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PREPOSITIONS, 89-98

89. Prominence of Prepositions. The prominence of prepositions in the LXX is partly a characteristic of later Greek generally and partly due to the careful following of the Hebrew. But while prepositions are employed to express relations for which in classical Greek cases would have been thought sufficient, there is at the same time a tendency to blur some of the nice distinctions between the uses of the same preposition with different cases.


90. εá¼°ς. a. εá¼°ς in classical Greek denotes motion or direction: in Biblical Greek it denotes equally rest or position, and may be translated by ‘at’ or ‘in’ as wel as by ‘to,’ e.g. -


Gen. 37:17 πορευθῶμεν εá¼°ς Δωθá½±ειμ . . . καὶ εὗρεν αὐτοὺς εá¼°ς Δωθá½±ειμ.

Josh. 7:22 ἔδραμον εá¼°ς τá½´ν σκηνá½´ν . . . καὶ ταῦτα ἦν ἐνκεκρυμμá½³να εá¼°ς τá½´ν σκηνá½µν.

Jdg. 14:1 καὶ κατá½³βη Σαμψá½¼ν εá¼°ς Θαμνá½±θα, καὶ εἶδεν γυναῖκα εá¼°ς Θαμνá½±θα.


For examples of the former meaning only we may take -


Gen. 42:32 ὁ δá½² μικρá½¹τερος . . . εá¼°ς γῆν Χανá½±αν.

Nb. 25:33 τá½´ν γῆν εá¼°ς á¼£ ὑμεῖς κατοικεῖτε.

Judith 16:23 ἀπá½³θανεν εá¼°ς βαιτυλουá½±.


b. In the N.T. εá¼°ς denoting rest or position is very common.

Mk. 2:1 εá¼°ς οἶκον = at home. Cp. Lk. 9:61: Mk. 10:10.

Mk. 13:3 καθημá½³νου αὐτοῦ εá¼°ς τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν.

Jn. 1:18 ὀ á½¢ν εá¼°ς τὸν κá½¹λπον τοῦ πατρá½¹ς.

Acts 21:13 ἀποθανεῖν εá¼°ς á¼¹ερουσαλá½µμ.


Cp. also Eph. 3:16: 1 Pet. 3:20, 5:12: Mk. 1:9, 39; 13:9: Lk. 4:23, 11:7: Jn. 9:7, 20:7: Acts 7:4, 8:40, 25:4.

The obliteration of the distinction between rest and motion is one of the marks of declining Greek. In the modern language εá¼°ς has usurped the functions both of ἐν and πρá½¹ς.


c. The use of εá¼°ς with the accusative after εἶναι and γενá½³σθαι as practically equivalent to the nominative may safely be regarded as a Hebraism.


d. 1 Chr. 11:21 ἦν αὐτοῖς εá¼°ς ἄρχοντα, 17:7 εἶναι εá¼°ς ἡγοá½»μενον.

3 K. [2 Kings} 20:2 ἔσται μοι εá¼°ς κῆπον λαχá½±νων. Cp. Gen. 48:19: 1 Chr. 11:6.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:9 ἐσá½¹μεθα ὑμῖν εá¼°ς δοá½»λους.

Jer. 38:33 ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εá¼°ς Θεá½¹ν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταá½· μοι εá¼°ς λαá½¹ν. Cp. Jer. 38:1: Gen. 48:19: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 7:14.

Gen. 2:7 ἐγá½³νετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εá¼°ς ψυχá½´ν ζῶσαν.

Ex. 2:10 ἐγενá½µθη αὐτῇ εá¼°ς υἱόν.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 4:9 γá½³νεσθε εá¼°ς ἄνδρας.


πρá½¹ς in one passage takes the place of εá¼°ς.

Sir. 46:4 μá½·α ἡμá½³ρα ἐγενá½µθη πρὸς δá½»ο.

e. In the New Testament this idiom occurs both in quotations from the Old and otherwise.

1 Jn. 5:8 καὶ οá¼± τρεῖς εá¼°ς τὸ ἕν εá¼°σιν.

Lk. 3:5 ἔσται τá½° σκολιá½° εá¼°ς εὐθεá½·ας (Is. 40:4).

2 Cor. 6:18 ἔσεσθá½³ μοι εá¼°ς υá¼±οá½»ς καὶ θυγατá½³ρας (2 K. [2 Sam.] 7:8: Is. 43:6).

Mt. 19:5 ἔσονται οá¼± δá½»ο εá¼°ς σá½±ρκα μá½·αν (Gen. 2:24).

Mt. 21:42 ἐγενá½µθη εá¼°ς κεφαλá½´ν γωνá½·ας (Ps. 117:22).

Lk. 13:19 ἐγá½³νετο εá¼°ς δá½³νδρον. Cp. Rev. 8:11.

Jn. 16:20 ἡ λá½»πη ὑμῶν εá¼°ς χαρá½°ν γενá½µσεται.


The same usage is to be found also in the Apostolic Fathers -


Herm. Past. Sim. 9.13.5 ἔσονται εá¼°ς ἓ πνεῦμα, εá¼°ς ἓν σῶμα.

1 Clem. 11:2 εá¼°ς κρá½·μα καὶ εá¼°ς σημεá½·ωσιν . . . γá½·νονται.

Ign. Eph. 11:1 á¼µνα μá½´ ἡμῖν εá¼°ς κρῖμα γá½³νηται.


f. The employment of εá¼°ς to express the object or destination of a thing might easily be paralleled from classical Greek, but its frequent use in the LXX is due to its convenience as a translation of the corresponding Hebrew.

Gen. 34:12 καὶ δá½½σετá½³ μοι τá½´ν παῖδα ταá½»την εá¼°ς γυναῖκα.

Ps. 104:17 εá¼°ς δοῦλον ἐπρá½±θη Ἰωσá½µφ.

3 K. [2 Kings} 19:15 χρá½·σεις τὸνἈζαá½´λ εá¼°ς βασιλá½³α.

Gen. 12:2 ποιá½µσω σε εá¼°ς ἔθνος μá½³γα.


When the verb is active and transitive, as in all but the second of the above instances, εá¼°ς might be dispensed with as far as Greek is concerned. When a verb of being is employed, this use runs into the preceding -


Gen. 1:29 ὑμῖν ἔσται εá¼°ς βρῶσιν, 1:14 ἔστωσαν εá¼°ς σημεῖα.


g. The use of εá¼°ς with the accusative, where classical Greek would simply have employed a dative, is shown by the Papyri to have been a feature of the vernacular Greek of Alexandria.

Ex. 9:21 ὃ δá½² μá½´ προσá½³σχεν τῇ διανοá½·á¾³ εá¼°ς τὸ ῥῆμα κυρá½·ου κτλ.


So in N.T. --


1 Cor. 16:1 τῆς λογá½·ας τῆς εá¼°ς τοὺς ἁγá½·ους (the collection for the saints).


91. ἐν. a. Although ἐν was destined ultimately to disappear before εá¼°ς, yet in Biblical Greek we find it in the plenitude of its power, as expressing innumerable relations, some of which seem to the classical student to be quite beyond its proper sphere. One principal use may be summed up under the title of “The ἐν of Accompanying Circumstances.” This includes the instrumental use, but goes far beyond it. Under this aspect ἐν invades the domain of μετá½± and σá½»ν. In most cases it may be rendered by the English ‘with.’

Hos. 1:7 σá½½σω αὐτοὺς ἐν κυρίῳ Θεá¿· αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐ σá½½σω αὐτοὺς ἐν τá½¹ξῳ οὐδá½² ἐν á¿¥ομφαá½·á¾³ οὐδá½² ἐν πολá½³μῳ οὐδá½² ἐν á¼µπποις οὐδá½² ἐν á¼±ππεῦσιν. Cp. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:45, 47: 1 Mac. 3:12.

Ex. 6:1 ἐν γá½°ρ χειρὶ κραταιá¾· κτλ. (But in Ex. 3:19 we have ἐὰν μá½´ μετá½° χειρὸς κραταιᾶς.) Cp. Ex. 3:20: Jdg. 15:15, 16.

Jdg. 14:18 εá¼° μá½´ á¼ ροτριá½±σατε ἐν τῇ δαμá½±λει μου. Cp. 3 K. [2 Kings} 19:19.

4 K. [2 Kings] 18:17 ἐν δυνá½±μει βαρεá½·á¾³. In the parallel passage Is. 36:2 μετá½° δυνá½±μεως πολλῆς.

1 Mac. 4:6 ὤφθη Ἰοá½»δας . . . ἐν τρισχιλá½·οις ἀνδρá½±σιν.


So in N.T. --


1 Cor. 4:21 ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς; Cp. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 17:43: Ps. 2:9.

Eph. 6:2 ἐντολá½´ πρá½½τη ἐν ἐπαγγελá½·á¾³.

2 Pet. 3:16 ἐν ἀνθρá½½που φωνῇ.

Mt. 9:34 ἐν τá¿· ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονá½·ων ἐκβá½±λλει τá½° δαιμá½¹νια. Cp. Mt. 12:24, 25:16.

Mt. 26:52 ἐν μαχαá½·ρá¾³ ἀπολοῦνται.


b. The ἐν of accompanying circumstances is not wholly foreign to classical Greek, though the extended use made of it in Biblical diction is.

Eur. Tro. 817 ὦ χρυσá½³αις ἐν οá¼°νοχá½¹αις ἁβρá½° βαá½·νων.


c. In another of its Biblical uses ἐν becomes indistinguishable from εá¼°ς, as in -


Ex. 4:21 πá½±ντα τá½° τá½³ρατα ἃ ἔδωκα ἐν ταῖς χερσá½·ν σου.

Jdg. 13:1 παρá½³δωκεν αὐτοὺς Κá½»ριος ἐν χειρὶ Φυλιστιεá½·μ. Cp. Jdg. 15:12, 13; 16:23, 24.

Is. 37:10 οὐ μá½´ παραδοθῇ á¼¹ερουσαλá½´μ ἐν χειρὶ βασιλá½³ως, while the parallel passage in 4 K. [2 Kings] 19:10 has εá¼°ς χεῖρας βασιλá½³ως.

Tob. 5:5 πορευθῆναι ἐν Ῥάγοις. Cp. Tob. 6:6, 9:2.


So in N.T. --


2 Cor. 8:16 χá½±ρις δá½² τá¿· Θεá¿· τá¿· διδá½¹ντι τá½´ν αὐτá½´ν σπουδá½´ν ὑπá½²ρ ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ καρδá½·á¾³ Τá½·του.

Mt. 14:3 ἔθετο ἐν φυλακῇ.

Jn. 3:35 πá½±ντα δá½³δωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ.

Rev. 11:11 πνεῦμα ζωῆς ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ εá¼°σá½µλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς.


92. ἀπá½¹. a. ἀπá½¹ in the LXX is often little more than a sign of the genitive, like our English ‘of,’ provided that the genitive be partitive.

Ex. 12:46 καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρá½·ψετε ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.

Josh. 9:8 οὐκ ἦν ῥῆμα ἀπὸ πá½±ντων ὧν ἐνετεá½·λατο Μωυσῆς τá¿· Ἰησοῖ ὃ οὐκ ἀνá½³γνω Ἰησοῦς.

3 K. [2 Kings} 18:13 ἔκρυψα ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν Κυρá½·ου ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας.

Joel 2:28 ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ πνεá½»ματá½¹ς μου.

2 Esd. [Ezra] 11:2 εá¼·ς ἀπὸ ἀδελφῶν μου.


So in N.T. --


Lk. 6:13 ἐκλεξá½±μενος ἀπ’ αὐτῶν δá½½δεκα.

Jn. 21:10 ἐνá½³γκατε ἀπὸ τῶν ὀψαρá½·ων ω—ν ἐπιá½±σατε νῦν.


b. ἀπá½¹ = ‘by reason of’ is another unclassical use which occurs in the LXX.

Gen. 41:31 καὶ οὐκ ἐπιγνωσθá½µσεται ἡ εὐθηνá½·α ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ.

Ex. 2:23 καὶ κατεστá½³ναξαν οá¼± υá¼±οὶ Ἰσραá½´λ ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων,

3:7 καὶ τῆς κραυγῆς αὐτῶν ἀκá½µκοα ἀπὸ τῶν ἐργοδιωκτῶν.

Ps. 11:6 ἀπὸ τῆς ταλαιποωρá½·ας τῶν πτωχῶν . . . ἀναστá½µσομαι.

Sir. 20:6 ἔστιν μισητὸς ἀπὸ πολλῆς λαλιᾶς.

Nahum 1:6 αá¼± πá½³τραι διεθρá½»βησαν ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ.


In this way ἀπá½¹ becomes = ὑπá½¹, as in Dan. Ο’ 1:18.


So in N.T. --


Hb. 5:7 εá¼°σακουσθεὶς ἀπὸ τῆς εὐλαβεá½·ας.

Lk. 19:3 οὐκ á¼ δá½»νατο ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου, 24:41 ἀπιστοá½»ντων αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χαρᾶς. Cp. Acts 12:14, 22:11.

Jn. 21:6 οὐκá½³τι αὐτὸ ἑλκá½»σαι á¼´σχυον ἀπὸ τοῦ πλá½µθους τῶν á¼°χθá½»ων.


Of ἀπá½¹ = ὑπá½¹ see instances in Lk. 9:22, 17:25: Acts 20:9.


c. The combination ἀπá½¹ . . . ἕως is a Hebraism. It may be rendered “from . . . unto,” as in -


Dt. 8:35 ἀπὸ á¼´χνους τῶν ποδῶν σου ἕως τῆς κορυφῆς σου,


or “both . . . and,” as in -


Ex. 9:25 ἀπὸ ἀνθρá½½που . . . ἕως κτá½µνους.


Sometimes καá½· precedes the ἕως -


Jdg. 15:5 ἀπὸ . . . καὶ ἕως . . . καὶ ἕως both . . . and . . . and. Cp. Sir. 40:3: Jer. 27:3.


93. μετá½±. μετá½± with genitive = ‘in dealing with’ is a Hebraism.

Jdg. 15:3 ὅτι ποιῶ ἐγá½¼ μετ’ αὐτῶν πονηρá½·αν.


So in N.T. --


Lk. 10:37 ὁ ποιá½µσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ’ αὐτοῦ: Acts 14:27. Cp. Herm. Past. Sim. 5.1.1: 1 Clem. 61:3.


94. ὑπá½³ρ. a. The frequent use of ὑπá½³ρ in the LXX to express comparison is due to the fact that the Hebrew language has no special form for the comparative degree. We therefore sometimes find the LXX representing the original by the positive with ὑπá½³ρ.

Ruth 4:15 á¼¥ ἐστιν ἀγαθá½µ σοι ὑπá½²ρ ἑπτá½° υá¼±οá½»ς. Cp. 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:8, 15:28: 3 K. [2 Kings} 20:2: 2 Chr. 21:14.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 9:2 ὑψηλὸς ὑπá½²ρ πᾶσαν τá½´ν γῆν.

1 Chr. 4:9 ἔνδοξος ὑπá½²ρ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ.

Sir. 24:20 ὑπá½²ρ μá½³λι γλυκá½».

Ezk. 5:1 á¿¥ομφαá½·αν ὀξεῖαν ὑπá½²ρ ξυρὸν κουρá½³ως.


b. More often however the comparative is used, but the construction with ὑπá½³ρ still retained.

Jdg. 15:2 ἀγαθωτá½³ρα ὑπá½²ρ αὐτá½µν. Cp. Jdg. 11:25.

Jdg. 18:26 δυνατá½½τεροι εá¼°σιν ὑπá½²ρ αὐτá½¹ν.

Ruth 3:12 ἐγγá½·ων ὑπá½²ρ ἐμá½³.

3 K. [2 Kings} 19:4 κρεá½·σσων . . . ὑπá½²ρ τοὺς πατá½³ρας. Cp. Sir. 30:17.

Hbk. 1:8 ὀξá½»τεροι ὑπá½²ρ λá½»κους.

Dan. O’ 1:20 σοφωτá½³ρους δεκαπλασá½·ως ὑπá½²ρ τοὺς σοφιστá½±ς.


c. ὑπá½³ρ is employed in the same way after verbs -


Ex. 1:9 ιΗσχá½»ει ὑπá½²ρ ἡμᾶς.

1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:5 τá½´ν Ἄνναν á¼ γá½±πα Ἐλκανá½° ὑπá½²ρ ταá½»την.

Ps. 39:13 ἐπληθá½»νθησαν ὑπá½²ρ τá½°ς τρá½·χας τῆς κεφαλῆς μου.

1 Chr. 19:12 ἐὰν κρατá½µσῃ ὑπá½²ρ ἐμá½² Σá½»ρος.

Jer. 5:3 ἐστερá½³ωσαν . . . ὑπá½²ρ πá½³τραν, 16:12 ὑμεῖς ἐπονηρεá½»σασθε ὑπá½²ρ τοὺς πατá½³ρας ὑμῶν. Cp. 17:23.

Jer. 26:23 πληθá½»νει ὑπá½²ρ ἀκρá½·δα.

Dan. O’ 3:22 ἡ κá½±μινος ἐξεκαá½»θη ὑπá½²ρ τὸ πρá½¹τερον ἑπταπλασá½·ως.


d. So in N.T. --

after a comparative -
Lk. 16:8 φρονιμá½½τεροι ὑπá½²ρ τοὺς υá¼±οὺς τοῦ φωτá½¹ς.

Hb. 4:12 τομá½½τερος ὑπá½²ρ πᾶσαν μá½±χαιραν.


after a verb -

Gal. 1:14 προá½³κοπτον . . . ὑπá½²ρ πολλοá½»ς.

Mt. 10:37 ὁ φιλῶν πατá½³ρα á¼¢ μητá½³ρα ὑπá½²ρ ἐμá½³.

Cp. Herm. Past. Mdt. 5.1.6 ἡ μακροθυμá½·α γλυκυτá½±τη ἐστὶν ὑπá½²ρ τὸ μá½³λι. Mart. Polyc. 18 δοκιμá½½τερα ὑπá½²ρ χρυσá½·ον ὀστᾶ αὐτοῦ.


95. ἐπá½·. a. ἐπá½· with the accusative is used of rest as well as of motion.

Gen. 41:17 ἑστá½±ναι ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖλος τοῦ ποταμοῦ.

Ex. 10:14 καὶ ἀνá½µγαγεν αὐτá½´ν (τá½´ν ἀκρá½·δα) ἐπὶ πᾶσαν γá½´ν Αá¼°γá½»πτου, καὶ κατá½³παυσεν ἐπὶ πá½±ντα τá½° ὅρια Αá¼°γá½»πτου πολλá½´ σφá½¹δρα.

Jdg. 16:27 ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα = upon the roof.


b. ἐπá½· is sometimes used to reinforce an accusative of duration of time.

Jdg. 14:17 καὶ ἔκλαυσεν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τá½°ς ἑπτá½° ἡμá½³ρας ἃς ἦν αὐτοῖς ὁ πá½¹τος.


c. In Josh. 25:10 we find μá½³γαν ἐπὶ τοῦ á¼°δεῖν where in classical Greek we should have only μá½³γαν á¼°δεῖν.


d. In the N.T. also ἐπá½· with the accusative is used of rest or position -


2 Cor. 3:15 κá½±λυμμα ἐπὶ τá½´ν καρδá½·αν αὐτῶν κεῖται.

Mk. 2:14 καθá½µμενον ἐπὶ τὸ τελá½½νιον. Cp. Lk. 5:27.

Mk. 4:38 ἐπὶ τὸ προσκεφá½±λαιον καθεá½»δων.

Mt. 14:28 περιπατῶν ἐπὶ τá½´ν θá½±λασσαν (in Jn. 6:19 περιπατοῦντα ἐπὶ τῆς θαλá½±σσης).

Lk. 2:25 πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἦν ἐπ’ αὐτá½¹ν. Cp. Lk. 2:40.

Jn. 1:32 ἔμεινεν ἐπ’ αὐτá½¹ν.


96. παρá½±. a. παρá½± naturally lends itself to the expression of comparison, and is so used occasionally in the best Greek, e.g. Thuc. 1.23.4: Xen. Mem. 1.4.14: Hdt. 7.103. It is therefore not surprising that it should have been employed by the translators in the same way as ὑπá½³ρ.

Ex. 18:11 μá½³γας Κá½»ριος παρá½° πá½±ντας τοὺς θεοá½»ς. Cp. Ps. 134:5: Dan. Ο’ 11:12.

Nb. 12:3 καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος Μωυσῆς πραὺς σφá½¹δρα παρá½° πá½±ντας τοὺς ἀνθρá½½πους.

Dan. Ο’ 1:10 ἀσθενῆ παρá½° τοὺς συντρεφομá½³νους ὑμῖν (Θ has σκυθρωπá½° παρá½° τá½° παιδá½±ρια τá½° συνá½µλικα ὑμῶν). Cp. Ο’ 1:13.

Dan. Θ 7:7 διá½±φορον περισσῶς παρá½° πá½±ντα τá½° θá½µρια.

1 Esd. 4:35 á¼°σχυροτá½³ρα παρá½° πá½±ντα.

Dan. Ο’ 11:13 μεá½·ζονα παρá½° τá½´ν πρá½½την (Θ has πολὺν ὑπá½²ρ τὸν πρá½¹τερον).

Dt. 7:7 ὑμεῖς γá½±ρ ἐστε ὀλιγοστοὶ παρá½° πá½±ντα τá½° ἔθνη.

Gen. 43:34 ἐμεγαλá½»νθη δá½² ἡ μερὶς Βενιαμεὶν παρá½° τá½°ς μερá½·δας πá½±ντων.

Ps. 8:6 á¼ λá½±ττωσας αὐτὸν βραχá½» τι παρ’ ἀγγá½³λους.


b. In the N.T. παρá½± after a comparative is abundant in Hebrews -

1:4, 3:3, 9:23, 11:4, 12:24.


We find it after a positive and after a comparative in Luke -


Lk. 13:2 ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρá½° πá½±ντας τοὺς Γαλιλαá½·ους, 3:13 μηδá½²ν πλá½³ον παρá½° τὸ διατεταγμá½³νον ὑμῖν πρá½±σσετε,


and after verbs in -


Rom. 14:5 ὃ μá½²ν κρá½·νει ἡμá½³ραν παρ’ ἡμá½³ραν.

Hb. 1:9 ἔχρισá½³ σε ὁ Θεá½¹ς . . . παρá½° τοὺς μετá½¹χους σου.


c. In the Apostolic Father cp. -


Herm. Past. Vis. 3.12.1 á¼±λαρωτá½³ραν παρá½° τὸ πρá½¹τερον, Sim. 9.18.2 πλεá½·ονα . . . παρá½±.

Barn. Ep. 4:5 (in a quotation from Daniel which is neither Ο´’ nor Θ) χαλεπá½½τερον παρá½° πá½±ντα τá½° θá½µρια.


97. New Forms of Prepostion. a. Besides the more liberal use made of the prepositions already current in classical Greek, we meet also in the LXX with new forms of preposition.


b. ἀπá½±νωθεν occurs in Swete’s text in Jdg. 16:20: 2 K. [2 Sam.] 11:20, 24; 20:21: 3 K. [2 Kings} 1:53: 4 K. [2 Kings] 2:3. It not unnaturally gets confused in some places with the classical ἐπá½±νωθεν, which is very common in the LXX, having been found a convenient rendering of certain compound prepositions in the Hebrew.


c. ὑποκá½±τωθεν, which is only used as an adverb in classical Greek, assumes in the LXX the function of a preposition, e.g. -

Dt. 9:14 ἐξαλεá½·ψω τὸ ὄνομα αὐτῶν ὑποκá½±τωθεν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.


The corresponding form ὑπερá½±νωθεν occurs in the LXX only twice, once as an adverb in Ps. 77:23 and once as a preposition in -


Ezk. 1:25 ὑπερá½±νωθεν τοῦ στερεá½½ματος.


d. ἔναντι in many passages of the LXX has been replaced in Swete’s text by ἐναντá½·ον, but there are still numerous instances of it left, e.g. Ex. 28:12, 23, 34; 29:10, 23, 24, 25, 26, 42. In N.T. is occurs in Lk. 1:8, Acts. 8:21.


ἀπá½³ναντι is also common, e.g. Gen. 3:24, 21:26, 23:19, 25:9, 49:30. In the N.T. it occurs in the sense of ‘contrary to’ in Acts. 17:7.


κατá½³εναντι is specially frequent in the book of Sirach.


e. ἐνá½½πιον is another preposition unknown to classical authors, but extremely common in Biblical Greek, as being an apt equivalent for certain Hebrew forms of expression. Deissmann gives instances of its adverbial use in the Papyri, so that we need not suppose it to have been invented by the translators of the O.T. In the N.T. it occurs frequently in Luke-Acts, Paul, and Revelation, but is not used in Matthew or Mark.


κατενá½½πιον occurs in the LXX in Lvt. 4:17: Josh. 1:5, 3:7, 21:44, 23:9: Esther 5:1: Dan. Θ 5:22. In N.T. in Eph. 1:4: Col. 1:22: Jude 24.


f. ὀπá½·σω as a preposition is unclassical, but extremely common in the LXX.

In the N.T. it occurs in 1 Tim. 5:15: Acts 5:37, 20:30: Mt. 4:19, 10:38, 16:24: Lk. 14:27: Jn. 12:19: Rev. 13:3.


g. κατá½¹πισθε(ν) is construed with a genitive in Hom. Od. 12.148, but its classical use is almost wholly adverbial, whereas in the LXX, in which it occurs twenty-four times in all, it is mainly prepositional.


In 2 Chr. 34:38 we have ἀπὸ ὄπισθεν Κυρá½·ου. Cp. Eccl. 1:10 ἀπὸ ἐμπροσθεν ἡμῶν.


h. κυκλá½¹θεν occurs in the LXX as a preposition in 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:32: Sir. 50:12 A: Jer. 17:26, 31:17: 1 Mac. 14:17.


In N.T. only in Rev. 4:3, 5:11 κυκλá½¹θεν τοῦ θρá½¹νου.


κá½»κλῳ is sometimes used in the same way, as in 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:35: Sir. 23:18: Is. 6:2: Jer. 39:44.

Cp. Strabo 17.6, p. 792 τá½° δá½² κá½»κλῳ τῆς κá½½μης.


i. Other prepositions that may be briefly noticed are ἐχá½¹μενα πá½³τρας Ps. 140:6, ἐσá½½τερον τῆς κολυμβá½µθρας Is. 22:11.


In Sir. 29:25 we have the combination καὶ πρὸς ἐπὶ τοá½»τοις.


98. Prepositions after Verbs. The great use made of prepositions after verbs is one of the main characteristics of Biblical Greek. It is partly a feature of later Greek generally, but to a still greater extent it is due to the influence of the Hebrew. In the following list of instances perhaps the last only is irreproachable as Greek: -


ἀδυνατεῖν ἀπá½¹ Dt. 17:8.

ἀθετεῖν ἐν 4 K. [2 Kings] 1:1; 3:5, 7; 18:7; 24:1, 20: 2 Chr. 10:19.

αá¼±ρετá½·ζειν ἐν 1 Chr. 29:1: 2 Chr. 29:11.

βδελá½»σσεσθαι ἀπá½¹ Ex. 1:12.

βοᾶν ἐν 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:24.

ἐκδικεῖν ἐκ Dt. 18:19.

ἐκλá½³γειν ἐν 1 Chr. 28:5.

ἐλπá½·ζειν ἐπá½· with accusative Ps. 4:6, 5:12, 9:11, 40:10.

ἐλπá½·ζειν ἐπá½· with dative Ps. 7:1.

ἐνεδρεá½»ειν ἐπá½· Jdg. 16:2.

ἐντρá½³πεσθαι ἀπá½¹ 2 Chr. 36:12: 1 Esd. 1:45.

ἐπικαλεῖσθαι ἐν 3 K. [2 Kings} 18:25, 26.

ἐσθá½·ειν ἀπá½¹ Lvt. 22:6: Jdg. 13:16.

εὐδοκεῖν ἐν Ps. 146:10.

θá½³λειν ἐν 1 K. [1 Sam.] 18:22: 1 Chr. 28:4: Ps. 146:10.

θεωρεῖν ἐν Jdg. 16:27.

καταφρονεῖν ἐπá½· Tobit 4:18.

λογá½·ζεσθαι εá¼°ς 1 K. [1 Sam.] 1:13.

μυκτηρá½·ζειν ἐν 1 Esd. 1:51.

πατá½±σσειν ἐν 2 Chr. 28:5, 17.

ποιεῖν ἔλεος ἐν Josh. 2:12.

ποιεῖν ἔλεος μετá½± Jdg. 8:35.

πολεμεῖν ἐν 1 K. [1 Sam.] 28:15.

προσá½³χειν εá¼°ς Ex. 9:21.

προσοχθá½·ζειν ἀπá½¹ Nb. 22:3.

συνιá½³ναι εá¼°ς Ps. 27:5.

ὑπερηφανεá½»εσθαι ἀπá½¹ Tobit 4:14.

φεá½·δεσθαι ἐπá½· Dt. 7:16.

φοβεῖσθαι ἀπá½¹ Dt. 1:29, 7:29: Josh. 11:6: 4 K. [2 Kings] 1:15: Ps. 3:7.

φυλá½±σσεσθαι ἀπá½¹ Jdg. 13:14. Cp. Xen. Cyrop. 2.3.9, Hell. 7.2.10.

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