf-like), king of the Moabites, who held the Israelites in bondage 18 years. Jud 3:14. He formed an alliance with the Ammonites and Amalekites, and took possession of Jericho, where he resided, and where he was afterward assassinated by Ehud. See Ehud.

EG'LON (calf), an Amorite town in Judah, Josh 10:3-5; Acts 15:39; now 'Ajlan, a hill of ruins, 10 miles northeast of Gaza.

E'GYPT, the valley of the Nile, in the north-eastern part of Africa, and one of the most remarkable countries in ancient history, famous for its pyramids, sphinxes, obelisks, and wonderful ruins of temples and tombs. It figures largely in the Bible as the cradle of the people of Israel, and the training-school of its great leader and legislator.

Names. — In Hebrew, Egypt is called Mizraim, a dual form of the word, indicating the two divisions, Upper and Lower Egypt, or (as Tayler Lewis suggests) the two strips on the two sides of the Nile. It is also known as the Land of Ham, Ps 105:23, Gen 1:27, and Rahab, ("the proud one"). Ps 89:10; Ps 87:4; Isa 51:9. The Coptic and older title is Kemi, or Chemi, meaning "black," from the dark color of the soil. The name "Egypt" first occurs in its Greek form in Homer, and is applied to the Nile and to the country, but afterward it is used for the country only.

Situation and Extent. — Egypt lies on both sides of the Nile, and in ancient times included the land watered by it, as far as the First Cataract, the deserts on either side being included in Arabia and Libya. Ezekiel indicates that it reached from Migdol (now Tell es-Semut, east of the Suez Canal) to Syene (now Aswan or Assouan), on the border of Nubia, near the First Cataract of the 253 Nile. Eze 29:10, margin. The Delta and the valley of the Nile are estimated to have an area of about 9600 square miles (or a little more than the State of New Hampshire), of which only 5626 miles are fit for cultivation. In the more extended sense of later times, Egypt is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean, on the east by the Red Sea and Arabia, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great Desert. The length of the country in a straight line from the Mediterranean to the First Cataract is about 520 miles; its breadth is from 300 to 450 miles, and its entire area is about 212,000 square miles. Nubia, Ethiopia, and other smaller districts bordering on the Nile to the south of Egypt, have been brought under its sway.

The following statement of the area and population of Egypt and dependencies is from the official report of 1876:

Egypt proper has thus an area almost as large as that of New York. Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana combined, and the present ruler of Egypt controls a territory nearly half as large as the United States of America.

Physical Features. — The country has three great natural divisions: (1) the Delta; (2) the Nile valley; (3) the sandy and rocky wastes. The Delta is one vast triangular plain, watered by the branches of the Nile and numerous canals, and covered with remains of ancient cities and villages and groves of palm trees, which stand on mounds of great antiquity. The Delta extends along the Mediterranean for about 200 miles and up the Nile for 100 miles. The Tanitic branch of the Nile is on the east of the Delta, and the Canopic branch on the west, though the Delta is now limited chiefly to the space between the Rosetta and the Damietta branches, which is about 90 miles in extent. The valley of the Nile extends to the lower or First Cataract, near the island of Philae, which is about 500 miles south of Cairo. It is in a rich state of cultivation, but is very narrow, and hemmed in by low mountains or rocky table-land, rarely rising into peaks, though often approaching the river in bold promontories. Behind the rocky range, which varies from 300 to 1000 feet in height, on either side of the Nile, are deserts rocky and strewn with sand. The valley is scarcely more than 10 miles wide, and there is little fruitful land beyond its limits, or such portions as are reached by its fertilizing waters on the rise and overflow of the river. See Nile.

Climate and Productions. — The climate of Egypt is remarkably equable, the atmosphere dry and clear except on the sea-coast; the summers are hot and sultry, the winters mild; rain, except along the Mediterranean, is very rare, the fertility of the land depending almost entirely upon the annual overflow of the Nile, or upon artificial irrigation by canals, water-wheels, and the shadoof. Winds are strong, those from a northerly source being the most prevalent, while the simoon, a violent whirlwind and hurricane of sand, is not infrequent. The chief fruits are dates, grapes, figs, pomegranates, oranges, apricots, peaches, lemons, bananas, melons of various kinds, mulberries, pears, and olives. Among the vegetables are beans, peas, onions, leeks, lentils, gourds, cucumbers, caraway, coriander, cummin, anise, and pepper; and of grains, wheat, barley, millet, maize, and rice. Among plants are the indigo-plant, cotton, flax, poppy, madder, and a species of saffron. Many kinds of reeds were found in the country, but they have wasted away, as predicted, Isa 19:6-7; even the famous papyrus, or byblus, from which paper was made, has nearly, if not quite, disappeared. Of animals, the camel, horse, mule, ass, sheep, and goat are common, and the wolf, fox, jackal, hyena, weasel, jerboa, hare, gazelle, hippopotamus, and crocodile were all found in considerable numbers; but the last two are now found only in the upper Nile. Of birds, the vulture (Pharaoh's hen), eagle, falcon, hawk, kite, crow, lark, sparrow, hoopoe (a sacred bird), and the ostrich were the most common; and of reptiles, the cobra, cerastes, and other species of venomous snakes abounded, and are yet 254 the dread of native and of traveller. Fish abound in the Nile and in Lake Menzaleh. Insects are well represented, the scorpion being among the most dangerous, while swarms of flies, fleas, beetles (the Scarabaeus being held sacred by the ancient Egyptians), and bugs of various kinds attack man and beast, and occasionally swarms of locusts sweep over the land, reminding one of the plague preceding the Exodus, and of the description of the invading army by the prophet

Joel. Ex 10:12-15; Joel 2:1-11. The principal minerals are granite, syenite, basalt, porphyry, limestone, alabaster, sandstone, and emeralds. The first four were formerly prized for the purposes of architecture and sculpture.

Language. — The sources of knowledge respecting ancient Egypt are chiefly four: (1) the Pentateuch; (2) the writings of Manetho, b.c. 300-250, whose work is lost, but fragments of which have come down to us through Josephus, Julius Afrieanus, and Eusebius; (3) the accounts of Greek travellers — 255 Herodotus, b.c. 454, Diodorus Siculus, b.c. 58, and Strabo, b.c. 30; (4) the monumental inscriptions and papyrus rolls in the temples and tombs or about mummies. Copies of the inscriptions and many of the papyrus rolls have been discovered during the present century and transferred to museums in London, Paris, Berlin, Leyden, Turin, and Bulak, and have been deciphered by Egyptologists. The hieroglyphic signs on the monuments are partly ideographic or pictorial, partly phonetic. The hieroglyphic, the shorter hieratic, and the demotic alphabets were deciphered by Champollion and Young by means of the famous trilingual Rosetta Stone, discovered in 1799, and the Coptic language "which is essentially the same with the old Egyptian. For a summary of the respective merits of Young and Champollion with regard to the interpretation of Egyptian hieroglyphic, see Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, vol. iii. p. 2902.

The process of decipherment was, briefly, as follows: The Rosetta Stone had an inscription in three characters, hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. The Greek, which was easily read, declared that there were two translations, one in the sacred, the other in the popular, language of the Egyptains, adjacent to it. The demotic part was next scrutinized, and the groups determined which contained the word Ptolemy. These were compared with other framed symbols on an obelisk found at Philae. The symbol on the obelisk which occurred in connection with the name Ptolemy was conjectured to be Cleopatra, as the number of letters also indicated. The two groups were then compared:

he took to be Ptolemais.

The second symbol in the second group, a lion, Champollion took to be I, and the same symbol has the fourth place in the first group. By a similar process of comparison, the nine letters of Cleopatra's name were ascertained, while the different letters in the case of Ptolemy were afterward verified by comparing them with the names of other kings, and particularly with that of Alexander the Great as below: —

The prevailing opinion is that the ancient Egyptians were of Asiatic rather than of African origin. Their language was Egyptian, and was related, though it has not yet been proved as belonging, to the Semitic family. It had two dialects, that of Upper and that of Lower Egypt, and by degrees a vulgar dialect was formed, which became the national language not long before the formation of the Coptic. The written character of the Egyptian language was the hieroglyphic — a very complex system, which expressed ideas by symbols or by phonetic signs, syllabic and alphabetic, or else by a combination of the two methods. From this combination was formed the hieratic, a runninghand, or common written form of the hieroglyphic, principally used for documents written on papyrus. The later Coptic language was written in Greek letters, with the addition of six new characters to that alphabet. The writings of the ancient Egyptians which have come down to our times are disjointed, and, from a literary point of view, have disappointed the expectations even of warm admirers of Egyptian civilization. See Poole in Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th Ed., vol. vii. (1878).

Learning and Art. — The progress of the Egyptians in the various sciences was equalled by that of no other ancient people except the Greeks, and perhaps the Babylonians and the Assyrians. In astronomy, geometry, chemistry, and the arts their knowledge is attested by the cycles they formed for the adjustment of different reckonings of time, and by their skill in shaping and moving vast blocks of stone used in building, which, considering their want of iron and the very simple mechanical appliances at the command of Egyptian builders, are an enigma to modern engineers. The hardening of bronze tools 256 with which they cut granite and the mode in which Moses destroyed the golden calf indicate the progress they had made in using metals. In medicine also they were inferior only to the Greeks.

In architecture the Egyptians occupy the most distinguished place among the nations of antiquity. None have equalled them in the grandeur, massiveness, and durability of their structures. Mr. Fergusson says: "Neither Grecian nor Gothic architects understood more perfectly all the gradations of art and the exact character that should be given to every form and every detail. They understood also, better than any other nation, how to use sculpture in combination with architecture, and to make their colossi and avenues of sphinxes group themselves into parts of one great design, and at the same time to use historical paintings, fading by insensible degrees into hieroglyphics on the one hand and into sculpture on the other, linking the whole together with the highest class of phonetic utterance and with the most brilliant coloring, thus harmonizing all these arts into one great whole unsurpassed by anything the world has seen during the 30 centuries of struggle and aspiration that have elapsed since the brilliant days of the great kingdom of the Pharaohs." — Handbook of Architecture. And Poole observes: "In the whole range of ancient art Egyptian may take its place next after Greek. Indeed, in some instances it excels Greek, as when in animal forms the natural is subordinated to the ideal. The lions from Gebel Barkel . . . are probably the finest examples of the idealization of animal forms that any age has produced." — Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. vii. The pyramids and sphinxes, the immense temples, tombs, and remarkable obelisks, have called forth the admiration alike of the past and of the nineteenth century.

Religion. — In religion the ancient Egyptians had an idea of one supreme, self-existent creator, but this idea was mixed with the basest forms of polytheism and idolatry. Every town had its local divinities and its sacred animal or fetish. Herodotus remarked that it was easier to find a god than a man on the Nile. Seth, the destructive power of Nature, was for many centuries the special divinity of Lower Egypt, but he was at length displaced. There appear to have been various orders of gods, each town having a cycle called a society of the gods, or "the nine gods." The Egyptians explained this cycle as the self-development of Ra, the chief or supreme god, already

The Principal Egyptian Triad, Osiris, Isis, and Horus. (After Eiehm.)

mentioned, and who appears to be identified in Egyptian history of the "eighteenth dynasty" with the sun and sunworship.

Two lists of their deities are given: the first is according to the system of Memphis, the earlier capital, whose chief gods were Ptah, Ra, Shu or Mu,


Temple at Karnak. Columns in the Great Hall. (Afier Photographs by Sebak.)

Temple of Medinet Abou at Thebes. (After Photographs by heoak.) 258 Seb, Hesiri or Osiris, Hes, Seth or Sethos, and Har. Those of the system of Thebes, the later capital, were, according to Lepsius, Amen, Mentu, Atmu, Shu, Seb, Hesiri, Set, liar, and Sebek. These two systems, however, may be treated as one, consisting of male divinities with whom are associated goddesses. Wilkinson gives a list of thirteen triads of gods, two of whom were usually of equal rank and the third subordinate. At Philae was the triad of Osiris, Isis, and Horus. Sun-worship was the primitive form of the Egyptian religion. Ra was represented as a hawk-headed man, generally bearing on his head the solar disk. Osiris (in Egyptian Heairi) was usually represented as a mummy with a royal cap having ostrich plumes; he is the good being, the judge of all the dead, and is opposed to Seth, the evil being. The worship of these gods required priests, sacrifices, offerings of fruits, libations, and at some early periods human victims. Vast temples were built in honor of the deities, each town usually having at least one temple, and immense tombs were also constructed as a religious duty and connected with the worship of some of the gods, usually that of Osiris or a divinity of that group.

The Egyptians had a very strong belief in a future life, and were taught to consider their abode here merely as an inn upon the road to a future existence where there was no distinction in rank. After death the body was embalmed and often kept in the house for months or a year before the burial. See Embalm. The mummy of a deceased friend was sometimes introduced at their parties and placed in a seat at the table as one of the guests. Herodotus says that the Egyptians were the first to maintain the immortality of the soul. They also believed in the transmigration of souls. Though "Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," the system of worship and religion which was given to the Hebrews under him is in marked contrast to the polytheistic and idolatrous forms of Egypt, and attests its divine origin.

Chronology and History. — As the father of nations, Egypt in its early history antedates all records, and is lost in obscurity. Egyptian history may be divided into 6 great periods:

(1) The Pharaohs or native kings, to b.c. 525; (2) the Persian, to b.c. 332; (3) the Ptolemies, to b.c. 30; (4) the Roman, to a.d. 640; (5) the Arab; (6) the Turk. Egyptian chronology is in a confused and unsettled condition. New information from the monuments has simply increased the difficulty of settling the many conflicting statements and establishing dates on a satisfactory basis. The principal facts that appear to be generally accepted are: (1) Menes is an historical person, and the first known king of Egypt. (2) The great Pyramid, at Gizeh, dates from the fourth dynasty, and is an imperishable monument of the skill and resources of the people at that very remote period. (3) Manetho's lists of dynasties were chiefly, though not entirely, consecutive, as appears from the two lists of the first Pharaohs found in the temple of Abydos, the lists at Sakkarah, and another in Thebes: the duration of these dynasties, however, is not settled. (4) The Hyksos, or Shepherd -kings of Manetho, conquered and ruled Lower Egypt for centuries, breaking the continuity of the empire, but they were expelled by Amasis I. These Hyksos are not to be confounded with the Hebrews, whom Manetho deridingly calls "Mepers." (5) During the eighteenth dynasty the empire of Egypt was in the height of its splendor, its conquests reaching to Babylon and Nineveh on the Euphrates, and over Nubia in the south. (6) No dates can be definitively fixed before the beginning of the twenty-second dynasty. The two noted authorities on this subject — M. Mariette and Prof. Lepsius — differ over 1100 years in their tables as to the length of dynasties I.-XVII. See J. P. Thomson in Bibliotheca Sacra, 1877, and Poole in Encyclopedia Britannica, vol. vii. Some have conjectured that Menes, the founder of Egypt, was identical with Mizraim, a grandson of Noah. Gen 10:6.

Egypt and the Bible. — To the Bible reader the chief points of interest in Egyptian history are those periods when that country came in contact with the patriarchs and the Israelites.

  1. The first point is the chronology of Egypt as compared with that of the Bible. On this it may be said that the

chronologies of both are in such an unsettled state that there cannot fairly be said to be an irreconcilable difference between them until both are more fully and definitively established. The ablest Egyptologists vary in their estimates of the duration of the empire about 3000 years. Menes, the first Pharaoh, began to reign, according to Boeckh, b.c. 5702; Mariette, b.c. 5004; Brugsch, b. c. 4455-4400; Chabas, b.c. 4000; Lepsius and Ebers, b.c. 3892; Bunsen, b.c. 3623-3039; Birch, b.c. 3000; Poole, b.c. 2700; Wilkinson, b.c. 2691; G. Rawlinson, b.c. 2450. Egyptologists generally agree that the chronology is wholly uncertain, and that we must wait for further light and better agreement among scholars. Bible chronology is likewise unsettled, some theologians holding to the "long" system of the Septuagint, which dates the Creation b.c. 5400 (Hales, 5400; Jackson, 5426), and others to the shorter system of the Hebrew text (Ussher, 4004; Petavius, 3983); hence no agreement can be attempted until the age of Solomon. From his time down there is no material disagreement in the two chronologies of Egypt and the Hebrew records.

  1. The second point is the visit of Abraham to Egypt. Gen 12:10-20. This visit took place, according to the shorter Hebrew chronology, about b.c. 1920, which would bring it, according to some, at the date of the Hyksos, or Shepherd-kings; others regard this as too late a date, and put it in the beginning of the twelfth dynasty; and his favorable reception is supposed to be illustrated by a picture in the tombs at Beni-Hassan (where are many remarkable sculptures), representing the arrival

Entrance to Tomb at Beni-Hassan. (From a Photograph.)

of a distinguished nomad chief with his family, seeking protection under Osirtasen II.

  1. The third point of contact with Scripture is Joseph in Egypt. Gen. Gen 37:36. This beautiful and natural story has been shown to be thoroughly in accord with what is known of Egyptian

customs of that age. Inscriptions on the monuments speak of the dreams of Pharaoh; the butler's and baker's duties are indicated in pictures; one of the oldest papyri relates the story that a foreigner was raised to the highest rank in the court of Pharaoh; and Dr. Brugsch believes an inscripition on a tomb at el-Kab to contain an unmistakable

Profile of Rameses II., the Pharaoh of the Oppression. (After Lepsius.)

allusion to the 7 years of famine in Joseph's time, as follows: "I gathered grain, a friend of the god of harvest. I was watchful at the seed-time. And when a famine arose through many yearn I distributed the grain through the town in every famine."

  1. The fourth point of interest is the oppression of the Israelites in Egypt, and the Exodus. Ex 1:8-22; Ex 12:41. Who was the Pharaoh of the oppression, and who the Pharaoh of the Exodus? To this two answers are given by different scholars:(1) Amosis or Aahmes I., the first ruler of the eighteenth dynasty, is identified with the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Thothmes II., about 100 years later, as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, by Canon Cook in Speaker's Commentary on Exodus, p. 443. (2) That Rameses II., the third sovereign of the nineteenth dynasty, is the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Menephthah the Pharaoh of the Exodus, is the view now held by a majority of Egyptologists — as De Rouge, Chabas, Lenormant, Vigoroux, Bunsen, Lepsius, Ebers, and Brugsch. Rameses II. is the Sesostris of the Greeks, who blended him with his father, Sethi I., or Sethos. He ruled 67 years and was the great conqueror and builder, covering his empire with monuments in glory of himself. "His name," says Dr. Ebers, "may be read to-day on a hundred monuments in Goshen." Among his many structures noted on monuments and in papyri are fortifications along the canal from Goshen to the Red Sea, and particularly at Pi-tum and Pi-rameses or Pi-ramessu; these must be the same as the treasure-cities Pi-thom and Rameses built or enlarged by the Israelites for Pharaoh. Ex 1:11. It is also said that under the reign of Rameses III., nephew of Rameses II., the name jen Mosche — i.e. "island" or "bank of Moses " — occurs among the towns of Middle Egypt. It is noted that Menephthah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus, lost a son, who is named on a monument at Tanis, which Brugsch connects with the loss of the first-born. But another fact is of more weight. Herodotus tells us that a son and successor of Sesostris undertook no warlike expeditions and was smitten with blindness for 10 years because he "impiously hurled his spear into the overflowing waves of the river, which a sudden wind caused to rise to an extraordinary height." Schaff says: "This reads like a confused reminiscence of the disaster at the Red Sea." The chief objection to this view is that it allows less than 315 years between the Exodus and the building of Solomon's temple; but the present uncertainties of the Hebrew and Egyptian chronologies deprive the objection of great weight
  1. After the Exodus the Israelites frequently came into contact with Egypt at various periods in their history. Through an Egyptian, David recovered

Portrait of Menephthah II., the Pharaoh of the Exodus. (From Riehm.)

the spoil from the Amalekites, 1 Sam 30:11, etc.; Solomon made a treaty with Pharaoh and married his daughter, 1 Kgs 3:1; Gezer was spoiled by Pharaoh and given to Solomon's wife,1 Kgs 9:16; Solomon brought horses from Egypt; Hadad fled thither for refuge, as did also Jeroboam, 1 Kgs 10:28; 1 Kgs 11:17; 1 Kgs 12:2; Shishak plundered Jerusalem and made Judaea tributary, 1 Kgs 14:26, and a record of this invasion and conquest has been deciphered on the walls of the great temple at Karnak, or el-Karnak. In this inscription is a figure with a strong resemblance to Jewish features, which bears Egyptian characters that have been translated "the king of Judah." Pharaoh-necho was met on his expedition against the Assyrians by Josiah, who was slain. 2 Kgs 23:29-30. Pharaoh-hophra aided Zedekiah, Jer 37:5-11, so that the siege of Jerusalem was raised, but he appears to have been afterward attacked by Nebuchadnezzar. The sway of Egypt was checked, and finally overcome, by the superior power of Babylonia, and its entire territory in Asia was taken away. 2 Kgs 24:7; Jer 46:2. The books of the prophets contain many declarations concerning the wane and destruction of the Egyptian power, which have been remarkably fulfilled in its subsequent history. SeeIsa 19; Isa 20; Isa 30:3; Isa 31:3; Isa 36:6; Jer 2:36; Jer 9:25-26; Jer 43:11-13; Jer 44:30; Jer 46; Eze 29; Eze 30; Eze 31; Eze 32; Dan 11:42; Joel 3:19; and "the sceptre of Egypt shall depart away." Zech 10:11.

  1. In the N.T. there are several references to the relations of the Israelites to Egypt as they existed in O.T. times; see Acts 2:10; Acts 7:9-40; Heb 3:16; Heb 11:26-27; but the interesting fact in the N.T. period was the flight of the holy family into Egypt, where the infant Jesus and his parents found a refuge from the cruel order of Herod the Great. Matt 2:13-19.

  2. Among the various other allusions to Egypt in the Bible are those to its fertility and productions. Gen 13:10; Ex 16:3; Num 11:5; to its mode of irrigation as compared with the greater advantages of Canaan, which had rain and was watered by natural streams, Deut 11:10; its commerce with Israel and the people of western Asia, Gen 37:25, Eze 23:36; 1 Kgs 10:28-29; Eze 27:7; its armies equipped with chariots and horses, Ex 14:7; Isa 31:1; its learned men and its priests, Gen 41:8, Gen 41:45; Gen 47:22; Ex 7:11; 1 Kgs 4:30; its practice of embalming the dead, Gen 50:3; its aversion to shepherds, and its sacrifices of cattle. Gen 46:34; Ex 8:26; how its people should be admitted into the Jewish Church, Deut 23:7-8; the warnings to Israel against any alliance with the Egyptians, Isa 30:2; Isa 36:6; Eze 17:15; Ex 29:6; and to the towns of the country. Eze 30:13-18. The records on existing monuments have been found to confirm the accuracy of all these allusions to the customs of the people.

History. — The history of Egypt, as drawn from other sources than the Scriptures, is confused, like the chronology upon which it depends for clearness and order. Of the thirty dynasties from Menes to the second Persian conquest, b.c. 340, some of the most noted earlier kings were Thothmes I. and III., Amenoph II. and III., Scthos or Sesostris, and Rameses II. and III. These built many of the vast and grand 262 temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, and carried their conquests to Assyria and Ethiopia. Among the later rulers were Shishak or Sheshonk, Pharaoh-necho, Pharaoh-hophra, and Psammetichus. Its most populous cities were Thebes. Latopolis, Apollinopolis, Syene, Memphis, Heraclopolis, Arsinoe, Heliopolis, Bubastis, Sais, Busiris, Tanis, and Pelusium. The statements of some Greek and Roman writers that Egypt in its prosperity had 7,000,000 population and 20,000 cities are believed to be greatly exaggerated. This would require it to have sustained an average population to the square mile, exclusive of the desert, twice as great as the most densely-peopled lands of modern times. Egypt was conquered by Cambyses the Persian about b.c. 525; regained its independence under Amyrteus, of the twenty-eighth dynasty of native kings; was again conquered by the Persians under Darius Ochus, b.c. 340, by Alexander the Great, b.c. 332, when he founded Alexandria. After Alexander's death it formed a kingdom under the Grecian and Macedonian Ptolemies, the Greeks becoming the dominant class (the last of the Ptolemies reigned jointly with his sister and wife, the famous Cleopatra). After the battle of Actium, b.c. 30, Egypt became a Roman province. Under the Roman rule Alexandria continued to be the great mart of trade and the centre of learning and philosophy; for three centuries it was under Roman rule, and during that period Egypt was accounted the granary of Rome. On the transfer of the seat of empire to Constantinople, the Christians, who had been severely persecuted under its Roman rulers, gained the sway over the pagans, and for three centuries theological controversies raged with great fierceness. The Arab conquest under Caliph Omar came a.d. 640, followed by the Fatimite dynasty, a.d. 970, when Cairo was founded and made the capital. Saladin, the noted prime minister of the last of the Fatimites, assumed the sovereignty, with the title of sultan, a.d. 1170, and was a vigorous opposer of the Crusaders. The government was overturned by the Mamelukes about a.d. 1250; again conquered by Selim I., a.d. 1517; by Napoleon in 1798; by the combined forces of the English and the Turks in 1801; and, soon after, Mehemet Ali, an Albanian adventurer, was made pasha, being nominally a vassal of Turkey, but his power was nearly absolute. Under the reign of his grandson, the present khedive or viceroy (since 1863), Egypt has been restored to some extent from its low condition, schools and colleges have been founded, commerce and manufactures encouraged, numerous reforms introduced, the Suez Canal completed and opened to the commerce of the world, railways and telegraphs have been constructed; but the condition of the people has not been improved, and poverty and misery prevail. The treasury of the khedive is nearly bankrupt. Egypt is "the old house of bondage under new masters."

The Presbyterian Church has established flourishing mission schools in Alexandria, Cairo, and Osiout, among the Copts.

Monuments and Ruins. — "Egypt is the monumental land of the earth," says Bunsen, "as the Egyptians are the monumental people of history." Among the most interesting ancient cities are: (1) On or Heliopolis, "the city of the Sun," 10 miles north-east of Cairo, where are traces of massive walls, fragments of sphinxes, and an obelisk of red granite, 68 feet high, bearing an inscription of Osirtasen I. of the twelfth dynasty, and erected, therefore, previous to the visit of Abraham and Sarah to the land of the Pharaohs. Formerly the two "Needles of Cleopatra" stood here also, but were removed to Alexandria during the reign of Tiberius; and one of them has lately been transported to London, and now stands on the banks of the Thames. Joseph was married at Heliopolis, Gen 41:45, and there (according to Josephus) Jacob made his home; it was probably the place where Moses received his education, where Herodotus acquired most of his skill in writing history, and where Plato, the Greek philosopher,studied. (2) Thebes "of the hundred gates," one of the most famous cities of antiquity, is identified with No or No-Amnion of Scripture. Jer 46:25; Eze 30:14-16; Nah 3:8. The ruins are very extensive, and the city in its glory stretched over 30 miles along the banks of the Nile, covering the places now known as Luxor, Karnak, and


Ascent of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. (From a recent Photograph.) 264 Thebes. (3) Memphis, the Noph of Scripture, Jer 46:10. "Nothing is left of its temples and monuments but a colossal statue of Rameses II., lying mutilated on the face in the mud."

Only a very brief notice of the wonderful monuments can be given here. For convenience these may be grouped into two classes: (a) The pyramids, obelisks, and statues; (b) the palaces, temples, and tombs.

The Obelisk of On. (Helopolis. From a Photograph by Good.)

(a) The number of pyramids still existing in Egypt is variously stated at from 45 or 65 to 130. Brugsch says "more than 70;" Lepsius speaks of no less than 30 that had escaped the notice of former travellers (1842-1844); others count as many as 130, including all pyramidal structures, ancient and modern. Piazzi Smyth (1874) reduces them all to 28, and gives a list of them. The largest and most remarkable are those near Memphis, at Sakkara, Aboosir, Dashoor, and Gizeh. The three at Gizeh are the most interesting of all. The largest of these is that of Cheops, which was erected from 2000 to 3000 years before Christ. It was old when Rome was built, when Homer sang, when David reigned, and even when Moses led out the Israelites. This pyramid, according to General Vyse, is 450 feet 9 inches high (it was formerly about 30 feet higher), the present length of its base is 746 feet (it was formerly 764 feet), and it covers an area of about 13 acres. It has been stripped of its polished stone casing in centuries past to adorn the palaces of Greeks, Romans, and Saracens. It is the largest, and probably the oldest, structure in the world. The second pyramid is scarcely inferior to the first in height, being 447 feet 6 inches high and having a base 690 feet 9 inches square. A great part of its casing has been preserved. The third pyramid is smaller than either of the other two, but in beauty and costliness of construction is unexcelled by any other pyramid. These colossal structures were erected as monuments and tombs of the kings. The body of the dead monarch was embalmed, placed in a stone sarcophagus, put into the massive tomb, and the entrance closed. See Schaff's Bible Lands, p. 40. Near the pyramids is the great Sphinx, a massive man-headed lion in a recumbent posture, nearly 190 feet long, with immense paws, formerly 50 feet in length. The vast figure is buried in the sand, except his colossal head. There are also six other smaller pyramids near the three here described, three standing to the east of the Great Pyramid and three to the south of the third one. Southward of those at Gizeh are the pyramids at Aboosir, and about 2 miles still farther are those of Sakkara, while about 5 miles beyond are those of Dashoor, two of which are built of stone and three of brick.

(b) Of the palaces, temples, and tomb-structures, the most remarkable is the famous Labyrinth, in the Feiyoom district, which Bunsen calls the most gorgeous edifice on the globe; it includes 12 palaces and 3000 saloons. The temples at Karnak and Luxor are the most interesting, the grandest among them


Temple of Hathor or Athor at Denderah. (After Photographs.)

Front of Temple at Aloe Simbet, Nubia. (After Photographs.)

Avenue of Sphinxes and Propylou at Karuak. (After Photographs.) 266 all being the magnificent temple of Rameses II. See No and No-Ammon. There are ruins of temples at Denderah, Abydos, Philae, Heliopolis, and at Ipsamboul, 170 miles south of Philae, in Nubia. Among the noted tombs are those at Thebes, Beni-Hassan, and Osiout, and among the obelisks are those at Luxor, Karnak, Heliopolis, and Alexandria. These wonderful ruins attest the magnificence and grandeur, but also the absolute despotism and slavery, of this land in the earliest ages and as far back as before the days of Abraham, and they also attest in the most impressive manner the fulfilment of prophecy.

Judgment of the Dead. (After Riehm.)

In a cave near Thebes 39 royal mummies and various other objects were discovered in 1881. Among the mummies was that of Rameses II., the Pharaoh of the oppression, which has been fully described by Maspero. A trilingual inscription, perhaps a century older than the Rosetta Stone, has also been lately found, and one of the oldest pyramids opened.

The Egyptians believed in the immortality of the soul, and that when the soul reached the Hall of Double Justice, the heart in its vase was placed in one scale, and the goddess of Truth in the other. Horus and a cynocephalus conducted the process of weighing, Anubis superintended, Thoth recorded the result, and Osiris, with 42 counsellors, pronounced sentence. If the heart was light, the soul suffered the torments of hell, or was sent into a pig or some unclean animal, then returned to begin life anew, and have another trial by judges. If the heart was heavy, the soul was sent to the regions of the blest. (See Baedeker's Lower Egypt, p. 137.)

For ancient Egypt see the following works: Caylus, Comte de, Recueil d'Antiquités Egyptiennes, etc., Paris, 1761-67, 7 vols. 4to; Alexander, Egyptian Monuments now in the British Museum, collected by the French Institute, 1805-7, 5 parts roy. fol.; Birch, S., Fac-similes of the Egyptian Relics discovered at Thebes in the Tomb of Aah Hotep, 1820, oblongfol.: Rosellini, I Monumenti dell'Egitta e della Nubia, Pisa, 1832-44, 3 vols, atlas fol. and 9 vols, 8vo of text; Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions from the British Museum, etc., London, 1835-65, 2 series roy. fol.; Bonomi and Arundale. Gallery of Antiquities in the British Museum with Inscriptions by Birch, 1844, 2 parts; Bunsen, Egypt's Place in Universal History, 1848-67, 5 vols. 8vo, vol. v. being a hieroglyphical lexicon and grammar by S, Birch; Lepsius, Chronologie der Egypter, etc., Berlin, 1849, imp. 4to; Lepsius, Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien, Berlin, 1849-59, 12 vols, eleph. fol. and 1 vol. of introductory text, imp. 4to; Rouge, Rituel Funeraire de Anciens Egyptiens, Paris, 1861-66, 5, livraisons, imp. fol.; Pleyte, Etudes Egyptologiques, Leide, 1866-69, 7 parts 4to; Brugsch, Dictionnaire Hieroglyphique, Leipzig, 1867, fol.: Ebers, AEgypten und die Bucher Mose's, vol. i., Leipzig, 1868, 8vo; Pleyte, Les Papyrus Rollin de la Bibliotheque Imperiale de Paris, 1868, atlas 4to; Frith, Eqypt and Palestine Photographed and Described, 1870, 2 vols. roy. fol.; 267 Wilkinson, Sir J. G., The Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, new edition by S. Birch, LL.D.. London, 1879, 3 vols. 8vo; Brugsch-Bey, Geschichte Aegypten's unter den Pharaonen. Nach den Denkmulern, Leipzig, 1877; Engl. translation, London, 2d ed., 1881, 2 vols.; F. Vigouroux, La Bible et les decouvertes modernes en Eygpte et en Assyrie, Paris, 1877, 2 vols.; Ebers, Aegypten im Bild imd Wort, Leipzig, 1879. On modern Egypt: Lane, The Modern Egyptians, 2 vols., London, 5th ed., 1871; Zinke, Egypt of the Pharaohs and the Khedive, Lond., 1873; Klunzinger, Upper Egypt, London, 1878.

E'HI (my brother), a son of Benjamin, Gen 46:21; called Ahiram, Num 26:38; Aher, 1 Chr 7:10; Aharah, 1 Chr 8:1.

E'HUD (union).

  1. A great-grandson of Benjamin. 1 Chr 7:18; 1 Chr 8:6.

  2. A son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin, who delivered the Israelites from the oppression which they suffered under Eglon, king of Moab. Jud 3:15. The Israelites sent Ehud to pay some tax or tribute to Eglon as a token of their allegiance. Under the pretence that he had some secret message to the king, he obtained a private audience; and while they were together, Ehud drew a dagger which he had made expressly for the purpose, and gave him a mortal wound. The custom of delivering confidential messages in secret appears to have been so common that the attendants of Eglon left his presence as soon as Ehud's wish was known. Such is the custom in Eastern courts at this day; as soon as a confidential message is announced the audience-chamber is cleared of all but the messenger. Ehud fled toward Mount Ephraim; and summoning the oppressed Israelites to his help, they secured the fords of the Jordan, so that the Moabites, by whom their land was garrisoned, might not escape. As soon as he had collected a sufficient force he fell upon the Moabites, and cut them off in every direction. "And the land had rest fourscore years." Jud 3:26-30.

E'KER (a rooting up)), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:27.

EK'RON (emigration), the most northerly of the five cities of the Philistines, Josh 13:3; in the lowlands of Judah, Josh 15:11; conquered by Judah, Josh 15:45; allotted to Dan 19:43; reconquered by Samuel, 1 Sam 5:10; 1 Sam 7:14 again a Philistine city, 1 Sam 17:52 2 Kgs 1:2; Jer 25:20; Am 1:8; Zech 9:5; now called Akir, on a hill 12 miles south-east of Joppa, a wretched village of about 50 mud hovels. The prophecy has been fulfilled, "Ekron shall be rooted up." Zeph 2:4.

EL, which often occurs as an element of Hebrew words and names, signifies "strength," and is applied not only to Jehovah, but to heathen gods.

EL'ADAH, an Ephraimite. 1 Chr 7:20.

E'LAH (terebinth).

  1. An Edomite chieftain. Gen 36:41; 1 Chr 1:52.

  2. The father of one of Solomon's provision officers. 1 Kgs 4:18.

  3. The son and successor of Baasha, king of Israel. He reigned 2 years, b.c. 930-928, and was assassinated by Zimri, one of his military officers, while revelling at the house of his steward, Arza, at Tirzah. 1 Kgs 16:6-10.

  4. The father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel. 2 Kgs 15:30; 2 Kgs 17:1; 2 Kgs 18:1, 2 Kgs 18:9.

  5. A son of Caleb, the son of Jephunneh. 1 Chr 4:15.

  6. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 9:8.

E'LAH (terebinth), VALLEY OF, where David slew Goliath. 1 Sam 17:2, 1 Sam 17:19; 1 Sam 21:9. It is now called Wady es-Sunt, or "Acacia Valley," 14 miles south-west of Jerusalem. The valley is about a quarter of a mile wide, and has steep sides rising to a height of about 500 feet. The torrent or brook has a deep channel in the middle of the valley, and its course is strewn with smooth white stones. Terebinth trees, which gave the original title to the valley, are still found there.

E'LAM (age).

  1. The eldest son of Shem, and ancestor of the Elamites and Persians. Gen 10:22; 1 Chr 1:17.

  2. A Korhite Levite in the time of David. 1 Chr 26:3.

  3. A chief man of Benjamin. 1 Chr 8:24.

  4. " Children of Elam" returned from Babylon. Ezr 2:7; Neh 8:7; Neh 7:12.

  5. Children of "the other Elam" likewise returned. Ezr 2:31; Neh 7:34. Their representative sealed the


covenant. Neh 10:14. Some had foreign wives. Ezr 10:26.

  1. A priest who helped to dedicate the wall. Neh 12:42.

E'LAM, a country peopled by the descendants of Shem, and called, after his son, Elam. Gen 10:22. It lay south of Assyria and west of Persia proper, and reached to the Persian Gulf. Herodotus called it Cissia. It was a province of Persia, of which Susa was capital. Ezr 4:9; Dan 3:2.

History.-Elam was a strong power in Abram's time. Gen 14:9. Its people aided in the destruction of Babylon, Isa 21:2; invaded Israel, Isa 22:6. Its destruction was foretold. Jer 49:34-39; Jer 25:25; Eze 32:24-25. A remarkable statement illustrating the truth of the Scriptures in respect to Elam has lately been deciphered from Assyrian cylinders in the British Museum. Assur-banipal records, b.c. 668-626, "In my fifth expedition, to Elam I directed the march. ... I overwhelmed Elam through its extent. I cut off the head of Te-umman, their wicked king, who devised evil. Beyond number I slew his soldiers. . . . For a month and a day Elam to its utmost extent I swept." There are other records equally remarkable, but there is not space to quote them.

EL'ASAH (whom God made).

  1. The son of Shaphan. Jer 29:3.

  2. A priest who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:22.

E'LATH, OR E'LOTH (trees), a seaport-town of Edom, at the northern end of the eastern arm of the Red Sea. Deut 2:8; 2 Chr 8:17. It is usually associated in Scripture with Ezion-geber. The children of Israel passed by it; it was a part of David's conquest, Deut 2:8; 2 Sam 8:14; was a place of importance in Solomon's time, 1 Kgs 9:26, 1 Kgs 9:28; was recaptured by the Edomites, 2 Kgs 8:20; was retaken by Uzziah, 2 Kgs 14:22; 2 Chr 26:2, who rebuilt it; was afterward taken by the king of Damascus, 2 Kgs 16:6, and later by Assyria. 2 Kgs 16:7-9. Stanley thinks that Elath was on the site of modern Akaba, and Robinson placed it on a mound near Akaba. Palm-groves still exist there.

EL-BETH'EL (the God of Bethel), the name given by Jacob to the place where he built an altar, or to the altar itself. Gen 35:7; comp. 2 Chr 33:20. See Bethel.

EL'DAAH (whom God calls), the last named son of Midian, and a grandson of Abraham by Keturah. Gen 26:4; 1 Chr 1:33.

EL'DAD (whom God loves), and ME'DAD (love), were of the 70 elders of Israel appointed by Moses to assist him in the government of the people. Num 11:26. When the elders were assembled around the tabernacle to seek wisdom from God on a particular occasion, Eldad and Medad were absent. The Spirit of God was, however, poured out on them in the camp, and they prophesied. Their proceeding was represented to Moses, and he was asked to prohibit them, but he declined, and, so far from wishing them to be silenced, he uttered a prayer that all the people might receive the same spirit which was upon Eldad and Medad.

The passage is important as proving the distribution of the spirit of prophecy, which had been concentrated in Moses. The mode of prophecy of these men was perhaps the extempore production of hymns chanted forth to the people. Compare the case of Saul. 1 Sam 10:11.

ELD'ERS, a comprehensive title, the peculiar force of which must be determined by the connection. Ex 3:16.

  1. Old Testament Usage.-During the sojourn of Israel in Egypt the elders, Ex 4:29-31, were probably either the heads of tribes or the oldest and most judicious of the people. And though their authority was in its nature paternal, they were regarded to a certain extent as the representatives of the nation. In the Hebrew commonwealth every city had its elders. Deut 19:12; Deut 21:2-9; Josh 20:4; Jud 8:14; Ezr 10:14.

There was a body of elders, however, selected and appointed for special duties. Num 11:16-17, John 6:24-25, and they seem to have been taken from the general class of elders. The expression is, "Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be elders of the people, and officers over them." The 70 men who were with Moses at Mount 269 Sinai were also 70 of the elders of Israel. Ex 24:1, Gal 1:9. At a subsequent period of Jewish history we find a tribunal of 70 elders, known as the Sanhedrin, which the Rabbins maintain was a continuance of the original appointment of elders by Moses. Elders are mentioned in the Maccabaean times, about b.c. 175, 1 Mace. 7:33; 12:6; and in the N.T. are associated, but not to be confounded, with the chief priests and scribes. Matt 16:21, etc. See Sanhedrin.

  1. New Testament Usage. — The name elder or presbyter is no doubt of Jewish Christian origin, a translation of the Hebrew title applied to the rulers of the synagogues, on whom devolved the conduct of religious affairs. Referring originally to age and dignity, it came to apply to office. The term bishop (borrowed, in all probability, from the political relations of the Greeks), while applied to the same office of elder or presbyter, refers to the official duty and activity of these rulers of congregations. In Acts 20:28, Paul addresses as "bishops" ("overseers" in our version) the very same rulers of the Ephesian church who had just before (v. 2 Sam 21:17) been called "elders." In Phil 1:1 he salutes the saints in Philippi, with the "bishops and deacons," without mentioning the elders, which has been explained by supposing the latter to have been identical with the bishops. The plural form is further evidence, since there cannot be more than one diocesan "bishop," in the latter sense, in any one church. Tit 1:5 and the other appropriate passages in the pastoral Epistles prove the same fact.

As to the time and manner of the introduction of eldership we have no such information as is given respecting the disconate. Acts 6. But we conjecture that it came early in the Church — perhaps was even co-eval with it; in which case it is no wonder that its introduction is not mentioned. As the office was a Christian imitation of the Jewish "rulers of the synagogues," who conducted the prayer, reading, and exposition which constituted the service, every church had a number of elders. There is in the N.T. no set distinction made between the teaching and the ruling elder; both offices were united in the same person. See Bishop.

Elders, Estate of the. Acts 22:5. See Estate of the Elders.

E'LEAD (whom God praises), an Ephraimite. 1 Chr 7:21.

ELEA'LEH (whither God ascends), a city east of Jordan; given to the Reubenites. Num 32:3, 2 Kgs 18:37; afterward possessed by Moab, Isa 15:4; Matt 16:9; Jer 48:34; now el-A'al ("the high"), 1 mile north-east of Heshbon.

ELE'ASAH (whom God made).

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:39.

  2. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:37; 1 Chr 9:43. The name elsewhere in the A.V. is Elasah.

ELEA'ZAR (God's help).

  1. The third son of Aaron, Ex 6:23, and his successor in the office of high priest, which he held for upward of 20 years, and his family after him till the time of Eli. Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, together with their father, Aaron, were consecrated to the sacerdotal office. The first two were struck dead for offering strange fire. See Abihu. Eleazar, being the eldest surviving son, succeeded his father, and was himself succeeded by his eldest son, Phinehas, according to the covenant. Num 25:10, 2 Kgs 11:13. The time of Eleazar's death is not given, but Josephus, probably representing Jewish tradition, says it was at the same time as Joshua's, or 25 years after Moses. The office continued in Eleazar's line through seven successions, and then passed into the line of Ithamar in the person of Eli, who was both high priest and judge, but was restored to the family of Eleazar in the person of Zadok. Comp. 1 Sam 2:35; 1 Kgs 2:27.

  2. The son of Abinadab, to whose care the ark was committed when it was sent back by the Philistines. 1 Sam 7:1.

  3. A warrior of distinguished courage, two of whose exploits are recorded in 1 Chr 11:11-18 and 2 Sam 23:9.

  4. A Levite, son of Merari, who is mentioned as having no sons; but his daughters were married by their "brethren" — i.e. cousins. 1 Chr 23:21.

  5. A priest who took part in Nehemiah's dedicatory feast. Neh 12:42.

  6. One with a foreign wife.Ezr 10:25.

  7. A Levite.Ezr 8:33.

  8. An ancestor of Joseph. Matt 1:15.


ELECT', ELECTION. The Greek word (eklektus) for "elect" or "chosen" comes from a verb meaning "to choose." It is applied to persons or things. Luke 14:7; John 6:70. The verb is uniformly translated in A.V. "choose," but the adjective both "chosen" and "elect." Luke 23:35; cf. Luke 18:7. Choice implies preference, hence approval, favor, delight, as in Luke 23:35 the Messiah is called "the chosen of God " — i.e. the One in whom God takes pleasure.

The elect in N.T. usage are those chosen of God unto salvation, who therefore enjoy his favor and lead a holy life in communion with him. Matt 24:22; Mark 13:27; Luke 18:7; Rom 8:33; Tit 1:1. Paul once speaks of "the election," Rom 11:7, instead of "the elect," just as he says "the circumcision" instead of "the circumcised." Rom 2:26. In Matt 22:14 the calling of God is distinguished from the choosing of God: "Many are called, but few are chosen." All are called who hear the sound of the gospel and are invited to accept its terms of salvation, but those only are chosen who repent and believe and persevere to the end.

Elect Lady. 2 John 1. This title is applied by John to some eminent Christian woman, or else it was a figurative expression denoting a Christian church.

EL-ELO'HE-IS'RAEL (strength of God), the name which Jacob gave to an altar near Shechein, Gen 33:18-20; probably the place where Abraham had built an altar. Gen 12:7. The el designates God as the mighty One, able to do whatsoever he pleased. He delivered Jacob, whose other name — "Israel" — denoted his power with God.

EL'EMENTS, Gal 4:3. Gal 1:9. elsewhere rendered RU'DIMENTS, Col 2:8,Ruth 4:20, or the first principles of an art or science, is a term applied to the ceremonial ordinances of the Mosaic law, which were weak, and beggarly, inasmuch as they consisted very much in outward observances, Heb 9:1, and were of temporary and partial service, when compared with the disclosures of grace and mercy which they were designed to shadow forth. In the case of the Colossians, probably, these rudiments of the world embraced the doctrines of some vain and deceitful philosophy.

E'LEPH (the ox), a city of Benjamin. Josh 18:28. The Pal. Memoirs suggest Lifta, a village about 2 miles north-west of Jerusalem, as its site.

EL'EPHANT. See Ivory.

ELHA'NAN (whom God bestowed). 1. One of David's warriors, who slew a Philistinian giant. 2 Sam 21:19; 1 Chr 20:5.

  1. Another of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:24; 1 Chr 11:26.

E'LI (ascent, elevation), a descendant of Ithamar, the fourth son of Aaron, and successor of Abdon as high priest and judge of Israel. 1 Sam 2:11. In consequence of his negligence or injudicious management of his two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, he suffered severe chastisement. Samuel was directed to disclose to Eli the judgments that would come upon his family, 1 Sam 3:13-14, chiefly because of his neglect of paternal duty. The old man received the intelligence with remarkable submission, but it was not until 27 years after that God fulfilled his threatenings. Then his two sons were both slain in the same battle with the Philistines, into whose hands the ark of God fell. The aged priest, then in his 98th year, was so overwhelmed when these calamities were made known to him that he fell backward from his seat and broke his neck. He had governed the Hebrews in all their concerns, civil and religious, for the long period of 40 years. 1 Sam 4:18. See Eloi.

ELI, E'LI, LA'MA S ABACH'THANI (my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me), our Lord's cry upon the cross. Matt 27:46. The words are Syro-Chaldaic, but are more correctly given in Mark 15:34.

ELI'AB (to whom God is father).

  1. The name of the prince of Zebulun when the census at Sinai was taken. Num 1:9; Num 2:7; Num 7:24,Num 7:29; Neh 10:16.

  2. The father of Dathan and Abiram. Num 16:1, Num 16:12; Num 26:8-9; Deut 11:6.

  3. The eldest brother of David. 1 Sam 16:6; 1 Sam 17:13, 1 Sam 28; 1 Chr 2:13; 2 Chr 11:18.

  4. A Levite, ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr 6:27. In 1 Sam 1:1 he is called Elihu, and in 1 Chr 6:34, Eliel.

  5. A Gadite leader who joined David when in hold. 1 Chr 12:9.

  6. A Levite who was both a porter


and a musician. 1 Chr 15:18, 1 Chr 15:20; 1 Chr 16:5.

ELI'ADA (whom God knows).

  1. A son born to David in Jerusalem. 2 Sam 5:16; 1 Chr 3:8, In 1 Chr 14:7 he is called Beeliada — Baal substituted for El, the true God.

  2. A Benjnmite, one of Jehoshaphat's captains. 2 Chr 17:17.

ELI'ADAH (whom God knows), the father of Rezon. 1 Kgs 11:23-25.

ELI'AH (my God is Jehovah).

  1. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:27.

  2. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:26.

ELI'AHBA (whom God hides), one of David's mighty men. 2 Sam 23:32; 1 Chr 11:33.

ELI'AKIM (whom God establishes).

  1. The master of the household of Hezekiah, and one of the commissioners appointed to treat with the king of Assyria. 2 Kgs 18:18, 2 Kgs 18:26, 2 Kgs 18:37; 2 Kgs 19:2; Isa 22:20; Gen 36:3, Isa 36:11, Isa 36:22; Isa 37:2.

  2. The son and successor of Josiah, king of Judah. His name was changed to Jehoiakim. 2 Kgs 23:34; 2 Chr 36:4.

  3. A priest who helped to dedicate the wall. Neh 12:41.

4, 5. Two persons in Christ's genealogy. Matt 1:13; Luke 3:30.

ELI'AM (God's people). 1. The father of Bath-sheba, 2 Sam 11:3; called Ammiel in 1 Chr 3:5; the names mean the same.

  1. One of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:34.

ELI'AS, the Greek form of Elijah, used in the N.T. See Elijah.

ELI'ASAPH (whom God added).

  1. The chief of Gad when the second census was taken. Num 1:14; Num 2:14; Num 7:42, Num 7:47; Num 10:20.

  2. A Levite. Num 3:24.

ELI'ASHIB (whom God restores). 1. A priest in the time of David. 1 Chr 24:12.

  1. A descendant of David. 1 Chr 3:24.

  2. The high priest in the time of Nehemiah. Ezr 10:6;Neh 3:1, Neh 3:20-21; Neh 12:10, Neh 12:22-23; Acts 13:4, 2 Kgs 13:7, Neh 13:28.

  3. A Levite who had a strange wife. Ezr 10:24.

    1. Two similar offenders. Neh 10:27, Ezr 10:36.

ELI'ATHAH (to whom God comes), a Levite musician in the time of David. 1 Chr 25:4, 1 Chr 25:27.

ELI'DAD (whom God loves), the Benjamite representative in the allotment of Canaan. Num 34:21.

E'LTEL (to whom God is strength). 1. A chief of cis-Jordanic Manasseh. 1 Chr 5:24.

  1. An ancestor of Samuel. 1 Chr 6:34.

3, 4. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:20, 1 Chr 8:22.

5, 6. Warriors under David. 1 Chr 11:46-47.

  1. A Gadite chief who joined David in the hold. 1 Chr 12:11.

  2. A Kohathite Levite in David's time. 1 Chr 15:9, 1 Chr 15:11.

  3. An overseer of offerings in Hezekiah's reign. 2 Chr 31:13.

ElilE'NAI (toward Jehovah are my eyes), a Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 8:20.

ELIE'ZER (God is help).

  1. Abraham's steward and confidential servant. Gen 15:2.

  2. The second son of Moses and Zipporah. Ex 18:4; 1 Chr 23:15, 1 Chr 23:17; 1 Chr 26:25.

  3. A Benjamite chief. 1 Chr 7:8.

  4. A priest in David's reign. 1 Chr 15:24.

  5. A ruler of the Reubenites in David's time. 1 Chr 27:10.

  6. A prophet who rebuked Jehoshaphat. 2 Chr 20:37.

  7. A prominent Jew sent by Ezra to fetch Levites. Ezr 8:16.

  8. 9, 10. Those who had foreign wives. Ezr 10:18, Ezr 10:23, Ezr 10:31.

  9. One of Christ's ancestors. Luke 3:29.

ELIHOE'NAI (toward Jehovah are my eyes), one who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:4.

ELIHO'REPH (God his recompense), one of Solomon's scribes. 1 Kgs 4:3.

ELI'HU (God is he; i.e. Jehovah).

  1. An ancestor of Samuel the prophet. 1 Sam 1:1.

  2. The eldest brother of David. 1 Chr 27:18.

  3. A chief of Manasseh who followed David to Ziklag. 1 Chr 12:20.

  4. A Korhite Levite in the time of David. 1 Chr 26:7.

  5. The son of Baraehel the Buzite, a friend of Job, and a kind of arbitrator in the controversy between him and three other of his acquaintances, who had come


to sympathize with him in his calamities. Job 32:2. Elihu was the youngest of them all, and therefore diffident about giving his opinion in the presence of such old men, but still, in opposition to the three friends, who accused Job of secret sins, he sets forth in soothing and yet faithful discourse the idea of the disciplinary nature of suffering, and therefore tells Job to submit himself in loving confidence unto Jehovah's chastening hand. See Job.

ELI'JAH (my God is Jehovah), OR ELI'AS (which is the Greek form of the name). Matt 17:3. A native of Gilead, and called the "Tishbite," probably from the name of the town or district in which he lived. 1 Kgs 17:1. He was one of the greatest of prophets. He is first introduced to our notice as a messenger from God to Ahab, the wicked king of Israel, probably in the tenth year of his reign. He was sent to utter a prophecy of a three years' drought in the land of Israel. After delivering this startling and distressing prophecy, he was directed to flee to the brook Cherith,

Place of Elijah's Sacrifice

where he was miraculously fed by ravens. When the brook had dried up he was sent to a widow-woman of Zarephath, and again the hand of the Lord supplied his wants and those of his friends. He raised the widow's son to life. 1 Kgs 17. After the famine had lasted the predicted period, Elijah encountered Ahab, and then ensued the magnificent display of divine power and of human trust upon the ridge of Carmel. 1 Kgs 18. See Ahab.

The reaction from such a mental strain left the prophet in a weak, nervous condition, and in a fit of despondency he fled from Jezebel into the "wilderness" and desired death. But by angel-food nourished and inspirited, he journeyed 40 days, until he reached Mount Sinai. There the downcast man of God was witness of Jehovah's strength and experienced Jehovah's tenderness in a very remarkable vision. 1 Kgs 19:9-18. Encouraged by the assurance that contrary to his supposition he did not stand alone as the only worshipper of the Lord in Israel, and, moreover, having a fresh commission granted him, forth from Mount Sinai he was sent with renewed zeal and confidence. He anointed Elisha to be prophet in his room. 1 Kgs 19. He then retired into privacy, but after the dastardly murder of Naboth he suddenly appeared before the guilty king and announced the judgment of Jehovah against the royal pair. 1 Kgs 21. Several years after occurred the prophecy of Ahaziah's death. 2 Kgs 1:3. See Ahaziah. The slaughter by five of the two companies of troops sent to take Elijah must have greatly increased the popular awe of the prophet.

After executing the prophetic office for probably 15 years Elijah was translated to heaven in a miraculous manner. Elisha had persisted in accompanying him across the Jordan, and it was while they were talking together that in a "chariot of fire" Elijah was carried up. Fifty men of the sons of the prophet were witnesses of the extraordinary scene, although they only beheld it afar off". A fruitless search was made for the body of Elijah, under the impression that the Spirit had deposited it somewhere. 2 Kgs 2. b.c. 896.

Malachi prophesied, 2 Kgs 4:5, that Elijah would reappear as the forerunner of the Messiah. Our Lord explained to his disciples that Elijah did really appear in the person of John the Baptist. Elijah, with Moses, appeared on the Mount of Transfiguration, conversing with Jesus. Luke 9:28-35.

Elijah was the prophet of deeds. He left no writings save the letter to Jehoram, king of Judah, 2 Chr 21:12-15, which was delivered after his death. But he made a profound impression upon his contemporaries as a bold man, faithful, stern, self-denying, and zealous for the honor of God.

  1. A priest who had married a foreign wife. Ezr 10:21.

EJ'IKA (God is rejecter ?), one of David's warriors. 2 Sam 23:25.


E'LIM (trees), the second station of Israel after crossing the Red Sea. Ex 15:27; Num 33:9. It had 12 wells and 70 palm trees, and has been identified with Wady Gharandel, which is the first pleasant spot in the wilderness after leaving 'Ayun Musa. The water is the best on the whole route from Cairo to Sinai. A few palm trees still remain. Others locate Elim a little farther south,

Elim, Sinai (Wady Gharandel. After a Photograph by Frith.)

in Wady Useit or in Wady Taiyibeh. It certainly must have been in this neighborhood of running brooks, feathery tamarisks, wild acacias, and stately palm trees.

ELIM'ELECH (God is his king), a Bethlemite, and the husband of Naomi, Ruth's mother-in-law. Ruth 1:2-3; Ruth 2:1, Num 2:3; Ruth 4:3,Ruth 4:9.

ELIOE'NAI (toward Jehovah are my eyes).

  1. Head of a Benjamite family. 1 Chr 7:8.

  2. Head of a Simeonite family. 1 Chr 4:36.

  3. A Korhite Levite. 1 Chr 26:3.

  4. One of David's descendants. 1 Chr 3:23-24.

  5. A priest who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:22; Neh 12:41.

  6. Another who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:27.

EL'IPHAL (whom God judges), one of David's warriors, 1 Chr 11:35; called Eliphelet in 2 Sam 23:34.

ELIPH'ALET (God his deliverance), one of David's sons, 2 Sam 5:16; 1 Chr 14:7; called Eliphelet in 1 Chr 3:8.

EL'IPHAZ, OR ELI'PHAZ (God his strength).

  1. The son of Esau and Adah, and father of Teman. Gen 36:4, Gen 36:10-16; 1 Chr 1:35-36.

  2. One of Job's three friends. Job 2:11. He is called the Temanite; hence it has been inferred he was a descendant of the Teman mentioned above. His part in the discussions with Job is marked by dignity and ability. His theme is the unapproachable majesty and purity of God. Job 4:12-21; Job 15:12-16. See Job, Book of.

ElIPH'ELEH (whom God makes distinguished), a Levite porter and musician. 1 Chr 15:18, 1 Chr 15:21.

ELIPH'ELET (God his deliverance).

  1. One of David's warriors, 2 Sam 23:34; called Eliphal in 1 Chr 11:35.

  2. A son of David, 1 Chr 3:6; called Elpalet in 1 Chr 14:5.

  3. Another, and apparently the last, of David's sons, 1 Chr 3:8; called Eliphalet in 2 Sam 5:16; 1 Chr 14:7.

  4. A descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:39.

  5. One who returned with Ezra. Ezr 8:13.

  6. One who had a foreign wife. Ezr 10:33.


ELIS'ABETH (God her oath; i.e. woshipper of God), the wife of Zacharias, and mother of John Baptist. Luke 1:5.

ELISE'US, the Greek form of Elisha; used in Luke 4:27.

ELI'SHA (God is salvation), the disciple and successor of Elijah. He was the son of Shaphat, and a native of Abel-meholah. 1 Kgs 19:16. Elijah anointed him, by divine command, at Abel-meholah, where he found Elisha ploughing. He threw his mantle over him as they stood in the field, thus signifying the service to which he was called. Elisha promptly obeyed the call, and leaving his oxen in the field took leave of his father and mother and followed Elijah. He did not perform any independent service until Elijah's translation, which took place some 8 years afterward. He then became the head of the school of the prophets. He was the counsellor and friend of successive kings. He was the opposite to Elijah in most things. He lived in the city or with his students, honored and sought for, a welcome guest in the homes he graced by his presence. And yet he was filled with a "double"-i.e. an elder brother's-portion of Elijah's spirit, both to work miracles and to give counsel for present and future emergencies. He multiplied the widow's oil, and when the son of the good Shunammite-God's reward to her for her kindness to his prophet-died, he raised him to life. He cured Naaman, smote Gehazi with leprosy, misled the Syrians, foretold abundant food, and when dying gave the king the promise of victory. Strangely enough, a year after his burial, during the guerrilla-warfare kept up between the Israelites and the Moabites, when a dead man was accidentally put in his tomb, no sooner had the two dead bodies touched than the later dead revived and lived. But God did not recall his beloved back to earth. 2 Kgs 13:21.

We find the history of Elisha recorded in 2 Kgs 2-9 and 2 Kgs 13:14-21. He exercised the prophetic office upward of 60 years, b.c. cir. 892-832.

ELI'SHAH (God is salvation), a son of Javan, who is supposed to have settled upon some islands of the sea. Gen 10:4; Eze 27:7.

ELI'SHAH (God is salvation), THE ISLES OF, from whence Tyre obtained her blue and purple. Eze 27:7. They are generally identified with AEolis, Lesbos, Tenedos, and other islands of the Grecian Archipelago.

ELISH'AMA (whom God hears).

  1. The prince of Ephraim in the wilderness of Sinai. Num 1:10; Num 2:18; Num 7:48, Num 7:53; Num 10:22; 1 Chr 7:26.

2, 3. Sons of David. 2 Sam 5:16; 1 Chr 3:6, 1 Chr 3:8; 1 Chr 14:7.

  1. A priest in Jehoshaphat's day. 2 Chr 17:8.

  2. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:41.

  3. The grandfather of Ishmael, who killed Gedaliah. 2 Kgs 25:25; Jer 41:1.

  4. A scribe to Jehoiakim. Jer 36:12, Jer 36:20-21.

ELISH'APHAT (whom God judges), a captain employed by Jehoiada at Joash's accession. 2 Chr 23:1.

ELISH'EBA (God is her oath), the wife of Aaron. Ex 6:23. She was the daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Naashon.

ELISHU'A (God his salvation), a son of David, 2 Sam 5:15; 1 Chr 14:5; called Elishama in 1 Chr 3:6.

ELI'UD (God his praise), one of Christ's ancestors. Matt 1:14-15.

ELIZ'APHAN (whom God protects).

  1. The chief of the Kohathite Levites, Num 3:30; 1 Chr 16:8; 2 Chr 29:13; called Elzaphan in Ex 6:22; Lev 10:4.

  2. A chief of Zebulun, commissioner in the allotment of Canaan. Num 34:25.

ELI'ZUR (God his rock), the prince of Eeuben during the census. Num 1:5; Num 2:10; Num 7:30,Num 7:35; Neh 10:18.

EL'KANAH (God creates), the name of several descendants of Korah mentioned in the O.T., for we are expressly told that "the children of Korah died not" in the rebellion of Korah. Num 26:11.

  1. The only one of the name of any interest is the husband of Hannah and father of Samuel. 1 Sam 1:1 ff.; 1 Sam 2:11, 1 Sam 2:20; 1 Chr 6:27, 1 Chr 6:34. The few words that are spoken of him set him in a very favorable light. He was a kind and faithful husband, a pious Hebrew and a self-sacrificing father. Although he was a Levite, he did not apparently perform any of the usual offices.

Judging from the sacrifices he offered annually, 1 Sam 1:4, and from the present he brought to the Lord when Samuel was dedicated, he was a man of wealth.

  1. The son of Korah. Ex 6:24; 1 Chr 6:23.

  2. A Korhite. 1 Chr 6:26, 1 Chr 6:35.

  3. A Levite. 1 Chr 9:16.

  4. A Korhite. 1 Chr 12:6.

  5. An officer of the household of Ahaz, probably the second in command. 2 Chr 28:7. He was killed by Zichri the Ephraimite.

EL'KOSH (God my bow). Nahum is called "the Elkoshite," Nah 1:1, from which it is inferred that Elkosh was his birthplace. The traditional tomb of that prophet is in Assyria, about 2 miles north of Mosul, at a place called Alkush, a town of 300 families. Grove and others, however, place Elkosh in Galilee.

EL'LASAR (oak, or heap), the country of which Arioch was king, Gen 14:1-9; probably Larsa, in lower Babylonia, on the Euphrates, between Ur and Erech. Its inscriptions indicate an earlier date than Babylon, in which it was afterward absorbed.

ELM. Hos 4:13. The original is elsewhere translated "oak." See Oak.

ELMO'DAM (extension?), one of our Lord's ancestry. Luke 3:28.

EL'NAAM (God his delight), a man two of whose sons were of David's guard. 1 Chr 11:46.

EL'NATHAN (whom God hath given). 1. The maternal grandfather of Jehoiachin. 2 Kgs 24:8.

2, 3, 4. Three persons in Ezra's time. Ezr 8:16.

ELO'I, a Syro-Chaldaic form of Eli. Mark 15:34-35.

E'LON (an oak). 1. The Hittite, father of one of Esau's wives. Gen 26:34; Isa 36:2.

  1. A son of Zebulun. Gen 46:14; Num 26:26.

  2. A judge of Israel, who is called the Zebulonite in Jud 12:11-12.

E'LON (oak), a town in Dan, Josh 19:43; the Pal. Memoirs propose Beit Ello as its site.

E'LON-BETH'-HA'NAN (oak of house of grace), one of Solomon's provision-districts. 1 Kgs 4:9. Drake places it at Beit 'Anan.

E'LOTH. See Elath.

EL'PAAL (God his wages), a Beniamite whose descendants built some towns. 1 Chr 8:11, 1 Chr 8:12, 1 Chr 8:18.

EL'PALET (God his deliverance), a son of David, 1 Chr 14:5; called in 1 Chr 3:6, Eliphelet.

EL-PA'RAN, literally "the oak of Paran." Gen 14:6. See Paran.

EL'-TEKEH (God its fear), a place in Dan; given to the Levites. Josh 19:44; Josh 21:23. Whitney identifies it with "el-Mansurah, between Ramleh and Akir." There is an el Mansurah between Akir and 'Ain Shems, which may be the one intended, as there is no place of this name between Ramleh and Akir. Conder places El-tekeh at Beit Likia, north-east of Latrum.

EL'-TEKON (God its foundation), a town in the hills of Judah. Josh 15:59. Grove places it 3 or 4 miles north of Hebron.

EL-TO'LAD, OR EL'-TOLAD (God's kindred), a town in the south of Judah; given to Simeon, Josh 15:30; Josh 19:4; called Tolad in 1 Chr 4:29. Wilton and Grove think it was about 40 miles south of Beer-sheba, in the Wadi el-Thoula.

E'LUL (naught). Neh 6:15. See Months.

ELU'ZAI (God is my praises), a Benjamite warrior. 1 Chr 12:5.

EL'YMAS. See Bar-jesus, Sergius Paulus.

EL'ZABAD (whom God hath given).

  1. A Gadite warrior who joined David. 1 Chr 12:12.

  2. A Levite. 1 Chr 26:7.

EL'ZAPHAN (whom God protects), a Levite, chief of the Kohathites, Ex 6:22; Lev 10:4; called Elizaphan, Num 3:30; 1 Chr 15:8; 2 Chr 29:13.

EMBALM'. Gen 50:2. The practice of embalming prevailed at a very early period. The Hebrews learned it from the Egyptians, by whom it was understood very perfectly, for embalming entered into their religious life, inasmuch as they maintained it preserved the body for the dwelling-place of the soul after it had completed its various transmigrations. The embalmers or physicians were regarded as sacred officers.

"The process of embalming was carried on in various ways. In the most 276 expensive method the brain and viscera were removed, their place being filled with bitumen and aromatic substances; the body was washed in oil or the tar

Bandaging Mummies and making the Cases. (After Wilkinson.) Fig. 1, sawing wood; a, timber fastened to a stand. 2. cutting the leg of a chair, on a stand, h, indicating the trade of a carpenter. 3, a man fallen asleep, c, c, wood ready for cutting, d, onions and other provisions, which occur again at g, with vases, f.f. 4, 5, and 7, binding mummies. 6, brings the bandages. 9, using the drill. 8, 10, and 11, painting and polishing the cases, e, h, i, mummy-cases.

of cedar, bound up in linen smeared with spices, asphalt, and various gums; and the whole was placed in a solution of natron (saltpetre) for 70 days. The cheap method dispensed with the evisceration, but all methods contained the steeping in natron. It appears also that salt was freely used; and some authors believe that heat was employed."-Johnson's Encyclopaedia. After this process the body was swathed in linen bandages, with a profusion of aromatics. The price of embalming a single body was sometimes upward of $1500, and from that down to $200 or $300. The process lasted in earlier times 40, Gen 50:3, but in later times 70, days, and afterward the body was placed in a coffin of sycamore-wood or of stone, and then placed upright against the walls of the house, where it often remained for years, if the family did not wish to go to the expense of burial. Finally, the bodies were placed in subterraneous vaults in the ground or in the rock, where they were often found, after the lapse of 2000 or 3000 years, in a state of perfect preservation.

Different Forms of Mummy-Cases.(After Wilkinson.) 1, 2, 4, 9. Of wood. 3, 5, 6, 7, 8. Of stone. 10. Of burnt earthenware.

We have no evidence that embalming was practised by the Hebrews, except in the cases of Jacob and Joseph, and then it was 277 for the purpose of preserving their remains till they could be carried into the Land of Promise, It is true Asa was laid in a "bed which was filled with

Stone Mummy-Case. (After Wilkinson.)

sweet odors and divers kinds of spices prepared by the apothecaries' art," 2 Chr 16:14, and that mention is made of spices in the preparation for our Lord's formal burial, John 19:39-40, but we cannot interpret these sentences as indicating any proper species of embalming. See Bury.

EMBROID'ER, EMBROID'ERER, EMBROID'ERY. These words occur in A.V. in Ex 28:39; Ex 35:35; Ex 38:23, but it is doubtful if they are used correctly. It seems probable that the production called "cunning work," Ex 26:1, was more like embroidery than the needlework which the embroiderer is said to have made. But neither kind answers exactly to the notion of modern embroidery.

EM'ERALD (perhaps the glowing), a very precious gem of a pure green color, to which it owes its chief value, as the deepest colors are the most esteemed. Ex 28:18; Eze 27:16; Eze 28:13. The emerald was anciently obtained from Egypt. There is little question that the original word should have been translated "carbuncle." This gem is "a garnet cut with a convex face." See Stones, Precious.

EM'ERODS. 1 Sam 5:6, 1 Sam 5:9. The name of a painful disease sent upon the Philistines: probably it resembled the modern disease of the piles. It was customary with the heathens to offer to their gods figures of wax or metal representing the parts which had been cured of disease, whence it is inferred, in connection with 1 Sam 6:5, that the priests and diviners of the Philistines recommended a similar course.

E'MIMS (terrors), a race of giants living east of the Dead Sea; related to the Anakim. Gen 14:5 Deut 2:10-11.

EMMAN'UEL. See Immanuel.

EM'MAUS (hot springs), a village near Jerusalem. Luke 24:13. Its site has been disputed; among the places suggested are, 1. A little hamlet called ??Amuds??, and known as Nicopolis in the third century. It is on the plain of Philistia, 22 miles from Jerusalem and 10 miles from Lydda. This appears too far from Jerusalem, as Luke says it was only "threescore furlongs" distant, or less than 7 miles. 2. Robinson places Emmaus near Kuryet el 'Enab, 3 hours from Jerusalem, on the road to Jaffa. 3. Lange and Grove find Emmaus at Kulonieh, 2 leagues or 4 1/2 miles west of Jerusalem. 4. Others have lately proposed Urtna, a poor village about 2 miles south-west of Bethlehem, as the site of Emmaus. 5. In the fourteenth century Emmaus was placed at Kubeibeh, a little over 7 miles north-west of Jerusalem. This view is sustained by Dr. H. Zschokke of Jerusalem, who has made Emmaus a special study, but 278 Urtna seems to have the strongest arguments in its favor.

EM'MOR (an ass). Acts 7:16. See Hamor.

ENA'BLED, in 1 Tim 1:12, means "qualified."

ENA'JIM (gate of two eyes), a marginal reading in Gen 38:14, 2 Chr 11:21, which some scholars understand to mean a place identical with Enam. Tayler Lewis regards the idea that it refers to a city as absurd.

E'NAM (double spring), a town in the low country of Judah. Josh 15:34. Warren suggests Bier-en-Nahl for Enam; Conder suggests a ruin called 'Alia, near Thamtiali, now Tibneh, as the ancient Enam.

E'NAN (having eyes), the father of a prince of Naphtali. Num 1:15; Num 2:29; Num 7:78, Num 7:83; Neh 10:27.


ENCHANT'MENTS. This word is the translation of several Hebrew terms. It comprehends the tricks of the Egyptian magicians, Ex 7:11, Josh 11:22; Neh 8:7; the omens Balaam used. Num 24:1; the charming of serpents, Eccl 10:11; and also magical spells, Isa 47:9, Jud 4:12. In Jer 27:9 the "enchanters" were rather seers or augurs. Every species of enchantment fell under the ban of the Mosaic Law. Lev 19:26; Deut 18:10-12. See Divination.

EN'-DOR (spring of Dor),a placein Issachar, possessed by Manasseh, Josh 17:11, where Sisera and Jabin were slain, Ps 83:9-10, and where Saul consulted the witch, 1 Sam 28:7. It is now a miserable village called Endor, about 6 1/2 miles from Jezreel.

ENDOWS See Dowry.

EN-EG'LAIM, OR EN-EGLA'IM (fountain of two heifers), apparently a place near the Dead Sea, and possibly 'Ain-Ajlah, as suggested by De Sanley. Eze 47:10.

EN-GAN'NIM (fountain of gardens). 1. A place in the lowlands of Judah. between Zanoah and Tappuah. Josh 15:34; now Umm Jiun.

  1. A place in Issachar; given to the Levites, Josh 19:21; Josh 21:29; probably identical with "garden-house" of 2 Kgs 9:27. In the list of Levitical cities in 1 Chr 6:73. Anem seems to have taken the place of En-gannim. The latter has been identified with modern Jenin, a flourishing village of 3000 inhabitants, on the south side of the great plain of Esdraelon. Near by is a large fountain, a source of the ancient river Kishon, and gardens and orchards surround the town. The people, mostly Moslems, are fanatical, rude, and rebellious, given to fighting among themselves or with their neighbors. En-gannim was also the same as Beth-haggan.

EN-GE'DI (fountain of the kid), a place in Judah. on the west side of the Dead Sea, Josh 15:62; Eze 47:10, about midway between its northern and southern ends.

History.-En-gedi was first called Hazezon-tamar. Gen 14:7; 2 Chr 20:2; it was David's hiding-place from Saul, 1 Sam 23:29; 1 Sam 24:1, and where David cut off the skirt of Saul's robe, 1 Sam 24:4; its vineyards are mentioned. Song of Solomon 1:14; now called 'Ain Jidy, near which there is a thermal spring, about 1 mile from the seashore and from 330 to 500 feet above the sea, and about 1200 below the top of the cliffs. The ancient city was probably on the slope below the spring, where there are a few ruins.

EN'GINES. See War.

ENGRAVE'. Engraved seals are spoken of at a very early period of the world. The names of the children of Israel were directed to be engraved on two stones, and the words "Holiness to the Lord" were also to be engraved on the high priest's breastplate, both to be like the engravings of a signet. Ex 28:11, Eze 23:36. The signet is mentioned before Joseph was sold into Egypt. Job also speaks of engraving with an iron pen upon a rock. Job 19:24. The ten commandments were engraved, Ex 32:16, and graven images were undoubtedly among the earliest objects of idolatrous worship. Ex 20:4; Ex 32:4. Allusion is also made to the engraver's art in Eze 23:14. The engraved lines were probably filled in with coloring-matter. See also Acts 17:29. See Seal.

EN-HAD'DAH (swift fountain), a place in Issachar. Josh 19:21. Van de Velde and Thomson suggest as its site 'Ain Haud, on the western slope of Mount Carmel, 2 miles from the sea. Grove questions this view. Conder proposes Kefr 'Adan.

EN-HAK'KORE (fountain of the crier), a spring opened for Samson. 279 Jud 15:19. Milton refers to it in Samson Agonistes:

"God, who caused a fountain at thy prayer

From the dry ground to spring, thy thirst to alay,

After the brunt of battle, can as easy

Cause light again within thine eyes to spring."

"Samson's Spring" was pointed out on the way from Sochoh to Eleutheropolis from the time of Jerome to the fourteenth century, but Robinson rejects this site; Van de Velde suggests a large spring near Tell el-Lekiyeh, 4 miles from Beer-sheba. This, however, is 30 miles from Gaza, while Samson's exploit was probably much nearer that city. Conder found near Zoreah a spring called 'Ayun Kara, which name seemed to resemble En-hakkore.

EN-HA'ZOR(spring of the village), a city of Naphtali, near Kedesh, Josh 19:37; now, perhaps, Hazireh, a ruin near Dihl.

EN-MISH'PAT (fountain of judgment). Gen 14:7. See Kadesh.

E'NOCH (initiating). 1. A son of Cain, after whom he named a "city," the first-mentioned city in the Bible. Gen 4:17; Heb 11:5.

  1. The son of Jared, and father of Methusaleh. Gen 5:18, Gen 5:21-24. He is called "the seventh from Adam," Jude 14, to distinguish him from the son of Cain, third from Adam. We are told that he "walked with God" — an expressive figure to denote the closest communion with the divine Being and entire conformity to his will. And concerning his departure from the world, we are told that "he was not, for God took him " — a phrase which imports a mere change of residence, without suffering the ordinary dissolution of the body. In this case, as well as in Elijah's, the body was clothed with immortality, or endued with the immortal principle by the immediate power of God. 1 Cor 15:50.

Enoch, Book of. There is only one reference in the Bible, Jude 14, to Enoch as a prophet, but an Apocryphal book called after him was well known to the early fathers. It was then lost to the knowledge of Europe, except in fragments, until Bruce, in 1773, brought from Abyssinia three manuscript copies containing the complete AEthiopic translation. Archbishop Lawrence made an English translation of the book, which was the basis of various subsequent editions, which were rendered comparatively worthless when, in 1851, Dr. Dillmann published a new edition of the AEthiopio text, and in 1853 a German translation. "The book consists of a series of revelations supposed to have been given to Enoch and Noah, which extend to the most varied aspects of nature and life, and are designed to offer a complete vindication of the action of Providence." It was never received by the Jews nor by the fathers as inspired. The authorship and date are unknown.

E'NOCH, a city built by Cain. Gen 4:17.

E'NON, OR AE'NON (springs), a place near Salim where John was baptizing. John 3:23. Three sites have been proposed for it: 1. The traditional one, by Jerome, about 8 miles south of Beisan; not confirmed by later authorities. 2. In Wady Farah,5 miles north-east of Jerusalem; suggested by Dr. Barclay. 3. The more probable site, pointed out by Robinson, Stanley, and Conder. This is east of Nublus, near the village Salim, and north of the latter, in Wady Fara (but not the same valley as in No. 2), where there are copious springs; and 3 or 4 miles north of the springs is a village called 'Ainun or AEnon. The site may therefore be regarded as settled with some degree of certainty.

E'NOS (man),the first-born of Seth. Gen 4:26; Gen 5:6-7, Gen 5:9-11; Luke 3:38.

E'NOSH (man), a form of Enos. 1 Chr 1:1.

EN-RIM'MON (fountain of the pomegranate), perhaps the same as Ain and Rimmon, Josh 15:32, and Ain Remmon, Josh 19:7. and Ain Rimmon. 1 Chr 4:32; Neh 11:29. Van de Velde and Wilton place it at Um er-Rumamin, between Eleutheropolis and Beer-sheba, where there is a large spring.

EN-RO'GEL (fountain of the fuller), a spring not far from Jerusalem. Josh 15:7; Josh 18:16; 2 Sam 17:17, 2 Sam 17:21; 1 Kgs 1:9. Some place it at the "well of Joab," in the valley of Hinnom. M. Ganneau would identify it with the Fountain of the Virgin. See Jerusalem.

EN-SHE'MESH (*fountain of the Sun), a spring between Judah and Benjamin, Josh 15:7; Josh 18:17; probably the same as that now called the 280 "Apostle's Spring," about 1 1/2 miles east of Bethany, and the first halting-place for travellers from Jerusalem to Jericho.

EN'SIGN. See Banners.

ENSUE' means, in 1 Pet 3:11, "to follow after and overtake."

EN-TAP'PUAH (apple, or citron spring), a place in Manasseh. Josh 17:7. See Tappuah.

ENTREAT', when spoken of conduct, means "to treat;" as, "to entreat well."

EPAEN'ETUS (praised), one whom Paul in Rom 16:5 called his "well-beloved," and "the first fruits of Achaia" — better, "of Asia" — unto Christ.

EP'APHRAS (lovely, a contraction of "Epaphroditus"), a distinguished disciple of Colossae, and a faithful minister of the gospel. Col 1:7. His character is described by the apostle Paul, Col 1:7-8, Lev 4:12, whose fellow-prisoner he was at Rome. Phile 23.

EPAPHRODI'TUS (lovely), an eminent disciple who resided at Philippi, and was commissioned by the church in that city to visit the apostle Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; to which circumstance, and the procuring cause of it, the apostle alludes with strong commendation. Phil 2:25; Phil 4:18.

E'PHAH (darkness).

  1. A son of Midian. and grandson of Abraham, Gen 25:4; 1 Chr 1:38; descendants mentioned in Isa 60:6.

  2. A concubine of Caleb, the son of Hezron. 1 Chr 2:46.

  3. One of Judah's descendants. 1 Chr 2:47.

E'PHAH (from the Egyptian, a measure, especially of corn). See Measures,

E'PHAI (weary), a Netophathite whose sons repaired unto Gedaliah. Jer 40:8.

E'PHER (a calf).

  1. A son of Midian. Gen 25:4; 1 Chr 1:32.

  2. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:17.

  3. A chief of the trans-Jordanic Manasseh. 1 Chr 5:24.

E'PHES-DAM'MIM (boundary of bloodshed), called also PAS-DAM'-MIM. 1 Sam 17:1; 1 Chr 11:13. Van de Velde locates it at a ruin in Wady Sunt called Damim, but Conder thinks we have a trace of the ancient Ephes-dammim in the modern Beit Fased, or "House of Bleeding," near Shochoh. (Tent-Life, ii. p.160.)

EPHE'SIANS, the citizens of Ephesus. Acts 19:28.

Epistle to, was written by Paul to the Christians at Ephesus. The church in that renowned city was established and built up under Paul's ministry, Acts 18:19, Rev 18:21; Acts 19, during the years 54-57. This letter was written by the apostle about a.d. 62, while he was in prison at Rome, and forwarded by Tychicus, a beloved brother and faithful minister. Eph 6:21. While other Epistles of Paul were evidently called forth by the circumstances of the church to which they were addressed, this Epistle is of a general character, and was intended for a number of congregations in Asia Minor. He expatiates with great fervor and eloquence upon the doctrine of election, upon the richness of the Christian inheritance, upon the new relationship between God and us — that in Christ Jesus we become "fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God." The succeeding prayer is surely one of the most marvellous outbursts of the apostle's piety, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. The main doctrinal thought of the Epistle is the Church in Christ Jesus, the eternal principles of her life, her unity of many members, her warfare and her victory, her steady growth, and her glorious end. Hence, in the hortatory portion, or last three chapters, he urges the duty of preserving unity, and makes the relation of Christ to his Church and of the Church to Christ the ideal standard of the domestic relation between man and wife and parents and children.

The Epistle to the Colossians was written at the same time. Hence there is great similarity between them. See Colossians, Epistle to.

EPH'ESUS, the most important commercial city of Asia Minor, "one of the eyes of Asia," Smyrna, 40 miles to the north, being the other. Ephesus stood upon the south side of a plain, with mountains on three sides and the Icarian Sea on the west. The river Cayster ran across the plain.

Scripture History. — Paul visited Ephesus on his second tour. Acts 18:19-21; Apollos was instructed there by Aquila


and Priscilla, Acts 18:24-26; Paul dwelt there 3 years, Acts 19; charged the elders of the church, Acts 20:16-28; the angel of the church of Ephesus is named in Rev 2:1-7. The city is a complete desolation; the ruins of the Stadium and theatre remain, but wild beasts haunt them. On the plain is a little Turkish village called Ayasolouk, from St. John, who is supposed to have ended his days at Ephesus. The ancient city often changed its name and its site. In the time of the Trojan war it was called Alopes, then Orthygia, next Morges, then Smyrna, Trachse, and Samornion, then Ptelae, then Ephesus, and now Ayasolouk.

Buildings. — In apostolic times Ephesus contained three remarkable buildings:

  1. The Temple of Diana, one of the Seven Wonders of the world. It was erected at the joint cost of all Asia, and was 220 years in building. Its length was 425 feet, and its breadth 220 feet. Built of purest marble, it is said to have gleamed like a meteor. Columns of Parian marble, 60 feet high and 127 in number, supported the roof. Its doors were of carved cypress. The jambs were of marble, and the transom above was a single block of vast dimensions, reputed to have been put in place by the goddess herself. The hall contained famous pieces of sculpture by Praxiteles, Phidias, and other masters; in the gallery, hung with master-pieces of paintings, one by Apelles is estimated to have cost upward of $190,000. In the centre of the court was an image of the goddess, which the superstitious people believed fell down from heaven. Acts 19:35. See Diana. Ephesus fell a prey to the Goths, a.d. 262, and the remains of its magnificent temple were hidden from the world until brought to light, in 1869, by Mr. J.T. Wood, who spent eleven years, from 1863 to 1874, in exploration about the ancient city. He found two large stones containing inscriptions in Greek and Latin recording that certain walls were built by order of Augustus, b.c. 6. Twenty feet below the surface was found a pavement belonging to the most ancient of the three temples which rose successively to Diana. The first temple, enlarged and beautified and called the second temple, was set on fire b.c. 356, on the night Alexander the Great was born. Some 2000 mediaeval coins were discovered in 1871, which are now in the British Museum.

  2. The Theatre, Acts 19:29, the largest structure of its kind built by the Greeks, and claimed to be capable of seating 50,000 spectators. Mr. Wood estimated its seating capacity at 24,500 persons.

  3. The Stadium, or Circus, 685 feet long by 200 feet wide, an arena in which the Ephesian people witnessed foot-racings, wrestlings, and fights with wild beasts. The combatants were usually condemned criminals, who were sent naked into the arena to be torn in pieces by the wild beasts. 1 Cor 15:32. The victims were sometimes exposed at the end of the combat, which gives great vividness to the apostle's figure in 1 Cor 4:9. Some of these games were held in honor of Diana, and the silver shrines or images of the goddess made by Demetrius and his fellow-craftsmen were eagerly purchased for household idols by visitors. Acts 19:24. A railroad has been built from Ephesus to Smyrna by an English company.

EPH'LAL (Judgment), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 2:37.

E'PHOD (ephod, or image), the father of one who helped in apportioning the land under Joshua and Eleazar. Num 34:23.

EPH'OD, one of the articles of the priest's official dress. Ex 28:6. It was made of plain linen, 1 Sam 2:18; 2 Sam 6:14, except the ephod of the high priest, which was embroidered with various colors. It consisted of two parts, one covering the back and the other the breast, clasped together upon each shoulder with a large onyx stone, upon which were engraved the names of the twelve tribes, six on each stone; and upon the place where it crossed the breast was the breastplate. See Breastplate. It was further fastened by a "curious girdle of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twined linen." The ephod, or something resembling it and called by the same name, was worn by others besides the priests. 1 Chr 15:27 and passages before cited. See High Priest.

E'PHRAIM (double fruitfulness), the second son of Joseph. Gen 41:52. Though younger than Manasseh, he was the object of peculiar favor, and the 283 prediction of their grandfather, Jacob, was literally fulfilled. Cornp. Gen 48:8-20; Num 2:18-21.

E'PHRAIM (double fruitfulness), a territory named after Joseph's second son, Gen 41:50-52; its boundaries are given in Josh 16:1-10. It lay in the centre of Canaan, south of Manasseh and north of Benjamin and Dan, extending from the Jordan to the Mediterranean Sea. It was about 55 miles long, and about 30 miles in its greatest breadth.

Physical Features. — It may be divided into three groups:1. The valley of the Jordan; 2. The hill-country; 3. The plain of Sharon, on the sea-coast. All these were well watered and fertile, fulfilling the blessing of Moses in Deut 33:13-16.

History. — For the early history of this territory, see Canaan. For more than 400 years Ephraim, with Manasseh and Benjamin, exercised undisputed preeminence. Joshua and Samuel were Ephraimites. In its territory, at Shiloh, the tabernacle was set up. Josh 18:1. The territory was prominent during the reigns of David and Solomon; but after the revolt of the ten tribes from Rehoboam, Jeroboam selected Shechem in Ephraim as his capital, 1 Kgs 12:25, when this territory became the chief portion of the northern kingdom of Israel. See Israel, Kingdom of. It was desolated by the Assyrians at the time of the Babylonish Captivity, and the country was repeopled by colonists, and later its name was changed to Samaria. See Samaria.

Ephraim, Gate of, one of the gates of ancient Jerusalem, 2 Kgs 14:13; 2 Chr 25:23; Neh 8:16; Neh 12:39; probably on the north side, as the present Damascus gate is.

Ephraim, Mount, a name applied to the hill-country of Ephraim, extending from Bethel to the plain of Jezreel; called also the "mountains of Israel," Josh 11:21, and "mountains of Samaria." Jer 31:5-6; Am 3:9.

Ephraim, Wood of, a forest in which the great battle was fought when Absalom was killed. 2 Sam 18:6. It lay east of the Jordan, in Gilead, near Mahanaim. Thick woods of oaks and terebinths still exist in that region.

E'PHRAIN (Hebrew, Ephron, two fawns), one of the places taken from Israel by Judah, 2 Chr 13:19; perhaps Ophrah is meant, though some think it is the same as the "city called Ephraim" to which Jesus retired. John 11:54. This was in the wilderness, perhaps at el-Taiyibeh, about 5 miles north-east of Bethel.

EPH'RATAH (fruitful), Caleb's wife, 1 Chr 2:50; 1 Chr 4:4; called Ephrath in 1 Chr 2:19.

EPH'RATAH, and EPH'RATH (fruitful), the original name of Bethlehem. Ruth 4:11; Ps 132:6; Gen 35:16, Gen 35:19; Gen 48:7. See Bethlehem.

EPH'RATH. See Ephratah.

E'PHRON (fawn-like), the son of Zohar the Hittite, of whom Abraham bought the field and cave of Machpelah. Gen 23:8.

E'PHRON, MOUNT (fawn-like), on the northern boundary of Judah, Josh 15:19; probably the range of hills west of Wady Beit-Hanina.

EPICUREANS, OR EPICU'REANS. This was a sect of Gentile philosophers founded by Epicurus, b.c. 342-271, who was born on the island of Samos, but taught his philosophy at Athens. They were in high repute at Athens in Paul's days. Acts 17:18. Among their doctrines were these — that the world came into being and will be dissolved by chance, or by the effect of mechanical causes moved by chance; that all events happen by chance or are occasioned by mechanical causes; that the soul dies with the body; that there is no future retribution; and that man's chief happiness lies in pleasure or bodily ease. This philosophy obtained a wide popularity in Asia Minor and in Rome as well as in the city and land of its originator. It derided the mythology of the ancients, but proposed nothing better. It created a frame of mind hostile to all religion, and particularly to the serious doctrines of the gospel.

EPIS'TLES, the word applied to the apostolic letters in the N.T. The existence of letters among the Hebrews and the mode of their composition will be discussed under Letter, Writing.

The Epistles of the N.T. arose from the necessity of correspondence as a substitute for the personal instruction 284 of the apostles with the widening of their field of labor. They may be divided into three classes: congregational, those addressed to a particular church and dealing with doctrinal or practical questions; private, those directed to individuals, but still containing exhortation and advice fitted for many; and general, those intended for universal use. Paul contributes thirteen or fourteen; John, three; Peter, two; James and Jude, one each.

In their outward form the Epistles are such as would be expected from Jews situated in the midst of a Greek civilization. They begin (the Epistle to the Hebrews and 1 John excepted) with the writer's name and the person or church to whom the letter is addressed; in the case of 1 and 2 Peter and Jude, with a more general address. The usual Greek and Hebrew salutation ("grace" and "peace") follows. In the letter the first person, singular or plural, is used indiscriminately. The individual messages are reserved to the close.

Since the Epistles of Paul are the most numerous and important, their form and method demand fuller treatment. His opening salutation combines the Greek "grace" with the Hebrew "peace," and transforms the prevailing ideas of physical health and temporal comfort into the deep meaning of the saving grace of God and peace in Christ. Paul employed an amanuensis. This fact explains many of his peculiarities; his sentences are sometimes involved and have the vehemence of a speaker, and not the calmness and control of a writer. In order, however, to authenticate his letters, Paul added a few words, a salutation, or a sentence in his own hand, probably employing larger letters than those in ordinary use, perhaps because of his defective eyesight. Ye see with how large letters I have written unto you with my own- hand, he writes unto the Galatians 6:11. Every one of his Epistles was written to meet some emergency; hence they bear the imprint of a historical occasion. Each Epistle has a clearly-defined fundamental idea which governs every part of it. They are tracts for his time, and yet tracts for all times and all congregations.

The earlier Epistles antedate the Gospels. They arose out of the necessities of the young Church. Questions would constantly be submitted to the apostles for their decision. Then, too, there were Christians to be encouraged and dangers to be pointed out, and so there were multiform occasions for these letters. It is quite manifest that our N.T. contains only a portion of this correspondence. But every letter which was in its nature adapted for the universal Church has been preserved as part of her canon. See Canon.

ER (watchful),

  1. Judah's first-born, slain for his wickedness. Gen 38:3, Gen 38:6-7; Num 26:19; 1 Chr 2:3.

  2. A son of Shelah. 1 Chr 4:21.

  3. A name in the genealogical list of Christ. Luke 3:28.

E'RAN (watchful), an Ephraimite. Num 26:36.

ERAS'TUS (beloved).

  1. One of Paul's attendants, whom he sent with Timothy into Macedonia, Acts 19:22, and whom he salutes in his letter to Timothy. 2 Tim 4:20.

  2. The "chamberlain" or treasurer of Corinth, and one of Paul's converts. Rom 16:23. Some identify him with the preceding, but upon insufficient grounds; for in this case we should expect the mention of his office in the Acts and in Timothy, as in Romans — unless, indeed, he received the office after his conversion, which is very unlikely.

E'RECH (enduring), a city of Nimrod. Gen 10:10. Its people are called Achevites and noticed in connection with the Babylonians. Ezr 4:9, Jerome 285 identifies Erech with Edessa, in Mesopotamia: others identity it with Orchoe or Orech of the Greek and Roman geographers. It corresponded to modern Warka, about 120 miles south-east of Babylon, where there are ruins of ancient buildings, and a rampart of earth nearly 6 miles in circumference and some places 40 feet high. There are ruins of three considerable buildings, the most important one being 200 feet square and about 100 feet high. Many of the bricks bear the name of Urukh, a king who is said to have lived about b.c. 2250. Warka is desolate — a city of tombs which even the jackal and hyena appear to shun.

E'RI (watching, i.e. worshipping, Jehovah), one of the sons of Gad. Gen 46:16; Num 26:16.

ESA'IAS, the same with Isaiah. Matt 3:3 etc.

E'SAR-HAD'DON, son and successor of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, and one of the greatest of her kings. 2 Kgs 19:37. He is the only Assyrian monarch who actually ruled in Babylon. He was the builder of magnificent structures, including 3 palaces and 30 temples. His reign extended from b.c. 680 to 667, and during it Manasseh, the king of Judah, was taken prisoner by his captains and carried before him at Babylon, and kept a captive for some time. 2 Chr 33:11.

E'SAU, or E'DOM, son of Isaac and Rebecca, and twin brother of Jacob. Gen 25:25; Gen 36:1. The most important events of his life are so intimately connected with the life of Jacob that they will be considered under Jacob. His family settled on Mount Seir, east of Jordan, which was hence called Edom, and his descendants were the Edomites, one of the most powerful and formidable nations of that age. See Edom.

ESCHEW (from the old French eschever) means "to flee from." Job 1:1, Job 1:8; Num 2:3; 1 Pet 3:11.

ESDRAE'LON, the great plain in Samaria. See Jezreel.

ES'DRAS, THE BOOKS OF. These two Apocryphal books are not of any historical value. First Esdras is little more than a compilation, after the Septuagint, of the canonical Ezra, prefaced by the last two chapters of 2 Chronicles, with a piece of Nehemiah at the end. It contains a history of the temple and its services from Josiah to Ezra. But chs. 3 and 4 are original, and contain a legend of a contest in wisdom between Zerubbabel and two others, held before Darius. The question in debate was, "Which is the strongest power?" The king was so much pleased with Zerubbabel's answer that he promised to give him anything he might ask, and, further, a seat next him and the name of "cousin." Zerubbabel took this occasion to ask that the Jews might have permission to rebuild their city and temple. The book breaks off abruptly; indeed, the present First Esdras seems to be only a fragment of a much larger work. We do not know the name of the compiler. It was probably written in Egypt, some time in the second century b.c. Its object was to present a picture of the liberality of Cyrus and Darius toward the Jews as a pattern to the heathen rulers of Judaea in the author's time.

Second Esdras is of less value than First. It exists in a Latin translation. The Greek original has not been found. It is, however, curious as a revelation of the Jewish mind of the day upon their future. It purports to contain a series of visions vouchsafed to Ezra. They are upon certain mysteries in the moral world and the final triumph of the righteous. The book was written in Egypt, probably before Christ, but interpolated by Christians.

E'SEK (strife), a well in the valley of Gerar, dug by Isaac's herdsmen. Gen 26:20.

ESH'-BA'AL (Baal's man), the same with Ishbosheth. 1 Chr 8:33;1 Chr 9:39. See Ishbosheth.

ESH'-BAN (wise man), a descendant of Seir the Horite. Gen 36:26; 1 Chr 1:41.

ESH'COL (cluster), one of Abraham's allies. Gen 14:13,Gen 14:24.

ESH'COL (bunch, or cluster), THE VALLEY OF, a valley in the land of Canaan, Num 13:23-24; Num 32:9; Deut 1:24. It has been placed at 'Ain el-Khashkali, north of Hebron, but Palmer and Drake would place it at Telilat el-'Anab, or "grape-mounds," near Beer-sheba. Van Lennep has found clusters of grapes 18 inches in length, 286 and it is said that bunches weighing from 12 to 20 pounds are still found in southern Palestine.

E'SHEAN, a place in the mountains of Judah. Josh 15:52. Van de Velde suggests the ruins of Khursa, near Hebron, as its site; Knobel would identify it with Shema, 1 Chr 2:43; Conder identifies it with el-Simia.

E'SHEK (oppression), a descendant of Saul. 1 Chr 8:29.

ESH'TAOL (recess, or hollow way), a town in the lowlands of Judah, Josh 15:33; given to Dan 19:41. It was the region of Samson's boyhood and burial. Jud 13:25; Jud 16:31. The Danites went out from thence. Jud 18:2-11. Robinson and others suggest Yeshua as its site; Black proposes Eshu'a, 1 mile east of Sura (Zoreah); and Grove proposes Kustul, east of Kuryet-el-Enab.

ESHTEMO'A (obedience), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:19.

ESHTEMO'A, or ESHTEM'OA (woman of renown ?), a town in the hill-country of Judah; given to the priests, Josh 21:14; 1 Chr 6:57; visited by David, 1 Sam 30:31; now called Semu'a a village of about 200 inhabitants. Among its houses are ruins and ancient hewn stones. It was also called Eshtemoh. Josh 15:50.

ESH'TEMOH. See Eshtemoa.

ESH'TON (effeminate). It is usually taken as the name of a descendant of Judah, but Grove thinks it was probably a place in Judah. 1 Chr 4:11-12.

ES'LI (reserved by Jehovah), a person in Christ's genealogy. Luke 3:25.

ESPOUSE'. See Betroth.

ES'ROM. Matt 1:3; Luke 3:33. The same with Hezron. Gen 46:12.

ESSE'NES. This Jewish sect is not mentioned in the N.T., because they lived in retired communities, and hence Christ and his apostles did not encounter them. They represent the mystic and ascetic forms of Judaism, while the Pharisees represented the orthodox, and the Sadducees the rationalistic and latitudinarian, forms. Their origin is unknown. Some think they started in the time of the Maccabees, about b.c. 150, while others trace them back to the Rechabites. Their name has never been satisfactorily explained. Some think it means "the retiring" or "the puritan;" others, "the healers." Bishop Lightfoot prefers the meaning "pious;" Philo makes it mean "holy;" Josephus considers it equivalent to "oracle."

From the two last-mentioned authors we derive our information, which, though not extensive, is sufficient to give us a vivid picture of their mode of life. In Josephus's day most of the Essenes lived in small colonies or villages at long distances from the towns, principally in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea, although some lived in the cities. They differed likewise in regard to marriage, the laxer practising it, but the stricter being celibates. Inasmuch as the latter were really the majority, our attention will be limited to them.

"Ascetic communism expresses the peculiarity of the Essenic movement." They had all things common. Philo says: "There is no one who has a house so absolutely his own private property that it does not in some sense also belong to every one; for besides that they all dwell together in companies, the house is open to all those of the same notions who come to them from other quarters. There is one storehouse among them all; their expenses are all in common, as are their garments and food. They do not retain their wages as their own, but bring it into the common stock. They take care of their sick and honor their elders." Each settlement had near it a room in which the members assembled at regular hours. Each Essene rose before sunrise, and said his morning prayer with his face turned toward the East. At daybreak they went to work: farming, cattle-raising, bee-keeping, and such-like peaceful operations, were their occupations. They shunned commerce, war, and trade. They dressed simply — not for show, but for decency and comfort; in the winter in a hairy mantle, and in the warm season in an undergarment without sleeves. Besides, at all times, they wore a leathern apron and carried little spades. They worked until 11 A.M. — the fifth hour — then bathed, dressed themselves in white linen (the dress of the sect), and then assembled for the meal. A priest said grace before and after the meal, which was always extremely simple, since they abstained from meat and wine. Then, having sung a hymn, they resumed their work, and worked until sunset. The seventh 287 day of the week was kept as an absolute rest, the time passed in the reading and exposition of the Law and their own peculiar books. While observing the Law in many points, they broke it in one important particular: they did not go to the feasts to sacrifice in Jerusalem, though they regularly sent gifts. This anomaly has been explained by their circumstances: their asceticism prevented them from partaking of the feasts, their mode of worship prevented them from entering the temple.

Since they abjured marriage, they recruited their ranks by adopting children, whom they took great pains in teaching. But they were never numerous. Philo states that in his time they did not number more than 4000. He who would join them had to endure a three years' novitiate, during which he was excluded from their society, but was compelled all this while to live on their spare diet and observe their rules. In the first year the novice wore the apron and the white linen garment and carried the spade. At the end of the year he was made a "partaker of the waters of purification." At the end of the third, after he had bound himself with tremendous oaths — though at other times oaths were absolutely forbidden — to be worthy of the order and obedient to its rulers, and especially "to keep the books of the order and the names of the angels," he was admitted into full membership. The "books" contained probably speculations in regard to the future, inasmuch as the Essenes enjoyed distinction from the number of their prophets. The "names of the angels" may have been magic formulae, since the Essenes practised magic. Banishment from the order was equivalent to starvation if the banished man desired reinstatement, since their peculiar notions would prevent him receiving food from any one not an Essene.

In regard to theology, the Essenes believed in unconditional Providence, the immortality of the soul, but not in the resurrection of the body, in future rewards to the righteous, and in future punishment to the wicked, who are "banished to a cold and dark corner, where they suffer unspeakable torments." They believed they had among them prophets, and indeed this was the popular opinion. Their celibacy, sunhomage, and abstinence from sacrifice were their non-Jewish qualities, derived from the Zoroastrian religion; to these must be added their magical rites and intense striving after purity.

In their life the Essenes were noted for their kindness to the sick and the poor. They opposed slavery. They made medicines from herbs which were healing. Modest and retiring, they shrank from participation in public affairs. According to Philo, their conduct generally was directed by three rules — "the love of God, the love of virtue, and the love of man."

It was the notion of some rationalists that Jesus derived his theology from them. But this opinion, which never had any foundation, is now given up by the rationalists themselves.

Bishop Lightfoot (Com. on Colossians, " Introd." p. 98) maintains, with many German commentators, that the Colossian heresy which Paul combats in his Epistle was a form of Essene Judaism which was Gnostic in its character. The Essenes disappear from history after the destruction of Jerusalem. See De Quincey's Essays on the Essenes.

ESTATE' is the general name for an order or class of men in society or government, Mark 6:21, as in Great Britain the lords and commons are called the "estates" of the realm.

ESTATE' OF THE ELD'ERS, Acts 22:5, means the eldership, the elders of the Jews, a distinct body from the Sanhedrin, but co-operating with it.

ES'THER (star), called also in Hebrew HADAS'SAH (the myrtle), an eminent Jewess, wife of Xerxes. She was an orphan child of the tribe of Benjamin, and cousin to Mordecai, who adopted her and brought her up very tenderly. When Ahasuerus — who was Xerxes — put away Queen Vashti, he chose Esther, who had already been selected, on account of her beauty and her worth, to fill the vacant place, b.c. 479. Having learned through her cousin, Mordecai, who held some office in the palace of Shushan, or Susa, the winter and favorite palace of the Persian kings, that Haman, the prime minister, had procured the royal permission to kill all the Jews in the kingdom, Esther had the 288 faith and the courage to carry out the plan suggested by Mordecai, and succeeded not only in executing the author of the infamous plot, but in getting permission for the Jews, upon the appointed day of slaughter, to defend themselves and take vengeance upon all who dared molest them, and for the Jews in Shushan to repeat the slaughter on the next day.

Esther, Book of, a narrative of the startling deliverance of the Jews through the agency of Esther and her cousin, Mordecai, and of the origin of the Purim festival. Haman, prime minister of Ahasuerus, had formed the wicked design to extirpate the Jews in the empire in revenge upon Mordecai, who refused to pay him the customary homage, and whom he had been compelled by the king to lead through the streets in recognition of Mordecai's services in saving the king's life. But his design was frustrated by the bravery of Esther, and the day fixed for the Jews' slaughter was for them a day of revenge. In memory of this deliverance the festival of Purim ("lots") was instituted, and so called in remembrance of Haman's casting of lots. Esth 3:7; Dan 9:24, Jer 9:26. It is annually observed on the 14th and 15th Adar, which month begins with the new moon of February and lasts till the new moon in March. At this festival the book is read, and it is the custom, in "some synagogues, whenever the name of Haman is pronounced, to hiss and stamp and clench the fist and cry, 'Let his name be blotted out! May the name of the wicked rot.' It is said also that the names of Haman's sons are all read in one breath, to signify that they all expired at the same instant of time."

The book is written upon a single roll. It is greatly admired by the Jews. This saying is attributed to one of their greatest men: "In the days of the Messiah the prophetical books and the Hagiographa will be done away with, excepting only Esther, which will endure together with the Pentateuch." Its literary character is fully equal to the best of the other historical books of the canon. The style is lively, and almost dramatic. But the peculiarity of the book is that the name of God does not occur in any form. The omission was probably intentional, and in order to permit the reading of Esther at the joyous, even hilarious, festival of Purim, without irreverence. It is worthy of notice, in this connection, that in Solomon's Song the name of God occurs only once in the Hebrew, Song of Solomon 8:6, where the A.V. translates "a most vehement flame." The book of Esther is full of a most intense Judaism, and incidentally exhibits great familiarity with Persian manners and customs. Its incidents are thoroughly in keeping with the known character of Xerxes.

The book furnishes a striking illustration of an all-ruling Providence in controlling human passions, frustrating wicked designs, punishing sinners, and delivering God's people from their enemies even in a foreign land. This is the chief practical value of the book. It is likewise a divine sanction to the virtue of patriotism.

The language of the book contains several Persian words, translated "satrap," "post," "edict," "royal" (not "camel;" Esth 8:10 and Am 8:14 read: "coursers of the royal stud"), "cotton," "crown," "nobles," "a copy," and "lot."

The circumstantial minuteness of detail, the vividness of the portraits, the Persian words, and the whole tone of the book indicate that the author was a Jew who lived about the time of the events recorded, at the court of Persia, where he had access to the official documents of the kingdom. Professor Rawlinson assigns the book to a period from 20 to 30 years after Xerxes's death, b.c. 444-434.


  1. A place in Simeon, 1 Chr 4:32; perhaps the modern 'Aitan.

  2. A place in Judah, 2 Chr 11:6 the source of the water for Solomon's gardens and the temple, according to Josephus. It has been identified with Urtae, near Bethlehem; but Drake suggests the spring 'Ain 'Atan, a few hundred yards south-east of Solomon's pools.

E'TAM, THE ROCK, Samson's retreat after the slaughter of the Philistines. Jud 15:8, Jud 8:11. Condor locates it at Beit 'Atab, a little north of Esba'a (Eshtaol), which he thinks fully meets all the requisites of the case. It has clefts, caves, and a rock-tunnel which would so effectually conceal one that those not acquainted with the place might not find him, nor even the 289 entrance to the tunnel except by accident. (Tent-Life, vol. i. p. 275.)

ETERNAL, ETERNITY. The word translated "eternity" is in Hebrew olam, which means "hidden;" in Greek, aion, which has primary reference to a period as "a lifetime." The difference between them consists in the fact that olam usually means the world in time, although the only place where it is so rendered in our version is Eccl 3:11. But Ps 90:1 is literally "from world to world," Ps 145:13, "kingdom of all worlds," Deut 33:27; "the arms of the world" (English Version, "everlasting arms"). The underlying thought in these passages is that of immense time movements exhibiting God's great work.

The Hebrew and Greek words both had plurals, which proves that they did not in themselves denote absolute endlessness. They are likewise applied to finite things. Gen 17:8; Isa 49:26; Ex 12:14. When they are applied to God and spiritual things they indicate the endless succession of ages, which is the popular and necessary conception of eternity. The idea of absolute eternity is impressed in the Bible by language which implies finality. It is this which renders Matt 25:46 so impressive. The verse sets forth the last act of the great drama of human life, and the rewards and penalties are awarded irreversibly. Here the curtain falls.

E'THAM (boundary of the sea), a Station of the Israelites "in the edge of the wilderness." Ex 13:20; Num 33:6-7. Canon Cook would identify it with Pithom or ancient Hierapolis; others with Seba Beer, "seven wells," about 3 miles west of the Red Sea; Trumbull, with a "wall" from the Red to the Great Sea.

E'THAN (firm, strong).

  1. The "Ezrahite," Ps 89, title, was of the tribe of Levi, and was remarkable for his wisdom. 1 Kgs 4:31: 1 Chr 2:6. He is supposed to have written Ps 89.

  2. Son of Kishi, a Merarite Levite, head of that family in the time of David, and spoken of as a "singer." 1 Chr 6:44; 1 Chr 15:17, 1 Chr 15:19.

  3. A Gershonite Levite, ancestor of Asaph, the Psalmist. 1 Chr 6:42.

ETH'ANIM. See Months.

ETH'BAAL (with Baal; i. e. favored by him), king of the Zidonians and father of Jezebel. 1 Kgs 16:31. In secular history he is known as Ithobalus, a priest of Astarte, as well as king. He usurped the throne of Tyre after having murdered the reigning king. He reigned 32 years, b.c. 940-908.

E'THER (abundance), a town in the lowlands of Judah, Josh 15:42; given to Simeon, Josh 19:7. In 1 Chr 4:32, Tochen is put in the place of Ether. Van de Velde suggested Tell Athar, and Wilton, ??Andrah??. Conder proposes, as the corresponding name, 'Atr.

ETHIO'PIA (burnt-faces), called CUSH by the Hebrews, a country south of Egypt, Ezr 29:10, which embraced in its more extended sense modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan, and northern Abyssinia. Sometimes it represented the whole of Africa beyond Egypt. In the Scriptures "Ethiopia" usually refers to the region extending from Egypt southward beyond the junction of the White and Blue Nile. This was Seba, Isa 43:3, and known to the Romans as the kingdom of Meroe. The country is rolling and mountainous, the elevation increasing toward the south, until it reaches a height of about 8000 feet in Abyssinia.

Scripture History. — Frequent notices of this country and its people are found in the Bible. It was settled by the children of Ham, Gen 10:6, dark-skinned men of stature. Jer 13:23:Isa 45:14. They were selected as members of royal households. Jer 38:7-13. The treasurer of its queen, Candace, was baptized by Philip. Acts 8:27-38. It is noticed in connection with Egvpt. Isa 20:4; Isa 43:3; Isa 45:14; with Libya (Phut), Jer 46:9; Lydia and Chub (Lub and Lud), Eze 30:5, and the Sukkiim. 2 Chr 12:3. Moses married an Ethiopian, Num 12:1; Ethiopians were in Shishak's army, 2 Chr 12:3; Zerah, an Ethiopian king, had an army of a million soldiers, 2 Chr 14:9-12; Job mentioned the precious stones of Ethiopia, Job 28:19; the Israelites were familiar with the merchandise of that country, Isa 45:14; and Isaiah foretold the subjugation of Ethiopia by the Assyrians. Isa 20:4-5. Among the Assyrian inscriptions of Assurbanipal, now in the British Museum, George Smith deciphered several which 290 especially illustrate and confirm the fulfilment of this prophecy. Among other prophecies in respect to Ethiopia are Ps 68:31; Ps 87:4; Isa 45:14; Eze 30:4-9; Dan 11:43; Hab 3:7; Zeph 2:12; Nah 3:8-10.

Secular History. — Ethiopia became one of the most powerful and civilized nations of the world as early as b.c. 1000. The ruling class was of the priests. In the eighth century b.c. an Ethiopian dynasty reigned in Lower Egypt. Its first king was Sabaco, whose son was So of the Bible, 2 Kgs 17:4, an ally of Hoshea, king of Israel. It is said that in the reign of the Egyptian king Psarametichus, b.c. 630, 240,000 of the military class migrated into Ethiopia. In b.c. 530, Cambyses, king of Persia, invaded Egypt, and, according to Josephus, conquered Meroe or Ethiopia. The Romans, in the reign of Augustus Ctesar, b.c. 22, defeated Candace, queen of Ethiopia, and made the country tributary to Rome.

ETHIOPIAN EU'NUCH, THE, the Jewish proselyte who, returning from some feast in Jerusalem, was met by Philip the evangelist and baptized. Acts 8:26 ff. He was a eunuch in the strict sense, not in its official sense of "courtier," and the treasurer of Candace, queen of the Ethiopians. Candace was the name of a dynasty, and not of individual monarchs.

ETHIOPIAN WO'MAN, the name by which the wife of Moses is called in Num 12:1. She was probably his second wife, married after the death of Zipporah, who was a Midianite.

ETH'NAN (hire; e.g. of a harlot), a descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:7.

ETH'NI (munificent), a Gershonite Levite. 1 Chr 6:41.

EUBU'LUS (prudent), a Roman Christian who greeted Timothy. 2 Tim 4:21.

EUNI'CE, OR EU'NICE (happily victorious), the mother of the evangelist Timothy. She was by birth a Jewess, but married a Gentile. Acts 16:1; 2 Tim 1:5,

EU'NUCH (bed-keeper, chamberlain). Such persons have long been, and are still, employed about Eastern courts as guards and attendants in harems. 2 Kgs 9:32; Esth 2:3; and others of this class hold oftentimes the principal offices. They are often cowardly, jealous, intriguing, the tool of despots and libertines, ready for any evil work, being shameless and remorseless. They are also peculiarly liable to be melancholy, and, as the only way of ridding themselves of the burden of life, to commit suicide. Eunuchs are the natural consequence of polygamy, and they are numerous in the Eastern cities. In ancient Rome there were many; so in Greece during the Byzantine period. There are even to-day in Rome a few who sing soprano in the Sistine chapel — the only instance in Christian lands.

According to the law of Moses, no eunuch could enter into the congregation of the Lord, Deut 23:1; nor could a mutilated animal be offered in sacrifice. Lev 22:24. Eunuchs existed in the various foreign courts of which we read in the Bible. Herod had them, and so Queen Candace. Acts 8:27.

The word "eunuch " is employed by Christ, Matt 19:12, in various senses to designate: 1. Those who are naturally incapacitated; 2. Those who have been mutilated; 3. Those who voluntarily abstain from marriage in order to devote themselves more exclusively to the interests of the kingdom of God.

EUO'DIAS (fragrant), a Christian woman of Philippi. Phil 4:2.

EUPHRA'TES (the abounding), a noted river, the largest in western Asia, rises in Armenia in two sources. One, on the northern side of the mountain of Ararat, runs in a south-easterly course, receives many tributaries in its winding course along the borders of Syria, and skirting the Arabian desert passes through the middle of Babylon to the sea. Its whole length is 1780 miles. It is navigable for large ships to Bassora, 70 miles above its mouth; a steamer drawing 4 feet of water has ascended to Bir, 1197 miles. It flows in a broad, deep current, filled to the level of its banks, and at Babylon is considerably less than a mile in width. For the last 800 miles of its course it does not receive a single tributary. The quantity of water discharged by the river at Hit is estimated at 72,804 cubic feet per second. The Tigris flows in a narrower channel, with deeper banks and a less rapid current. The country 291 between the two rivers slopes toward the Tigris, and thus greatly favors the draining off of the superfluous waters of the Euphrates.

The Euphrates overflows its banks in the spring of every year, when the snow of the Armenian mountains dissolves, and it sometimes rises 12 feet. It swells in March, and sinks in July. Dykes, lakes, and canals constructed at vast expense preserved the water for irrigation during the dry season, and prevented its carrying away the soil.

History. — Euphrates is named as one of the rivers of Eden, Gen 2:13; called "the great river," Gen 15:18; Deut 1:7; noted as the eastern boundary of the Promised Land, Deut 11:24; Josh 1:4; 1 Chr 5:9; and of David's conquests, 2 Sam 8:3; 1 Chr 18:3; of those of Babylon from Egypt, 2 Kgs 24:7; is referred to in prophecy, Jer 13:4-7; Jer 46:2-10; Jer 51:63, and in Revelation 9:14; Num 16:12. In upward of 26 other passages it is spoken of as "the river." By this stream the captive Jews wept. Ps 137:1. It is now called the Frat by the natives. For a sketch-map of the course of the Euphrates see Assyria.

The Murad-chai, a branch of the Euphrates, was crossed by Xenophon, b.c. 410. After this unites with the other chief stream, forming the Euphrates, the river is 120 yards wide. It was used to irrigate the valley around Babylon by means of numerous canals, dykes, and aqueducts, making the plain one of the most fertile spots in the world. It was announced in 1879 that a railroad had been projected along the Euphrates from Damascus to Bagdad. See Babylon and Chaldaea.

EUROC'LYDON. Acts 27:14. A very tempestuous wind on the Mediterranean; now known under the name of a "Levanter." It blows from all points, and its danger results from its violence and the uncertainty of its course.

EU'TYCHUS (fortunate), the name of a young man who fell from the third story of a house where Paul was preaching in Troas, and was restored by him to life. Acts 20:9.

EVAN'GELIST (a messenger of good tidings). In the N.T. the word means a preacher of the gospel who was not fixed in any place, but who travelled as a missionary to preach the gospel and establish churches. Acts 21:8; Eph 4:11; 2 Tim 4:5. The evangelists seem to have been an order of ministers standing between the apostles and the pastors and teachers. They could not impart the Holy Ghost. Acts 8:15. They were liable to be sent upon sudden errands. Acts 8:26. They might be officers in a particular church, yet evangelists, as was the case with Philip, who is the best known of the class. Acts 6:5. We find the evangelists commonly in the service of the apostles as their "helpers" and "fellow-laborers." Paul made most use of them, as was to be expected; on his last journey to Jerusalem he was accompanied by no less than seven of them. Acts 20:4-5. They were the "vicegerents" of the apostles. Thus, Timothy was sent by Paul to report the condition of the Philippian church, Phil 2:19-23, completed the organization of the Ephesian church, and repressed the growth of errors during the absence of Paul. 1 Tim 1:3; 1 Tim 3:14-15; 1 Tim 4:13. The discourses of the evangelists were historical in their matter and turned chiefly upon the main facts of Christ's life.

This fact gave rise to the later application of the term to the authors of our written Gospels, who are commonly called "the four Evangelists." To Matthew is assigned as symbol the face of a man (because he traces the human descent of Christ, the Son of man); to Mark the lion, (because he sketches Christ as the conquering Lion of the tribe of Judah); to Luke the ox (with reference to Christ as the Victim slain for the sins of the world); and to John the eagle (because of his bold flight and steady gaze at the eternal Son of God).

EVE (life)- The name was applied by Adam to his wife because "she was the mother of all living." Gen 3:20. She was formed out of a rib of Adam, taken while he slept — a fact which teaches the identity of nature and the oneness of the origin of man and woman, and stamps the divine disapproval upon any degradation of women. In the language of Matthew Henry, "the woman was made of a rib out of the side of Adam; not made out of his head to top 292 him, not out of his feet to be trampled upon by him, but out of his side to be equal with him, from under his arm to be protected, and from near his heart to be beloved."

Eve was Adam's helpmeet and his equal in sinless purity. But her weaker nature afforded Satan's opportunity. Overcome by his sophistry, she ate of the forbidden fruit, and then in turn became a tempter, by her persuasion inducing Adam to share her sin, and thus brought death into the world and all our woe. For her prominent part in the Fall, God said to her, "I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and, he shall rule over thee." Gen 3:16. But it was the seed of Eve which was to bruise the serpent's head, and thus the unhappy author of human sin was to be the blessed mother of sin's destroyer. The remarkable sayings of Eve's at the birth of her three known sons have been preserved, and make up all that is known of her. She welcomed the first, Cain (Heb. possession), as the promised one: "I have gotten a man, even the Lord." But, soon undeceived, she said of Abel (vanity), "Vanity;" and while her heart was made heavy by the experience of crime, she said of Seth (compensation): "God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew." The Scripture account of Eve closes with the birth of Seth. She is twice mentioned by Paul, once as the subject of the serpent's guile, 2 Cor 11:3, and once as the second created, in an argument for the silence of women. 1 Tim 2:13.

E'VENING, Ps 55:17, E'VENTIDE. Gen 24:63. The Hebrews reckoned two evenings, one commencing at sunset and embracing the period of twilight, and the other commencing at dark. Some suppose that the first evening commenced as early as 3 o'clock in the afternoon, and the second at sunset. It was in the interval between the two evenings, at whichever of these periods it occurred, that the passover was to be killed and the daily sacrifice offered. See marginal reading of Ex 12:6; Num 9:3; 1 Sam 28:4. "Eventide" is the same with "evening-time."

E'VI (desire), a king of Midian slain by the Israelites. Num 31:8; Josh 13:21.

E'VIL-MERO'DACH, son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. 2 Kgs 25:27. Soon after his accession to the throne he released Jehoiachin, king of Judah, from prison, and treated him with great regard through life. Jer 52:31-34. He began his reign b.c. 561, but in b. c. 559 he fell a victim to a conspiracy formed among his own kindred, headed by his brother-in-law, Neriglissar — probably the Nergal-sharezer of Jer 39:3, 2 Kgs 11:13 — who succeeded him.

EXCHAN'GERS. See Changers of Money.

EXCOMMUNICA'TION. The writings of the Rabbins mention the various offences for which men were cut off from the privileges of the synagogue, and even from social life. Our Lord is supposed to refer to the excommunications practised — "the simple separation, the additional malediction, and the final exclusion" — when he said, "Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach yon, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake." Luke 6:22. Another and yet more evident reference to these Jewish ceremonies is that in John's story of the man born blind. John 9:22-23, John 9:34-35. Rabbinical excommunication does not rest upon the Law of Moses. It is the natural outgrowth of a well-organized society, which keeps itself clear of all obnoxious persons. In its mildest form it was a prohibition from "the use of the razor, the bath, or the convivial table, and all who had to do with the offender were commanded to keep him at four cubits' distance." It lasted 30 days, but might be renewed for an equal period. In case of continued rebellion, the second step was taken. In a solemn manner the offender was cursed, and prohibited from teaching or being taught, hiring or being hired, and from "performing any commercial transactions beyond purchasing the necessaries of life." The third and last step was entire exclusion from the congregation.

It was to be expected that in the Christian Church the practice of excommunication 293 would be continued. Its institution by our Lord is recorded in Matt 18:15, Matt 18:18, and the practice and commands of Paul are given in 1 Tim 1:20; 1 Cor 6:11;2 Cor 2:5-10; Tit 3:10. Christian excommunication, as we gather from these Pauline Epistles, was a purely spiritual penalty, inflicted for the good of the sufferer and in order that the church might be protected. The sentence might be increased or lightened according to circumstances. Repentance was the condition of restoration; and as the exclusion of the offender from the temporal body of Christ was a public and congregational act, so the reception of the excommunicated member was of the same character.

EXECU'TIONER In O.T. times the post was honorable. The executioner of Mark 6:27 belonged to the king's body-guard.

EX'ODUS, the second book of the Pentateuch. The word is Greek for "going out" or "departing," and is an appropriate title to the book, which contains an account of the going out of the Israelites from the land of Egypt. It may be divided into two parts: 1. The historical, chs. 1-18:27; 2. The legislative, ch. 19 to the end.

  1. In the historical portion we have an account of the depressed condition of the people under the king "who knew not Joseph" (Rameses II.), the birth, education, flight, and return of Moses, the attempts, at first disastrous to the Hebrews, to secure the king's permission to their temporary exodus, the plagues wrought by the Lord's power, culminating in the death of the firstborn, the journey of the Israelites from Goshen to Sinai, with all the important incidents and miracles. This portion closes with the Israelites before Mount Sinai, encamped upon the ground they were to occupy for a year.

  2. In the legislative part are related the giving of the Law, and the sin of the golden calf; then follow the text of the ten commandments, the various laws for the governance of the people, the full directions for the priesthood and all their appointments. And lastly there are described the erection of the tabernacle and the inauguration of the service. In this book the Bible is brought into contact with Egyptology and much light has been thrown upon it from modern discoveries and researches confirming the Mosaic narrative. See Pentateuch.

EX'ODUS, THE. The date, the geography, and the history of this "great turning-point in biblical history" will be considered.

  1. Date. — There is a difference of opinion among biblical scholars as to the name of the two kings who oppressed the Israelites and are mentioned in the book of Exodus under the generic name of Pharaoh.

(1) Some hold that Amosis or Aahmes I. was the Pharaoh of the Oppression, and that Thothmes or Tutmes II. was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, who perished in the Red Sea. The latter reigned about a century later, b.c. 1485. His reign is known to have been short and inglorious. But the difficulties in the way of this view are numerous.

(2) According to the other theory, now held by the majority of Egyptologists and biblical scholars, Rameses II., the Great — the Sesostris of the Greeks — was the Pharaoh who " knew not Joseph," Ex 1:11 (b.c. 1388 to 1325), and his son, Menephthah II., was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Menephthah was the thirteenth son of Rameses, and began to rule probably b.c. 1325 or 1322. He marks a period of decline in which the conquests of his two great predecessors were gradually lost. Few monuments were erected in his reign, and even his father's tomb was left unfinished. This is just what we would expect after the catastrophe in the Red Sea. Herodotus tells us that the son of Sesostris (Rameses, whom he calls Pheron) undertook no warlike expeditions, and was smitten with blindness for 10 years because "he impiously hurled his spear into the overflowing waves of the river, which a sudden wind caused to rise to an extraordinary height." This reads like a confused reminiscence of the overthrow in the Red Sea. Taking this view, we may, with Lepsius and Ebers, set the Exodus in b.c. 1317, on the fifteenth day of the first month, A bib or Nisan, our April.

  1. Geography. — The Scripture data about the Exodus are as follows: The children of Israel proceeded from Rameses to Succoth, Ex 12:37; thence to

Etham, "in the edge of the wilderness," Ex 13:20; here they were to "turn and encamp, before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon." Gen 14:2. With these notices must be compared the list of camping-stations which Moses gives. Num 33:2-10. When the Egyptians came upon the track of the Israelites they said, "They are entangled in the land; the wilderness is closed against them," Ex 14:3 — i.e. "They cannot get out of Egypt; they must either return or cross the sea." Moses intended to go by the way of the wilderness, but when he turned southward, by divine command, he was shut in by the waters of the Red Sea, which then probably extended farther north, to the Bitter Lakes. We may thus identify the places mentioned in the itinerary. Rameses, the place of general rendezvous, is Zoan (Tanis). Succoth, which Ebers considers an Egyptian word (fields), must have been halfway between Rameses and Etham. Etham was probably Pithom (Pitum); Pi-hahiroth is Ajeudot Agrad, a fortress on the way from Etham to Suez; Migdol is Bir Sitweis, about 2 miles from Suez; Baal-zephon is perhaps identical with Mount Atakah. Baal was the chief deity of the Phoenicians, who had at a very early period a settlement in Lower Egypt.

There are two prominent theories about the locality and mode of the miraculous passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea: (1) The usual theory, which locates the passage several miles south of Suez, where the sea is about 10 miles broad. This theory fits in best with the literal meaning of the narrative, for in this case the waters must have been actually divided for several miles, and have stood like walls on either hand. But the difficulties the view raises are more numerous than those it solves. Could the host of Israel, encumbered as they were, have crossed in one night through such a channel? Would the Egyptians have followed them through the deep sea, and in view of such an amazing interposition of God? Could any wind have had such an effect upon so wide a sea? And if not, why is it mentioned at all as an agent? An accumulation of miracles is called for by this theory. (2) The second theory puts the crossing at the head of the gulf, near or some distance north of Suez. In Moses's time the gulf may have extended as a reedy marsh as far as the Bitter Lakes. The crossing was made possible by a special providence and a miraculous adaptation of the laws of nature. The east, or rather north-east, wind drove off the waters from the small arm of the sea which runs up by Suez; this would leave the water on the more northern part of the arm, so that there would be waters on both sides to serve as an entrenchment. This would meet the

Sketch-map of the Route of the Exodus.

exigences of the narrative, Ex 14:22. But even in this case the passage of two millions of people, with all their cattle, was an astounding miracle. It has its counterpart in the crossing of the river Jordan at the end of the journey through the wilderness. For a third theory advocated by Brugsch Bey, and more recently by Prof. A. H. Sayce, see Red Sea. 3. History. — The Exodus was the execution of a divine plan. God sent ten 295 plagues upon the land in punishment. The last was the severest: the first-born in every house lay dead. But while the destroying angel went through the midst of Egypt the Israelites were gathered in their respective houses, ready at any moment to hear the command, "Go! begone!" their loins girded, their shoes on their feet, their staffs in their hands, eating hastily the lamb which they had roasted. Thus they observed the Passover. "Dimly we see and hear in the darkness and confusion of that night the stroke which at last broke the heart of the king and made him let Israel go." "And Pharaoh in the night, he and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not one dead." Then followed in quick succession the midnight call of Pharaoh for Moses and Aaron, the command to depart, the urgent co-operation of the nation to hasten their departure, and the actual leaving of the house of bondage and start upon the momentous journey.

  1. Practical Lesson. — The history of the exodus of the Israelites from the land of bondage — their wanderings through the dreary wilderness under the guidance of the Law of God, the pillar of cloud by day and fire by night, with many resting-places in delightful oases, and the constant services of the tabernacle, and their final entrance into the Promised Land — has always been regarded as a most instructive type and illustration of the history of the Christian Church and of the individual believer, his deliverance from the bondage of sin, and his passage to the heavenly land of rest and peace.

EXOR'CISTS, those who, by the use of the name of God, attempted to expel evil spirits from places or persons of whom they had possession. It was not an uncommon profession among the Jews, as we may infer from Matt 12:27; Mark 9:38; Acts 19:13. They were popularly believed to have gotten their power by their study of magic formulas written out by Solomon, of drugs and charms, by the use of spells and incantations; but they were impostors.


See Feasts; Atonement, Day of.

EYES. It was part of the cruelty which distinguished ancient warfare to put out the eyes of prisoners, particularly those who were prominent or dangerous. This custom is referred to in Jud 16:21; 1 Sam 11:2; 2 Kgs 25:7.

The custom of adorning the eyelids in any way for effect is not known among us, but is often alluded to in the O.T., 2 Kgs 9:30; Jer 4:30; Eze 23:40, and prevails extensively now among Eastern women, especially among Mohammedans. The hair and edges of the eyelids are tinged with a fine black powder moistened with oil or vinegar, which causes a small black line to appear around the edge, and at a distance (and especially by candlelight) gives a heavy, dark shade to the eyes. A smooth cylindrical piece of silver or ivory, shaped like a quill and about 2 inches long, is dipped into the composition and placed within the eyelashes, which are closed over it.

The figurative use of the word "eye" to indicate alacrity and vigilance occurs Eze 1:18; Eze 10:12; Rev 4:6, Rev 4:8.

EYE'-SERVICE, in Col 3:22; Eph 6:6, means "service performed only as it were under the master's eye — i.e. reluctant and mercenary."

E'ZAR (treasure). 1 Chr 1:38. See ezer.

EZ'BAI (shining), the father of one of David's warriors. 1 Chr 11:37.

EZ'BON (splendor). 1. One of the 296 sons of Gad, Gen 46:16; called Ozni. Num 26:16.

  1. A Benjamite. 1 Chr 7:7.

EZEKI'AS, the Greek form of Hezekiah, used in Matt 1:9-10.

EZE'KIEL (God will strengthen, or the strength of God), the son of a priest named Buzi, was born and spent his earlier years in Judaea. He was carefully educated, but carried by Nebuchadnezzar into captivity with Jehoiachin, king of Judah, b.c. 598, 11 years before the destruction of Jerusalem, and placed with a Jewish community by the river Chebar, in Chaldaea. See Chebar. He prophesied over 22 years, b.c. 595-573, till the fourteenth year after the final captivity of Jerusalem. From incidental allusions we learn that he had a house, Eze 8:1, and had lost his wife very suddenly, Eze 24:16-18. He was held in great esteem and frequently consulted by the elders, Neh 8:1; Eze 11:25; Eze 14:1; Eze 20:1. It is said that he kept up an intimate friendship with Jeremiah, and even that they exchanged prophecies. At all events, they echo one another's grief and lament over the ruined city, and both pierce through the gloom of the present distress and see the light of a new dispensation when the Law shall be written in the heart. Eze 11:19;Eze 18:31; cf. Jer 31:33. We do not know how or when his death occurred. Tradition states he was murdered. His reputed tomb is shown near Bagdad.

Ezekiel was stern, inflexible, an earnest Jewish patriot, devoted to the rites and ceremonies of his religion, and uncompromisingly opposed to all forms of evil. He no doubt contributed much to the formation of the intense nationality of the Jews during that period. Prof. J. T. Hyde says: "He is not so much of a counsellor and seer as Isaiah, nor so much of a reformer and intercessor as Jeremiah, nor so much of a prince and statesman as Daniel, but more of a priest in his general spirit and bearing. More than a hundred times is he called 'son of man,' a title given to no other prophet except Daniel, and to him only once, Dan 8:17, signifying, doubtless, that 'to them of the captivity' he was not only a living witness for God, but a priestly mediator, with somewhat of the distant dignity of the great 'Son of man' himself."

Prophecy of. The book of Ezekiel is arranged in regular chronological order, and presents a great variety of visions, symbolical actions, parables, proverbs, allegories, and direct prophecies. Many of the symbolic acts were probably not literally performed by the prophet, but described in this manner for rhetorical effect. He is especially familiar with architecture, from which he often draws his illustrations. He is somewhat obscure by reason of the strange things he describes — "wheels within wheels, with living creatures wedded." The Jews reckoned his prophetical writings among those portions of Scripture which were not allowed to be read till the age of 30. His imagery and symbolism derive much light from the recently-discovered Assyrian monuments. We there find reproduced the strange forms he brings to our view — the eagle-winged lion and the human-headed bull. His visions give us "the last glimpse of these gigantic emblems, which vanished in the prophet's lifetime, only to reappear in our own age from the long-lost Nineveh." (Stanley.)

The book is divided into two parts, of which the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar is the turning-point. (1) Chs. 1-24 contain predictions before that event; these are arranged in chronological order from the fifth year of the Captivity to the ninth. (2) Chs. 25-48 contain prophecies and visions after Jerusalem's fall, including denunciations against Ammon, Moab, Edom, the Philistines, Tyre, Zidon, and Egypt, 30-32; predictions of the re-establishment of the theocracy, 35-48. Ch. 35 is the judgment of Seir. The second part is also arranged chronologically. Ezekiel himself is the apparent editor of his book.

There are no direct quotations of Ezekiel in the N.T., but many parallels and obvious allusions to the later chapters in the book of Revelation.

The Vision of the Temple. — This section, the last nine chapters, 40-48, is so remarkable that it arrests the attention of every reader and constitutes the unique feature of Ezekiel's book. It is a magnificent vision and description of the new temple which Ezekiel saw from a high mountain in the twenty fifth year of the Captivity and the 297 fourteenth after the destruction of the holy city. Although a few commentators maintain it was but a description from memory of Solomon's temple, the majority hold that it has to do with future events. These latter differ according as they see in it a mere prophetic picture of Zerubbabel's temple, or a vague announcement of some future blessing, or, as is altogether the best view, a Messianic prophecy. It is most probably a grand symbol of the future Church of God. Its historical foundation is undoubtedly the first temple and the hidden springs of the sacred mount, but upon this foundation the inspired prophet builds a glorious superstructure of allegory which sets forth the whole scheme of redemption.

E'ZEL(departure), THE STONE, near Saul's residence, and noted as the place where Jonathan and David parted. 1 Sam 20:19.

E'ZEM (bone), a city of Simeon, 1 Chr 4:29; also called Azem. Josh 19:8.

E'ZER (treasure), a "duke" of the Horites. Gen 36:21, Gen 36:27, Jer 36:30; 1 Chr 1:42.

E'ZER (help).

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:4.

  2. A son of Ephraim. 1 Chr 7:21.

  3. A Gadite chief who joined David. 1 Chr 12:9.

  4. A Levite who assisted in repairing the wall. Neh 3:19.

  5. A priest who took part in its dedication. Neh 12:42.

E'ZION-GA'BER OR GE'BER (giant's backbone), a city on the Red Sea, the last station of the Israelites before they came to the wilderness of Zin, Num 33:35; Deut 2:8; the station of Solomon's navy, 1 Kgs 9:26; 2 Chr 8:17, and of Jehoshaphat's navy. 1 Kgs 22:48. Probably it was at 'Ain el-Ghudydn, about 10 miles up what is now the dry bed of the Arabah. Kiepert and Robinson suppose that the northern end of the gulf anciently flowed up to this point.

EZ'RA (help).

  1. A descendant of Judah. 1 Chr 4:17.

  2. A Jewish priest and scholar who lived in Babylon during the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, over whom he had such influence that in his seventh year he obtained permission to head a large company of persons and go to Jerusalem, b.c. 457. Ezr 7. The journey was completed in four months. In addition to the treasure brought, Ezra had other supplies, for he had permission to draw on the king's treasures. In Jerusalem he carried through the reforms he had intended, particularly the separation of the "strange wives." Ezr 10. With an account of this important measure the book of Ezra ends. The next notice is in Nehemiah 8:1, thirteen years after this. It is in every way likely that his first residence in Jerusalem was temporary, and that after effecting the various reforms and appointing proper persons to maintain them he returned to Babylon. Nehemiah was governor when Ezra entered Jerusalem the second time; accordingly, he attended only to priestly duties, such as teaching. Neh 8:1. It is unknown when he died.

Jewish tradition elevates him to a level with Moses and Elijah, and makes him the founder of the great synagogue, the collector of the books of the Bible, the introducer of the Chaldee character instead of the old Hebrew, the author of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and lastly, the originator of synagogue-worship. And it is very likely that he was the author of these changes, or at all events that they occurred in his time.

Ezra, the Book of, covers about 79 years, and should be read in connection with the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah. It contains, (1) chs. 1-6, an account of the return of 50,000 Jews under Zerubbabel in the first year of Cyrus, the rebuilding of the temple, and the interference of the Samaritans; (2) chs. 7-10, the history of Ezra's immigration and his reforms, particularly in regard to the strange wives.

The book of Ezra is written in Chaldee from ch. 4:8 to 6:19, narrating the attempt of the Samaritans to hinder the building of the temple, and from the beginning of ch. 7 to the twenty-seventh verse. The people recently returned from the Captivity were more conversant with the Chaldee than even with the Hebrew tongue. Ezra is the author of at least the greater part of the book. The date may be given as b.c. 456.

EZ'RI (help of Jehovah), David's superintendent of those who "did the work of the field." 1 Chr 27:26.

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