NOUNS, 1–14

1. Disuse of the Dual. The Greek of the LXX has two numbers, the singular and the plural. The dual, which was already falling into disuse in the time of Homer, and which is seldom adhered to systematically in classical writers, has disappeared altogether.

Gen. 402 ἐπὶ τοῖς δυσὶν εὐνούχοις αὐτοῦ.   Ex. 49 τοῖς δυσὶ σημείοις τούτοις.

Contrast with the above—

Plat. Rep. 470 B ἐπὶ δυοῖν τινοῖν διαφοραῖν. Isocr. Paneg. 55 c περὶ τοῖν πολέοιν τούτοιν.

2. Εἷς as Article. Under the influence of Hebrew idiom we find the numeral εἷς turning into an indefinite pronoun in the Greek of the LXX, as in Gen. 4227 λύσας δὲ εἷς τὸν μάρσιππον αὐτοῦ, and then subsiding into a mere article, as—

Jdg. 132 ἀνὴρ εἷς, 953 γυνὴ μία. ii. K. 218 ὡσεὶ μία δορκὰς ἐν ἀγρῷ.   ii. Esd. 48 ἔγραψαν ἐπιστολὴν μίαν.Ezk. 49 ἄγγος ἓν ὀστράκινον.

There are instances of the same usage in the two most Hebraistic books of the N.T.

Mt. 819 εἷς γραμματεὺς 918 ἄρχων εἷς 2119 ἄρχων εἷς, 2660 μία παιδίσκη.   Rev. 813 ἑνὸς ἀετοῦ, 913 φωνὴν μίαν, 1821 εἷς ἄγγελος, 1917 ἕνα ἄγγελον.

Our own indefinite article 'a' or 'an' (Scotch ane) is originally the same as 'one.' We can also see the beginning of the French article in the colloquial language of the Latin comedians.

Ter. And. 118 forte unam aspicio adulescentulam.   Plaut. Most. 990 unum vidi mortuum efferri foras.

Apart from the influence of Hebrew, εἷς is occasionally found in good Greek on the way to becoming an article. See L. &  S. under


εἷς 4. In German the indefinite article and the first of the numerals coincide, and so a German, in beginning to speak English, frequently puts 'one' for 'a.' In the same way a Hebrew learning to speak Greek said εἷς ἀετόςand so on.

3. First Declension. In classical Greek there is a tendency for proper names, especially those of foreign origin, which end in the nominative in preceded by a consonant other than ρ, to retain the α in the genitive, e.g. Λήδας, Ἀνδρομέδας, Κομπλέγας (name of a Spanish town, App. VI De Reb. Hisp. 43). In pursuance of this analogy we have such genitives as Βάλλας and Ζέλφας (372), Σουσάννας(Sus. 0´30).

On the other hand, nouns in pure, or preceded by ρ, are in a few instances found in the LXX to take the Ionic form of the genitive and dative in -ης and -ῃ .

Ex. 821 κυνόμυιαν . . . κυνομυίης, 159 and Gen. 2740 τῇ μαχαίρῃ.   i K. 2520 αὐτῆς ἐπιβεβηκυίης ἐπὶ τὴν ὄνον.   ii Mac. 823, 1222 σπείρης.

It is said that in the Papyri σπείρης is always used, never σπείρας.

The plural of γῆ is found in the LXX.

Acc. γᾶς iv K. 1835.   Gen. γαιῶν iv K. 1835: Ps. 4811: Ezk. 3624: ii Esd. 91 and three other passages.   Dat. γαῖς iv K. 1911. γαίαις Dan. O´1142.

4. Second Declension. θεόςhas a vocative θεέ. Dt. 324: Jdg. 213, 1628: Wisd. 91. Usually, however, the nominative is employed for the vocative, as in --

Ps. 211 Ὁ θεὸς ὁ θεός μου πρόσχες μοι · ἱνατί ἐγκατέλιπές με

But in Matthew 2746 this passage assumes the form--

θεέ μου, θεέ μου, ἱνατί με ἐγκατέλιπες;

The Attic form of this declension is of rare occurrence in the LXX. λαόςand ναός are the regular forms. λεώς does not occur at all, and νεώς only in Second Maccabees. ἅλως is common: but for that there is no non-Attic form, as it does not arise, like the others, on the principle of transposition of quantity.

5. Third Declension. The word σκνίψ (Ex. 816) is interesting, as adding another instance of a noun-stem in to the rare word κατῆλιψ and νίφα, which occurs only in the accusative in Hes. Op. 533. Σκνίψ is also found in the LXX with stem σκνιπ-.


6. Absence of Contraction. Many words are left uncontracted in the LXX which in Attic Greek would be contracted, e.g.--

Dt. 1811 ἐπαείδων ἐπαοιδήν.   Prov. 38 ὀστέοις.   Sir. 630χρύσεος.   Ps. 7317 ἔαρ.

The accusative plural of βοῦς is always βόας, e.g. Gen. 414. Similarly the accusative plural of ἱχθυς is left uncontracted wherever it occurs. Gen. 92: Nb. 115: Ps. 88, 10429: Hbk. 114: Ezk. 294. So also στάχυες, στάχυας, Gen. 415,7.

7. Feminine Forms of Movable Substantives. The form βασίλισσα for βασίλεια was not approved by Atticists. It is common in the LXX, whereas βασίλεια does not occur. Cp. Acts 827. On the analogy of it we have Ἀράβισσα in Job 4217 c, φυλάκισσα in Song 16. The following also may be noted:--

γενέτις Wisd. 712 A, τεχνῖτις 722, μύστις 84.   ὑβρίστρια Jer. 2731.  

8. Heteroclite Nouns.

(Ex. 98, 10) for αἴθαλος, which does not occur.

ἅλων (Hos. 92), ἅλωνος (Jdg. 155) for ἅλως, ἅλω. Cp. Mt. 312, Lk. 317 τὴν ἅλωνα. In the LXX both ἅλων and ἅλως are of common gender. Thus Ruth 32 τὸν ἅλωνα, 314 τὴν ἅλωνα: Jdg. 637 τῇ ἅλωνι: i Chr. 2115 ἐν τῷ ἅλῳ, 2121 ἐκ τῆς ἅλω. Josephus (Ant. V 9 § 3) has τῆν ἅλωος.

γήρους, γήρει for γήρως, γήρᾳ,, but nominative always γῆρας. For γήρους see Gen. 373: Ps. 79, 18: but in Gen. 4420 γήρως. For γήρει see Gen. 1515, Ps. 9115, Sir. 86, Dan. O´ 61. When one form is used, the other generally occurs as a variant. In Clement i Cor. 633 we have ἕως γήρους.

ἔλεος, τό for ἔλεος, ὁ. Plural τὰ ἐλέη (Ps. 167). The masculine form occurs in some dozen and a half passages (e.g. Ps. 8311: Prov. 316, 1422). In N.T. also and in the Apostolic Fathers the neuter is the prevailing form, e.g. ii Tim. 116, 18: Tit. 35: Hb. 416: Herm. Past. Vis. II 2 § 3, III 9 § 1, Sim. IV § 2: i Clem. 91 , 141: ii Clem. 31, 162: Barn. Ep. 152. In Mt. 913, 127, 2323 the masculine form occurs, the two former being quotations from Hos. 66, where the LXX has the neuter.

ἔνεδρον (Jdg. 162) for ἐνέδρα. The former is quite common, the latter occurs only in Josh. 87, 9, Ps. 928.

λύχνος, τό (Dan. O´ 50).

νῖκος, τό (i Esd. 39) for νίκη. Cp. i Cor. 1555, 57: Herm. Past. Mdt. XII 2 § 5.


σκότος, τό for , occurs in the best Attic prose as well as in the LXX (e.g. Is. 4216) and in N.T. (e.g. i Thes. 55). Cp. Barn. Ep. 146, 181.

The N.T. and Apostolic Fathers afford other instances of heteroclites, which do not occur in the LXX. Thus--

ζῆλος, τό (Phil. 36: i Clem. 48, 11, 13, 61, 2, 91, 632, but in 52, 5 διὰ ζῆλον: Ignat. ad Tral. 42).

πλοῦς declined like βοῦς (Acts 279: Mart. S. Ign. III εἴχετο τοῦ πλοός).

πλοῦτος, τό (ii Cor. 82: Eph. 17, 27, 38, 16: Phil. 419: Col. 127, 22).

τῦφος, τό (i Clem. 131).

9. Verbal Nouns in -μα. a. The abundance of verbal nouns in -μα is characteristic of Hellenistic Greek from Aristotle onwards. The following instances from the LXX are taken at random--

ἀγνόημα Gen. 4312 (6 times in all).

ἀνόμημα i K. 2528 (17 times in all).

διχοτόμημα Gen. 1511 (5 times in all).

κατάλειμμα Gen. 457 (20 times in all).

ὕψωμα . . . γαυρίαμα . . . καύχημα Judith 159.

b. A point better worth noting is the preference for the short radical vowel in their formation, e.g.--

ἀνάθεμαLvt. 2728 etc. So in N.T. Acts 2314: Rom. 93: i Cor. 123, 1622: Gal. 18, 9. In Judith 1619 we have the classical form ἀνάνημα. For the short vowel in the LXX, cp. θέμα, ἔκθεμα, ἐπίθεμα, παράθεμα, πρόσθεμα, σύνθεμα.

ἀφαίρεμα Ex. 2927: Lvt. 74, 24 etc.

ἄφεμα i Mac. 928. So κάθεμα, Is. 319, Ezk. 1611.

δόμα Gen. 256 etc. So in N.T.

εὕρεμα Sir. 209, 294.

ἕψεμα Gen. 2529 etc.

σύστεμαGen. 110 etc. So ἀνάστεμα. In Judith 128 ἀνάστημα.

χύμα (for χεῦμα) ii Mac. 224.

10. Non-Attic Forms of Substantives.

ἀλώπηκας accusative plural (Jdg. 154) for ἀλώπεκας.

ἄρκος (i K. 1734) for ἄρκτος, which does not occur. Cp. Rev. 132 ἄρκου.

δῖνα (Job 1311, 2810) for δίνη.

ἔνυστρον (Dt. 183 for ἤνυστρον. So in Jos. Ant. IV 4 § 4.


ἐταοιδός (Ex. 711) for ἐπῳδός, which does not occur.

κλίβανος (Ex. 728) for κρίβανος. So also in N.T.

μόλιβος (Ex. 1510), the Homeric form, for μόλυβδος.

ταμεῖον (Ex. 728

: Jdg. 324, 151, 1612 for ταμιεῖον, which also occurs frequently. The shorter form is common in the Papyri.

ὑγεία (Tob. 821) for ὑγίεια. In later Greek generally ὑγεία is usual, but the fuller form prevails in the LXX.

χείμαρρος (i K. 1740) for χειμάρρους.

11. Non-Attic Forms of Adjectives.

εὐθής, εὐθές for εὐθύς, εὐθεῖα, εὐθύ, which also occurs frequently.

ἥμισυς is an adjective of two terminations in the LXX. ἡμίσεια does not occur. Cp. Nb. 3414 τὸ ἥμισυ φυλῆς Μανασσή with Jos. Ant. IV 7 § 3 καὶ τῆς Μανασσίτιδος ἡμίσεια.

χάλκειος, -α, -ον, the Homeric form, occurs in Jdg. 1621, i Esd. 138, 5 times in Job, and in Sir. 2820 for χαλκοῦς, χαλκῆ, χαλκοῦν, which is very common.

ἀργυρικός i Esd. 824 only. Cp. Aristeas § 37, who has also ἐλαϊκός, σιτικός, χαριστικός (§§ 112, 37, 227).

αἰσχυντηρός Sir. 2615, 3510, 421 only.

σιγηρός Prov. 1818, Sir. 2614 only.

κλεψιμαῖος Tob. 213 only.

θνησιμαῖος often used in the neuter for 'a corpse,' e.g. iii K. 1325.

12. Comparison of Adjectives.

ἀγαθώτερος (Jdg. 1125, 152 is perhaps an instance of that tendency to regularisation in the later stages of a language, which results from its being spoken by foreigners.

αἰσχρότερος (Gen. 4119) is good Greek, though not Attic. Αἰσχίων does not seem to occur in the LXX.

ἐγγίων and ἔγγιστος are usual in the LXX, e.g. Ruth 312, iii K. 202, Ἐγγύτερος does not seem to occur at all, and ἐγγύτατος only in Job 615, 1914.

πλησιέστερον adv. for πλησιαίτερον (iv Mac. 123).

13. Pronouns. a. Classical Greek has no equivalent for our unemphatic pronoun 'he.' One cannot say exactly 'he said' in the Attic idiom. Αὐτὸς ἔφη is something more, and ἔφη something less, for it may equally mean 'she said.' The Greek of the LXX gets over this difficulty by the use of αὐτός as an unemphatic pronoun of the 3d person.

i K. 1742 καὶ εἶδεν Γολιὰδ τὸν Δαυεὶδ καὶ ἠτίμασεν αὐτόν, ὅτι αὐτὸς ἦν παιδάριον καὶ αὐτὸς πυρράκης μετὰ κάλλους ὀφθαλμῶν.


In the above the repeated αὐτός is simply the nominative of the αὐτόν preceding. In a classical writer αὐτός so used would necessarily refer to Goliath himself. For other instances see Gen. 315, 16, 3923: Nb. 175, 2222: Jdg. 135, 16, 144, 17: i K. 172, 1816. Winer denied that this use of αὐτός is to be found in the N.T. But here we must dissent from his authority. See Mt. 51 and following: Lk. 620: i Cor.712.

b. As usual in. later Greek the compound reflexive pronoun of the 3d person is used for those of the 1st and 2d.

Gen. 4322 καὶ ἀργύριον ἕτερον ἠνέγκαμεν μεθ᾿ ἑαυτῶν.   Dt. 37 καὶ τὰ σκῦλα τῶν πόλεων ἐπρονομεύσαμεν ἑαυτοῖς.. . . i K. 178 ἐκλέξασθε ἑαυτοῖς ἄνδρα.

So also in Aristeas §§ 3, 213, 217, 228. (ἑαυτόν = σεαυτόν), 248. This usage had already begun in the best Attic. Take for instance--

Plat. Phædo 91 C ὅπως μὴ ἐγώ . . . ἅμα ἑαυτόν τε καὶ ὑμᾶς ἐξαπατήσας, 78 B δεῖ ἡμᾶς ἐρέσθαι ἑαυτούς, 101 D σὺ δὲ διδιὼς ἄν . . . τὴν ἑαυτοῦ σκιάν.

Instances abound in N.T.

Acts 2314 ἀνεθεματίσαμεν ἑαυτοὺς, 535προσέχετε ἑαυτοῖς.

c. A feature more peculiar to LXX Greek is the use of the personal pronoun along with the reflexive, like the English 'me myself,' 'you yourselves,' etc.

Ex. 67 καὶ λήμψομαι ἐμαυτῷ ὑμᾶς λαὸν ἐμοὶ, 2023 οὐ ποιήσετε ὑμῖν ἑαυτοῖς.

So also Dt. 416, 23: Josh. 2216.

As there is nothing in the Hebrew to warrant this duplication of the pronoun, it may be set down as a piece of colloquial Greek.

d. The use of ἱδιος as a mere possessive pronoun is common to the LXX with the N.T. e.g.--

Job 710 οὐδ᾿ οὐ μὴ ἐπιστρέψῃ ἔτι εἰς τὸν ἴδιον οἶκον.   Mt. 225 ἀπῆλθον, ὁ μὲν εἰς τὸν ἴδιον ἀγρόν, ὁ δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμπορίαν αὐτοῦ.

14. Numerals. a. δυσί(ν) is the regular form for the dative of δύο. So also in N.T. e.g. Mt. 624, 2240: Lk. 1613: Acts 126.

δυεῖν occurs in Job 1320, δυοῖν in iv Mac. 128, 152. Sometimes δύο is indeclinable, e.g. Jdg. 1628 τῶν δύο ὀφθαλμῶν.

b. The following forms of numerals differ from those in classical use:--

δέκα δύο Ex. 2821: Josh. 2140, 1824: i Chr. 623, 1510, 2510 ff.. So in N.T. Acts 197, 2411. Cp. Aristeas § 97.


BEKQ TPE6s Gen. 1711: Josh. 198. SEKa rio-o-apeg Josh. 1531: Tob. 82°. So in N.T. ii Cor.12E, Gal. 21. Cp. Diog. Laert. VII § 55. BEKa wEYTE Ex. 27'5: Jdg. 81°: ii K. 19". So in N.T. Gal. 118. 8sKa k Gen. 4618: Ex. 2611: Josh. 15'1. Sim iard Gen. 372, 472. BE'= bKTw' Gen. 4622 : Josh. 24~ b : J dg. 314, 10, , 20" : i Chr. 128' ii Chr. 111. The above numerals occur also in the regular forms - U&Ka Gen. 58. -rpeis Kai Sim, rptCKa48eKa Nb. 2918.14. TEa-o-apes Kai BExa Nb. 1649. a&TE Kal SzKa Lvt. 277: ii K. 9'°. EKKa68EKa, f Kal OEKa Nb. 31'°, as Erra )cat 8zKa her. 399. OK'rw Kal BEKa 11 K. 8'3. EVvea KaL BEKa ii K. 2'° only. c. The forms just given may be written separately or as one word. This led to the TEo'o'apes in TEa'a'apca'KaIBEKa becoming indeclinable, e.g. - ii Chr. 255 vla'Ovs TEO'o'apea-KalBEKa. The same license is extended in the LXX to 8EKa TEo-aapES. Nb. 29" auvovs iviavo-iovs 8eKa TeQQapes a,uwM,ovs. The indeclinable use of rc(ro-apCaKa1`8CKais not peculiar to the LXX.

Hdt. VII 36 rcaaapCO-Ka1'8cKa (Tpirjpeas). Epict. Ench. 40 ahro TEovapea·KaGBEKa ETWy. Strabo p. 177, IV 1 § 1 7rpWeOa~KE 81 'rEa'o'apEQKa68EKa EBy-q, 189, IV 2 § 1 c'Ovluv TEQa'apEQKaIBEKa.

d. The alternative expressions o J'S Kal EiKOQTOS (ii Chr. 241 and o UKOQTos 7rpGTos (ii Chr. 252 are quite classical : but the following way of expressing days of the month may be noted-

Haggai 21 N,ia Kai CL'Ka8i roZ pqvos. i Mae. 119 asM.rrV Ka2 ELKa& To"v pnvos. Cp. 489. ii Mac. 105 T;j 7rEN,aTq Kai CLIKa& To" v avTov" Ja17vos. VERBS, 1543

15. The Verb EtvaL. jp,qv the 1st person singular of the imperfect, which is condemned by Phrynichus, occurs frequently in the LXX. It is found also in the N.T.-i Cor.1311: Gal. ho, " : Acts 10$°,111, lf,



2219 ": Mt. 2511 : Jn.1115. According to the text of Dindorf it occurs even in Eur. Hel. 931. It is a familiar feature of Hellenistic Greek, being common in Philo and Josephus, also in the Pastor of Hermas, and occurring moreover in such authors as Epictetus (Diss. I 16 § 19), Plutarch (Pomp. 74), Diogenes Laertius (VI § 56), Lucian (Asinus 4'6).

its for "aOa, which is condemned by the same authority, occurs in Jdg. 11" : Ruth 32 : Job 38' : Obd. 111. Cp. Epict. Diss. IV 1 § 132.

iovwoav is the only form for the 3d person plural imperative, neither e*o--rwv nor ov-rwv being used. This form is found in Plato (Meno 92 D). See § 16 d.

jrw for ga-rw occurs in Ps. 1033' : i Mac.1081,168. So in N.T. i Cor. 1622: James 512. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis. 1113 § 4: i Clem. 485, where it occurs four times.

jj.E0a for ;ip,EV occurs in i K. 2518: Baruch 11a. This form appears in the Revisers' text in Eph. 23.

16. The Termination -wav. a. Probably the thing which will first arrest the attention of the student who is new to the Greek of the LXX is the termination in -o-ay of the 3d person plural of the historical tenses of the active voice other than the pluperfect.

There are in Greek two terminations of the 3d person plural of the historic tenses- (1) in -v, (2) in -o-av. Thus in Homer we have ifav and also If7)aav. In Attic Greek the rule is that thematic aorists (i.e. those which have a connecting vowel between the stem and the termination) and imperfects take v, e.g. -

E Xva·-a-v, EAaa-o-v, E4apaav-o-v, while non-thematic tenses and the pluperfect take -aav, e.g. - E-So-o'ay, E-TC BE-Qav, E-~,E-JIVK-E-?aV.

In the Greek of the LXX, which in this point represents the Alexandrian vernacular, thematic 2d aorists and imperfects may equally take -vav.

Of 2d aorists we may take the following examples -

El00aav or Moo-ay, J7fo?av, EKpLVoo-ay, E"Roo'av, E9floo'av, EVpoaav, E04 pooav (=2d aor.), i0ayooav, iovyoouv, jX0oo-av, ipaproo-av, itpoo-av (Josh. 3").

Compounds of these and others abound, e.g. -

d7r4Jl0ooav, 8tjMoaav, eimABoaav, E,-7jX0oaav, 7rapitX6ooav, 7rspcitXBoQav, 7rpoarjX9oaav, a'VV9'XBoaav, EVERaoo'av, 7rapEVEaaXwav, E$EXG?ro Oav, Ka'raXiaWav, araoavwav, dQ"aywav.


ACCIDENCE b. Instances of imperfects, which, for our present purpose, mean historic tenses formed from a strengthened present stem, do not come so readily to hand. But here are two - EXap/6dYooav Ezk. 221x. Etpaivo~av i Mac. 45°. These seem to be more common in the case of contracted vowel verbs - EyeYvwo,av Gen. 6' E7r7/eovo"vaav Nb. 118. iroto"vo-av Job 1'. ETa7rctVoLO'av Judith 49. eWyovo'av Ps. 61°. EBoXto"vaav Ps. 58, 133. Cp. Herm. Past. Sim. VI 2 § 7 t~uo-raOo"vo-av, IX 9 § 5 EBOKO"vo-av. Such forms occur plentifully in Mss. of the N.T., but the Revisers' text has only AoXto"vo-av in Romans 313 (a quotation from Ps. 13~ and 7rape"foo-av in ii Thes. 3g. c. The same termination -aav sometimes takes the place of -ev in the 3d person plural of the optative. aiywatorav Gen. 498. Br1pdqawav Job 181. eiroto-av Ps. 34". i8otoav Job 212°. C ' 'Oataav Prov. 24'~ KKo KaraOdyoto-av Prov. 3017. EKXet7roto-av Ps. 103'5. oXeo-atvav Job 1811, 2010. ik0owav Dt. 3318: Job 189, 11. 7reptararrjaaw-av Job 20'6. Eveycato-av Is. 662°. 7rotjaawav Dt. 1t'1. evXoyljaato'av Ps. 342. 7rvpo-evaawav Job 2010. Evpowav Sir. 339. 4TXa07jaataav Job 514, 1225. d. In Hellenistic Greek generally -trav is also the termination of the 3d person plural of the imperative in all voices, e.g. - i K. 30' a',7rayC'aB(UO'aV Kal a.7roo'TpEOETwO'aV.

For instances in N.T. see i Cor. 7 9, 11: i Tim . 5' : Tit. 31' : Acts 24m, 25 a.

17. Termination of the 2d Person Singular of Primary Tenses Middle and Passive. In the LXX, as in Attic, the 2d person singular of the present and futures, middle and passive, ends in -p, e.g. aip;7, ~ayp, Xwr7)8oj". The only exceptions to this rule in Attic are flovact, oiet, *Oct, and EQEt, of which the last is only used occasionally. In the LXX we have o*et in Nb. 2313.

E7i97wo"vo-av Lam. 1a. 7)votto"vo-av Ezk. 2211. KarEVOO"vo-av Ex. 338. oiKOBo/co"vo-av ii Esd. 1418. 7raperlpo"vo-a,V Sus. W.


34 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK The full termination-of the 2d person singular of primary tenses middle and passive (-oat), which in Attic Greek appears only in the perfect of all verbs and in the present of -/At verbs, as XExv-Tat, 8i-8o-aac, is occasionally to be found in the LXX in other cases. &7reeevo"vow iii K. 148. Kotpaaw Dt. 31'8 (A). Kraaai Sir. 67. 76 2 ricout Dt. 2819: Ruth 21, 11: iii K. 171: Ps. 127 Jer. 2918 (A) Ezk. 411, 1218, 2312, 1'. ¢ayeouc Ruth 21': Ezk. 1218. So in N.T. - Kavxao-ai Rom. 211, 21 : i Cor. 4~ KaraKavX&o-cu Rom. 918. o8vvaaas Lk. 1615. (Aayea·ac Kai 7rievaa av Lk. 178.

The Pastor of Hermas yields us Irnoiraaac, mAavavw, Xpavuc. Such forms are still used in Modern Greek.

In theory -o-ac is the termination of every 2d person singular in the middle and passive voices, as in 8:=8o-aat, XE4v-oat, so that wt-E-Qaa IS a perfectly regular formation. But in Attic Greek the a· has dropped out wherever there is a connecting vowel, and then contraction has ensued. Thus vieow becomes first 7ricat, and finally ,r"t. Confirmation of this theory is to be found in Homer, where there are many examples of the intermediate form, e.g. avaipeat, 8evrjaeai, ZpXEal, EUxcaC, iSnaa, KeXeai, Xaeai, XtXaieai, gaiveae, ve'acai, oWpeac, zrcAeac. It is an interesting question whether rieo-at and spayea-at are survivals in the popular speech of pre-Homeric forms, or rather revivals, as Jannaris and others think, on the analogy of the perfect middle and passive of all verbs and of the present middle and passive of -/At verbs.

In KavXaQat and the like, contraction has taken place in the vowels preceding the a (KavXdea-a& - KavXa(rai). &reewo"vaac (iii K. 148) looks like a barbarism for &aeVvwoui.

As against these fuller forms, we sometimes find contracted forms in the LXX, where the -o-al is usual in Attic.

8vvq for 8uvaaac. Dan. 0' 518. So in N.T. Lk. 162: Rev. 22. In Eur. Flec. 253 Porson substituted &IT for Svvri, as being more Attic. BvvaQat itself occurs in Job 1011, 3581', 422: Wisd. 112: Dan. 0 228, 4111, 511: Bel 01. ar iovp for E7r'QTaaaI. Nb. 201' : Dt. 222: Josh. 141: Job 381: Jer. 1718: EA. 374.


18. Aorist in -a. a. Another inflexional form for the frequency of which the classical student will hardly be prepared is the aorilt in -a in other than semivowel verbs. Attic Greek offers some rare instances of this formation, as evr-a, iweyK-a, EXe-a, and in Homer we have such stray forms as K,javrES (Od. IX 231), aX,Eaa9at (Od. IX 274), QEVa (Il. XX 1$9). Nevertheless this is the type which has prevailed in the modern language.

b. In Attic the aorilt Jim occurs more frequently in the other moods than in the indicative (e.g. Plat. b'opla. 240 D eiorayev, Prot. 353 A eirarov imperative, Plzileb. 60 D ebraim, Meno 71 D ebrov imperative).

In the LXX this aorilt is equally common in the indicative. eiaa Dt. 11° : Ps. 403. eiaas Gen. 4411: Judith 16'4. Cp. Hom. Il. 1106, 108. ei~ra/Aev Gen. 42', 44W 2g. eiaare Gen. 4321, 4421, 459. eiaav Jdg. 1415''8 : i K. 101' : ii K. 172°, 19'12 : iv K. 18 : T ob. VJer. 492. Ehrov Gen. 45" : Dan. O' 2'. u7rarw Dan. O 2'. eirare (imperative) Gen. 50'. Cp. Hom. Od. 111427. aiaas Gen. 462.

c. While the classical aorilt JXBov is common in the LXX, the form with -a also occurs, especially in the plural.

jaBaaev Nb. 1328. 1jaBare Gen. 26', 42'2: Dt. 12": Jdg. 11'.

;~.~9av Gen. 4718 : Jdg. 121: ii K. 172°, 24' : ii Chr. 25'8: Dan. O 2~

iX8drou Esther 54' 8: Is. 5'e : Jer. 1715. eIXOa -r.E 1'rov. 95. eiQeXearwQav Ex. 14g. This aorilt is common in Mss. of the N.T., but has not been admitted into the Revisers' text. Cp. Herm. Past. Yis. 14 § 1 j.6av, § 3 aait.~Bav: i Clem . 383 eiQljXBapcv. d.. By the side of ei8ov we have an aorilt in -a., especially in the 3d person plural, where its advantage is obvious. (See h below.) ei8apxv 1 K. 101. Etbov Jag. 6,162' : i K. 611: ii K. LO14' x9.


36 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK e. Similarly by the side of Etaov we have parts formed as though from etka. KaBELXav Gen. 44'1: iii K. 1914. EtAaTo Dt. 2618. Q.VE6kaTo Ex. 2b. d4wGXaTo 1 K. 3018. &EI'Xavro Josh. 228. I '6LkApIv 1 K. 1W. i~E'XaTo Ex. 184, 8: Josh. 241° : i K. 1211, 178', 3018. 7rapeikaro Nb. 112'. f. The aorist brara occurs frequently in the 3d person plural, but is rare in other parts. i7rEOa Dan. 0' 81'. i~rEQas ii K. 3"°. arEO-arw Jer. 442° (AS), 492 (AS). 7fEQarE Hos. 108. Among compounds we find a',7r07rEQa,"TwQnV, tSlE7TEQQV, EVE7lEQnV, E7lE?fEQaV. So in N.T. - E7fEQn Rev. 11'. EaEQav Rev. 51', V, 11'°, 171° : Hb. 11°°. E1E7rEQaTE Gal. 54. Cp. Polyb. 11119 § 5 &vTEaEPav. g. Other aorists of the same type are a ' 'Oavav Tob. 31. ve iyKariJlcaav ii Chr. 29°. flnXaviii K. 63. yfl°i~.1arE Gen. 441. h. The frequency of the 3d person plural in this form is no doubt due to a desire to differentiate the 3d person plural from the 1st person singular, which are confounded in the historic tenses ending in -ov. It also secured uniformity of ending with the Qorist in -LTa. In ii K. 101' we have this collocation - El3av . . . i0vyav . . . EiajXBav . . . avEQTpE0v. In Jdg. 63 we find the anomalous form avE,8acvav followed by avv- avE~Qalvov. 19. Augment. a. The augment with the pluperfect is at times omitted by Plato and the best Attic writers. Instances in the LXX are - aEapWKEI i K. 3012. SEBwKEIV ii K. 1811. OEOfUKEI 111 K. 1013. EvSEguKECV fob 291'x. E)la,flav ii K. 2318. E¢aya,uEV ii K. 19'2. Ecpvyav Jdg. 721. EvsEsvKEI Lvt.1s2~ E7rLREfiKEL Nb. 222~ 7fETlWKEI 1 K. 3012.


ACCIDENCE 87 i j So in N.T. - P, S.ESW'KCL NLIk. 14't PW 'KCLaaV i Jn. 2". SCUKM-av Jn. 11": cp. Mk. 15". 7rc7rtaT6KfL(raY Acts 142~ ZE KPcj8X4Kct Mk. M 7rerOLiKEto-av Mk. M ICCKPLKct Acts 20". But in the LXX we occasionally find other historic tenses without the augment, e.g. ii Esd. 1418 OLIK08ouo~aav. This is especially the case with JlSov. J Mes Lam. 3". Mov Gen. 3721, 40~ MY Gen. 371, 401. irp&Sov Gen. 3718 b. In Attic Greek, when a preposition had lost its force and was felt as part of the verb, the augment was placed before, instead of after, it, as?x0e4ov, IKOL~OV, iKaO4jVqV. The same law holds in the Greek of the LXX ,,but is naturally extended to fresh cases, e.g. to vpovolAc~ew, which in the Alexandrian dialect seems to have been the common word for I to ravage! brpovotu~a,almv Dt. 23, 37. ivcX~3aa-av Job 24~ &PoY6jLeva-aY Nb. M J, c. The aorist jivotea is already found in Xenophon. In the Li it is common, though by no means to the exclusion of the form with internal augment. Besides jMea itself, which is conjugate~d throughout the singular and plural, we have also the following jvOtXO-q N b. 16': Ps. 105"1 1081. ivoL-yov i Mae. M ivo&'XO?7aav Ezk. 11. 'IFOLYETO iii K. 7n. iv.yp.iv. Is. 4T~ So also in N.T. 77votec Acts 1214, 14": Rev. 8T. &,qVOLY1AC,VOVq Acts 711~ 14 at~votecActs 16 jvot'y?j Rev. 11'~ IJ Besides the Attic form with double internal augment, dvefw the ed, Li has also forms which augment the initial vowel of this, and so display a triple augment - iVcq)ec Gen. 81: iii Mae. 611. jvc(~ Ojorav Gen. 711: Sir. 4314: Dan. M Ix 4EVOVS 17vew //A iii K. 811: ii Chr. 6", 40 7": Neh. 16. jvapy;ke'va iii K. 8'~ So in N.T.- ivorylAwovRev. 101. !A V.4 J J Z~ P ~g K ifl ~q ~i '~x 'K J, A



d. In irpos6-1rev'ety the internal augment is wrong, since the verb is formed on the noun rpo-kinqs. In the LXX rpocO~,rcvacv occurs only in i K. 1810 (A) and Sir. 4610. Nevertheless this is the form which has been everywhere preferred in the Revisers' text of the N.T.

7rpocS5j,rcvov Acts 19".

7rpoc04TCVaC Mt. 15': Mk. V: Lk. 1'7: Jn. 1V1: Judelt VPOCOV7c~aapev Mt. V~ 7rPoe071'reway Mt. 11'~

e. Instances of double augment in the LXX are - &7reKa74'(rr,q Ex. 15~ d7rcxa,rC'91rVacv i Esd. 1~. jvwX,k11'6,qv i K. 30'3. Cp. Dan. 3-10: Dan. 01 61~

20. Reduplication. a. In verbs compounded with a preposition reduplication is sometimes applied to the preposition.

KeKarapattC'V0q Dt. 212: Sir. 311. Cp. Enoch 27 2. 7rcrpovo,uevjzcYo3 Is. 42~ Cp. § 19 b.

b. In the form KCKari/'pavrat (Nb. 22') 249. Cp. Enoch 2741.) we have what may be called double reduplication.

c. With AeptulAIE'VOT (Jdg. 42~ and &pcpt1-tjA44,,qv (Jdg. 15'~ may be compared Homer's A.Epvrwpe'm (Od. VI 69). Aepi'00a& EACP^&00a&] is cited from Pindar by Chceroboscus.

d. The reduplicated present 4'K8L8&Kctv occurs in four passages i K. 31': ii K. 23'0: Neh. 4-21: Hos. 71. It-is used also by Josephus. KtXpiv, 'to lend,' occurs in three passages-i K. 121: Prov. 1311: Ps. 1115. K' 77/ju is used in this sense by Demosthenes.


e. The verb KP.'t.EtY has a reduplicated weak aorist, hc&pa$a, which is very common, especially in the Psalms; also a reduplicated strong aorist, though this is very raxe.

CKCKPaYCV Is. 6. ClCcKpayov Is. 64.

21. Attic Future. a. What is called the Attic future, i.e. the future out of which o- has dropped, is more common in the LXX than in Attic Greek. Thus the future of 4.k7rt'Zctv, so far as it appears in Attic authors at all, is c.k7rL'0,(o: but in the LXX it is always I'XrZ. Among verbs in -ttw which take this form of future are -

-!Xy-Awrt'~ctv C'YYt'tCtV Kepa7l'CE&V olcowltetv &7rWK0PQK1'tGV lrurry/pttetv -0/AtZe- o-a,8j8arttc&v A-0ayn'tew C&-/YeXttetv ttekIZELY a-VXk0-/LCCtV &0avt'Cctv Ka0aptZew 1ACPL'C4EtV u-mert'Cetv 40PITetv KaOlZetv



There is no apparent reason for the contraction in the future of verbs in -itetv. The retention of a in the future of such verbs is quite exceptional, as in Eccl. 11' 6EpiQEi (mid.), Lvt. 25' EK0Epiacts. Of the two versions of Daniel 0' has in 41 trcupio-ovrt, while O has qrwpio"v=v. Mqviciv has a future in the LXX of the same sort as verbs in -ttetv.

fqv,r. Jer. 312. p~viEi Ps. 1029.

b. In Attic Greek there are a few instances of verbs in -gECv dropping the a and contracting in the future. Thus R6AdZE6v, EevrgaV have the futures ptK), Eeer;) in addition to the full forms. In the LXX the former of these sometimes retains the a in the future (Dt. 6': Ps. 318 : Is. 40'3: Wisd. 6$ : Sir. 13'1), the latter always: but the tendency which they exemplify is carried out in the case of other verbs in 4gctv. Hence we meet with the following futures -

apma Lvt. 191$. ap7rwpai Hos. 514. EK&Karac Lvt. 1918: Dt. 3243 : Judith 111°.

Epyj Gen. 41, 291: Ex. 209, 3421: Lvt. 25'°: Dt. 51a,1V: ii K. 91°. Epyamc Lvt. 259° : Job 332.

Epywvrat Is. 51° : J er. 37& 9, 221$, 411' : E zk. 481. Karepya Dt. 283.

KOip! Dt. 3118. Koipa7ac Job 817.

c. Both in the LXX and in the N.T. semivowel verbs, i.e. those with X,, p, p, v, have a contracted future, as in Attic, e.g. *aXw, o'repeis,

TEp,Eis, pavei. d. In Attic Greek the future of X& is still X& and indistinguishable from the present. In the LXX the future is distinguished by being treated as a contracted tense. Thus we have- EKXEw, EKXEE6s, EKXEE6, EKXEELTE, EKXEOVO'6. The 1st person plural does not seem to occur. e. To the contracted futures the LXX adds the post-classical 0'w, from the same stem as Ei.ov. This future occurs both in the active and the middle voices, e.g. aOEXw (Nb. 111'), EeEVZQ6E (Josh. 2"). So in N.T.- avEMt ii Th. 2a.


40 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK f. In Attic reWLY and KaXEiv are in the future indistinguishable from the present. In the later Greek of the LXX this ambiguity is avoided by the retention of the full form of the future. Thus we have - OIJVTEiLE?W, Q'UVTEiLEQELS, O'LVTEVd-EL, O'iJVTEXEO'ETE, WVTEkE00'UO'LY, and KaAEO'W, KaAEOEIS, KaAEO'EL, KaAEO'ETE, KOAEO'OVQLV. g. The future o,4OW, which is common in Homer but rare in Attic, does not occur in the LXX, which has only the contracted forms okEi Prov. 199. o'XC trat Job 8'9. o.~o"vvraL Prov. 2~, 139, 155, 1611, 2519.

IL. On the other hand, EELS in Ex. 25" is the only instance of the future of iM.,ivW in the LXX.

a. In Attic O'KEtSOLYVUfLL has future a-KEBiu, but in the LXX it retains the Q, e.g. 8LaoKEBdaW Jdg. 21.

22. Retention of Short Vowel in the Future. As a rule in Greek a and E verbs lengthen the vowel in forming the future. Exceptions are mraw and XaaL%W among a verbs, and among E verbs aiyeW, KakEW, TEkEW. When the vowel is short in the future, it is also short in the 1st aorist.

To the E verbs which have the vowel short in the future and 1st aorist we may add from the LXX aoveiv, o9oveiv, oopeiv.

So in N.T.- EoOpEO'a(AEy . . . 0 OpEQOpEV 1 COr. 1549. Cp. Herm. Past. ,Sinn. IX 13 § 3, 15 § 6 EoOpEO'aV.

23. Aorist of Semivowel Verbs. In Attic Greek semivowel verbs with a in their stern lengthen the a into 7 in forming the 1st aorist (as oav-, E0rwa), except after L or p, when they lengthen into a (as 'LLaV-, ElA.60.Va, TfEpaV-, E7fEp0.Va). See G. § 672.

In the LXX many such verbs lengthen into d when the a of the stem is preceded by a consonant. Hence we meet with. such forms

as E'YXVKayas, EKKQB0.pOY, E$EKQBapa, E7r-EXapav, E716oayOV, E71'OLpCIyEV, E"'4a- vev, "'.Lavp, vonvaL, vcpavev, voaivqs, P4Xare. In Amos 52 EQ0aXEV is ambiguous, as it might be 2d aorist. The form Ka9apls is read in Dindorf's text of Xen. (9c. 18 9 8,



and in Hermann's text of Plato Laws 735 we have aaBapv in B followed by iv In D. The aorist lajpava is found as early as Xenophon. Cp. Aristeas §§ 16, 33. `EKEp&xva was always regarded as good Attic.

Such forms are also to be found in the N.T., e.g.- i/3dQKavEV Gal . 31. Eo-~jM,avEV Rev. 11.

24. The Strong Tenses of the Passive. The Greek of the LXX displays a preference for the strong over the weak tenses of the passive, i.e. for the tenses which are formed directly from the verbal stem, namely, the 2d aorist and the 2d future. Thus jyy&qv, which is not to be found in classical authors, except in a disputed reading of Eur. I. T. 932, occurs frequently (in compounds) in the LXX, and the future passive, when employed, is the corresponding form in -i~QOpac, e.g. Ps. 21$1 avayyEXrjoErac, Ps . 581° 8uzyyEX,jo-ovTac.

So again from pivTw we find only the 2d aorist and 2d future passive, e.g. Ezk. 1912 EppiS5r~, ii K. 2021 pc(P1jrETat.

The following are other instances of the same formation: - IQPaXI?QETac (/3peXu)) Is. 343. ypaOrja~ovrac Ezk. 13°. Cp. Aristeas § 32. BcEBpuflr/Qav Nahum 1°. EKXEyqvac Dan . 0' 111. Ecy~O'ETQL I3. 34'. fvEC~payr~ Ps. 6212. E~aJU.cbiwac i Chr. 29': Cp. Plat. Phcedr. 258 B. E7fE?KE7fn(TQV 1 Chr. 2(iRl. iKaraaraT,~o-av Tobit 1". opvy;j Ps. 9;318. 7rEpcE7ra6rcVaav Ps. 1181. QvvE(Apvynaav Ps. 101'1. vrETayyrav PS. 591°.

25. The Verbs arEevdv and 8yraY. In Attic Greek these two verbs contract into q instead of a.. In the LXX they contract into a, and Valli further forms its future and aorist in & instead of ,~.

famrECVa . . . MY &~a Prov. 2521. iaEivas Dt. 251$. 8c~g (ind.) Is. 298. The parts of 7rECV&v which occur in the future and aorist, are irECV6r QEC, 71'EIVQRTETE, 7fElYQ?OVOC, ETfEGYaOEY, E7fENaQaY,?fELVOU(U (subj.), 7fELVQafU'LEV,


42 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK So also in N.T. - reivav Phil. V. vEEVa (ind.) i Cor. 111. aECVa . . . &0a (subj.) Rom. 1210 (quoted from Prov. 2511). E4v,rtS 8c~« Jn. 7'. For the future and aorist of 7rewav in N.T. see Mt. 121,8, 2581: Lk.42: Jn.6": Rev. 7". 26. The Perfect of JIMV. °HKEtv in the LXX has a perfect i'7Ka, which occurs however only in the plural. jKauEV Gen. 474: Josh. 912. rjKaTE Gen. 42', e: Dt. 129: i Chr. 121'. jKao'L(v) 10 times. This form occurs once in the N.T. - iKam Mk. 88. Cp. i Clem. 122 in a quotation from Josh. 28. The aorist j$a, which is found in late authors, is not used in the LXX. Wherever the form ;EKE occurs, it is either imperative, as in ii K. 1431, or imperfect, as in ii Mac. 431, 8,1', 14',21. 2'T. Presents formed from Perfects. a. From the perfect 4o-T1Ka there was formed a new present QT9'KW, which occurs in two or three passages of the LXX. OT4KE& Jdg. 168. (rTrjKEw iii K. 811. OT4KETE (imper.) E$. 1413 (A). So in N.T. - Q'r"KEL Rom. 14'. OT~KETE (lad.) Phil. 12'. VT4KETE (imper.) i Cor. 1613: Gal. 51: Phil. 41: ii Thes. 2". QT~KIJTE 1 Th. 38 : Mk. 112'. b. Similar to this is the verb ypi7yopEw, formed from Eyprjyopa. .We may conjecture that the pluperfect Eyp,?yopE, came to be regarded as a contracted imperfect, and so gave rise to yplyopcu. eypr/yopovv Jer. 382. ypry?peiv i Mac . 1227. ypr~yopoivTCUV Neh. 78. yp,~yopjQw Jer. 382': EypryopVTE(v) Jer. 58: Bar. 29: Dan. O 914. EYP,IYoPjB'7 Lam. ha.



From this verb in its turn was formed a new verbal noun ypqyolpr ots Dan. O 511, 1'. Cp. also the proper name rp7'yopios.

So in N.T. - ypqyopL~p,Ev i Th. 58. . ypr'yopeire (imper.) i Cor. 1613: Mk. 13s'. ypfyop7j(TaTE i Yet. 58.

c. Of like origin is the aorist brcroLO'jo'a, which occurs in Job 312. From 7rE7roEBELv again we have the noun vorot67iais iv K. 1819.

d. The tendency to form new presents from perfects is already exhibited in Homer. Thus we have avwyet (Od. V 139 etc.) formed from avwya, and yeywvEiv (IL. XII 337) from yc'ywva; also the imperfect luE'A,1'Kov (Od. IX 439) from ufu7'Ka.

28. The Verb tcvbvaL and its Cognates. By the side of the forms in -/At there existed from Homer downwards alternative forms in -w. Some of these present themselves in the LXX. Thus we have the following parts of the transitive verb ioTaw.

io-TCwtv i Mac. 81. io-7ruv ii K. 221: Job 62: Ps. 1713: Sir. 27N: Is. 4411: i Mae. 2ff.

Among its compounds we may notice the following - Ka0io-Twv Dt. 171': Dan. 0' 41. Cp. Aristeas § 228. Kaeio7a . . . M,EOio-T& Dan. O 221. p,E9co7wv . . . KaOivTwv Dan. 0' 2n. p,EOtaTC)m i Mac. 813. Mx&oTav ill Mac. 6'".

So in N.T. - iaTCUN,EV Rom. 331. naorcaBl0-Ta Mk: 912.

Q,rvwTav ii Cor. 101. QLVLQT!DVTES 11 COT. 42, 6'. The form iQTavEiv, also transitive, occurs in Ezk. 171'. Cp. Aria. teas § § 280, 281 Ka91o-TOivEiv. So in N.T. - p,EBio-Tavew 1 Cor. 132. QvvwTavECV ii Cor. 31. Cp. 51 % 101a. Cp. Herm. Past. Vis. 13 § 4 pEBao-Tavec. Later Greek has a transitive perfect EO'T«Ka, which is implied by the rare, though classical, perfect passive EovaMa.s (Plat. Tim. 81 D). Thus in (Plato Axiocla-us 370 D we find 7rEp6EQTa.K0.S· EQTQK0.'.4EV 1 Mac. 111'. ti.4)so-Tarca Jer. 161. KaBEQT0.Ka Jer. 11°, 617. Ka9EQTicawev i Mac. 10'. Cp. kristeas § 37. `~ f I _, I , iI I 1 i ~ s~ c t. ~ r r l , I. C I I;' t, ~- rv 1.. t:~rf d 3v l I .i. ~ I. 1. I $ I I. i, Ir d i I I I I s a i I ~ I. i I I I f ,i ,. ~l' I i- ii,. a: I. y: 3, "E I p f i _; y, i .. 1 :I ~';5'~,1~ f fl ~ ` I I. ~t~e s :a."s j, ,I I ~ X i~ I I I , a~ ~a ! I 1 i



In Josh. 1019 there occurs the irregular perfect imperative &rjKarE with connecting vowel a instead of E. With this form may be compared rE7roEBa7E Ps. 1453: Is. 501°: Jer. 94.

29. The Verb rL01VQ1, and its Cognates. This verb does not offer much scope for remark. The imperfect is formed, so far as it occurs, from the alternative form 70,16.

Erfets Ps. 491& ". Er1BeL Prov. 82.

This is in accordance with classical usage, which however has InBqv in the 1st person. 'ErAq is read by A in Esther 4'.

The strong and weak aorists active seem to be about equally frequent. The only person of the latter that is missing is the 2d person plural. 'E04jKa/LEv is found (ii Esd. 151° : Is. 281s) and E0qKav is common.

The 2d person singular of the strong aorist middle is always IBov, as in Attic.

In i Esd. 48° we find E7L-rL0o"voav formed from the thematic TLBEa).

30. The Verb 8L&dvaLL and its Cognates. The present tense runs thus-

SiScu/LL, st'sws, &'sLxn, sLsomV. In Ps. 361 we find 3d person singular BLSoi from the cognate &806. The imperfect runs thus - i8isovv, E8isovs, f8i8ov, esisovv or Esasoo'av. 'E8i&ovv as 3d person plural occurs in ii Chr. 275 : iii Mac. 31° ; E&'Sovav in Judith 721: Jer. 4421: Ezk. 2341: iii Mac. 211. The imperative active 8isov is found in Tobit 411: Prov. 99, 222. The 1st aorist is common in the singular and in the 3d person plural of the indicative, 18wKav. The 2d aorilt subjunctive runs thus- sa, 4s, sL;, swTE, BwQL. Of the above forms only &8o2, 3d person plural E&'Sovv, and 18wav ate non Attic.


The optative of the 2d aorist has the stem vowel long - SV'qs Ps. 841, 1203.

8" 29 times. In Job 68, 1921: Sir. 452" SoLI occurs as a variant. Up. Aristeas § 185 4rt.

So in N.T. - q,q ii Th. 316: Rom. 15a : Eph. 11' : ii Tim. 11", B, 2'5.

31. The Verb Uvai and its Cognates. a.. The simple verb iEVac does not occur in the LXX. It has therefore to be studied in its compounds. The regular inflexion of the imperfect in Attic is supposed to be iqv, Zen, ia, though in Plat. Euthyd. 293 A we have 1st person singular jq5leiv. 'Hcpias therefore (Sus. 0'l may be considered classical.

b. '1 'he following two passages will set before us the points that have to be noticed with regard to a.skEVa~- Ex. 32' el' juiv doe&% . . . aches . i Esd. 4' eiaev aoawai, djSlovacv.

In the former of these a0c2s must be from aoE~, a cognate thematic form to &¢itl but without the reduplication.

In the latter we have a new formation which treats the reduplication as though it were itself the stem. Of this new verb we have the following parts -

a.0iw Eccl. 218. doll i Esd. 4a°. acpiuro Eccl. 511. In the N.T. also we find ai (Rev. 2-'°) and ;t4ae(v) (Mk. 1"', 111") the imperfect of &¢i Cp. Herm. Past. Yis. III 7 § 1 $Oiovo-tv. The weak aorist occurs in the singular and in the 3d person plural &sSiKav, e.g. Jdg. 1"'. c. A thematic verb amaiv existed in classical Greek. Theognis 565 has the infinitive orwsew : Plat . Soph. 238 E uses evvuis. Of this verb we find the following parts in the LXX, if we may trust the accentuation - o-vneiv iii K. 39, n. o-vvso"vo-&v (dat. pl.) Prov. 8s. awiwv ii Chr. 3412. So also in N.T. - o o-uvcwv Rom. 311. In Mt. 132" the R.v. text has o°wmv. mwLo"l (3d pl.) Mt. 131 - ii Cor. 10".



d. In addition to this we find a verb of new formation like ajsiw -

Q,rviE~s Tob. 38; Job 159, 36'. ovvisi Prov. 21'1,10: Wisd. 911.

auviwv Dan. O 81, "" and passim. v,rviovrwv (gen. pl.) ii Chr. 30n.

In ii Chr. 26' o-wtovros and ii Esd. 8'e o-vvtovras the accent seems to be misplaced.

The new participle avviwv has not entirely ousted the -pr. form in the LXX. We have ovule's Ps. 3211 : of o-uvtEVres Dan. 128: avviEVras Dan. OO 1:4 rruv QvrviEVrwv Dan. 113~.

e. The 3d person plural of the 1st aorist qKav, which occurs in Xen. Anab. IV 5 § 18, is used in the LXX in its compound aojKQv.

f. The verb arvim, is to be met with also in the Apostolic Fathers -

Qvvlw Herm. Past. Mdt. IV 2 § 1, X 1 § 3. o7rviac IV 2 § 2 . o-wiovoiv X 1 § 6. o'UYtE VI 2 §§ 3, 6: Sim. IX 12 § 1. owiwv Barn. Ep. 12'0.

g. The 2d person singular present middle rpoip in Job 7's is doubtless formed on the analogy of Xvp, but might be reached from ,rpo'EOac by loss of and contraction.

32. The Imperatives lLv&am and gw6o-ra, etc. It is the by-forms in -w which account for these imperatives (avdwra = a v4ara-a). 'Avaiara in the LXX is used interchangeably with avaiarn& Thus in Dan. 71 0' has avaara, while © has av4vrq0i. But the same writer even will go from one to the other. Thus in iii K. 19 we have avaorV0& in v. 5 and avuara in v. 7, and again in iii K. 20 avamra in v.15 and avgorn& in v.18. So also Ps. 4321, ff avdarj0i . . . a v4mra. 'Aoroo-ra occurs in Job 7'e, 14°, 21".

So in N.T., where we find in addition the 3d person singular and the 2d person plural.

av6ara .Acts 127 : Eph. 5". ava,8a Rev. 41.

KQraflQrw Mt . 27".

dvapara Rev. 1P.

Cp. Herm. Past. Mdt. VI 2 §§ 6, 7 aroara . . . a aoovrt8i, mss. 2 § 8 drrio~ra.


ACCIDENCE 47 Similar forms are to be found even in the Attic drama and earlier. Ep/8a Eur. Elec. 113: Ar. Ran. 377. E7ri/3a Theognis 845. Eafa Eur. Placen. 193. Ka7afla Ar. Ran. 35, Yesp. 979. 7rpopa Eur. Ale. 872: Ar. Ach. 262. 33. Special Forms of Verbs. aipeTiCecv denominative from aepEros. ap.¢ca~ecv iv K. 178: Job 2914, 31'8 (in 40° 0.p,0lEVac) 47fOKTEVVEGV Ex. 42: ii K. 412: iv K. 1721: Ys. 7TI, 1001: Wisd. 16'4: Hab. 1": Is. 663: Dan. O 213: iii Mac. 714. &7r07LVVV'eLv Gen. 313° : Ys. 68$ : Sir. 2012. Eke&v for EXeeiv. Ps. 3616 , 1141: Prov. 139, 1421~ 31, 2126 , 288 : Sir. 181': Tobit 132: iv Mac. 612 ' 9S. So in N.T., Jude~2. Cp. i Clem. 132: Barn. Ep. 20'. E~.ova6,ls Ezk. 16'.

EopaKas ii K.1811. Maintained by some to be the true Attic form. Eppr~yuis for Eppwyws. Job 321°.

EQBELV for EQBGELV. Lvt. 7", 1114, 171°, 191~ 21: Sir. 201°. Old poetic form. Horn. Il. XXIV 415 : Od. IX 479, X 273.

KaBov for Ka9rlro. Gen. 38'1: Jdg. 171° : Ruth 3": i K. 128, 22~ "iv K. 22~ 4~ ° :. Ps. 1091: Sir. 9'. Formed on the analogy of dvov. KdBr~o-o itself occurs in ii Chr. 2519. In Ezk. 23'1 we have im- perfect EKaBov. So in N.T., Mt. 22": Mk. 12s°: Lk. 2041 : Acts 2-1: Hb. 11' (all quotations from Ps. 1091) : James 2s. Jer. 419. ovB«s Dt. 92. Cp. Eur. Ion 999 (Dindorf). matew for 7rcEtecv. Song 2's: Sir. 2321. IIcE~ew occurs only in Micah 61' in the original sense of 1 to press.' pWOew Jer. 2319 and eight other passages. 34. Adverbs. Hellenistic Greek supplied the missing adverb to ayaBos. 'Ay«Bws occurs in Aristotle Rla. 1111 § 1. In the LXX it is found in i K. 20' : iv K. 1118 : Tob. 13'0. Among adverbs of time we may notice EK apwiBev and d,iro apwi9Ev as peculiar to the LXX. For the former see ii K. 2n: iii K. 181 : i Mac. 1010; for the latter Ex. 181": Ruth 2': Job 41°: Sir. 181°: i Mac. 913. Similar to these among adverbs of place is aao pa.KpoBev, Ps. 1382. Such expressions remind us of our own double form I from whence,' which purists condemn.



In the Greek of the LXX roo is used for ~roi; just as we commonly say I where' for I whither.'

Jdg. 191' IIo"v iropctrp, X,i x0ev 1pXV; G'p. Gen. 3781: Josh. 2°, 810: Jdg. 191': i K. 101' : Zeeh. 2$.

lid occurs only in a doubtful reading in Jer. 21; and has there the sense of wo"v.

Similarly ov' is used for ol, which is not found at all. Jer. 51r° ou idY,8a&'aps haa2

Cp. Gen. 40$ : Ex. 211' : iii K. 1810: Ezk.1218 So in N.T.- wa"u = wet i J n. 211, 31: Jn. 81' : H b. 118. oaov = mroc James 3'1. droc does not occur in Biblical Greek.

35. Homerisms. The Ionic infusion which is observable in the Greek of the LXX may possibly be due to the use of Homer as a schoolbook in Alexandria. This would be a vera causa in accounting for such stray Ionisms as Kuvopv&'qs, /WXatp;1, E7rcSEjB9K4,p, and the use of owaipW in the Papyri; possibly also for yauov, yaeact. Such forms also as loraoc8os, Way, Iravwuv (Sir. 431, Heoatfos, xaAKaos, Xet'mppos, irokeworjs, have an Homeric ring about them.

36. Movable Consonants. v I¢eAKUVTucov is freely employed before consonants, as in Gen. 31'x, 41°" : Dt. 191: Ruth 2a : J dg. 1611.

To aXpc and p,Wpc s is sometimes appended before a vowel and sometimes not.

Jdg. 11" e dxpes "Apvwv. Job 3211 dXpc ou. 1i Mae. 14'5 aXpc aiwvos. Josh. 423 p,C'Ves ov. i Esd. 1°c IuiXpc ov. Job 32's pc' Wc vpwv.

'Avr7Kpv and alvr"crcpus differ from one another by more than the Q. The former does not occur at all in the LXX, the latter in Swete's text only once, iii Mae. 518 aivrcKpvs avarcJlcBiwac airro"v.

In the Revisers' text of the N.T. we find dXpc before a consonant in Gal. 4s; olXpcs ov i Cor. llaa, 1515: Gal. 319) 419: Hb. 313; p,focs ow Mk. 138° ; Ic~0cs a1',caros Hb. 12' ; a vrcKpv Xiov Acts 201.

8'l. Spelling. In matters of spelling Dr. Swete's text appears to reflect variations in the Mss.


ACCIDENCE 49 a. The diphthong cc is often replaced by &, as in i Esd. 1" XOXKL'OCs compared with ii Chr. 35' XaAxelocs. This is especially the case with feminine nouns in -Ela, as 6rwAia, 8ov,ia., M.Tpia, 7rXivO&, avyyEVia, vyia,'jSappaKia. Neuters plural in -eta also sometimes end in -ca with recession of accent, as - ayyia Gen. 4221. Vdpw. Gen. 451'. In the pluperfect of lo-TIpa again we sometimes find t for u- io-7rjKu Jdg. 16'. arapiQTlKEL Gen. 45'. So also in the future and 1st aorist of Ac' as EKAleal, EXItuV, Xl507atv. On the other hand el8Eac for i8EO.c (nom. pl. of i&a) occurs in Dan. 0111. b. v in composition is sometimes changed into p, before a labial and sometimes not, as- QvN,fifaaw Ex. 412. I 'Otay' L Nb. 236, 'JKC ovv/3tflao-aTw Jdg. 139. Before a guttural or 7r, v is often retained, instead of being turned into y, as - ' O~ evoyawts, eviyow-.9s) 1v#cpv0' , lvro' , IvXwp' vica' 7a&, ' t as &V 9q). But on the other hand - QvyKpms, muyyEVia.

c. In the spelling of aap,flavecv p. appears in parts not formed from the present stem, as -

X4f4°jawh Jl'7p*:h AYIN'1'lEO'BE, AjN'0B'YI, KaTaAj/*:I'

This may indicate that the syllable in which the p, occurs was pronounced with a. In modern Greek wa stands for b, and we seem to find this usage as early as Hermas ( Vas . 1111 § 4), who represents the Latin subsellium by over_acov. Cp. `A/A/3aKOVp, for Habakkuk.

d. The doubling of P in the augment of verbs is often neglected, as -

ElEpiOnaav, EpavEV, ipamtiov, Ep*V. e. The following also may be noticed- Epa1JV4V for EpEVV&v Dt. 13'''. N,iEpos, p.iEpooayia, pvEp°-OayEiv, y.EpoiSovia all in Maccabees Only. TEQO'EpaKOVTa Dt. .99''1 : Josh. 147.




38. The Construction of the LXX not Greek. In treating of Accidence we have been concerned only with dialectical varieties within the Greek language, but in turning to syntax we come unavoidably upon what is not Greek. For the LXX is on the whole a literal translation, that is to say, it is only half a translation--the vocabulary has been changed, but seldom the construction. We have therefore to deal with a work of which the vocabulary is Greek and the syntax Hebrew.

39. Absence of μέν and δέ.How little we are concerned with a piece of Greek diction is brought home to us by the fact that the balance of clauses by the particles μέν and δέ, so familiar a feature of Greek style, is rare in the LXX, except in the books of Wisdom and Maccabees. It does not occur once in all the books between Deuteronomy and Proverbs nor in Ecclesiastes, the Song, the bulk of the Minor Prophets, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel; and in each of the following books it occurs once only--Leviticus (277), Numbers (2233), Tobit (1410), Haggai (14), Zechariah (115), Isaiah (62). Where the antithesis employed, it is often not managed with propriety, e.g. in Job 326. As instances of the non-occurrence of one or both of the particles where their presence is obviously required we may take--

Gen. 2722 Ἡ φωνὴ φωνὴ Ἰακώβ, αἱ δὲ χεῖρες χεῖρες Ἠσαύ.Jdg. 1629 καὶ ἐκράτησεν ἕνα τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἕνα τῇ ἀριστερᾷ αὐτοῦii K. 1125 ποτὲ μὲν οὕτως καὶ ποτὲ οὕτωςiii K. 186 μιᾷ . . . ἄλλῃ.

40. Paratactical Construction of the LXX. Roughly speaking, it is true to say that in the Greek of the LXX there is no syntax, only parataxis. The whole is one great scheme of clauses connected by καί, and we have to trust to the sense to tell us which is to be so emphasized as to make it into the apodosis. It may therefore be laid down as a general rule that in the LXX the apodosis is introduced




38. The Construction of the LXX not Greek. In treating of Accidence we have been concerned only with dialectical varieties within the Greek language, but in turning to syntax we come unavoidably upon what is not Greek. For the LXX is on the whole a literal translation, that is to say, it is only half a translation--the vocabulary has been changed, but seldom the construction. We have therefore to deal with a work of which the vocabulary is Greek and the syntax Hebrew.

39. Absence of μέν and δέ.How little we are concerned with a piece of Greek diction is brought home to us by the fact that the balance of clauses by the particles μέν and δέ, so familiar a feature of Greek style, is rare in the LXX, except in the books of Wisdom and Maccabees. It does not occur once in all the books between Deuteronomy and Proverbs nor in Ecclesiastes, the Song, the bulk of the Minor Prophets, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel; and in each of the following books it occurs once only--Leviticus (277), Numbers (2233), Tobit (1410), Haggai (14), Zechariah (115), Isaiah (62). Where the antithesis employed, it is often not managed with propriety, e.g. in Job 326. As instances of the non-occurrence of one or both of the particles where their presence is obviously required we may take--

Gen. 2722 Ἡ φωνὴ φωνὴ Ἰακώβ, αἱ δὲ χεῖρες χεῖρες Ἠσαύ.Jdg. 1629 καὶ ἐκράτησεν ἕνα τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἕνα τῇ ἀριστερᾷ αὐτοῦii K. 1125 ποτὲ μὲν οὕτως καὶ ποτὲ οὕτωςiii K. 186 μιᾷ . . . ἄλλῃ.

40. Paratactical Construction of the LXX. Roughly speaking, it is true to say that in the Greek of the LXX there is no syntax, only parataxis. The whole is one great scheme of clauses connected by καί, and we have to trust to the sense to tell us which is to be so emphasized as to make it into the apodosis. It may therefore be laid down as a general rule that in the LXX the apodosis is introduced


by καί. This is a recurrence to an earlier stage of language than that which Greek itself had reached long before the LXX was written, but we find occasional survivals of it in classical writers, e.g. Xen. Cyrop. I 4 § 28. καὶ ὁδόν τε οὔπω πολλὴν διηνύσθαι αὐτοῖς καὶ τὸν Μῆδον ἥκειν. Here it is convenient to translate καί 'when,' but the construction is really paratactical. So again Xen. Anab. IV 2 § 12 Καὶ τοῦτόν τε παρεληλύθεσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες, καὶ ἕτερον ὁρῶσιν ἔμπροσθεν λόφον κατεχόμενον. Cp. Anab. I 8 § 8, II 1 § 7, IV 6 § 2; also Verg. Æn. II 692--

Vix ea fatus erat senior, subitoque fragore

intonuit laevom.

In the above instances the two clauses are coördinate. But in the LXX, even when the former clause is introduced by a subordinative conjunction, καί still follows in the latter, e.g.--

Gen. 4429 ἐὰν οὖν λάβητε . . . καὶ κατάξετε κτλ.Ex. 1314 ἐὰν δὲ ἐρωτήσῃ . . . καὶ ἐρεῖς κτλ. Cp. 79.  Josh. 41 καὶ ἐπεὶ συνετέλεσεν πᾶς ὁ λαὸς διαβαίνων τὸν Ἰορδάνην, καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος.

Sometimes a preposition with a verbal noun takes the place of the protasis, e.g.--

Ex. 312 ἐν τῷ ἐξαγαγεῖν . . . καὶ λατρεύσετε.

In Homer also καί is used in the apodosis after ἐπεί (Od. V 96), ἦμος (Il. I 477: Od. X 188), or ὅτε (Od. V 391, 401: X 145,157, 250).

The difficulty which sometimes arises in the LXX in determining which is the apodosis amid a labyrinth of καὶ clauses, e.g. in Gen. 414, 3910, may be paralleled by the difficulty which sometimes presents itself in Homer with regard to a series of clauses introduced by δέ, e.g. Od. X 112, 113; XI 34–6.

41. Introduction of the Sentence by a Verb of Being. Very often in imitation of Hebrew idiom the whole sentence is introduced by ἐγένετο or ἔσται.

Gen 3919 ἐγένετο δὲ ὡς ἤκουσεν . . . καὶ ἐθυμώθη ὀργῇ. Cp. vs. 5, 7, 13.  iii K. 1812 καὶ ἔσται ἐὰν ἐγὼ ἀπέλθω ἀπὸ σοῦ, καὶ πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἀρεῖ σε εἰς τὴν γῆν ἣν οὐκ οἶδας.

In such cases in accordance with western ideas of what a sentence ought to be, we say that καί introduces the apodosis, but it may be that, in its original conception at least, the whole construction was paratactical. It is easy to see this in a single instance like--

Gen 418 ἐγένετο δὲ πρωὶ καὶ ἐταράχθη ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ,


by καί. This is a recurrence to an earlier stage of language than that which Greek itself had reached long before the LXX was written, but we find occasional survivals of it in classical writers, e.g. Xen. Cyrop. I 4 § 28. καὶ ὁδόν τε οὔπω πολλὴν διηνύσθαι αὐτοῖς καὶ τὸν Μῆδον ἥκειν. Here it is convenient to translate καί 'when,' but the construction is really paratactical. So again Xen. Anab. IV 2 § 12 Καὶ τοῦτόν τε παρεληλύθεσαν οἱ Ἕλληνες, καὶ ἕτερον ὁρῶσιν ἔμπροσθεν λόφον κατεχόμενον. Cp. Anab. I 8 § 8, II 1 § 7, IV 6 § 2; also Verg. Æn. II 692--

Vix ea fatus erat senior, subitoque fragore

intonuit laevom.

In the above instances the two clauses are coördinate. But in the LXX, even when the former clause is introduced by a subordinative conjunction, καί still follows in the latter, e.g.--

Gen. 4429 ἐὰν οὖν λάβητε . . . καὶ κατάξετε κτλ.Ex. 1314 ἐὰν δὲ ἐρωτήσῃ . . . καὶ ἐρεῖς κτλ. Cp. 79.  Josh. 41 καὶ ἐπεὶ συνετέλεσεν πᾶς ὁ λαὸς διαβαίνων τὸν Ἰορδάνην, καὶ εἶπεν Κύριος.

Sometimes a preposition with a verbal noun takes the place of the protasis, e.g.--

Ex. 312 ἐν τῷ ἐξαγαγεῖν . . . καὶ λατρεύσετε.

In Homer also καί is used in the apodosis after ἐπεί (Od. V 96), ἦμος (Il. I 477: Od. X 188), or ὅτε (Od. V 391, 401: X 145,157, 250).

The difficulty which sometimes arises in the LXX in determining which is the apodosis amid a labyrinth of καὶ clauses, e.g. in Gen. 414, 3910, may be paralleled by the difficulty which sometimes presents itself in Homer with regard to a series of clauses introduced by δέ, e.g. Od. X 112, 113; XI 34–6.

41. Introduction of the Sentence by a Verb of Being. Very often in imitation of Hebrew idiom the whole sentence is introduced by ἐγένετο or ἔσται.

Gen 3919 ἐγένετο δὲ ὡς ἤκουσεν . . . καὶ ἐθυμώθη ὀργῇ. Cp. vs. 5, 7, 13.  iii K. 1812 καὶ ἔσται ἐὰν ἐγὼ ἀπέλθω ἀπὸ σοῦ, καὶ πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἀρεῖ σε εἰς τὴν γῆν ἣν οὐκ οἶδας.

In such cases in accordance with western ideas of what a sentence ought to be, we say that καί introduces the apodosis, but it may be that, in its original conception at least, the whole construction was paratactical. It is easy to see this in a single instance like--

Gen 418 ἐγένετο δὲ πρωὶ καὶ ἐταράχθη ἡ ψυχὴ αὐτοῦ,


but the same explanation may be applied to more complex cases, e.g.--

Nb. 219 καὶ ἐγένετο ὅταν ἔδακνεν ὄφις ἄνθρωπον, καὶ ἐπέβλεψεν ἐπὶ τὸν ὄφιν τὸν χαλκοῦν καὶ ἔζη.  And there was when a serpent bit a man, and he looked on the brazen serpent, and lived. Cp. Gen. 4235, 432, 21: Jdg. 1411.

42. Apposition of Verbs. Sometimes the καί does not appear after ἐγένετο, ἐγενήθη, or ἔσται, thus presenting a construction which we may denote by the phrase Apposition of Verbs.

Jdg. 1930 καὶ ἐγένετο πᾶς ὁ βλέπων ἔλεγεν . . .i K. 318 καὶ ἐγενήθη τῇ ἐπαύριον, ἔρχονται οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι.Gen. 4431 καὶ ἔσται ἐν τῷ ἰδεῖν αὐτὸν μὴ ὂν τὸ παιδάριον μεθ᾿ ἡμῶν, τελευτήσει.

In two versions of the same Hebrew we find one translator using the καί and the other not.

iv K. 191 καὶ ἐγένετο ὣς ἤκουσεν ὁ βασιλεὺς Ἑζεκίας, καὶ διέρρηξεν τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτοῦ.Is. 371 καὶ ἐγένετο ἐν τῷ ἀκοῦσαι τὸν βασιλέα Ἑζεκίαν, ἔσχισεν τὰ ἱμάτια.

43. Δέ in the Apodosis. The use of δέ to mark the apodosis, which is found occasionally in classical authors from Homer downwards, is rare in the LXX.

Josh. 28 καὶ ἐγένετο ὡς ἐξήλθοσαν . . . αὕτη δὲ ἀνέβη.


44. Generic Use of the Article. This is due to following the Hebrew.

i K. 1734 ὁ λέων καὶ ἡ ἄρκος = 'a lion or a bear,' 1736 καὶ τὴν ἄρκον ἔτυπτεν ὁ δοῦλός σου καὶ τὸν λέοντα.Amos 519 ὃν τρόπον ἐὰν φύγῃ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ προσώπου τοῦ λέοντος, καὶ ἐμπέσῃ αὐτῷ ἡ ἄρκος.Is. 714 ἰδοὺ ἡ παρθένος ἐν γαστρὶ λήμψεται.

45. Elliptical Use of the Feminine Article. The use of the feminine article with some case of χώρα or γῆ understood is not due to the influence of the Hebrew.

ἡ ὑπ᾿ οὐρανόν Job 184.

τὴν ὑπ᾿ οὐρανόν Job 17, 22, 510, 96, 2824, 3413, 3824.

τῆς ὑπό τὸν οὐρανόν Ex. 174: Prov. 828, ii Mac. 218.

τὴς ὑπ᾿ οὐρανόν Job 3818.

τῇ ὑπ᾿ οὐρανόν Esther 417: Baruch 53.


So in N.T.--

Lk. 1724 ἡ ἀστραπὴ ἀστράπτουσα ἐκ τῆς ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰς τὴν ὑπ᾿ οὐρανὸν λάμπει.

GENDER, 46, 47

46. Elliptical Use of the Feminine Adjective. There is nothing about the feminine gender which should make ellipse more frequent with it than with the masculine or neuter. Only it happens that some of the words which can be most easily supplied are feminine. This elliptical use of the feminine adjective (or of adv. = adj.) is a feature of Greek generally. It is not very common in the LXX. Instances are--

ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας (ὁδοῦ) Josh. 814.

ἐν τῇ εὐθείᾳ Ps. 14210.

τῆς πλατείας Esther 41.

τὴη σύμπασαν (γῆν) Job 22, 252.

ἕως τῆς σήμερον (ἡμέρας) )ii. Chr. 3525.

τὴν αὔριονiii. Mac. 538.

ἐβόησεν μεγάλῃ (τῇ φωνῇ)iv K. 1828.

εἰς τὴν ὑψηλήν (χώραν))ii Chr. 13.

In the N.T. this idiom occurs much more frequently. Take for instance Lk. 1247, 48 δαρήσεται πολλάς . . . ὀλίγας (πληγάς).

Cp. also--

τὴν πρὸς θάνατον (ὁδόν) Eus. H.E. II 23.

οὐκ εἰς μακράν Philo Leg. ad. C. § 4.

ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας Philo Q.O.P.L. § 1.

ἐπὶ ξένης (χώρα or γῆς) Philo Leg. ad. C. § 3.

πεδιάς τε καὶ ὀρεινή ibid. 7.

τῇ πατρίῳ (γλώσσῃ) Jos. B. J. Proœm. 1.

τὰς περιοίκους (πόλεις) ibid. 8.

47. Feminine for Neuter. The use of the feminine for the neuter is a pure Hebraism, which occurs principally in the Psalms.

Jdg. 157 ἐὰν ποιήσητε οὕτως ταύτην, 213 εἰς τί . . . ἐγενήθη αὕτη;  i K. 47 οὐ γέγονεν τοιαύτη ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην.Ps. 263 ἐν ταύτῃ ἐγὼ ἐλπίζω, 264 μίαν ᾐτησάμην . . . ταύτην ἐκζητήσω, 316 ὑπὲρ ταύτης προσεύξεται πᾶς ὅσιος, 11723 παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη, 11850 αὕτη με παρεκάλεσεν, 11856 αὕτη ἐγενήθη μοι.

In the N.T. this license only occurs in Mk. 1211, Mt. 2142 in a quotation from Ps. 11723.


NUMBER, 48, 49

48. Singular for Plural. Sometimes in imitation of Hebrew idiom we find the singular used in the sense of the plural. When the article is employed along with a singular noun, we have the Generic Use of the Article (§ 44), but the presence of the article is not necessary.

Ex. 86 ἀνεβιβάσθη ὁ βάτραχος (= frogs), 818 ἐξαγαγεῖν τὸν σκνῖφα, 1013 καὶ ὁ ἄνεμος ὁ νότος ἀνέλαβεν τὴν ἀκρίδα, 1014 οὐ γέγονεν τοιαύτη ἀκρὶς.  Jdg. 712 ὡσεὶ ἀκρὶς εἰς πλῆθος (cp. Judith 220 ὡς ἀκρίς), 2116 ἠφανίσθη ἀπὸ Βενιαμὶν γυνή.iv K. 212 ἅρμα Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ἱππεὺς αὐτοῦ.Ezk. 479 ἔσται ἐκεῖ ἰχθὺς πολὺς σφόδρα.

This throws light on an otherwise startling piece of grammar--

Jdg. 1510 εἶπαν ἀνὴρ Ἰούδα.

49. Singular Verb with more than One Subject. In accordance with Hebrew idiom a singular verb often introduces a plurality of subjects, e.g.--

iv K. 1826 καὶ εἶπεν Ἐλιακεὶμ . . . καὶ Σόμνας καὶ Ἰώας, 1837 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν Ἐλιακεὶμ κτλ.

This may happen also in Greek apart from Hebrew.

Xen. Anab. II 4 § 16 Ἔπεμψέ με Ἀριαῖος καὶ Ἀρτάοζος.

CASE, 50–61

50. Nominative for Vocative. a. The use of the nominative for the vocative was a colloquialism in classical Greek. It occurs in Plato, and is common in Aristophanes and Lucian. When so employed, the nominative usually has the article. As in Hebrew the vocative is regularly expressed by the nominative with the article, it is not surprising that the LXX translators should often avail themselves of this turn of speech.

iii K. 1718 τί ἐμοὶ καὶ σοί, ὁ ἄνθρωος τοῦ θεοῦ; 1826 ἐπάκουσον ἡμῶν, ὁ Βάαλ.Cp. iii K. 2020: Ps. 211, 422.

For an instance of the nominative without the article standing for the vocative take--

Baruch 45 θαρσεῖτε, λαός μου.

The nominative, when thus employed, is often put in apposition with a vocative, as--

iii K. 1720 Κύριε, ὁ μάρτυς τῆς χήρας, 1721 Κύριε ὁ θεός μου.


b. In the N.T. also the nominative with the article is often put for the vocative.

Mt. 1126 ναὶ ὁ πατήρ.Lk. 854 ἡ παῖς, ἔγειρου.Mk. 925 τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἄλαλον . . . ἔξελθε.Lk. 625 οὐαὶ ὑμῖν, οἱ ἐμπεπλησμένοι νῦν.Col. 318 αἱ γυναῖκες, ὑποτάσσεσθε.  Eph. 61, Col. 320 τὰ τέκνα, ὑπακούετε.

The use of the nominative without the article for the vocative is rare in the N.T., as it is also in the LXX. In Lk. 1220 and i Cor. 1536 we find ἄφρων put for ἄφρον, and in Acts 742 οἶκος Ἰσραήλ does duty as vocative.

As instances of apposition of nominative with vocative we may take--

Rom. 21 ὦ ἄνθρωπε πᾶς ὁ κρίνων.Rev. 153 Κύριε ὁ θεὸς, ὁ παντοκράτωρ.

In Rev. 1820 we have vocative and nominative conjoined--

οὐρανὲ, καὶ οἱ ἅγιοι.

51. Nominative Absolute. Occasionally we get a construction in the LXX, which can be described only by this name.

Nb. 2224 καὶ ἔστη ὁ ἄγγελος τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν ταῖς αὔλαξιν τῶν ἀμπέλων, φραγμὸς ἐντεῦθεν καὶ φραγμὸς ἐντεῦθεν.Nb. 244 ὅστις ὅρασιν θεοῦ εἶδεν, ἐν ὕπνῳ, ἀποκεκαλυμμένοι οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ αὐτοῦ.

As this construction arises out of a literal following of the Hebrew, it would be superfluous to adduce Greek parallels. Like effects might be found, but the cause would be different.

52. Nominative of Reference. What is meant by this term will be best understood from the examples--

Job 287 τρίβος, οὐκ ἔγνω αὐτὴν πετεινόν.  Ps. 10215 ἄνθρωπος, ὡσει χόρτος αἱ ἡμέραι αὐτοῦ.

To throw out the subject of discourse first, and then proceed to speak about it, is a Hebraism, but at the same time it is a common resource of language generally.

So in N.T.--

Acts 740 ὁ γὰρ Μωσῆς οὗτος . . . οὐκ οἴδαμεν τί ἐγένετο αὐτῷ.Rev.312 ὁ νικῶν, ποιήσω αὐτὸν στῦλον ἐν τῷ ναῷ τοῦ Θεοῦ μου.

53. Nominativus Pendens. The nominative which is left without a verb owing to a sudden change of construction is a familiar feature


in classical Greek, especially if this be at all colloquial. It is not however very common in the LXX.

Dan. O’ 715 καὶ ἀκηδιάσας ἐγὼ . . . ἐτάρασσόν με.

Such cases can generally be explained on the principle of construction according to the sense.

It is seldom that we meet with so violent an anacoluthon as the following in the N.T.--

Mk. 920 καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν, τὸ πνεῦμα εὐθὺς συνεσπάραξεν αὐτόν.

54. Accusative for Vocative. The accusative for vocative might seem an impossibility, yet here is an instance of it.

Ps. 516 ἠγάπησας πάντα τὰ ῥήματα καταποντισμοῦ, γλῶσσαν δολίαν.

55. Accusative of Time When. In connexion with classical Greek we think of Time When as being expressed by the genitive or dative, rather than by the accusative, though the latter also is used. The employment of the accusative became more frequent after the classical period, and alone survives in the modern language.

Gen. 4316 μετ᾿ ἐμοῦ γὰρ φάγονται οἱ ἄνθρωποι ἄρτους τὴν μεσημβρίαν.

Ex. 918 ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ὕω ταύτην τὴν ὥραν αὔριον χάλαζαν.

Dan. Θ 921 ὡσεὶ ὥραν θυσίας ἑσπερινῆς (O’ has ἐν ὥρᾳ).

So also sometimes in N.T.--

Jn. 452 χθὲς ὥραν ἑβδόμην ἀφῆκεν αὐτὸν ὁ πυρετός.Rev. 33 καὶ οὐ μὴ γνῷς ποίαν ὥραν ἥξω ἐπὶ σε.

56. Cognate Accusative. a. By a Cognate Accusative is here meant that particular form of the Figura Etymologica in which a verb is followed by an accusative of kindred derivation with itself, irrespective of the question whether it be an accusative of the external or of the internal object. We have both kinds of accusative, together in the following verse, where θήραν = venison.

Gen. 273 ἐξέστη δὲ Ἰσαὰκ ἔκστασιν μεγάλην σφόδρα καὶ εἶπεν “Τίς οὖν ὁ θηρεύσας μοι θήραν;”

b. The great frequency of the cognate accusative in the LXX is due to the fact that here the genius of the Hebrew and of the Greek language coincides. Besides being a legitimate Greek usage, this construction is also one of the means employed for translating a constantly recurring Hebrew formula. Sometimes the appended accusative merely supplies an object to the verb, as in such phrases


as δάνιον δανείζειν, διαθέσθαι διαθήκην, διηγεῖσθαι διήγημα, ἐνύπνιον ἐνυπνιάζεσθαι, ἐπιθυμεῖν ἐπιθυμίαν, θύειν θυσίαν, νηστεύειν νηστείαν, ὁρισμὸν ὁρίζεσθαι, πλημμελεῖν πλημμέλησιν or πλημμελίαν, προφασίζεσθαι προφάσεις. At other times it is accompanied by some specification, as--

Nb. 186 λειτουργεῖν τὰς λειτουργίας τῆς σκηνῆς τοῦ μαρτυρίου.Dan. 112 πλουτήσει πλοῦτον μέγαν.i Mac. 258 ἐν τῷ ζηλῶσαι ζῆλον νόμου.

c. Sometimes the cognate accusative is conveyed in a relative clause, as--

Ex. 39 τὸν θλιμμὸν ὃν οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι θλίβουσιν αὐτούς.  Nb. 144 ἡ ἐπίσκεψις ἣν ἐπεσκέψαντο.1 K. 223 ἡ ἀκοὴ ἣν ἐγὼ ἀκούω.

d. By other changes of construction we have still the figura etymologica, but no longer a cognate accusative. Thus, starting from the common phrase δοῦναι δόμα, we have δεδομένοι δόμα (Nb. 39) and δόμα δεδομένον (Nb. 186).

e. In one instance the cognate accusative is reinforced by a still further application of the etymological figure--

Gen. 4722 ἐν δόσει γὰρ ἔδωκεν δόμα τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν.

This is not due to the Hebrew.

f. In a wider sense the term 'cognate, accusative' includes an accusative of kindred meaning, though not of kindred derivation, as--

Jdg. 158 ἐπάταξεν . . . πληγὴν μεγάλην.

g. Instances of cognate accusative are common enough in the N.T., e.g.--

i Jn. 516 ἁμαρτάνοντα ἁμαρτίαν μὴ πρὸς θάνατον.Mt: 210 ἐχάρησαν χαρὰν μεγάλην σφόδρα.Jn. 724 τὴν δικαίαν κρίσιν κρίνετε.

There also it occurs sometimes in a relative clause--

Mk. 1038 τὸ βάπτισμα ὃ ἐγὼ βαπτίζομαι.  Jn. 1726 ἡ ἀγάπη ἣν ἠγάπησάς με.Eph. 41 τῆς κλήσεως ἧς ἐκλήθητε.

h. We have a triple use of the etymological figure in--

Lk. 85 ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων τοῦ σπεῖραι τὸν σπόρον αὐτοῦ.

i. That the playing with paronymous terms is in accordance with the spirit of the Greek language may be seen from the frequent employment of the device by Plato, e.g.--

Prot. 326 D ὥσπερ οἱ γραμματισταὶ τοῖς μήπω δεινοῖς γράφειν τῶν παίδων ὑπογράψαντες γραμμὰς τῇ γραφίδι οὕτω τὸ γραμματεῖον διδόασι.


Hip. Maj. 296 C Ἄλλα μέντοι δυνάμει γε δύνανται οἱ δυνάμενοι· οὐ γάρ που ἀδυναμίᾳ γε.

57. Accusative in Apposition to Indeclinable Noun. In the LXX an indeclinable noun is sometimes followed by an accusative in apposition to it, even though by the rules of grammar it is itself in some other case, e.g.--

Is. 3738 ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ Νασαρὰχ τὸν πάταχρον αὐτοῦ.iv K. 12 ἐν τῷ Βάαλ μυῖαν θεὸν Ἀκκαρών.

Perhaps it would be more satisfactory if this and § 54 were thrown together under a head of Bad Grammar, a category which the reader might be inclined to enlarge.

58. Genitive Absolute. Strictly speaking, a Genitive Absolute is a clause in the genitive which does not affect the general construction. It ought not therefore to refer either to the subject or the object of the sentence. Even in classical authors however the so-called genitive absolute is sometimes not employed with the precision which grammarians might desire, e.g.--

Plat. Rep. βιαζομένων δὲ καὶ ἀντιτεινόντων ἀλλήλοις . . . ὡμολόγησαν.  Xen. Cyrop. I 4 § 2 καὶ γὰρ ἀσθενήσαντος αὐτοῦ οὐδέπορε ἀπέλειπε τὸν πάππον.  Xen. Anab. I 2 § 17 θᾶσσον προϊόντων . . . δρόμος ἐγένετο τοῖς στραριώταις.

The genitive absolute is often employed in the same loose way in the LXX.

Tob. 41 ὅτε ἤμην ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ μου . . . νεωτέρου μου ὄντος.

Dt. 1510 οὐ λυπηθήσῃ τῇ καρδίᾳ σου διδόντος σου αὐτῷ.

Ex. 210 ἁδρυνθέντος δὲ τοῦ παιδίου, εἰσήγαγεν αὐτὸ.

Ex. 520 συνήντησαν δὲ . . . ἐρχομένοις . . . ἐκπορευομένων αὐτῶν.

8E . . . EpXo1A_vois . . . iKropEVOM.EVwv ainwv. iv K. 1$ EV Ti

So in N.T.--

Mt. 118 μνηστευθείσης τῆς μητρὸς . . . εὑρέθη.Acts 2117 γενομένων δὲ ἡμῶν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα ἀσμένως ἀπεδέξαντο ἡμᾶς οἱ ἀδελφοί.ii Cor. 418 κατεργάζεται ἡμῖν, μὴ σκοπούντων ἡμῶν.

59. The Genitive Infinitive of Purpose. The genitive of the verbal noun formed by prefixing the article to the infinitive, which we may call for convenience the Genitive Infinitive, is one of the regular ways of expressing purpose in Biblical Greek, corresponding to our use of 'to.' The construction is not entirely unknown to classical authors (e.g. Plat. Gorg. 457 E τοῦ καταφανὲς γενέσθαι) and is especially


favoured by Thucydides. There is nothing in the Hebrew to suggest it. The following will serve as examples--

Jdg. 165 καὶ δήσομεν αὐτὸν τοῦ ταπεινῶσαι αὐτόν.Ps. 930 ἐνεδρεύει τοῦ ἁρπάσαι πτωχόν.Job 119 ἦλθον τοῦ ἀπαγγεῖλαί σοι,

So also frequently in N.T., e.g.--

Mt. 133 ἐξῆλθεν ὁ σπείρων τοῦ σπείρειν.James 517 προσηύξατο τοῦ μὴ βρέξαι.

60. Other Uses of the Genitive Infinitive. a. The genitive infinitive of purpose is only one use out of many to which this syntactical device is applied. Take for instance--

Ex. 145 Τί τοῦτο ἐποιήσαμεν τοῦ ἐξαποστεῖλαι τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ μὴ δουλεύειν ἡμῖν (= ὥστ μὴ δουλεύειν);

Purpose is not expressed in either of these cases. In the former we have what may be called the Explanatory Use of the Genitive Infinitive; in the latter we have something which represents 'from serving us' in the original, but which we shall nevertheless class as a Genitive Infinitive of Consequence, since it is only thus that the Greek can be explained.

b. The Explanatory Use of the Genitive Infinitive is common in the LXX, e.g.--

Gen. 322 Ἰδοὺ Ἀδὰμ γέγονεν ὡς εἷς ἐξ ἡμῶν, τοῦ γινώσκειν καλὸν καὶ πονηρόν.Ex. 829 μὴ προσθῇς ἔτι, Φαραώ, ἐξαπατῆσαι τοῦ μὴ ἐξαποστεῖλαι τὸν λαὸν.Ps. 264 ταύτην (§ 47) ἐκζητήσω· τοῦ κατοικεῖν με κτλ.

So in N.T.--

Acts 719 ἐκάκωσεν τοὺς πατέρας ἡμῶν, τοῦ ποιεῖν ἔκθετα τὰ βρέφη αὐτῶν.Gal. 310 ὃς οὐκ ἐμμένει ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς γεγραμμένοις . . . τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτά.

c. As an instance of the Genitive Infinitive of Consequence we may take--

Ex. 714 βεβάρηται ἡ καρδία Φαραὼ τοῦ μὴ ἐξαποστεῖλαι τὸν λαόν.

So in N.T.--

Hb. 115 Ἑνὼχ μετετέθη τοῦ μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον.

d. What is called in Latin Grammar the 'prolative infinitive' after 'extensible' verbs, or more simply, the latter of two verbs, is also commonly expressed in the LXX by the genitive infinitive, e.g.--

Ps. 3913 οὐκ ἠδυνήθην τοῦ βλέπειν.ii Chr. 31 ἤρξατο τοῦ οἰκοδομεῖν.Gen. 187 ἐτάχυνεν τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτό.


So in N.T.--

Acts 312 ὡς . . . πεποιηκόσιν τοῦ περιπατεῖν αὐτόν, 1520 ἐπιστεῖλαι . . . τοῦ ἀπέχεσθαι, 271 ἐκρίθη τοῦ ἀποπλεῖν.

61. Cognate Dative. a. Another form of the figura etymologica which abounds in the LXX may be called Cognate Dative. As in the case of the cognate accusative its frequency is in great measure due to the coincidence of idiom in this particular between Greek and Hebrew. Let us first show by a few examples from Plato that this construction is in accordance with the genius of the Greek language.

Crat. 385 B λόγῳ λέγειν.Phdr. 265 C παιδίᾳ πεπαῖσθαι.Symp. 195 B φεύγων φυγῇ τὸ γῆρας.  Crat. 383 A φύσει . . . πεφυκυῖαν.  Cp. 389 C, D. Phileb. 14 C φύσει . . . πεφυκύτα.

b. But while we have to search for this idiom in classical Greek, it thrusts itself upon us at every turn in the Greek of the LXX, owing to its aptness for rendering a mode of expression familiar in the original.

c. Corresponding to the cognate dative in Greek, we find in Latin also a cognate ablative as a rare phenomenon, e.g.--

curricu1o percurre Ter. Heaut. 733.  Cp. Plaut. Most. 349 qui non curro curriculo domum.

occidione occisum Cic. Fam. XV 4 § 7. Cp. Liv. II 51 § 9.

d. The instances of cognate dative of most frequent occurrence in the LXX are ἀκοῇ ἀκούειν, ζωῇ ζῆν, θανάτῳ ἀποθανεῖν, θανάτῳ θανατοῦσθαι, σάλπιγγι παλπίζειν. But besides these there are many others, as--

ἀγαπήσει ἀγαπᾶσθαι ἐκλείψει ἐκλείπειν
ἀλαλαγμῷ ἀλαλάζειν ἐκτριβῇ ἐκτριβῆναι
ἀλοιφῇ ἐξαλείφειν ἐκτρίψει ἐκτριβῆναι
ἀπωλίᾳ ἀπολλύναι ἐξεραυνᾶν ἐξεραυνήσει
ἀφανισμῷ ἀφανίζειν ἐξουδενώσει ἐξουδενοῦν
βδελύγματι βδελύσσειν ἐπιθυμίᾳ ἐπιθυμεῖν
δεσμῷ δεῖν ἐπισκοπῇ ἐπισκέπτεσθαι
διαλύσει διαλύειν θελήσει θέλειν
διαμαρτυρίᾳ διαμαρτυρρεῖν κα͔αιρέσει καθαίρειν
διαφθείρειν φθορᾷ καθαρισμῷ καθαρίζειν
δίκῃ ἐκδικεῖν κακίᾳ κακοποιεῖν
ἐκβάλλειν ἐκβολῇ κακίᾳ κακοῦν
ἐκθλίβειν ἐκθλιβῇ κατάραις καταρᾶσθαι


κλαυθμῷ κλαίειν πλημμελίᾳ πλημμελεῖν
λήθῃ λαθεῖν προνομῇ προνομευθῆναι
λίθοις λιθοβολεῖν προσοχθίσματι προσοχθίζειν
λύτροις λυτροῦν πτώσει πίπτειν
μνείᾳ μνησθῆναι ταλαιπωρίᾳ ταλαιπωρεῖν
οἰωνισμῷ οἰωνίζεσθαι ταραχῇ ταράσσειν
ὀργίζεσθαι ὀργῇ ὑπεροράσει ὑπεριδεῖν
ὅρκῳ ὁρκίζειν φερνῇ φερνίζειν
παραδόσει παραδοθῆναι φθορᾷ φθαρῆναι
τεριπίπτειν περιπτώματι χαίρειν χαρᾷ

e. From the foregoing instances it is an easy step to others in which the substantive is of kindred meaning, though not of kindred derivation with the verb.

Gen. 116 βρώσει φαγῇ, 3115 κατέφαγεν καταβρώσει.Ex. 1912, 2116, 17 θανάτῳ τελευτᾶν.Ex. 2220 θανάτῳ ὀλεθρευθήσεται.Nb. 1115 ἀπόκτεινόν με ἀναιρέσει, 3526ἐξόδῳ ἐξέλθῃ.>Ezk. 3327 θανάτῳ ἀποκτενῶ.

f. Instances of the cognate dative are to be found also in the N.T., though not with anything like the frequency with which they occur in the LXX.

Jn. 329 χαρᾷ χαίρει.Lk. 2215 ἐπιθυμίᾳ ἐπεθύμησα.Acts 417 ἀπειλῇ (margin) ἀπειλησώμεθα, 528 παραγγελίᾳ παρηγγείλαμεν, 2314 ἀναθέματι ἀνεθεματίσαμεν.James 517 προσευχῇ προσηύξατο.Gal. 51 τῇ ἐλευθερίᾳ ἡμᾶς Χριστὸς ἠλευθέρωσε.

g. The expression in ii Pet. 33 ἐν ἐμπαιγμονῇ ἐμπαῖκται, while not exactly parallel with the foregoing, belongs to the same range of idiom; so also Rev. 223 ἀποκτενῶ ἐν θανάτῳ.


62. ἥμισυς. In Attic Greek ἥμισυς, like some other adjectives, mostly of quantity, has a peculiar construction. It governs a noun in the genitive, but agrees with it in gender. Thus--

Plat. Phædo 104 A ὁ ἥμισυς τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ ἅπας.  Thuc. V 31 § 2 ἐπὶ τῇ ἡμισείᾳ τῆς γῆς.  Demosth. p. 44, iv 16 τοῖς ἡμίσεσι τῶν ἰππέων.

This idiom is kept up by Hellenistic writers, such as Philo, Strabo, and the translator of Josephus' Jewish War. It is however


very rare in the LXX, occurring only in the following passages--

iii K. 169 ὁ ἄρχων τῆς ἡμίσους (§ 11) τῆς ἵππου.Josh. 412, i Chr. 523 οἱ ἡμίσεις φυλῆς Μανασσή.Tob. 1010 τὰ ἥμισυ (sic) τῶν ὑπαρχόντων.Ezk. 1651 τὰς ἡμίσεις τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν.i Mac. 334, 37 τὰς ἡμίσεις τῶν δυνάμεων.

Elsewhere instead of the Attic idiom we find τὸ ἥμισυ or ἥμισυ, irrespective of the gender and number of the noun which follows, e.g.--

τὸ ἥμισυ τοῦ σίκλου Ex. 392 ἥμισυ ἀρχόντων ii Esd. 416
τὸ ἥμισυ αὐτῆς Lvt. 620 ἐν ἡμίσει ἡμερῶν Ps. 10125
τὸ ἥμισυ τοῦ αἵματος Ex. 246 τὸ ἥμισυ τῶν ὑπαρχόντωνTob. 821

63. πᾶς. a. In classical Greek the rule for πᾶς in the singular is that with the article it is collective, without the article it is distributive--

πᾶσα ἡ πόλις = all the city.

πᾶσα πόλις = every city.

πᾶς differs from ordinary adjectives in taking the predicative position in an attributive sense. Thus while ἀγαθὴ ἡ πόλις means 'the city is good,' πᾶσα ἡ πόλις means 'all the city.' πᾶς may however also take the attributive position, like any other adjective. When it does so, the collective force is intensified--

πᾶσα ἡ πόλις = all the city.

ἡ πᾶσα πόλις = the whole city.

Thus Plato's expression (Apol. 40 E) ὁ πᾶς χοόνος is rendered by Cicero (T.D. I § 97) perpetuitas omnis consequentis temporis. For other instances of this use in classical authors we may take--

Hdt. VII 46 ὁ πᾶς ἀνθρώπινος βίος.  Plat. Rep. 618 B ὁ πᾶς κίνδυνος, Phileb. 67 B οἱ πάντες βόες = all the oxen in the world.  Xen. Anab. V 6 § 5 of οἱ πάντες ἄνθρωποι.

In such cases there is an additional stress gained by the unusual position assigned to πᾶς.

b. In the LXX the same distinction seems to be maintained. It is true a writer will go from one to the other, e.g.--

Jdg. 1617, 18 καὶ ἀνήγγειλεν αὐτῇ τὴν πᾶσαν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ . . . καὶ εἶδεν Δαλειδὰ ὅτι ἀπήγγειλεν αὐτῇ πᾶσαν τὴν καρδίαν αὐτοῦ--


but so in English we might first say he told her his whole heart, and then add and she saw that he had told her all his heart.

Other instances of the strongly collective force of πᾶς in the attributive position are--

Gen. 4520 τὰ γὰρ πάντα ἀγαθὰ Αἰγύπτου ὑμῖν ἔσται.Josh. 414 ἐναντίον τοῦ παντὸς γένους Ἰσραήλ.Wisd. 79 ὁ πᾶς χρυσὸς.ii Mac. 89 τὸ πᾶν τῆς Ἰουδαίας . . . γένος.

Still there is a tendency in the LXX to assimilate πᾶς to adjectives generally and to employ it in the attributive position without any special emphasis.

c. Neither is the rule that πᾶς without the article is distributive at all closely adhered to, e.g.--

Ex. 816 ἐν πάσῃ γῇ Αἰγύπτου, 166 πρὸς πᾶσαν συναγωγὴν υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ.i K. 72 πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραήλ.

d. In the plural of οἱ πάντες is rare, but may be found--

Jdg. 2046 οἱ πάντες οὗτοι.i Mac. 237 Ἀποθάνωμεν οἱ πάντες ἐν τῇ ἁπλότητι ἡμῶν.ii Mac. 1240 τοῖς δὲ πᾶσι σαφὲς ἐγένετοCp. Aristeas § 36 τοῖς πᾶσι . . . πολίταις.

Αἱ πᾶσαι is still rarer, but see--

iii Mac. 11 παραγγείλας ταῖς πάσαις δυνάμεσιν.

Τὰ πάντα is comparatively common, occurring, e.g., in Gen. 131, 93: Ex. 2924: Lvt. 1913: ii Mac. 1023, 1222: iii Mac. 23.

e, In the N.T. the collective use of πᾶς followed by the article is clearly marked in many passages, e.g.--

Gal. 514 ὁ . . . πᾶς νόμος.Mt. 834 πᾶσα ἡ πόλις ἐξῆλθεν.

Also the distributive use of πᾶς without the article, as in i Cor. 114, 5 πᾶς ἀνήρ . . . πᾶσα δὲ γυνή. In Rom. 319 we have the two usages brought into contrast--ἵνα πᾶν στόμα φραγῇ, καὶ ὑπόδικος γένηται πᾶς ὁ κόσμος τῷ Θεῷ.

On the other hand there are also instances of πᾶς in the singular and without the article being used collectively, e.g.--

Eph. 221 πᾶσα οἰκοδομή.Mt. 23 πᾶσα Ἱεροσόλυμα.Acts 236 πᾶς οἶκος Ἰσραήλ.

f. In the plural οἱ πάντες is more common in St. Paul than in the LXX. Take for instance--

Phil. 221 οἱ πάντες γὰρ τὰ ἑαυτῶν ζητοῦσιν.Cp. ii Cor. 514.  i Cor. 1017 οἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν.Cp. Eph. 413.


Rom. 1132 συνέκλεισεν γὰρ ὁ Θεὸς τοὺς πάντας εἰς ἀπείθειαν.ii Cor. 510 τοὺς γὰρ πάντας ἡμᾶς κτλ.i Cor. 922 τοῖς πᾶσι γέγονα πάντα.

In Acts 197 we have οἱ πάντες ἄνδρες.

Τὰ πάνταoccurs in Rom. 832, 1136: i Cor.1527, 126, 19: Eph. 513: Acts 1725: Mk. 411 and perhaps in other passages.

64. Comparison of Adjectives. Owing to the peculiarity of Hebrew syntax the treatment of this subject mostly falls under the head of Prepositions. We need only notice here that the positive may be put for the comparative, and μᾶλλον >omitted at will or inserted even after a comparative.

Gen. 4912 λευκοὶ οἱ ὀδόντες αὐτοῦ ἢ γάλα.Dt. 717 πολὺ τὸ ἔθνος τοῦτο ἢ ἐγώ, 91 ἔθνη μεγάλα καὶ ἰσχυρότερα μᾶλλον ἢ ὑμεῖς.

So in N.T.--

Mt. 188, 9 καλόν σοί ἐστιν εἰσελθεῖν . . . ἢ . . . βληθῆναι.Cp. Mk. 943, 45.

65. Omission of μᾶλλον. The comparison of attributes may be effected by the use of verbs as well as of adjectives. In such cases the omission of μᾶλλον is common in the LXX.

Nb. 226 σχύει οὗτος ἢ ἡμεῖς, 247 ὑψωθήσεται ἢ Γὼγ βασιλεία.Hos. 76 ἔλεος θέλω ἢ θυσίαν.ii Mac. 72 ἕτοιμοι γὰρ ἀποθνῄσκειν ἐσμὲν ἢ πατρῴους νόμους παραβαίνειν.

Cp. Aristeas § 322 τέρπειν γὰρ οἴομαί σε ταῦτα ἢ τὰ τῶν μυθολόγων βιβλία.


66. Superfluous Use of Pronoun. A pronoun is sometimes employed superfluously after the object, direct or indirect, has been already expressed, e.g.--

Ex. 1244 καὶ πᾶν (sic) οἰκέτην ἢ ἀργυρώνητον περιτεμεῖς αὐτόν.

Nb. 2637 καὶ τῷ Σαλπαὰδ υἱῷ Ὅφερ οὐκ ἐγένοντο αὐτῷ υἱοί.

The above may be considered as deflexions of the Nominative of Reference (§ 52) into an oblique case by Attraction.

So in N.T.--

ii Cor. 1217 μή τινα ὧν ἀπέσταλκα πρὸς ὑμᾶς, δι᾿ αὐτοῦ ἐπλεονέκτησα ὑμᾶς;Mt. 2529 τοῦ δὲ μὴ ἔχοντος, καὶ ὃ ἔχει ἀρθήσεται ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.Rev. 27, 17 τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ. Cp. 64.


In Josh. 2422-- ὑμεῖς ἐξελέξασθε Κυρίῳ λατρεύειν αὐτῷ--Κυρίῳ should be τὸν Κύριον (which A has). Then λατρεύειν αὐτῷ would be an explanatory clause added after the usual manner.

67. Frequent Use of Pronouns. Apart from any Semitic influence there is also a tendency in later Greek to a much more lavish use of pronouns than was thought necessary by classical authors. We have seen already (§ 13) that the missing pronoun of the 3d person was supplied. The possessive use of the article moreover was no longer thought sufficient, and a possessive genitive was added, e.g.--

Gen. 3827 καὶ τῇδε ἦν δίδυμα ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ αὐτῆς.

So in N.T.--

Mt. 199 ὃς ἂν ἀπολύσῃ τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ.i Pet. 224 αὐτὸς ἀνήνεγκεν ἐν τῷ σώματι αὐτοῦ.

68. Ἀδελφός as a Reciprocal Pronoun. The use of ἀδελφός as a reciprocal pronoun is a sheer Hebraism, e.g.--

Ex. 1023 καὶ οὐκ εἶδεν οὐδεὶς τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ = they saw not one another.

69. Hebrew Syntax of the Relative. a. One of the most salient characteristics of LXX Greek is the repetition of the pronoun after the relative, as though in English, instead of saying 'the land which they possessed,' we were to say habitually 'the land which they possessed it,' and so in all similar cases. This anomaly is due to the literal following of the Hebrew text. Now in Hebrew the relative is indeclinable. Its meaning therefore is not complete until a pronoun has been added to determine it. But the relative in Greek being declinable, the translator was forced to assign to it gender, number, and case, which rendered the addition of the pronoun after it unnecessary. Nevertheless the pronoun was retained out of regard for the sacred text. As instances of the simplest kind we may take the following--

Nb. 3525 ὃν ἔχρισαν αὐτὸν, 1333 τῆς γῆς ἣν κατεσκέψαντο αὐτήν.Is. 622 ὃ ὁ κύριος ὀνομάσει αὐτό.Gen. 111 οὗ τὸ σπέρμα αὐτοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ.Dt. 47 ὧ ἐστιν αὐτῷ.Ps. 184 ὧν οὐχὶ ἀκούονται αἱ φωναὶ αὐτῶν.Ex. 626 οἷς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς.

b. Where the relative is followed by ἐάν the same construction is employed, e.g.--

Nb. 175 ὁ ἄνθρωπος ὃν ἐὰν ἐκλέξωμαι αὐτόν, 1922 παντός, οὗ ἐὰν ἅψηται αὐτοῦ ὁ ἀκάθαρτος.


c. Sometimes a demonstrative takes the place of the personal pronoun--

Gen. 311 οὗ ἐνετειλάμην σοι τούτου μόνου μὴ φαγεῖν.

d. In all the foregoing instances the appended pronoun is in the same case as the relative, but this is not necessary.

Nb. 33 οὓς ἐτελείωσαν τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῶν ἱερατεύειν.

The construction here, though determined by the Hebrew, happens to agree with the Greek Accusative of the Part Affected.

e. Very often there is the same preposition both before the relative and before the appended pronoun--

Ex. 3412 εἰς ἣν εἰσπορεύῃ εἰς αὐτήν.Nb. 1121 ἐν οἷς εἰμι ἐν αὐτοῖς.Gen. 2813 ἡ γῆ ἐφ᾿ ἧς σὺ καθεύδεις ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς.

f. Occasionally the preposition is the same, but the case it governs is different, e.g.--

Jdg. 1626 ἐφ᾿ οἷς ὁ οἶκος στήκει ἐπ̓ αὐτούς.Josh. 2413 γῆν ἐφ᾿ ἣν οὐκ ἐκοπιάσατε ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς.

g. Sometimes the preposition is confined to the appended pronoun. Then the problem arises, Into what case is the relative to be put?--a problem which is solved differently in different passages. In some the case chosen coincides with that of the pronoun following, e.g.--

Gen. 2442 τὴν ὁδόν μου, ἣν νῦν ἐγὼ πορεύομαι ἐπ᾿ αὐτήν.Ex. 2528 τοὺς κυάθους, οἷς σπείσεις ἐν αὐτοῖς.Gen. 2123 τῇ γῇ ἧ σὺ παρῴκησας ἐν αὐτῇ.

In others it does not--

Nb. 1431 τὴν γῆν ἣν ὑμεῖς ἀπέστητε ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς, 192 ἧ οὐκ ἐπεβλήθη ἐπ᾿ αὐτὴν ζυγός.iii K. 171 ὧ παρέστην ἐνώπιον αὐτοῦ.

h. Sometimes the relative has a different preposition from the pronoun following--

Nb. 1320 τίς ἡ γῆ εἰς ἣν οὗτοι ἐνκάθηνται ἐπ᾿ αὐτῆς . . . τίνες αἱ πόλεις εἰς ἃς οὗτοι κατοικοῦσιν ἐν αὐταῖς. For other instances see Ex. 64: Nb. 1539: Dt. 122, Dt. 133, Dt. 2849.

i. Sometimes the preposition is the same, but instead of a mere pronoun we have a phrase, e.g.--

Gen. 2438 ἐν οἷς ἐγὼ παροικῶ ἐν τῇ γῇ αὐτῶν.


j. The construction of which we have been speaking is not confined to the simple relative, e.g.--

Gen. 4119 οἵας οὐκ εἶδον τοιαύτας.Ex. 918, 24, 116 ἥτις τοιαύτη οὐ γέγονεν.

k. The habitual repetition of the pronoun in the LXX is a mere Hebraism, though a search among Greek writers might reveal traces of a somewhat similar usage arising independently. Here are a few instances--

Plat. Tim. 28 ὅτου μὲη οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργός . . . τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, Parm. 130 E ὧν τάδε τὰ ἀλλὰ μεταλαμβάνοντα τὰς ἐπωνυμίας αὐτῶν ἴσχειν. Arist. Cat. 5 § 38 οἷον ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν ἄλλων οὐκ ἂν ἔχοι τις τὸ τοιοῦτο προενεγκεῖν.

l. In the N.T. this Hebrew syntax of the relative occurs not infrequently.

Philemon12 ὃν ἀνέπεμψά σοι αὐτόν.Gal. 210 ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι.Acts 1517 ἐφ᾿ οὓς ἐπικέκληται τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς.Mk. 725 ἧς εἶχε τὸ θυγάτριον αὐτῆς πνεῦμα ἀκάθαρτον. Cp. Mk. 17: Lk. 316: also Mk. 1319, 93.

Instances are most frequent in the very Hebraistic book of Revelation. See Rev. 38, 73, 9, 138, 208. Cp. i Clem. 219 οὗ ἡ πνοὴ αὐτοῦ ἐν ἡμῖν ἐστίν.

70. ἀνήρ = ἔκαστος. The use of ἀνήρ as a distributive pronoun is a pure Hebraism.

iv K. 1831 πίεται ἀνὴρ τὴν ἄμπελον αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀνὴρ τὴν συκῆν αὐτοῦ φάγεται.Jdg.165 ἡμεῖς δώσομέν σοι ἀνὴρ χιλίους καὶ ἑκατὸν ἀργυρίου.

71. ὅστις for ὅς. Except in the neuter singular ὅ τι, as in Josh. 2427, and in the expression ἔως ὅτου, as in i K. 223, or μέχρι ὅτου, which is found only in the Codex Sinaiticus version of Tob. 57, ὅστις occurs in Swete's text only in the nominative, singular or plural. In meaning it is often indistinguishable from ὅς..

Ex. 202 Ἐγώ εἰμι Κύριος . . . ὅστις ἐξήγαγόν σε.Cp. Dan. Θ 627.  Ps. 894 ἡ ἡμέρα ἡ ἐχθές ἥτις διῆλθεν.Cp. Nb. 148.  i K. 3010 διακόσιοι ἄνδρες οἵτινες ἐκάθισαν πέραν τοῦ χειμάρρου.Cp. Ex. 324, 9: Nb. 15: i Mac. 1348.  Jdg. 2112 τετρακοσίας νεάνιδας παρθένους, αἵτινες οὐκ ἔγνωσαν ἄνδρα.

Οἵτινυς = οἵ occurs several times in Aristeas--§§ 102, 121, 138, 200, 308.


The same use of ὅστις for the simple relative is found in the N.T., e.g.--

Col. 35 τὴν πλεονεξίαν, ἥτις ἐστὶν εἰδωλολατρία.Acts 815 τὸν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰωάννην· οἵτινες καταβάντες κτλ.i Tim. 69 ἐπιθυμίας . . . αἵτινες βυθίζουσιν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους.Gal. 424 ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα.

VERBS, 72-84

72. Analytic Tenses. By an Analytic Tense is meant one which is formed with an auxiliary instead of by an inflexion, as in English 'is coming' for 'comes.' No reader of the LXX can fail to be struck by the frequency of such forms. It results from the fact that both languages combine to produce them. They are suggested by the great use made of the participle in Hebrew, while at the same time there was a strong tendency towards the employment of such forms within the Greek language itself. They are to be found in the best writers, both in prose and poetry, from Homer downwards. Plato often has recourse to them, partly for the sake of philosophical precision, and partly, it must be confessed, because in his later style he preferred two words to one. In the Laws πρέπον ἐστί almost altogether displaces πρέπει.

iii K. 205 οὐκ εἶ σὺ ἐσθίων ἄρτον; Cp. Is. 108: Ezk. 3613
iii K. 1812 ἐστιν φοβούμενος.
Nb. 148 ἐστὶν ῥέουσα. Cp. iii K. 2015: Dan. 228
ii Esd. 2324 οὔκ εἰσὶν ἐπιγινώσκοντες.
Prov. 35 ἴσθι πεποιθώς.
Jdg. 1110 ἔστω ἀκούων.
Dan. O’ 626 ἔστωσαν προσκυνοῦντες.
ii Chr. 1516 εἶναι . . . λειτουργοῦσαν.
Future Simple
Gen. 414 ἔσομαι στένων καὶ τρέμων. Cp. Dan. O’ 627
Is. 477 ἔσομαι ἄρχουσα.
Gen. 412 στένων καὶ τρέμων ἔσῃ. Cp. Ex. 2225: Dt. 2829
Dt. 2829 ἔσῃ . . . ἀδικούμενος.
Nb. 819 ἔσται . . . προσεγγίζων. Cp. Gen. 1818
Mal. 33 ἔσονται . . . προσάγοντες.
Is. 2224 ἔσονται ἐπικρεμάμενοι.
Ezk. 3429 ἔσονται ἀπολλύμενοι. Cp. Dt. 1433


Is. 814 πεποιθὼς ᾖς.
Is. 1020, 178 πεποιθότες ὦμεν.
Nb. 2212 ἔστιν γὰρ εὐλογημένος.
Future Perfect
Gen 439, 4432 ἡμαρτηκὼς ἔσομαι.
ii K. 223: Is. 122, 817 πεποιθὼς ἔσομαι (fut. simp. in force).
Sr. 725 ἔσῃ τετελεκώς.
Is. 5814 ἔσῃ πεποιθώς.
Is. 177, 2224 πεποιθὼς ἔσται.
Ex. 126 ἔσται ὑμῖν διατετηρημένον.
Is. 323 ἔσονται πεποιθότες.
Gen. 4136 ἔσται . . . πεφυλαγμένα.
Dan. 102 ἤμην πενθῶν.
Dan. O’ 711 θεωρῶν ἤμην.
Gen. 4013 ἦσθα οἰνοχοῶν.
Gen. 372: Ex. 31

ἦν ποιμαίνων. Cp. Gen. 3923, 426: Nb. 111: Jdg. 1621: Jonah 110: Sus.1: i Mac. 643.

i K. 1734 ποιμαίνων ἦν.
Jer. 424 ἦν τρέμοντα (sic τὰ ὄρη).
iii K. 183 ἦν φοβούμενος. Cp. Dan. O’ 618
Dan. O’ 116 ἦν . . . ἀναιρούμενος.
Baruch 119 ἤμεθα ἀπειθοῦντες.
Dt. 924 ἀπειθοῦντες ἦτε. Cp. 922, 3127
Jdg. 17 ἦσαν συλλέγοντες. Cp. Josh. 1026: i Mac. 1141
Dan. O’ 109 ἤμην πεπτωκώς.
Dan. Θ 109 ἤμην κατανενυγμένος.
ii Chr. 1834 ἦν ἑστηκὼς.
i. K. 413 ἡ . . . ἐξεστηκυῖα.
Jdg. 811: Sus. Θ35 ἦν πεποιθυῖα.
Josh. 722 ἦν ἐνκεκρυμμένα.
ii Chr. 58 ἦν διαπεπετακότα.
Tob. 618 ἡτοιμασμένη ἦν.
Is. 206 ἦμεν πεποιθότες.
Ex. 3923 ἦσαν πεποιηκότες αὐτὰ.


b. Γίγνεσθαι may be used as an auxiliary instead of εἶναι.

Ps. 7214 ἐγενόμην μεμαστιγωμένος.Is. 3012 πεποιθὼς ἐγένου.Nb. 1034 ἐγένετο σκιάζουσα.Ps. 1253 ἐγενήθημεν εὐφραινόμενοι.>Ex. 1712 ἐγένοντο . . . ἐστηριγμέναι.Sir. 139 ὑποχωρῶν γίνου, 1833 μὴ γίνου . . . συμβολοκοπῶν.

c. Sometimes the verbal adjective is used in place of the participle.

Is. 183 ἀκουστὸν ἔσται.Dt. 436 ἀκουστὴ ἐγένετο.Gen. 452: Is. 483 ἀκουστὸν ἐγένετο.Is. 235 ὅταν δὲ ἀκουστὸν γένηται.Dt. 305 πλεοναστόν σε ποιήσει.

d. When a causative form is wanted corresponding to ἀκουστὸν γενέσθαι recourse is had to ἀκουστὸν ποιεῖν, e.g.--

Sir. 4617 ἀκουστὴν ἐποίησεν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ.Cp. Ps. 1052, 1428: Jer. 272, 387: Is. 3030, 4521, 485, 6, 20, 527, 6211.

e. In the N.T. these analytic tenses are relatively even commoner than in the LXX.

Col. 32 ἐστιν . . . καθήμενος.
ii Cor. 912 ἐστὶν προσαναπληροῦσα.
Col. 16 ἐστὶν καρποφορούμενον καὶ αὐξανόμενον.
Col. 223 ἐστιν . . . ἔχοντα.
ii Cor. 217 ἐσμεν . . . καπηλεύοντες.
Acts 525 εἰσὶν . . . ἑστῶτες καὶ διδάσκοντες.
Mt. 525 ἴσθι εὐνοῶν.
Future Simple
Lk. 511 ἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶν.
Acts 76 ἔσται . . . πάροικον.
i Cor. 1410 ἔσεσθε . . . λαλοῦντες.
Acts 2510 ἑστώς εἰμι (present in meaning).
Acts 2133 ἐστὶ πεποιηκώς.
i Cor. 159 ἡλπικότες ἐσμέν.
Hb. 721, 23 εἰσὶ γεγονότες.
James 516 ᾖ πεποιηκώς.
ii Cor. 119 πεποιθότες ὦμεν.
Hb. 42 ἐσμεν εὐηγγελισμένοι.
Hb. 1010 ἡγιασμένοι ἐσμὲν.
Acts 213 μεμεστωμένοι εἰσί.


Future Perfect
Hb. 213 ἔσομαι πεποιθώς (from Is. 122 and perfect only in form).
Acts 1030, 115 ἤμην προσευχόμενος. Cp. 2219, 20: Gal. 122
Lk. 444

ἦν κηρύσσων. Cp. Lk. 516, 238: Acts 760, 813, 28, 928, 1024, 1220: Phil. 226.

Acts 125 ἦν γινομένη.
Acts 213 ἦν . . . ἀποφορτιζόμενον
Acts 1612 ἦμεν . . . διατρίβοντες.
Gal. 123 ἀκούοντες ἦσαν. Cp. Acts 110.
Acts 113 ἦσαν καταμένοντες. Cp. Acts 114, 22, 5, 12, 42: Mk. 218.

f. Besides εἶναι other auxiliaries are used in the N.T.--

ii Cor. 614 μὴ γίνεσθε ἑτεροζυγοῦντες.Col. 118 ἵνα γένηται . . . πρωτεύων.Rev. 32 γίνου γρηγορῶν.Acts 816 βεβαπτισμένοι ὑπῆρχον.

With the last example cp. Aristeas § 193 εἰ μὴ πεποιθὼς ὕπάρχοι.. The same author has κεχαρισμένος ἔσῃ in § 40 and ἰσχῦόν ἐστι in 241.

g. Instances of analytic tenses occur here and there in Josephus, e.g.--

B.J. I 31 § 1 καὶ τοῦτο ἦν μάλιστα τάρασσον Ἀντίπατρον.

Ant. II 6 § 7 τί παρόντες εἴημεν.

h. Also in the Apostolic Fathers--

ii Clem. 177 ἔσονται δόξαν δόντες.  Barn. Ep. 194 ἔσῃ τρέμων, 196οὐ μὴ γένῃ ἐπιθυμῶν. Cp. 199. Herm. Past. Vis. III 4 § 2 ὑπερέχοντες αὐτούς εἰσιν, Sim. V 4 § 2 ἔσομαι ἑωρακώς . . . ἀκηκοώς, IX 13 § 2 ἔσῃ . . . φορῶν, Mdt. V 2 § 8 ἔσῃ εὑρισκόμενος, Sim. IX 1 § 8 εὐθηνοῦν ἦν, IX 4 § 1 ὑποδεδυκυῖαι ἦσαν . . . ὑποδεδ⍣κεισαν.

73. Deliberative Use of the Present Indicative. The deliberative use of the present indicative is not unknown in Latin, especially in Terence, e.g. Phorm. 447 quid ago? Cp. Heaut. 343: Eun. 811: Ad. 538. It occurs also in the Greek of the LXX.

Gen. 3730 ἐγὼ δὲ ποῦ πορεύομαι ἔτι;

So in N.T.--

Jn.1147 τί ποιοῦμεν; What is our course?


74. The Jussive Future. a. The Jussive Future is rare in Attic Greek, and, when it does occur, is regarded as a weak form of imperative. In the LXX, on the other hand, it is very common, and is employed in the most solemn language of legislation. From the nature of the case it is not used in the first person. It may be employed in command or in prohibition. As instances of the former we may take--

Lvt. 1918 ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν.Cp. Ex. 3418, 20: iii K. 1711.  Lvt. 1919 τὸν νόμον μου φυλάξεσθε. Cp. Lvt. 1144.  Lvt. 1922 καὶ ἐξιλάσεται ὁ ἱερεὺς. Cp. Lvt. 1920, 21.

b. Very often the jussive future follows an imperative.

Gen. 4014 μνήσθητί μου . . . καὶ ποιήσεις. Cp. Gen. 444: Ex. 726, 91, 13: Nb. 152, 17: iii K. 1713.  Josh. 84 μὴ μακρὰν γίνεσθε . . . καὶ ἔσεσθε πάντες ἕτοιμοι. Cp. Nb. 1318.

c. Of the use of the jussive future in prohibition we have a conspicuous example in the Ten Commandments (Ex. 2013-17: Dt. 517-21)--Οὐ μοιχεύσεις, Οὐ κλέψεις κτλ. So also--

Dt. 616 οὐκ ἐκπειράσεις Κύριον τὸν θέον σου. Cp. Nb. 2212: Ex. 2228: Lvt. 1912-19.

d. In the case of the jussive fpture we have ov in prohibition, because the formula was originally one of prediction.

e. Occasionally there is a transition from the jussive future οὐ μή with subjunctive--

Nb. 2325 οὔτε κατάραις καταράσῃ μοι αὐτὸν, οὔτε εὐλογῶν μὴ εὐλογήσῃς αὐτόν.

f. In the N.T. the jussive future is often used in passages quoted from the LXX. In Matthew it is employed independently.

Mt. 548 ἔσεσθε οὖν ὑμεῖς τέλειοι, 645 οὐκ ἔσεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταί, 2026-28 οὐχ οὕτως ἔσται ἐν ὑμῖν . . . ἔσται ὑμῶν δοῦλος, 213 καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ τι, ἐρεῖτε κτλ,

75. The Optative. a. The pure optative, i.e. the optative as employed to express a wish, is of frequent occurrence in the LXX, as might be expected from the character of the contents, so much of which is in the form either of aspiration or of imprecation. But the use of the optative where in Latin we should have the historic tenses of the subjunctive is hardly to be found outside of Maccabees.


ii Mac. 337 οῦ δὲ βασιλέως ἐπερωτήσαντος τὸν Ἡλιόδωρον, ποῖός τις εἴη ἐπιτήδειος.iv Mac. 171 ἔλεγον δὲ καὶ τῶν δορυφόρων τινὲς ὡς . . . ἵνα μὴ ψαύσειέν τις τοῦ σώματος αὐτῆς, ἑαυτὴν ἔρριψε κατὰ τῆς πυρᾶς.

The established practice is for the subjunctive to follow the historic tenses in a final clause--

Ex. 111 ἐπέστησεν . . . ἵνα κακώσωσιν, 916 διετηρήθης ἵνα ἐνδείξωμαι.Wisd. 1611 διεσῴζοντο ἵνα μὴ . . . γένωνται. Cp. 1618.

Cp. Aristeas §§ 11, 18, 19, 26, 29, 42, 45, 111, 175, 193.

b. In the N.T. also the subjunctive is regularly employed in final clauses after an historic tense, e.g.--

Tit. 15 τούτου χάριν ἀπέλιπόν σε ἐν Κρήτῃ, ἵνα τὰ λείποντα ἐπιδιορθώσῃ.

c. The pure optative is said to occur 35 times in the N.T., always, except in Philem20, in the 3d person.

In Luke-Acts the optative is commonly employed in dependent questions, e.g.--

Luke 1836 ἐπυνθάνετο τί εἴη τοῦτο,

with which contrast

Mk. 1411 ἐζήτει πῶς εὐκαίρως αὐτὸν παραδῷ.

Outside of Acts the optative with εἰ is found only in four passages--i Cor. 1410, i Cor. 1537 (εἰ τύχοι): i Pet. 314, 17.

76. Conditional without ἄν. Occasionally we find the apodosis in a conditional sentence devoid of ἄν.

Nb. 2233 καὶ εἰ μὴ ἐξέκλινεν, νῦν οὖν σὲ μὲν ἀπέκτεινα, ἐκείνην δὲ περιεποιησάμην.  Contrast 2229 and compare ii K. 2227.

77. Infinitive of Purpose. The use of the infinitive to express purpoge, as in English, is common to all stages of the Greek language, but abounds more in the LXX than in classical Greek.

Gen. 3725 ἐκάθισαν δὲ φαγεῖν ἄρτον.Cp. 3914, 427, 27, 4322: Ex. 1411: Nb. 2220: Job 21.

Of the use of the infinitive with the article to express purpose we have had occasion to speak already (§ 59).

78. Infinitive of Consequence. This construction is of doubtful propriety in Attic Greek. In the LXX it is much less common than the Infinitive of Purpose.

Ex. 111 καὶ οὐκ εἰσ̥κουσεν ἐξαποστεῖλαι τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραήλ.


79. Paucity of Participles. The small use made of participles in the LXX, as compared with classical Greek, is a natural result of the paratactical construction which reigns throughout. The same is the case, though to a less extent, in the N.T. Take for instance--

Mk. 1416 καὶ ἐξῆλθον οἱ μαθηταί, καὶ ἦλθον εἰς τὴν πόλιν, καὶ εὗρον καθὼς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· καὶ ἡτοίμασαν τὸ πάσχα.

The participle has disappeared in the modern language. Doubtless the influence of Biblical Greek was among the causes of its decline.

80. Misuse of the Participle. The misuse of the participle marks a stage of its decline. We find this tendency already manifesting itself in the LXX. Such an anacoluthon indeed as the following--

Ex. 815, 97 ἰδὼν δὲ Φαραώ . . . ἐβαρύνθη ἡ καρδία αὐτοῦ

may be passed over, as it might easily be paralleled from the most strictly classical writers. But we find sentences in the LXX in which a participle is the only verb. Sometimes this arises from following the Hebrew as in--

Jdg. 1319, 20 καὶ Μανῶε καὶ ἡ γυνὴ αὐτοῦ βλέποντες, 144 καὶ ἐν τῷ καιρῷ ἐκείνῳ οἱ ἀλλόφυλοι κυριεύοντες ἐν Ἰσραήλ.

More often it does not, as in--

Ex. 1237 ἀπάραντες δὲ οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραήλ, 1518 κύριος βασιλεύων τὸν αἰῶνα.Jdg. 416 καὶ Βαρακ διώκων.

Moreover we find a participle coupled with a finite verb by καί. When the subject of the two is the same, it is open to us to say that it is not copulative, but merely emphasizes the verb, as in--

Nb. 2111 καὶ ἐξάραντες (Hb. impf.) ἐξ Ὠβώθ, καὶ παρενέβαλον ἐν Χαλγαεί, 2223 καὶ ἰδοῦσα ἡ ὄνος . . . καὶ ἐξέκλινεν.

Hardly so however when the subject is different.

Ex. 1230 καὶ ἀναστὰς Φαραώ . . . καὶ ἐγενήθη κραυγὴ.Nb. 2223 καὶ ἰδὼν Βαλάκ . . . καὶ ἐφοβήθη Μωάβ.

81. The Intensive Participle. On the other hand there is a cause in operation in the LXX tending to an unnecessary use of participles. For in place of a cognate dative we often find the participle used along with a finite form of the same verb, to convey the intensive force that is accomplished in Hebrew by the addition of the infinitive to the finite verb, e.g.--


Gen. 2217 εἰ μὴν εὐλογῶν εὐλογήσω σε, καὶ πληθύνων πληθυνῶ τὸ σπέρμα σου.Jdg. 1125 μὴ μαχόμενος ἐμαχέσατο μετὰ Ἰσραὴλ ἢ πολεμῶν ἐπολέμησεν αὐτόν;

We might fill pages with instances of this idiom, but a statement of its frequency must suffice. This emphatic use of the participle is a more unmitigated Hebraism than the other forms of the etymological figure. The cognate accusative is quite Greek and the cognate dative is to be found in pure Greek, but we should search in vain among classical authors for the intensive use of the participle. There is a clear instance indeed in Lucian (Dialogi Marini IV 3 186 ἰδὼν εἶδον), but it is interesting to remember that Lucian himself came from the banks of the Euphrates. In Hdt. V 95 αὐτὸς μὲν φεύγων ἐκφεύγει there is a difference of meaning between the participle and the finite verb--he himself escapes by flight.

In the N.T. we have one instance, other than a quotation, of this Hebraism, namely--

Eph. 55 ἴστε γινώσκοντες,

but both the reading and the interpretation of this passage are disputed.

82. Other Varieties of the Etymological Figure. In Josh. 1713 ἐξολεθρεῦσαι δὲ αὐτοὺς οὐκ ἐξωλέθρευσαν the infinitive absolute of the Hebrew is represented in Greek by the infinitive, instead of by a participle or a cognate dative, so that sheer nonsense is made of the translation.

In another passage, where the Greek departs from our Hebrew, an adjective takes the place of the participle--

Jdg. 530 οἰκτείρμων οἰκτειρήσει.εἰς

Sometimes we find an adverb in place of the participle--

Ex. 151 ἐνδόξως γὰρ δεδόξασται.Nb. 2217 ἐντίμως γὰρ τιμήσω σε.Prov. 231 νοητῶς νόει, 2723 γνωστῶς ἐπιγνώσῃ.

The following turns of expression may also be noticed--

Jdg. 1125 ἐν ἀγαθῷ ἀγαθώτερος.Dt. 188 μερίδα μεμερισμένην.i K. 111 δώσω αὐτὸν ἐνώπιόν σου δοτὸν.

83. Middle and Passive Voices. In later Greek the boundary lines between the middle and passive voices are not clearly demarcated. Even in classical authors we find the future middle used in a passive sense, as it is also in--

Ex. 1210 οὐκ ἀπολείψετε ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ ἕως πρωὶ, καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.


The same seems to be the case with ξυρήσωμαι and ἐξυρήσατο in Jdg. 1617, 22.

So in N.T.--

i Cor. 611 ἀλλὰ ἀπελούσασθε, ἀλλὰ ἡγιάσθητε, ἀλλ᾿ ἐδικαιώθητε, 102 καὶ πάντες εἰς τὸν Μωσῆν ἐβαπτίσθησαν,

though here Riddell's semi-middle sense of the verb might plausibly be brought in by way of explanation.

Instances of passive form with middle meaning are common in the LXX-

Nb. 2234 ἀποστραφήσομαι I will get me back again.Jdg. 159 ἐξερρίφησαν spread themselves, 1620 ἐκτιναχθήσομαι shake myself, 1626 ἐπιστηριχθήσομαι support myself.iii K. 173 κρύβηθι hide thyself, 181 πορεύθητι καὶ ὄφθητι τῷ Ἀχαάβ go and shew thyself, 2025 ἐπράθη sold himself.

So in N.T. in Luke 1138 ἐβαπτίσθη is used for ἐβαπτίσατο.

84. Causative Use of the Verb. a. The causative use of the verb which is found in the LXX may be set down with confidence as a Hebraism. Βασιλεύειν according to the Greek language means 'to be king,' but it is frequently employed in the LXX in the sense of 'to make king,' e.g.--

Jdg. 96 ἐβασίλευσαν τὸν Ἀβειμέλεχ.i K. 822 βασίλευσον αὐτοῖς βασιλέα, 1511 ἐβασίλευσα τὸν Σαοὺλ εἰς βασιλέα.

There are all together thirty-six occurrences of the word in this causative sense.

b. Classical Greek again knows βδελύσσεσθαι in the sense of 'to loathe' or 'to abominate,' but not βδελύσσειν in the sense of 'to make abominable,' as in--

Ex. 521 ἐβδελύξατε τὴν ὀσμὴν ἡμῶν ἐναντίον Φαραώ.Lvt. 1143 καὶ οὐ μὴ βδελύξητε τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν.Cp. Lvt. 2025: i Mac. 148.

c. Still more strange to classical Greek is the sense of 'to make to sin' often imposed upon ἐξαμαρτάνειν, e.g.--

iv K. 1721 καὶ ἐξήμαρτεν αὐτοὺς ἁμαρτίαν μεγάλην.

This is the prevailing sense of the word in the LXX, which is found all together twenty-eight times, mostly in the phrase ὃς ἐξήμαρτεν τὸν Ἰσραήλ..

d. In this causative use of the verb is to be found the explanation


of Ex. 1425 καὶ ἤγαγεν αὐτοὺς μετὰ βίας, where the R.V. margin has 'made them to drive.' Other similar instances are--

Ex. 1318 ἐκύκλωσεν = he led round.  i K. 43 κατὰ τί ἔπταισεν ἡμᾶς κύριος σήμερον; Ps. 14211 ζήσεις με.

85. Reduplication of Words. In Greek we are accustomed to reduplication of syllables, but not to reduplication of words. This primitive device of language is resorted to in the LXX, in imitation of the Hebrew, for at least three different purposes--

(1) intensification,

(2) distribution,

(3) universalisation.

(1) The intensifying use.

σφόδρα σφόδρα Gen. 3043: Ex. 17, 12: Nb. 147: Ezk. 99: Judith 42.

σφόδρα σφοδρῶς Gen. 719: Josh. 316.

To the same head may be assigned--

Ex. 814 συνήγαγον αὐτοὺς θιμωνιὰς θιμωνιάς.Dt. 2843 ὁ προσήλυτος ὁ ἐν σοί ἀναβήσεται ἄνω ἄνω, σὺ δὲ καταβήσῃ κάτω κάτω.

In all the above instances perhaps the kind of intensification involved is that of a repeated process.

(2) The distributive use.

εἷς εἷς i Chr. 246.

δύο δοο Gen. 619, 73: Sir. 3615.

ἑπτὰ ἑπτά Gen. 73.

χιλίους ἐκ φυλῆς, χιλίους ἐκ φυλῆς Nb. 316.

τὸ πρωὶ πρωί i Chr. 927.

ἐργασίᾳ καὶ ἐργασίᾳ ii Chr. 3413.

In pure Greek such ideas would be expressed by the use of ἀνά or κατά. Sometimes we find κατά employed in the LXX along with the reduplication, as in--

Dt. 722 κατὰ μικρὸν μικρόν.  Zech. 1212 κατὰ φυλὰς φυλάς.

The idea 'year by year' is expressed in many different ways--

ἐνιαυτὸν κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτόν Dt. 1421: i K. 17: ii Chr. 245>

κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐνιαυτόν i K. 716.

ἐνιαυτὸν ἐξ ἐνιαυτοῦ Dt. 1520.

τὸ κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐνιαυτῷ iii K. 1028.

τὸ κατ᾿ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐνιαυτόν 2 Chr. 924.


(3) The universalising use.

ἄνθρωπος ἄνθρωπος = whatsoever man Lvt. 173, 8, 10, 13, 186, 209, 2218: Ezk. 144, 7.

ἀνδρὶ ἀνδρί Lvt. 153.

Of the above three uses the distributive is the only one which is to be found in the N.T.

Mk. 67 δύο δύο, 639 συμπόσια συμπόσια, 640 πρασιαὶ πρασιαὶ.

So also in the Pastor of Hermas--

Sim. VIII 2 § 8 ἦλθον τάγματα τάγματα, 4 § 2 ἔστησαν τάγματα τάγματα.

86. Expressions of Time. a. 'Year after year' is expressed in ii K. 211 by a nominative absolute ἐνιαυτὸς ἐχόμενος ἐνιαυτοῦ without any pretence of grammar.

b. The use of the word 'day' in vague expressions of time is a Hebraism, e.g.--

Gen. 404 ἡμέρας = for some time.  Cp. Dan. O’ 119.  Jdg. 151 μεθ᾿ ἡμέρας = after some time.  Cp. iii K. 177.  iii K. 181 μεθ᾿ ἡμέρας πολλὰς = after a long time.

c. 'Day by day' (Hb. day, day) is expressed in Gen. 3910 by ἡμέραν ἐξ ἡμέρας (cp. Lat. diem ex die). In Esther 34 καθ᾿ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν is correctly used as the Greek equivalent for the phrase day and day, which St. Paul (ii Cor. 416) has reproduced word for word in the form ἡμέρᾳ καὶ ἡμέρᾳ.

d. The use of 'yesterday and the day before' as a general expression for past time = heretofore is a Hebraism which presents itself in the LXX under a variety of slight modifications.

ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην i K. 47, 1011: ii K. 317, 52: i Chr. 112.

ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην ἡμέραν Gen. 312, 5: Ex. 57, 14: Josh. 418: i K. 1421, 197, 215: i Mac. 944.

ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτης Ruth 211: iv K. 135: Sus. Θ15.

ἀπ̓ ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτης ἡμέρας Josh. 34.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτης Dt. 194.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς καὶ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης Ex. 2129.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς καὶ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας Ex. 2136.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς οὐδὲ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης Dt. 442, 196.

πρὸ τῆς ἐχθὲς οὐδὲ πρὸ τῆς τρίτης ἡμέρας Ex. 410.

In Joshua 205, which occurs only in the Codex Alexandrinus, we


have ἀπ᾿ ἐχθὲς καὶ τρίτην, where ἐχθὲς-καὶ-τρίτην is treated as a single indeclinable noun.

e. 'Just at that time' is expressed variously as follows--

αὐθωρί Dan. O’ 315.

αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ i Esd. 865: Dan. 35, Θ 315.  Cp. Acts 2213.

ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ Dan. Θ 55.  Cp. Lk. 1212, 131, 2019.

ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ Tob. 317. Cp. Lk. 131.

87. Pleonastic Use of ἐκεῖ and ἐκεῖθεν. Just as a personal pronoun is supplied after the relative (§ 69), so a demonstrative adverb of place is supplied after a relative adverb or after some phrase equivalent to one.

Gen. 3319 οὗ ἔστησεν ἐκεῖ τὴν σκηνὴν αὐτοῦ.Cp. Gen. 3920, 403: Ex. 2113.  Ex. 2024 οὗ ἐὰν ἐπονομάσω τὸ ὄνομά μου ἐκεῖ.Dan. Θ 97 οὗ διέσπειρας αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ.iii K. 1719 ἐν ὧ αὐτὸς ἐκάθητο ἐκεῖ.Cp. Gen 3920: Ex. 1213.  Gen. 3113 ἐν τῷ τόπῳ ᾧ ἤλειψάς μοι ἐκεῖ στήλην.Nb. 1424 εἰς ἣν εἰσῆλθεν ἐκεῖ.Cp. 1518, 3526: Dt. 427.  Ex. 822 ἐφ᾿ ἧς οὐκ ἔσται ἐκεῖ.iv K. 14 ἡ κλίνη ἐφ᾿ ἧς ἀνέβης ἐκεῖ.Dt. 928 ὅθεν ἐξήγαγες ἡμᾶς ἐκεῖθεν.Nb. 2313 ἐξ ὧν οὐκ ὄψῃ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖθεν.Dan. O’ 97 εἰς ἃς διεσκόρπισας αὐτοὺς ἐκεῖ.

This idiom, which is thoroughly Hebrew, is to be explained on the same principle as in § 69. In the N.T. it is found only in Revelation--

Rev. 126 ὅπου ἔχει ἐκεῖ τόπον, 1214 ὅπου τρέφεται ἐκεῖ, 179 ὅπου ἡ γυνὴ κάθηται ἐπ᾿ αὐτῶν (=ἐκεῖ).

88. πᾶς with οὐ and μή. a. The use of πᾶς with a negative particle, where in classical Greek οὐδείς or μηδείς would be employed, is a Hebraism, even though in certain cases the resulting expression may be paralleled from pure Greek usage.

The πᾶς may either precede or follow the negative (οὐ, μή, μηδέ, οὐ μή) without difference of meaning.

b. We will first take instances from the LXX where the πᾶς precedes the negative.

Ex. 1243 πᾶς ἀλλογενὴς οὐκ ἔδεται ἀπ̓ αὐτοῦ.Cp. 1248: Ezek. 449.  Dan. O’ 59 πᾶς ἄνθρωπος οὐ δύναται.Cp. Dan. O’ 210.  Hbk. 219 πᾶν πνεῦμα οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν αὐτῷ.i Mac. 261 πάντες . . . οὐκ ἀσθενήσουσιν.Ex. 2222 πᾶσαν χήραν καὶ ὀρφανὸν οὐ κακώσετε.Jer. 1722 πᾶν ἔργον οὐ ποιήσετε.Cp. Ex. 1216, 20: Nb. 2818: Jdg. 1314.


So in N.T.--

Rom. 1012 πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐπ ̓ αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται.Cp. Eph. 429, 55.  Rev. 1822 πᾶς τεχνίτης . . . οὐ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἐν σοὶ ἔτι.ii Pet. 120 πᾶσα προφητεία γραφῆς ἰδίας ἐπιλύσεως οὐ γίνεται.i Jn. 221 πᾶν ψεῦδος ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας οὐκ ἔστιν.Cp. i Jn. 36, 10, 15, 43, 518: Rev. 223.

c. In the following passages of the LXX the πᾶς follows the negative--

Ps. 1422 οὐ δικαιωθήσεται ἐνώπιόν σου πᾶς ζῶν.Eccl. 19 οὐκ ἔστιν πᾶν πρόσφατον ὑπὸ τὸν ἥλιον.Ex. 2010: Dt. 514 οὐ ποιήσετε ἐν αὐτῇ πᾶν ἔργον.Cp. Ex. 2016.  ii K. 1511 οὐκ ἔγνωσαν πᾶν ῥῆμα.Tob. 1211 οὐ μὴ κρύψω ἀφ᾿ ὑμῶν πᾶν ῥῆμα.Ps. 3311 οὐκ ἐλαττωθήσονται παντὸς ἀγαθοῦ.Jdg. 134 μὴ φάγῃς πᾶν ἀκάθαρτον.Tob. 47 μὴ ἀποστρέψῃς τὸ πρόσωπόν σου ἀπὸ παντὸς πτωχοῦ.

So in N.T. --

Rom. 320 ἐξ ἔργων νόμου οὐ δικαιωθήσεται πᾶσα σὰρξ.Cp. Gal. 216: Mt. 2422.  Lk. 137 οὐκ ἀδυνατήσει παρὰ τοῦ Θεοῦ πᾶν ῥῆμα.Acts 1014 οὐδέποτε ἔφαγον πᾶν κοινὸν.i Cor. 129 ὅπως μὴ καυχήσηται πᾶσα σὰρξ.Rev. 2127 οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς αὐτὴν πᾶν κοινὸν.


89. Prominence of Prepositions. The prominence of prepositions in the LXX is partly a characteristic of later Greek generally and partly due to the careful following of the Hebrew. But while prepositions are employed to express relations for which in classical Greek cases would have been thought sufficient, there is at the same time a tendency to blur some of the nice distinctions between the uses of the same preposition with different cases.

90. εἰς. a. εἰς in classical Greek denotes motion or direction: in Biblical Greek it denotes equally rest or position, and may be translated by 'at' or 'in' as well as by 'to,' e.g.--

Gen. 3717 πορευθῶμεν εἰς Δωθάειμ . . . καὶ εὗρεν αὐτοὺς ἐν Δωθάειμ.Josh. 722 ἔδραμον εἰς τὴν σκηνὴν . . . καὶ ταῦτα ἦν ἐγκεκρυμμένα εἰς τὴν σκηνήν.Jdg. 141 καὶ κατέβη Σαμψὼν εἰς Θαμνάθα, καὶ εἶδεν γυναῖκα εἰς Θαμνάθα.


For examples of the former meaning only we may take--

Gen. 4232 ὁ δὲ μικρότερος . . . εἰς γῆν Χανάαν.Nb. 2533 τὴν γῆν εἰς ἣν ὑμεῖς κατοικεῖτε.Judith 1623 ἀπέθανεν εἰς Βαιτυλουά.

b. In the N.T. εἰς denoting rest or position is very common.

Mk. 21 εἰς οἶκον = at home.  Cp. Lk. 961: Mk. 1010.  Mk. 133 καθημένου αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸ ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν.Jn. 118 ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς.Acts 2113 ἀποθανεῖν εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ.

Cp. also Eph. 316: i Pet. 320, 512: Mk. 19, 39, 139: Luk. 423, 117: Jn. 97, 207: Acts 74, 840, 254.

The obliteration of the distinction between rest and motion is one of the marks of declining Greek. In the modern language εἰς has usurped the functions both of ἐν and πρός.

c. The use of εἰς with the accusative after εἶναι and γενέσθαι as practically equivalent to the nominative may safely be regarded as a Hebraism.

d. i Chr. 1121 ἦν αὐτοῖς εἰς ἄρχοντα, 177 εἶναι εἰς ἡγούμενον.iii K. 202 ἔσται μοι εἰς κῆπον λαχάνων. Cp. Gen. 48: i Chr. 116.  i K. 179 ἐσόμεθα ὑμῖν εἰς δούλους.Jer. 3833 ἔσομαι αὐτοῖς εἰς θεὸν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔσονταί μοι εἰς λαόν.Cp. Jer. 381: Gen. 4819: ii K. 714.  Gen. 27 ἐγένετο ὁ ἄνθρωπος εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν.Ex. 210 ἐγενήθη αὐτῇ εἰς υἱόν.i K. 49 γένεσθε εἰς ἄνδρας.

πρός in one passage takes the place of εἰς.

Sir. 465 μία ἡμέρα ἐγενήθη πρὸς δύο.

e. In the New Testament this idiom occurs both in quotations from the Old and otherwise.

i Jn. 58 καὶ οἱ τρεῖς εἰς τὸ ἕν εἰσιν.>  Lk. 35 ἔσται τὰ σκολιὰ εἰς εὐθείας (Is. 404.  ii Cor. 618 ἔσεσθέ μοι εἰς υἱούς καὶ θυγατέρας (ii K. 78: Is. 436.  Mt. 195 ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν (Gen. 24).  Mt. 2142 ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας (Ps.11722).  Lk. 1319 ἐγένετο εἰς δένδρον.Cp. Rev. 81111.  Jn. 1620 ἡ λύπη ὑμῶν εἰς χαρὰν γενήσεται.

The same usage is to be found also in the Apostolic Fathers--

Herm. Past. Sim. IX 13 § 5 ἔσονται εἰς ἓν πνεῦμα, εἰς ἓν σῶμα.i Clem. 112 εἰς κρίμα καὶ εἰς σημείωσιν . . . γίνονται.  Ign. Eph. 111 ἵνα μὴ ἡμῖν εἰς κρῖμα γένηται.

f. The employment of εἰς to express the object or destination of a thing might easily be paralleled from classical Greek, but its frequent


use in the LXX is due to its convenience as a translation of the corresponding Hebrew.

Gen. 3412 καὶ δώσετέ μοι τὴν παῖδα ταύτην εἰς γυναῖκα.Ps. 10417 εἰς δοῦλον ἐπράθη Ἰωσήφ.iii K. 19 χρίσεις τὸν Ἁζαὴλ εἰς βασιλέα.Gen. 12 ποιήσω σε εἰς ἔθνος μέγα.

When the verb is active and transitive, as in all but the second of the above instances, εἰς might be dispensed with as far as Greek is concerned. When a verb of being is employed, this use runs into the preceding--

Gen. 129 ὑμῖν ἔσται εἰς βρῶσιν, Gen. 114 ἔστωσαν εἰς σημεῖα.

g. The use of εἰς with the accusative, where classical Greek would simply have employed a dative, is shown by the Papyri to have been a feature of the vernacular Greek of Alexandria.

Ex. 921 ὃς δὲ μὴ προσέσχεν τῇ διανοίᾳ εἰς τὸ ῥῆμα κυρίου κτλ.

So in N.T.--

i Cor. 161 τῆς λογίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους (the collection for the saints).

91. ἐν. a. Although ἐν, was destined ultimately to disappear before εἰς, yet in Biblical Greek we find it in the plenitude of its power, as expressing innumerable relations, some of which seem to the classical student to be quite beyond its proper sphere. One principal use may be summed up under the title of "The ἐν of Accompanying Circumstances." This includes the instrumental use, but goes far beyond it. Under this aspect ἐν invades the domain of μετά and σύν. In most cases it may be rendered by the English 'with.'

Hos. 17σώσω αὐτοὺς ἐν κυρίῳ θεῷ αὐτῶν, καὶ οὐ σώσω αὐτοὺς ἐν τόξῳ οὐδὲ ἐν ῥομφαίᾳ οὐδὲ ἐν πολέμῳ οὐδὲ ἐν ἵπποις οὐδὲ ἐν ἱππεῦσιν.Cp. i K. 1745, 47: i Mac. 312.  Ex. 61 ἐν γὰρ χειρὶ κραταιᾷ κτλ. (But in Ex. 319 we have ἐὰν μὴ μετὰ χειρὸς κραταιᾶς.)  Cp. Ex. 320: Jdg. 1515, 16.  Jdg. 1418 εἰ μὴ ἡροτριάσατε ἐν τῇ δαμάλει μου.Cp. iii K. 1919.  iv K. 1817 ἐν δυνάμει βαρείᾳ.  In the parallel passage Is. 362 μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς.i Mac. 46 ὤφθη Ιουδας . . . ἐν τρισχιλίοις ἀνδράσιν.

So in N.T.--

i Cor. 421 ἐν ῥάβδῳ ἔλθω πρὸς ὑμᾶς; Cp. i K.1743: Ps. 29.  Eph. 62 ἐντολὴ πρώτη ἐν ἐπαγγελίᾳ.ii Pet. 316 ἐν ἀνθρώπου φωνῇ.Mt. 934 ἐν τῷ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια. Cp. Mt. 1224, 2516.  Mt. 2652 ἐν μαχαίρῃ ἀπολοῦνται.


b. The ἐν of accompanying circumstances is not wholly foreign to classical Greek, though the extended use made of it in Biblical diction is.

Eur. Tro. 817 ὦ χρυσέαις ἐν οἰνοχόαις ἁβρὰ βαίνων.

c. In another of its Biblical uses ἐν becomes indistinguishable from εἰς, as in--

Ex. 421 πάντα τὰ τέρατα ἃ ἔδωκα ἐν ταῖς χερσίν σου.Jdg. 131 παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς Κύριος ἐν χειρὶ Φυλιστιείμ. Cp. Jdg. 1512, 13, 1623, 24.  Is. 3710 οὐ μὴ παραδοθῇ Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἐν χειρὶ βασιλέως.Tob. 55 πορευθῆναι ἐν Ῥάγοις. Cp. Tob. 66, 92.

So in N.T.--

ii Cor. 816 χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ τῷ διδόντι τὴν αὐτὴν σπουδὴν ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ Τίτου.Mt. 143 ἔθετο ἐν φυλακῇ.Jn. 335 πάντα δέδωκεν ἐν τῇ χειρὶ αὐτοῦ.Rev. 1111 πνεῦμα ζωῆς ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ εἰσῆλθεν ἐν αὐτοῖς.

92. ἀπό. a. ἀπό in the LXX is often little more than a sign of the genitive, like our English 'of,' provided that the genitive be partitive.

Ex. 1246 καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.Josh. 9 οὐκ ἦν ῥῆμα ἀπὸ πάντων ὧν ἐνετείλατο Μωυσῆς τῷ Ἰησοῖ ὃ οὐκ ἀνέγνω Ἰησοῦς.iii K. 1813 ἔκρυψα ἀπὸ τῶν προφητῶν Κυρίου ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας.Joel 228 ἐκχεῶ ἀπὸ τοῦ πνεύματός μου.ii Esd. 112 εἷς ἀπὸ ἀδελφῶν μου.

So in N.T.--

Lk. 613 ἐκλεξάμενος ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν δώδεκα.Jn. 2110 ἐνέγκατε ἀπὸ τῶν ὀψαρίων ὧν ἐπιάσατε νῦν.

b. ἀπό = 'by reason of' is another unclassical use which occurs in the LXX.

Gen. 4131 αὶ οὐκ ἐπιγνωσθήσεται ἡ εὐθηνία ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ.Ex. 223 καὶ κατεστέναξαν οἱ υἱοὶ Ἰσραὴλ ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων, 37 καὶ τῆς κραυγῆς αὐτῶν ἀκήκοα ἀπὸ τῶν ἐργοδιωκτῶν.Ps. 116 ἀπὸ τῆς ταλαιπωρίας τῶν πτωχῶν . . . ἀναστήσομαι.Sir. 206 ἔστιν μισητὸς ἀπὸ πολλῆς λαλιᾶς.Nahum 16 αἱ πέτραι διεθρύβησαν ἀπ᾿ αὐτοῦ.

In this way ἀπό becomes = ὑπό, as in Dan. 0’ 118.


So in N.T.--

Hb. 57 εἰσακουσθεὶς ἀπὸ τῆς εὐλαβείας.Lk. 19 ὐκ ἠδύνατο ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄχλου, 2441 ἀπιστούντων αὐτῶν ἀπὸ τῆς χαρᾶς.Cp. Acts 1214, 2211.  Jn. 216 οὐκέτι αὐτὸ ἑλκύσαι ἴσχυον ἀπὸ τοῦ πλήθους τῶν ἰχθύων.

Of ἀπό = ὑπό see instances in Lk. 922, 1725: Acts 209.

c. The combination ἀπό . . . ἕως is a Hebraism. It may be rendered "from . . . unto," as in--

Dt. 835 ἀπὸ ἴχνους τῶν ποδῶν σου ἕως τῆς κορυφῆς σου,

or "both . . . and," as in--

Ex. 925ἀπὸ ἀνθρώπου . . . ἕως κτήνους.

>Sometimes καί precedes the ἕως--

Jdg. 155 ἀπὸ . . . καὶ ἕως . . . καὶ ἕως both . . . and . . . and.Cp. Sir. 403: Jer. 273.

93. μετά. μετά with genitive = 'in dealing with' is a Hebraism.

Jdg. 153 ὅτι ποιῶ ἐγὼ μετ᾿ αὐτῶν πονηρίαν.

So in N.T.--

Lk. 1037 ὁ ποιήσας τὸ ἔλεος μετ᾿ αὐτοῦ: Acts 1427.  Cp. Herm. Past. Sim. v 1 § 1: i Clem. 613.

94. ὑπέρ. a. The frequent use of ὑπέρ in the LXX to express comparison is due to the fact that the Hebrew language has no special form for the comparative degree. We therefore sometimes find the LXX representing the original by the positive with ὑπέρ.

Ruth 415 ἥ ἐστιν ἀγαθή σοι ὑπὲρ ἑπτὰ υἱούς.Cp. i K. 18, 1528: iii K. 202: ii Chr. 2114.  i K. 92 ὑψηλὸς ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν.i Chr. 49 ἔνδοξος ὑπὲρ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ.Sir. 2420 ὑπὲρ μέλι γλυκύ.Ezk. 51 ῥομφαίαν ὀξεῖαν ὑπὲρ ξυρὸν κουρέως.

b. More often however the comparative is used, but the construction with ὑπέρ still retained.

Jdg. 152 ἀγαθωτέρα ὑπὲρ αὐτήν.#8195; Cp. Jdg. 1125.  Jdg.1826 δυνατώτεροί εἰσιν ὑπὲρ αὐτόν.Ruth 312 ἐγγίων ὑπὲρ ἐμέ.iii K. 194 κρείσσων . . . ὑπὲρ τοὺς πατέρας.Cp. Sir. 3017.  Hbk. 18 ὀξύτεροι ὑπὲρ λύκους.Dan. 0’ 120 σοφωτέρους δεκαπλασίως ὑπὲρ τοὺς σοφιστάς.


SYNTAX c. vir_p is employed in the same way after verbs - Ex. 19 iaxvet v7r~p jpas. i K. 15 "lv *Avvav Iycx7ra 'EXKavd vrlp TavT,qv. Ps. 391$ iorXr/BVfY9qa'av vrlp ids rpLXag Tis KEOoAjs pm. i Chr. 1912 EU,v Kpa7q" v7rep E'.te tipOS. Jer. Jr$ EO'TEpi6aaY . . . vuC'p 7ri7pav, 1612 vp,Eis brovr/pevo-aQOE virep rov's iraTEpas $p&uY. Cp. 1721. Jer. 26' vkrlO~YEt vaEp dKpt&c. Dan. 01 31 j KdN,tvos E EKavOrl vrCP To apoTEpov i7rTa7Aaa'icus. d. So in N.T. - after a comparative - Lk. 168 ¢povquuiTEpot v7rCp 7ovs viovs roZ -Oarros. Hb. 41B TopauTE- pos vaep iraaaav /AkXatpav. after a verb- Gal. 114 7fpoc'mr7oY . . . V7f'p vo)AoVS. prlrepa vrip lpE. Cp. Herm. Past. Mdt. V 1 § 6 il 1taKpoOvp& yXvKVrdTal 1ov1v vrip To ~aeXt.Mart. Polyc. 18 8oKtuwTEpa varip Xpva'ov Sara avrov. Mt. 103 O Ot4Y 7f4TEpa 95. 17rc a. Earl with the accusative is used of rest as well as of motion. Gen. 4117 EvTavcu bait To xEilos ro; 7rora'.to"v. Ex. 10" Kai aviyayev avriw (Tiw aKpi8a) ETri aao-ay yiw Aiyvmrov, Kw KaTSrava'EV iai aaivTa Td opts Aiy&TOV vo.)Lil QooBpa. Jdg. 1621 Eiri To &o'= = upon the roof. b. furl is sometimes used to reinforce an accusative of duration of time. Jdg. 141 Kai EKXa'UO'EY?fpOS a71TOY E7f6 r&s 117m0. jpEpas as jv airtots O 710TOS· c. In Josh. 251° we find p,Ey«Y Elri Tan iEEiv where in classical Greek we should have only pEyav ibE2Y. d. In the N.T. also Earl with the accusative is used of rest or position - ii Cor. 3' K°Uvpfta. Eai "'v Kap8ia.Y airrwY KEirat. Mk. 21'1 Ka9~/p.E- vov art To reX6vtov. Cp. Lk. 5n. Mk. 4"' Eai To apoo-KEOaaawv KaBEVBw. Mt. 142' 7rEporaTiw Chri r'jV daXaco-ay (in Jn. 61° aEptaaTO"vvTa Elri Ti7s BaXaQmrls). Lk. 2W rvE"vita aytov iv hr' aurov. Cp. Lk. 2t°. Jn. 1' e',tEtvEV ear' avrov. 96. iraPlL. a. 7rapd naturally lends itself to the expression of comparison, and is so used occasionally in the best Greeks e.g. Thuc. 123



§ 4: Xen. Mem. 14 § 14: Hdt. VII 103. It is therefore not surprising that it should have been employed by the translators in the same way as Vare'p.

Ex. 1811 p,Eyas KvpLOS 7rapd 7ravTas rovs Oeovs. Cp. Ps. 1345: Dan. 0' 1112. Nb. 123 Kal o civOpwros Mwvojs 7rpavs o068pa 7rapd 7ravras 'rovs avOpcuTovs. Dan. 0' 11° no·Bevij irapd TOUS O'vyTpEoO- p.Evovs v/,Liv (OO has oKV0pw7ra irapa ra 7raL8apta rd' avvrjkwa $p,"ev).

Op. 0' 113. Dan. OO 77 BLaOopov 7repLQV-ms 7rapd iravra Td Ajpla. i Esd. 435 iaXvpoTEpa 7rapd iravra. Dan. 0' 1113 uct'toya 7rapa'

S~v 7rpwT7jv. (O has 7rovV v7rCp TOV 7rporepov). Dt. 77 vaeis yap &-re o,klyovTOi 7rapa aravra ra Mv7/. Gen. 4334 EjleyaX$v0r/ >J /aepis Bevsapeiv aapa teas /.Lepisas ravrwv. Ps. 8° jX&TTauas avrov j8paxi TL 7rap' ayyEXovs. b. In the N.T. 7rapa after a comparative is abundant in Hebrews -1', 33, 923, 114 ,122'. We find it after a positive and after a comparative in Luke- Lk. 132 auap7wXoi irapd 7raVras -rovs raAlaaiovs, 313 /.L7jEEv irXEOv vapd To OLaTETay/A,EVOY V(A^LV 7lpaQQETE, and after verbs in - Rom. 145 O'S UC'V KpiVEL ij/.LEpaY 7rap' 711aEpav. o I O e09 . . . 7rapa Tovs /.LETLIXOVS o-OV. c. In the Apostolic Fathers cp.- Herm. Past. TTis. 11112 § 1 i.kapwTEpaY 7rapd To 7rporepov, Sim. IX 18 § 2 ?rXeiova . . . 7rapa. Barn. Ep. 45 (in a quotation from Daniel which is neither 0' nor O) xaXs7rLSrepov 7rapa rayra ra 97jpla.

97. New Forms of Preposition. a. Besides the more liberal use made of the prepositions already current in classical Greek, we meet also in the LXX with new forms of preposition.

b. a7r4vw0eY occurs in Swete's text in Jdg. 161° : ii K. 112°- 24, 2021: iii K. 153: iv K. 23. It not unnaturally gets confused in some places with the classical braVw0ey, which is very common in the LXX, having been found a convenient rendering of certain compound prepositions in the Hebrew.

c. $7roK9To)0ev, which is only used as an adverb in classical Greek, assumes in the LXX the function of a preposition, e.g. -

Dt. 914 E~aXE6~w rQ' OVOttWL avrwy vvotcaTwOfy rov ovpayov. Hb. 19 'ExpIOE Vf


SYNTAX 87 The corresponding form v7repavW0Ev occurs in the LXX only twice, once as an adverb in Ps. 7721 and once as a preposition in - Ezk. V U7rEpdivCU0Ev i-oV O"7EpEW/Aa7oS.

d. evavri, drevavra, and Kartvavrt are prepositions unknown to classical authors, though v7re'vavrt is to be found in Polybius.

Evavr& in many passages of the LXX has been replaced in Swete's text by evavriov, but there are still numerous instances of it left, e.g. Ex. 2812 23. 34, 291°· 23, 24, 21, `s. '2. In N.T. it occurs in Lk. 18, Acts 811.

d7r&avrt is also common, e.g. Gen. 32', 2111, 2319, 259, 49". In the N.T. it occurs in the sense of I contrary to' in Acts 17'.

Karevavrc is specially frequent in the book of Sirach.

e. Evwrcov is another preposition unknown to classical authors, but extremely common in Biblical Greek, as being an apt equivalent for certain Hebrew forms of expression. Deissmann gives instances of its adverbial use in the Papyri, so that we need not suppose it to have been invented by the translators of the O.T. In the N.T. it occurs frequently in Luke-Acts, Paul, and Revelation, but is not used in Matthew or Mark.

KaTEvw7rcov occurs in the LXX in Lvt. 41': Josh. 16, 37, 2144, 239: Esther 51: Dan. O 5". In N.T. in Eph. 1': Col. 1': Jude2'.

f. oirl'a-w as a preposition is unclassical, but extremely common in the LXX.

In the N.T. it occurs in i Tim. 515: Acts 537, 2010: Mt. 4'9,1011,162' Lk. 142 : Jn. 1219: Rev. 133.

g. Karoreu8E(v) is construed with a genitive in Hom. Od. XII 148, but its classical use is almost wholly adverbial, whereas in the LXX, in which it occurs twenty-four times in all, it is mainly prepositional.

In ii Chr. 3431 we have o.7ro o7rio8Ev Kvpiov. Cp. Eccl. 11° d7ro EM. 7rpoQBEv jtmwv.

h. KVKXO'BEV occurs in the LXX as a preposition in iii K. 1811: Sir. 501'A: Jer. 1711, 311' : i Mac. 1417.

In N.T. only in Rev. 41, 511 KVKXO'BEv -rov Opovov.

K~Kaw is sometimes used in the same way, as in iii K.18111: Sir. 23'8: Is. 62: Jer. 39".

Cp. Strabo XVII 6, p. 792 -rd 8E K&XT rhs K6N,7)s.

i. Other prepositions that may be briefly noticed are ~xop,Eva aerpas Ps. 1408, EQ(UTEpov T~4 KOXVUa1?0paS Is. 2211.

In Sir. 29'1 we have the combination Kai 7rpds 171 ro~rom

98.. Prepositions after Verbs. The great use made of prepositions after verbs is one of the main characteristics of Biblical Greek. It


88 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK is partly a feature of later Greek generally, but to a still greater extent it is due to the influence of the Hebrew. In the following list of instances perhaps the last only is irreproachable as Greek: - aSvvaTEiv a7ro Dt. 178. MET& iv iv K. 11, 35' 7 , 187, 241' 0: ii Clir. 101°. a ' Zew Ev i C hr. 291: ii Chr. 291'. ,BBE.Ivo-o-EO·Bac aao EX. 112. Po&v Iv iii K. 1821. EKOIKEIV EK Dt. 181°. EKXEyE6V EV 1 Chr. 285. E~,~ritEw bri with accusative Ps. 4s, 5'2, 9'1, 40'0. EJIaitEw Eat with dative Ps. 71. EYEOpEilE6V E?fL Jdg. 162. EvrpEaEQ6ai nao 1i Chl. 361$: i Esd. 1''S. E7fLKaXE60'BQC Iv 111 K. 1825, 2s. EO'BCELV Q.7f0 Lvt. 22s : Jdg. 131x. EvSoKEiv iv Ps. 146'°. BkkE6V ly 1 K. 182 : i Chr. 28' : Ps. 146'°. 9EWpeiv EY Jdg. 162. Karaq5poveiv Eat Tobit 41a. JloyVO-Oat Eis 1 K. 113. h4VKT'I~pIY,EIV EV 1 Esd. 1s1. aarav'o'ESV ev 11. Chr. 28°> 1~ aoiEiv IkEOS iv Josh. 2'~ vovEiv EAEOS pETU Jdg. 8"'. 7fOXE'.4ELY EV 1 K. 2815. ?fp00'EXELV ELS EX. 921. apoaoXBiZESV aro Nb. 223. o-vvisvxi Eis Ps. 27b. V7fEp1~lpaVEVEQB0.C p',7lO Tobit 414. OEi8EO-Oat Eat' Dt. 71s. s6o/3Eio'Bac aao Dt. ho, 72~: Josh. 111: iv K. 111: Ps. 37. (kvaaQOEQBai aro Jdg. 13". Cp. Xen. Chop. II 3 § 9, hell. VII 2 § 10. CONJUNCTIONS, 99-111 99. Et with the Subjunctive. a. In Homer El, or its equivalent at, is common with the subjunctive, especially when accompanied by KE(v), e.g. Il. 180, IV 249, VII 375, VIII 282, XI 791, XV 403, XVI 861, XVIII 601: Od. IV 35, V 471, 472, XVI 98, XXII 7.


SYNTAX In classical authors instances of ei with the subjunctive (without ay) are rare rather than absent. Some of them may have been improved out of existence, owing to a desire for uniformity. Plato Laws 761 C et' -ri irov alovs . . . avecpevov lj. Xen. Anab. 1112 § 22 of rarap.Ot, CE' jai rpoO'w r(;v 7r77yiuv a7ropos &A,. Soph. Ant. 710 Kd -rcs;j ao¢os. See GMT. 454.

b. In Hellenistic Greek the use of d with the subjunctive becomes common, e.g. -

Arist. E.E. II 1 § 17 el' ;j $vOpwaros, 8 § 9 A:i Tis wpoQ8p, 18 cc' yap arOK'fcavy, 10 § 21 El rOXEpCOQm Philo II 19, De Abr. § 25 et' cppavOos ;j. Jos. B.J. 131 § 1 ell . . . aQ9evilag, Ant. 12 § 3 el' Kai vvpfllj.

We should therefore antecedently expect to find this construction in the LXX, and yet it is seldom found. It occurs in Jdg. 118, where an indicative and subjunctive are both made dependent on ellcl

-El E7rta7pEOETE pc ZjAE6s vapard~ao~aoea6 ly vLOIS 'Appiuv jai vapasui KvpA,os allTOM EVw7rLOV E/AOV. In fit. 85 Swete's text has ra&v6-ac in place of 7raa&7imrl. In i K. 14"' ei PcaraOw o=aw -rwv aUoovXwv is so punctuated as to become an instance of a interrogative (§ 100). In Sirach 2226 EC KaKd pOC Ovpfq, the avu/8,rj has given place to O'Vp,8jQETaI.

In the N.T. there are a few instances of ell with the subjunctive - Rom. 1114 A:i vrws irapaC7)Xw(rw. Phil. 311 A:i 7rws KaTavr1j00w el's 7'V%V t c'eavao -=Oly, 31' EE Ka6 KaraAOw. 100. Et Interrogative. a. In classical Greek ai is often used in indirect questions, e.g. - Thuc. 15 § 2 Epwrwvres ell X?wTai date. Plat. Apol. 21 D ipero yap &il, Et Tis lpo"v ei7/ VoA¢WTEpos. Xen. Anab. I 10 § 5 18ov- XE&TO . . . El 7rE'A,7rOLEV rtvas 1~'~ ravres lo6Ev. b. In Biblical Greek EL has become a direct interrogative particle. This transition seems so natural as to make us doubt the statement of Jannaris (Hilt. Gk. (fir. § 2055) that ell is in all these cases A nothing but an itacistic misspelling for the colloquial '.' In Gen. 437 Xe'ywv E! IT& 0 7rarip vpwv Cj ; d IOTIV $piv a&aOos; . . . A, '?*sE6pA:V Et 1pE6 ipewW KTx. we have first the direct and then the indirect use of ei as an interrogative particle. For other instances of the former takei K. 15$2 Kai aT7rev 'Ayay Ell ov,rws vwpos o Oavaros ; ii K. 2011 Kai J7rev il yvvi' Ell au' cl 'Iwa,8; iii K. 20 Kai ebrEV 'AXaaR 7rpos


90 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK 'Haesov Ei eup7~Kas (LE, d ExBpOS /Aov; Cp. also Gen. 1717, 398, 43-": Ex. 21': J dg. 1311: i K. y'1, 10", ",1431, 41,1511 : iii K.13'°, 181' iv K. 1$ : Tob. 55 : Jonah 44, e : Joel 11: Dan. 61°. c. The interrogative e' is sometimes followed by the deliberative conjunctive, e.g. - Jdg. 20-'8 Ell 7rpoa-0iaImv Sri f&lOdv; ii K. 2' Ell ava,8w al's piav rfOV 7rdkcwV'Iov8a; i C hr. 141° Ell avaflw E7ri robs a)lJ1o0vlow; d. In the N.T. ell interrogative is of common occurrence- Mk. 81$ E7rqporra a$rov, El' ri &47rets; CI). Mk. 102, where the question may be either direct or indirect. Mt. 12'° _r7)pQo rqorav avrov Asyovres, Ell 1$eo-T& rocs o·aflaao't 0epa7rc~av; Cp. Aft. 198. Lk. 1311 Kvpa, ell dklyoi of o-wCoaevoa ; C p. Lk. 2249: Acts 1B Kvpce, el Ev rc3 XpOVro ro4m KrX. C p. Acts 71, 192, 21"ff, 222, 239. 101. et in Oaths. a. Ei is often found in the LXX after an oath in a sense practically equivalent to a negative, e.g. - Ps. 9411 is uip.oo-a iV r)j opyj pov E2 EXdQovrai eis rev KardVovo-iv p,ov. This use of el' is a sheer Hebraism. The negative force imported into ei is due to a suppression of the apodosis, which the reader may supply as his own sense of reverence suggests. Other instances will be found in Gen. 1423: N b. 3210,11: Dt. 1'm, 8 : i K. 3", 14'x, 175, 19') 28'° : ii K. IF: iii K. 1a'-'28 171 is 1810: iv K. 2 2: Ps. 1314-' Jer. 4518. L. When an affirmative asseveration is conveyed by the oath, it is introduced by dra, not by ei, as in - i K. 298 tj Kvpcos, ort eMi~s (TV' Kai ayados 11v ooOaAWs pov. iii K. 1815 ~rj Kvpios . . . O 7G aWAY' 0.003Y7'VO'A,al mot, or else is devoid of a conjunction, as in - i K. 1' try i 0 vX17 ' Qov, Ey' ' YUV' KTX. Jdg. 819 tj Kvpws, cc' IW a'UTOUs, OVK Qv arEKTEtVa V(AQs. c. In iv K. 314 Orl EL p,7) is merely a strengthened form of ell ,u17, so that the ;~ by which it is followed in Swete's text, instead of ell, seems to destroy the sense. d. In the N.T. we have the jurative use of el' in- Mk. 812 aM.iw XEyw $N,"iv, et 8OB7javral ri yEVEQ, ra16rla "IA.E6oV. Also in Hb. 311, 43 in quotations from Ps. 9411.


SYNTAX 102. Et pi in Oaths. As ei assumes a negative force in oaths and asseveratious, so on the same principle ell IAV' becomes positive. Instances are - Nb. 14' Eyu~ Kvpws Ad'Xrloa, ell 14 ou-rws aovq'aw (= I will do so). Is. 45" Kar' fpavrov dpvvw, el /Al'? 4EAEV(TETa6 EK TOV OT01,1.aP0s p.Ov Bwacoo-6n (= righteousness shall go forth from my mouth). In iii K. 2123 E&V & 7 roXep-qjo-opev avrovs Kar' evev, ell p.' Kparalwo-oN.eV v7rip avrovs the oath itself is suppressed as well as the apodosis.

103. Et wIy. ei pijv as a formula of asseveration has been supposed to be a blend between the Hebraistic ell p~j (§ 102) and the Greek

Mv. It is however not confined to Biblical Greek, but occurs also on the Papyri. We treat it under the head of Conjunctions because of the lack of accent. It would perhaps be more correct to write it

eI ' and regard it as an Interjection. The following are all the L /A77V passages in which it occurs in the LXX - Gen. 2217 el' ' v evXo wv eve 'ow vv 421 V' ' V ` i av 4)a aoi ei "V Ip'q y °'Y~I ~l T'9 "y p I AI! KarULO'KoroG EO"rE. Nb. 1411, 11 : Jdg. 15' : Job 111, 25) 278 : Ju dith 112 : Baruch 2" : Ezk. 33u, 348, 368, 3818.

In ii K. 1931 what we have is el interrogative (§ 100) followed by IAjv.

In the N.T. a p.ilV occurs only in Hb. 61' in a quotation from Gen. 221':

104. Uv, etc., with the Indicative. a. As in Hellenistic Greek ell may take the subjunctive, so on the other hand ilav, orav and the like are found with the indicative.

Instances of My with the indicative in the LXX are- Gen. 44'° Ea'v daaope&pas. Jdg. 63 Edv to-7retpav. iii K. 2121 c " 8' 7roXc/A-1'oo1Aev av*7- ' K ' -EbOU . ap C ovs ar Job 223 Edv o~u io-8a. So in N.T. i Jn. 515 Ea.V oisapev. Acts 77 ro' EBvos, < E dv 8ovXevorovai. Cp. Herm. Past. Yis. 11112 § 3 ETV . . . d p1VaIEPE, 13 § 2 &v . . . peravo+QOVQLV. b. Instances of orav with the indicative in the LXX are - Gen. 389 O'rav E6?~pxETo. EX. 171 OraV E7ripEV Mwuois ra's XEGpas. Nb. 118 Kat o-rav )care,8,q i Spoo-os, 219 OTaV E8aKVEV O0lV JVBpwaoV. i K. 17 '4 orav ilpXvro o Xswv jai i apKOS. Ps. 1197 orav c'xwxovv avrots.


92 GRAMMAR OF SEPTUAGINT GREEK c. So in N.T.- Mk. 311 Kal r0. 9rYEV'mra rQ Q.KaOapr0., OTav av'rOV MEIDpEL, 7fpOVErL7rrEV 0.VT6 , 1119 OTaV OqIE E'yEYETO. Rev. 81 OTaV 71VoLE. CP. Barn. Ep. 414 OTaV R,kEvE'fE, 155 orav . . . K arapyrjQEL. Ign. Eph. 81 orav y&ppqOE'L.La lopLS EY4pELOmL iv VPLTV. Herm. Past. Sim. IX 1 § 6 OTaV O j4OS EVLKEKaVUKEL, eqpaG EyVoYTo, 4 § 5 OraV . . . E reOrwav. Cp. 17 § 3. 6 § 4 Or0.V E7faMOVEY. d. Under the same head come the following- Ex. 330, 34" iwKa 8' aY EioxropEUmo Mwois, 400° jYCScx 8' ay dvs/87< a710 TiS O'KIJVi~S 'n YEsSEkq. TObit 711 07rOTE ELY ELO'E7ropE.loVTo. Cp. Barn. Ep. 12$ o7rorav ica0Eikev. 105. tdLV after a Relative. a. Eav for «Y after a relative seems to occur occasionally in Mss. of Attic authors, especially of Xenophon, but to have been expunged by editors. It is proved by the Papyri to have been in common use in Egypt during the first two centuries s.c. Biblical Greek is so full of this usage that it is superfluous to collect examples. Besides the simple relative in its various cases we have - ova Id& Gen. 441: Ex. 1310. ov cav Ex. 2001. oBEV Eav Ex. 511. As a rule the subjunctive follows, but not always. Gen. 219 7rdv O EQ.V EKdXEO'Ev. b. The use of ay in such cases is not quite excluded, e.g. Ex. 1211, la: Nb. 220°. c. In the N.T. also it is easier to find 14Y in this connexion than iv, e.g. - os MY Mt. 510, 1014,'12: Lk. 171. w 1av Mt. 1121: Lk. 1020. aus E'cx'v i Cor. 168. o 1av i Cor. 618: Gal. 67 : Col. 320 : E ph. 60 : J n. 15' : i J n. 300 iii Jn a Kaeo I'd& ii COr. 810. '" Mt. 8'~ 7rov lav Jr&cav" iwiKa day Gen. 2441: Ex. 13a. KaBius Eav Sir. 1411: Dan. 0' 11s. For instances of dv take i Jn. 31' : Mt. 1011: Lk. 10°~ & l o~ 05.


d. In the Apostolic Fathers also we find the same use of clav after relatives -

Barn. Ep. 711 os c'dv OAV, 118 7rav p,^?p,a. o° E'a'v E~eXeiveraL. Herm. Past. Vis. III 2 § 1 SO% idy aa0p, ,Sam. VII 7 00-09 [Ed v] ly rais Evroaais N.ov ra&ats 7ropeveQrtv, IX 2 § 7 ova My aot W$ua.

106. tva with the Indicative. a. In the vast majority of places in which 7va occurs in the LXX it governs the subjunctive. The optative, as we have seen, has practically vanished from dependent clauses. But there are a few passages in Swete's text, and perhaps Ms. authority for more, in which iva after a primary tense or the imperative mood takes a future indicative.

Gen. 162 EL*aC>,OC . . . Lila rfKV07OLV' iii K. 2s vets . . . iva aoLrjaeLS. Sus. 0'2' EVEOpEUovTEs 7va 9avarcuqowtv a$Tiiv. Dan. 0' 3' Eyia Kpivw iva aaV *EOvoq . . . 8LaueXLa0rjasraL. b. The 1st person singular of the 1st aorist subjunctive may possibly have served as a stepping-stone to this use. Take for instance - ii K. 19 aao0"TOc . . . LVQ /Al'7 raua$w ac. This might easily lead by false analogy to- areXCU(Topat, iva N.1 7rarQ.ELS JZC. This theory however fails to account for the followingi Esd. 40 iva aOiovUL. Tob. 149 Lrv & rljpr~oov rov vopov . . . Eva COL KaMus "/v. The last can only be regarded as a monstrosity. c. In the N.T. tva with the future indicative occurs occasionally and is common in Revelation s for. 918 7va . . . 8rjaw. Gal. 2'1 iva r//L,as Kara8ovXLSa·ovoLV. i Pet. 31 7va . . . Kep8qB~awrw. Rev. 39, 64, 83, 92°, 141$, 2224 iva ELrrat . . . Kai . . . eiaeXOWa-LV. The last instance shows that even in the debased Greek of this book the subjunctive still claimed its rights on occasions. d. There are two apparent instances in St. Paul's writings of Ltva with a present indicative - i Cor. 46 ivaUii . . . L,vato"vaoe. Gal. 117 iva avrovs Zr/XoZ're. With regard to these Winer came to the conclusion that L Iva with the indicative present is to be regarded as an impropriety of later



Greek.' Perhaps however in these cases it is the accidence, not the syntax, that is astray, ounoua0e and g,1Xo"v7e being meant for the subjunctive. Winer closes his discussion of the subject by saying, I It is worthy of remark, however the case may be, that in both instances the verb ends in ow.' Here the true explanation seems to lie. The hypothesis of an irregular contraction is not in itself a violent one, and it is confirmed by a passage of the LXX-

Ex. 111 oTav pAuouQBe rds `E#paias Kai W'viv apds Tai T&Krecv.

107. Ellipse before %TL. By the suppression of an imperative of a verb of knowing oTL acquires the sense of I know that.'

Ex. 31' k.E'Ywy °Orc EQopm M,eTd o-o"v. Jdg. 15' Jaev . . . Y ap,Ouiv . . . o Ti ei p,~v EK&Krjaw Iv vp;'iv. iii K. 192 eivev . . . on Tav T-Ilv r-qv wpav KTX.

This usage originates in the Hebrew, but has a parallel in Greek in the similar ellipse before ws, which is common in Euripides, e.g. Med. 609: Ale. 1094: Phoen. 720, 1664: Ion 935,1404: Rel.126, 831: Rec. 346, 400. Cp. Soph. Aj. 39.

108. AW 4. a. The combination of particles &V j occurs in Swete's text 114 times at least. In most of these passages oV j is simply a strengthened form of &XXd. If it differs at all from it, it is in the same way as I but only' in English differs from the simple I but.' In the remainder of the 114 passages aAV j has the same force as the English I but' in the sense of I except' after a negative expressed or implied. It is thus an equivalent for the classical ell p,'. Buteven this latter meaning can be borne by the simple ", if we may trust the reading of -

Gen. 2128 ovBE Ely' (1) jKOVO-a aUd oT/p,epov.

b. The idea has been entertained that oaX j is not for DAM' ~, as the accentuation assumes, but for aXo j. This view would suit very well with such passages as Gen. 281', 4718: Dt. 1012: ii K. 123: Sir. 221', where it happens that a neuter singular precedes, but it seems to have nothing else to recommend it.

Where &XX' j follows allos or erepos, as in iv K. 51': Dan. 315, O 2'1: i Mac. 1011, the oJkaa would be superfluous in classical Greek, so that in these cases it might be thought that the j was strengthened by the Wa, and not vice versa: but if we accept the use in Gen. 2121, it follows that even here it is the aW which is strengthened.

c. In contrast with the abundance of instances in the O.T. and in


Hellenistic Greek generally, e.g. in Aristotle, it is strange how rare this combination is in the N.T. In the Revisers' text it occurs only twice- Lk. 1251 oUXi, XEyw vpiv, &V ' S ca'.cepco-'.coV. ii Cor. 113 ov yap a.Gla, ypa,S5op,ev vpiv, a,W i7 a avaycVWQKvre.

109. Yrrc &XV ,j. This combination of particles occurs in the following passages of the LXX - Jdg. 1513: i K. 230, 214, 218, 301', 3021 ii K. 13"', 212 : iii K. 1818: iv K. 42, 515,1021,141,17"5, ", 23-3 : ii Chr. 28.

An examination of these instances will show that they all fall under the same two heads as v,U' j. In the bulk of them 057L DX i is simply a strongly adversative particle (= but); in the remainder it is like our I but' = I except' after a negative expressed or implied. The reader will observe that the range of literature, within which this combination of particles is found, is very limited, being almost confined to the four books of Kingdoms. It looks therefore as if we had here a mere device of translation, not any recognised usage of later Greek. In all but the first two instances the underlying Hebrew is the same, consisting of two particles; in the first two there is only the particle corresponding 'to orc, and these passages seem really to fall under § 107.

There is one place in which we find this combination of particles still more complicated by the use of Scorc in place of orc.

iii K. 2218 OZK evra apos QE O$ apocpqreuec ovros pot uaaa, 8torc &XV 77 KaKa ; 110. dTL Et pi. This combination occurs in the following passages- ii K.. 2" Z p" Kvpcos, ort el p.' a 07& Tore o ~1nOS. iii K. 171 Z;j Mpcos . . . ELI C'arac . . . V ETOS o°rc CL IAi~ Sad o-rouaTOS aoyov JAov. 1v K. 314 Zj Mpcos . . . .orc d UV I 7 0' '1waa0'0 . . . Zy' XalAflayw, el (A) 4'7rE'flXeq/a 7rp' rp ffwrov a W 09 D'E.

In the first of the above passages ° unless,' in the second I except,' in the third I only that' seem to give the exact shade of meaning. In all of them the ort might be dispensed with, and owes its presence to the Hebrew.

111. W' j fin. There are four passages in which this combination occurs -

Nb. 13'9 &XV i' on Opaav -ro E0vos. i K. 1018 Oz,', &XV 7.7 orc R-CXEa a'r~o-ets e'o' j/.cwv, 1212 OUXL, aW I / or' flaQCXevs flaocXevaa E(P' ~p.wv. ii K. 1928 oTC o$K 'v a&s o 07LKOS 7ov aarpos pov v.X.~' r~'J GTC avspes eavarov.


No one meaning suits all the above passages. In the first of them the Hebrew which corresponds to a)lla ) h[ o3ti is rendered in the R.V. 'howbeit.' In the next two &W i~ on might just as well have been 571, &.W i7 (= Lat. sed), as in Jdg. 15$ ( 109). In the fourth also o7t A' i might have been used in the sense of I but' in noth ing but,' etc., as in i K. 218, 301' 3011: iv K. 41, 511: ii Chr. 21.

112. xywv, etc., for the Hebrew Gerund. a. A special cause of irregularity in LXX Greek is the treatment of the Hebrew gerund of the verb I to say' (= Lat. dicendo), which is constantly used to introduce speeches. As the Greek language has no gerund, this is rendered in the LXX by a participle. But the form being fixed in the Hebrew, the tendency is to keep it so in the Greek also. Hence it is quite the exception to find the participle agreeing with its subject, as ini K. 192 danjyyaXEv . . . XEywv, 1911 d7r~yyECkE . . . Aeyovaa.

b. If the subject is neuter or feminine, the participle may still be masculine -

Gen. 151: i K. 151 Eyevi'0,1 Ail= Kvpiov . . . X WV. iv K. 183, oTi dvToai To" v faatkews aeywv. Also, if the sentence is impersonal iii K. 209 EyeyparTo . . Vywv. ii Chr. 2112 '.Wev . . . Ev ypa~;~ . . . Aeywv. Jonah 3' EppEB,l . . . V ywv. c. But the participle may even refer to another subject, asiv K. 199 jKOVO'EV . . . Xe'ywv = he heard say. d. It is rare for the Greek to fare so well as in - Dt. 1312 Edv & AKOU"' . . . XeyovTwv.

And here the genitive is probably not governed by aKOVEtv, but used absolutely. Cp. -

i K. 241 arVyysX1 airTui Xeyovrwv.

e. A very common case is to have the verb in the passive, either impersonally or personally, and the participle in the nominative plural masculine, thus -

arriyyE,iv . . . V-/0V7cs Gen. 382', 481: Josh. 22, 101': i K. 14-11, 1511, 1919, 231. avr~yy~7lT~ . . . XVyOVTEs Jdg. 161: Gen. 221. &,O4Bri i cpwvi~ . . . h iyovres Gen. 4518. avXoyVNa-eTai 'IvpajX Xsyovres Gen. 482.


An adjacent case is-

Ezk. 12:22 Ti/j h( rarabolh u(mi=n ... le/gontej;

f. When the verb is active and finite, the construction presents itself as good Greek, as in-

iii K. 12:10 e)la/lhsan ... le/gontej,

but this is little better than an accident, for what immediately follows is -

Ta/de lalh/seij tw|= law|= tou/tw| tou=j lalh/sasi proj se le/gontej ktl.

In Dt.18:18 we have even h|)th/sw ... le/gontej.

g. Where the principal verb is not one of saying, the divorce between it and the participle is complete, both in sense and grammar

Ex. 5:14 e)mastigw/qhsan ... le/gontej, 5:19 e(w/rwn ... le/gontej, where the 'being beaten' and the 'seeing' are predicated of one set of persons and the 'saying' of another. Cp. the complex case in i Mac. 13:17, 18.

h. In the N.T. this Hebraism occurs only once-

Rev. 11: 13 fwnai ... le/gontej.

113. Idiomatic Use of prostiqe/nai. a. Another very common Hebraisrn is the use of prostiqe/nai with the infinitive of another verb in the sense of doing a thing more or again, e.g. -

Gen. 37:8 prose/qento e)/ti misei=n = they hated still more. Cp. Gen. 42:12, 8:21, 44:23. Ex. 8:29 mh prosqh|=j e)/ti ... e)capath=sai. Cp. Ex. 9:28, 10:28, 14:13. Nb. 22:15, 19, 25: Dt. 3:26, 5:25: Josh. 7:12 : Jdg. 8:28, 10:6, 13:1, 21: i Mac. 91.

b. Sometimes tou= precedes the infinitive, as-

Ex. 9:54 prose/qeto tou= a(marta/nein. Josh. 23:13 ou) mh prosqh|= Ku/rioj tou= e)coleqreu=sai. Jdg. 2:21 ou) prosqh/sw tou= e)ca=rai. Cp. Jdg. 9:37, 10:23,

c. The same construction may be used impersonally in the passive-

Ex. 5:7 ou)ke/ti prosteqh/setai dido/nai a)/xuron tw|= law|=.

d. Sometimes the dependent verb is dropped after the middle or passive -

Nb. 22:26 kai prose/qeto o( a(/ggeloj tou= qeou= kai a)ralqw u(pe/sth. Cp. iv K. 1:11. Ex. 11:6 h(/tij toiau/th ou) ge/gonen kai toiau/th ou)keti prosteqh/setai.





THE Story of Joseph, whatever else it may be, is one of the best novels ever written. The interest inspired by the youthful hero, the play of human passion, the variety of incident, the simplicity of the language, all combine to confer upon it a peculiar charm. We may gauge the dramatic effectiveness of a tale with which use has rendered us familiar, by comparing it with the plot of one of the plays of Terence or Plautus, which represent to us those of Menander and his fellow-writers. Few will contest the superior power of the tale of Joseph from the point of view of the requirements of fiction. We have first the pathetic affection of the widowed father for the son of his favourite wife, and the consequent jealousy of the elder brothers, goaded to fury by the boy's naive recital of the dreams which foreshadow his future greatness. Then we have the brothers unwittingly bringing about the exaltation of the object of their envy by their own wicked act; the vain attempt of one better than the rest to save him; the youth's fidelity to his master in rejecting the advances of his mistress; the false charge and undeserved imprisonment; the diverse fates of the chief butler and the chief baker; the release of the hero through the accident of Pharaoh's dream; his successful interpretation of it and sudden rise to fortune. The dray matic interest culminates in Joseph's brethren being led by the most elementary of human needs to prostrate themselves before the dispenser of corn in Egypt, and thus fulfil the dreams which had so enraged them. Joseph recognises them, though they do not recognise him, and he takes upon them no ungenerous revenge before the full recognition' (a)nagnw/risij) is allowed to come about. Then he sends for his aged father, whose heart had been sore tried by the steps which Joseph had taken to punish his brothers, but who is now comforted and utters the pathetic words 'It is enough; Joseph my son is yet alive: I will go and see him before I die.' This seemed to be the most fitting conclusion to the narrative, when



being treated, as it is treated here, solely from the point of view of dramatic effect. For at this point the valedictory formula of old-world story may well come in-'And so they lived happily ever afterwards.'

The rest of the narrative rather represents Joseph as an eminent Hebrew statesman with all the financial capacity of his race. If w e were dealing with the tale as history, it might be worth while to point out that the fiscal policy of Joseph, however satisfactory to the Pharaohs, could hardly have been equally so to their subjects, and that the heavy impost of twenty per cent on agricultural produce, which has been, it is said, the land-tax of Egypt down to within quite recent times, may well have had something to do with the unpopularity of the Jews in Egypt.

In the dream-interpretation there is just that touch of the supernatural which is still thought not inappropriate to a good novel. But in the treatment of the tender passion this Hebrew romance stands in marked contrast with a good deal of modern fiction. There is not the slightest attempt made to render the would-be adulteress interesting or to dally with unlawful passion. Joseph knows that the proposal which she makes to him in such direct language involves ingratitude to his master and sin against God, and on those grounds refuses to comply. ° How can I do this great wickedness and sin against God?' These words contain the secret of the high standard of morality in sexual matters, to which the Jews attained. Chastity with them was a question not merely of duty towards one's neighbour, but still more of duty towards God. In this way all the awful sanctities of the unseen world were called in to the aid in the struggle against passion.

Among the Greek moralists the tendency was to regard love as a disease from which the sage would not suffer. In the early Greek drama the delineation of this feeling was thought to be below the dignity of tragedy, and Euripides was regarded by the older school as having degraded the stage by depicting the passion of Phadra for Hippolytus. This story naturally occurs to one's mind as a classical analogue to the story of Joseph. But it would be injustice to Phaedra to put her on the same level as the wife of Potiphar. She has indeed all the vindictive injustice of the Egyptian matron, and is more successful in wreaking vengeance on her victim, yet she


is not the willing slave of passion, and shame in her heart struggles successfully against unlawful love, at least as the story is told by Euripides.

A closer parallel in Greek mythology is afforded by the legend of Antaea and Bellerophontes, which forms part of the episode of Glaucus and Diomede in the sixth book of the Iliad (119-236). There the unfaithful wife of Proetus, king of Argos, foiled of her purpose by the virtuous youth, appeals to her husband to slay him for having made dishonourable proposals to her; but the youth escapes all dangers and comes to honour, like Joseph, though, such is the waywardness of human fate, of which the Greek mind was acutely conscious, he dies at last of melancholy madness-

0' OvlAov KaTE'Swv, 7ra'Tov a'vOpL7rwv &XEctvwv. V

The Egyptian tale of Anpu and Bata opens with a situation resembling that of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. Bata is a peasant-lad devoted to his elder brother Anpu, who is to him as a father. The youth grows to be so excellent a worker that ° there was not his equal in the whole land; behold, the spirit of a god was in him.' One day, when he was alone with his brother's wife, I her heart knew him with the knowledge of youth. And she arose and came to him, and conversed with him, saying, « Come, stay with me, and it shall be well for thee, and I will make for thee beautiful garments." Then the youth became like a panther of the south with fury at the evil speech which she had made to him; and she feared greatly.' To save herself she plays the same part as Antoea, as Phaedra, and as Potiphar's wife. If all the story had the beautiful simplicity of the opening, it might bear away the palm both from Greek and Hebrew fiction: but, unfortunately, it soon degenerates into a tissue of meaningless marvels. The papyrus which contains the tale is said to be of the XIXth Dynasty and to have been the property of Sety II when crown prince; but Professor Flinders Petrie thinks that the earlier part of the tale may belong to the XVIIIth Dynasty, which would bring it back close to the time when Joseph is supposed to have lived. This is a curious coincidence, but there is no reason to think it anything more.

In view of the literary merit of the story of Joseph it seems a pity that criticism should lay its cold touch upon it. To do so is

I ~ J I: i'y~', !. I,p! . i f s~ I,,

~ ai.~,

i.' 'I ei ,3 :,,

I; Lt~. ..



like treating a beautiful body as a subject for dissection rather than as a model for the painter. But the science of anatomy has its claims upon us as well as the art of painting. Artistic effect is one thing and historic fact another. To the latter domain belongs the question how the story, as we have it, came into being. Was it written as one or put together from different sources.? Taking the story as one and indivisible, there are certain difficulties which must not be ignored.

(1) As Reuben in 370 has already persuaded his brothers not to shed the blood of Joseph, why does Judah in v. 26 say -I What profit is it if we slay our brother and conceal his blood?'

(2) In v. 25 we are told °a travelling company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead.' In v. 28 we have the parallel statement I And there passed by Midianites, merchantmen,' belt in the same verse we are given to understand that his brethren I sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites.' Now Midianites were not Ishmaelites any more than Irishmen are Welshmen or the Dutch Germans. Both were Abrahamic peoples, but Ishmael was the son of Abraham by Hagar (Gen. 25'~ and Midian by Keturah (Gen. 25~.

(3) Why does Reuben in v. 29 expect to find Joseph in the pit, when he had just been taken up and sold to the Ishmaelites ?

Now let us appeal to the critics to see whether they help us at all out of our difficulties. On a great variety of grounds they have arrived at the general conclusion that the Hexateuch (i.e. the five books of Moses and that of Joshua) was put together from the following pre-existing materials -

(1) A primitive historical work, in which the sacred name, of which the consonants are JHVH, is habitually employed, and which is believed to have emanated from the Kingdom of Judah. This is commonly called J, and its author is known as the Jahvist (=Jehovist).

(2) Another very similar work, in which the Hebrew word for God (Elohim) is usually employed in place of the sacred name, and which is ascribed to the Kingdom of Israel. This is denoted by the

symbol E, and its author is known as the Elohist. ~) The bulk of Deuteronomy, which is designated as D. (4) A later priestly document known as Y. The hand of the editor is to be detected here and there, rec~


tiling his materials, when they are discrepant, after the manner of a Gospel-harmonizer.

In telling the story of Joseph we are to suppose that the editor had before him J and E, containing the same tradition in slightly different forms.

In J it is Judah who intervenes to save Joseph. He persuades his brothers not to kill the lad, but to sell him to some Ishmaelites, who are passing by. In this version of the story there is no mention of a pit. It is drawn upon by the editor in 3721'2'~ 21"~ slue.

And they sat down . . . hearkened unto him, and sold Joseph to the Ishnlaelites for twenty pieces of silver.

And they took . . . wept for him.'

The words in 45', 11 am Joseph your brother whom ye sold into Egypt,' are a reference to this account of the matter.

In E it is Reuben, the first-born, and so a fit representative of the Northern Kingdom, who plays the better part. He persuades his brothers not to kill the lad, but to put him alive into a, pit, his intention being to come and take him out again. When he and his brothers however have left the place, some Midianites come by and kidnap Joseph. Reuben, returning to the pit, finds Joseph gone, a fact of which he informs his brothers. This form of the legend is drawn upon in 371-~ ~~ %`~ 36.

And Reuben . . . water in it. And there passed by Midianites, merchantmen; and they drew, and lifted up Joseph out of . the pit. And they brought Joseph into Egypt . . . whither shall I go ? And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, the captain of the guard.' 1

The words in 40'5, for indeed I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews,' refer to this account of the matter.

With regard to Potiphar it must be admitted that there is some confusion in the narrative as we have it. For. we are told in 37,~ that x the Midianites sold Joseph to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, the captain of the guard.' Potiphar then is Joseph's master, as we are told again in 391. Now Joseph's master I put him into the prison, the place where the king's prisoners were bound' (391), where Joseph found favour with the 9 keeper of the prison.' But I the keeper of the

1 See Driver Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament 7th edit. p. 17.



prison' was presumably Potiphar himself, for the prison was 4 in the house of the captain of the guard' (403), and 'the captain of the guard' was Potiphar? How are we to get out of this circle ? Let us again have recourse to the hypothesis of a mixture of documents.

The E versicn of the story goes on to tell that the Midianites, having taken Joseph out of the pit, brought him to Egypt and there sold him to Potiphar (37n, who was a eunuch and captain of the guard, and himself the keeper of the prison, but naturally not a married man. Joseph, being found faithful by him, is given charge over the prisoners, not being himself a prisoner, but I servant to the captain of the guard' (41'2).

In the J version on the other hand Joseph is sold by the Ishmaelites to pan Egyptian,' whose name is not mentioned; for the theory requires us to suppose that the words in 391-1 Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, the captain of the guard'- are inserted there from 3M This Egyptian' (391'='5) has a wife, who brings a false charge against Joseph, whereupon his master consigns him to the king's prisons (391w). If this hypothesis be accepted, we must give up I Potiphar's wife' as a person who has no just claim to existence even in fiction: for it is only by the amalgamation of I the Egyptian' with Yotiphar that she comes into being. If this should appear a loss, it may on the other hand be deemed a gain not to have to regard the lady's husband as a eunuch, which seems to be the real meaning of the word 4 officer' (373x, 39').

Chapter 40 is supposed to belong as a whole to E : but, if so, it must have been adjusted in places to the story of the false charge, which has been incorporated from J. We see this in vv. 3, 7, 15. In chapter 41 again, which is referred as a whole to the same source, we have to suppose the words in v. 14, 1 and they brought him hastily out of the dungeon,' to come from the reconciling hand of the editor.

Further on in the story there are duplications and inconsistencies which, it may be claimed, find their easiest explanation in the hypothesis of I contamination,' to borrow the term applied to a Latin play made up from different Greek originals. Thus in 42n~28 it is at the lodging-place on the way home that one of the brothers finds his money in his sack, whereas in v. 36 of the same chapter they all find their money in their sacks after their return to their father. Again in chapter 42 the brothers, when taxed by Joseph with being



spies, volunteer the information that they have a younger brother living (v. 13), and so report the matter to their father (v. 32); whereas in the following chapters Judah assures his father that this information was imparted only in reply to a question from Joseph (43'), and so recounts the matter to Joseph himself (44'9· 2'). Further, in 423' Reuben goes surety to his father for the safe return of Benjamin, whereas in 439 it is Judah who does this.

The story of Joseph is as good -an illustration as could be chosen of the service rendered by modern criticism to the intelligent study of the Bible. If we take the narrative as it stands, it perplexes us with contradictions, and we have to suppose that the writer could not tell a story properly: but on the hypothesis that he had before him two documents, resembling each other in the main, but differing in details, we can understand how reverence for his authorities would lead him into inconsistencies which he would not have committed in a story invented by himself. Without then pledging ourselves to particular hypotheses we may surely say after Plato' The troth in these matters God knows: but that what the Higher Critics say is like the truth-this we would venture to affirm.'

i~ .i

';''' I:

~. ,~ i~,

~~, ialf i l i' r !e a ~~ E .,, r r;. ~,.lu i ;I i ~~'! i .: er;


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH Genesis XXXV11 1KaTl~KE6 CSE 'IaKiuR CV TV yj oZ 7rapuiK-qa~EV o =T47p avrov, Ev y^ Xavaav. 2avrai 8E all yEVEO'EtS 'IaKCri,(3. 'IIdQ'q0 OEKa E7TTOt ETIY jP 9ro6~l,aivmv 1A,ETQ. T(UV a.8EAOwY abTOV TOG Iff pOaara, 46 vEOS, 1tETdf, Tldv V6lDV BaAas Ka% I..tETa TIdY V1C~IY ZEAOaS Tldv yUV01.GKfiOY TOV?faTpOS aVTOV' Kd.T'Y~-

1. H.aT4KEV . . . arap4K'q?EY : K 4T0GKEIV here signifies a more permanent residence than 7rapoMiv. Jacob dwelt where Abraham only sojourned. Abraham was a pure nomad, whereas Jacob combined agriculture (v. 7) with pasture (v.12). In classical Greek ,rapoLrceiv means I to dwell near.' For the sense of dwelling as a stranger in' cp. Lk. 2418 %J ja6vos vapoweis 'IepovvaXhp; From meaning a settlement of Jews in a foreign country (Sirach, Prologue) aapotKla in the mouths of the Christians came to be used for an ecclesiastical district or diocese, as the ,rapolKla of Alexandria, Ephesus, etc. Through the Latin form parcecia it is the origin of the French word paroisse and of our parish.

2. avraI, . . . 'IaK(as : part of the framework of P (see Introd. to the Story of Joseph). The preceding chapter dealt with the descendants of Esau. Here the writer turns to Jacob, but the detailed list of his descendants does not come till ch. 40. - UK% _,rrG,

similar forms of numeral occur in Latin in good writers, as Caesar B. G. 18 § 1 decem novem: Livy XXVIII38 § 6


decem quatuor. §14.-,jvaovp,aivwv : the analytic form of the imperfect - _,rotpawE. Op. Ex. 31. Such forms occur in all stages of the language, e.g. Soph. 73·ach. 22 3w BaKiuv : Plato POW. 273 B. They are especially common in the N.T. § 72. The Hebrew idiom in this passage coincides with the Greek, so that this is an instance of a usage already current in Greek, which was intensified by its adaptation to the Hebrew. -oiv v_os : while yet a lad, Spurrell. Had the translators here used srais, it would have reflected better the ambiguity of the original, which may mean that Joseph was serving as a shepherd-lad with his brethren. - Bdkaas : of Bilhah. For the form of the genitive see § 3. The sons of Bilhah were Dan and Naphtali ; Gen.482$-25.-Z&~as: of2ilpah. The sons of Zilpah were Gad and Asher; Gen. 4618-1g. Only the sons of Jacob's concubines are here mentioned, but afterwards Reuben and Judah are named, who were sons of Leah. Perhaps the actual work of tending the flock was done by the sons of the concubines, who would be in an inferior


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 109 Genesis %%%VII 7 veyKav 8E 'Iwmq'o *oyov 7rovqpov 7rpos 'I(rpaq'X Tov araTEpa 3, , , . , , , avr~Ov. IaKw9 Se ~yaaa Tov Iwoq o 7rapa TravTas robg . , . vvovs avTOV, arvios yjpovs 77v avT(O' eroaIJae, ~e avre) xtrwva aocXov. 4vo.vres 8e. of~ a8eov avTOV aorc aro. v e^ 3 E'O'XEt 6 7ra 'p a' Elna-q(rav L T1q V70V EK vamav T(A)v vlaw aVTOV, , . , , . , , . airrov, real ovK e8vvavTO ~.aAeiv avTCO ov8ev etp71utrcov. . , , , , , , , 5 Evv7rvaaCBevs 8e IwO'o evu7ruov aaqyyetXev avTO rois aMOois avrov, brcai JUMP avTOis ` 'Arcov(raTe Tov Emrviov TovTOV OV Evvavaa0-91qv. 7y-qv vhtcZs BeaM.evew BpdyM,aTa EV /Leo w T~ are8iy Kai avE(Trq ro" El.tov 8pay1,ta Kai LpO&Al · 7repaTTpa0EVTa 8E ra' 8paypaTa vpivv arpoo-e1cvv~a-av ro"

position to those of the legitimate wives. Joseph was the son of Rachel, but he may have been called upon to ° bear the yoke in his Youth.'- Ka-rfjveyeav 8E KTX.: and they brought against Joseph an evil report to Israel their father. Here the sense of the LXX differs from that of the Hebrew, and saves us from regarding Joseph as a tell-tale.

3. wapd rdwras: more than all. Cp. Dt. 76,7. The Hebrew is more exactly represented by lK srdwrwv in v. 4. srapci first signifies comparison and then superiority. Xen. Mena. 14 § 14 rap& Ti aXXa twa (as compared with the lower animals) Crorep Beot NvBpwaoa /3coTeGovct. In Biblical Greek it is constantly employed after a comparative adjective. We may see this use beginning in classical writers, e.g. Hdt. VII 103,rapdT~v e`aurw 0donv cipelvoves. § 9g.-yJpovs: for the form see § 8. - XtTWVa 'ROLKMOY

xerwv here represents the Hebrew word lcetho"neth, with which it is perhaps connected. The language spoken by the Phoenicians was almost the same as Hebrew, and the Greeks may have

borrowed this word from Phoenician traders. The same Hebrew phrase which is used here of Joseph's coat is applied in ii S. 1318 to the garment worn by Tamar to denote her rank as a princess. The LXX rendering however is there (ii K. 131$) xvrcuv rcapsrwrbs = a garment with sleeves.

4. _K ,rd,uTwv: out of and so above all. iK ab,vrwv = rap& rdyras in v. 3, being a different rendering of the same original. The Hebrew language has no special .forms for comparative and superlative.

5. 4vvVwacAeLs . . . _v6arvwv: § 56. The active verb ivu,rvutrw has here become a deponent passive. Cp. 416, Nb. 2324 yavpcwBJcerac.

8. ov 4vv"L6c9riv: the attraction of the relative into the case of the antecedent is the prevailing idiom in Biblical as in classical Greek. Cp. Gen. 398: Ex. 3a°, be : Dt. 810: i Cor. gig.

7. 8p6yWa : literally a handful = manipulus. For the meaning ° sheaf' cp. Ruth 27 and Jos. Ant. II 2 § 2 in this context. -apoovKfrvricav: literally


110 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %%%v11 8 E1A,OV 8payj.ta." a Ei7rav &' airrco of a&Xooi " 1VI' ,(3awEUCev ~ a c ~, . . c 7f RaoiXEVo-as go' r~ Kvptevcw Kvpveu(rEas 711(w ; K ai 9TpOQEBEtrTO ETG jl6QEbv aLTOV ELEKEV T(dv EVV7TYbldv aVTOv KaL EVEKEV TCJV p'q1A.06TCw aLTOV. 9 LOEV OE Ev17TfY60V ETEpOY, KI & 9 11 N 5 ~ ^ 8 EXooZs a~- a& -qy-qa-aTo aVTO T(d 7TaTpL avToV Kat TOV; C TO;, Kal drev " 1 8ov' 4vv7rv&a'a0,qv &V'7TPLOV Erepov · ceT7rEp o a . c r . a ~ r r f~ 'q4os Ka6 'Y~ QEX'Yw'Y~ Kab Eh&Ka ao-TEPES ?l'pOO-EKUYOUV /.LE. '0 v 3 r s ^ c v a v ETEY c Tv fKab EfETql'gQEV avTW O 7TaT'qp avrOV Kat TO Evvr - 7IVOV TOUTO O EVV7TYGOlU'B1~s ; spa YE A80vTES EXEVUO1.tEBa EyCU TE KaL 'I~ /t'Y1T'Y) p O'OV KaV 06 Q.&XoOV QOV 71p00'KLV'l7oaL am E?TI. ~ " 1' I E ?Ta- TI1Y y~Y kq', &)(Tap & aLO06 a&XoOl aUTOV' O OTip avrov &ET J~o-EV TOv pipa. gEaopEVBJo-av $Ev of abX- rp0oi avrov 860-KE&V Ta apo,(3aTa TOD aarpos avTivv Eis %vXEM.. '3 I~iX rpos 'Ioo-rj~ " O vx of a8EAooi crov Iroc- Kai EirEV paq r a r s r , a r 7f T N,awovavv Ev %vxEp,; 8EVpo aTroaTEaace ~rE apos avrovs. Ei7rEv

kissed (? the ground) before. The Greek word for the Oriental prostration. In classical writers it governs an accusative, as here and in v.9 and in Jos. Ant. II 2 § 2 : but in the N.T. (Mt. 22~ 11: Jn: 428) we find it with a dative, as in v. 10. In Aristeas (§§ 135, 137) both constructions are employed. In their version of the LXX the ancient Armenians regularly render srpovavvEiv as above.

8. Pa,cJvefiwv PaaLksfro-ECS: § 81.- wpoov6EVTO Vrv p,wEtv : literally they added yet to hate = ° they hated still more,' a Hebraism very common in the LXX. Josephus has here (Ant. II 2 § 2) kaW rpas auTJv gTi paXXov c£aE7tBios I,Z'OVTEf aIETAOUV. § 113.

9. C&v : § 19. - o 'qXLOS KaL sj o·Ekilvl : Josephus (Ant. 112 § 3 ) explains that the moon stood for the mother, owing to the power of the moon in

nourishing all things and making them grow, and the sun for the father, because that imparted to things their shape and strength. fvSEKa 6cTIpes : Josephus (Ant. II 2 § 3) says robs S' ha-Tipas ro?s d.EEX¢ois

(Elrck.~mv), Kal ydp TodTOUS 9vEEKa Elvac

KaBdw·Ep Kat Tots daTipas. But on what system were the stars reckoned as eleven ?

10. &66vTss WVO-dwEAa : § 81. - arpoo·KVVi~caL o-of : 7 n. 7fp0?EKUYjQaV.

11.0 8E araTilp KT71. : Lk. 218 bl are evidently modelled on this verse. Cp. also Dan. Of 425 Tots Tbyovs. 6 Tp Kap-

El¢ vuvEThP7,aE.

12. its 2uX1w : at Shech.eyn, to be taken with SGQKECV, not with iuopevBjcav. § 90. Josephus (Ant. II 2 § 4) represents the brethren as removing to Shechem after the harvest without their father's knowledge.


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 111 Genesis XXXV11 22 ~E a$rW "218 OV Eyai." 14El EY 8E avr~ 'Io-pa~jX " I IopeveEis ME 7 r r c s~ r r a r 6vE E6 UyCGttvOVQ6V 06 a~E~06 QOU Kab Ta TfpO~aTa~ Ka6 aYay- r 77 a r a 7 ~ r n yetAov p,ot. Kal a~rEO-TE~EV avrov EK T~/s Kova8os T'r1s XE,(3pcLiv· Kal?jXBEV Eis XvxE~,c. 18Kai Evpev airrov av9puuros alavEVOV CV Ti aEs~' jpW'T/aEV SE a$TOV o avepmros ~M, XEycLm "Ti ~-qTEas ;" 160 8E E larEV "Toys aSEX0ovs pi.ov Cr/Tm' arayyEvov M,oa 7rov 805(TKOMM." 17EiVEV ~E amp o av- ~pcerros"'Ar ~jpKaavv EvTEVBEV· ~KOVO-a yap avr(^I)v AEyovrcov `IopevBmMEV Ets Oc0BaEtp.7 7Kaa E1ropevrB-q fIooo Karoai- 0-eEV Tcw a2EXOcav avTOV, Kal Evpev a$TOVs Eis OW9dEiM,. r a , . , a , a , 18apoc8ov 8E avTOV j,carcpoBEV 7rpo TOD Eyyao-a& avrov vpos aUTOVS' Kal E7TOpEVOVTO 01.7TOKTE6Vdf,t a'UTOV. 19 EIR.7TaY OE EKaQTOS ac a ~p ~ c a 7 y ?TpOs TOY a~E~I~OV aLTOV IOOU O EY1l7fL6a~T'I)s EKELP09 EpXE?at' r a 1 20 vv. v ovOLTE a7 aOKTwveMEV avTOV, Kay Ayr opEV ava TO V Eis Eva Tcw XaKKCOV, Kal Epoyu,EV ` O npiov aOVr/pov KaTE~ayev bTo r , 7 , a r r v 7 . a 77 21 a av Kay o>~rOM.EBa Ti E~Tw Ta Evvavta avrov. arcov~as '. 7 . 7 . a a T ~E Pov~rw E~EWaTO avTOV EK Tcw xEtpmv avTCw~ Kal EiaEv " o b aaTaeopEV avTOV Eis *uX7jv." ~ETUrEV U a$TOis `Pov,8~v 14. KoLkd8os : KoAds is very com mon in the LXX for vale, e.g. Gen.

148 ev rj KoAd,EL rp" dXuKj7, which in v. 3 of the same is called r7yv odpayya T~v d)wK~v. The word occurs in the sense of I a hollow' in some verses ascribed to Plato (Anth. P. vi. 4S).

17. bafjpKacw : they have departed.

This intransitive use of dsralpELV, which is common in the best authors, originated in an ellipse of vav"s (acc. pl.) or crpaT6v. The word is an apt equivalent for the Hebrew, which means literally ° tear up,' and refers to the pulling up of the tent-pegs previous to resuming a march. Cp. Zi;$pev Ex. 1419. - K 0.T(tsrLC9EV TLUV &8A0L3v : this use of KaTbsrLOBE with genitive in the sense of ELErd,

with accusative is unclassical. § 97. Els Aa76&ELp, : at Dothan. Cp. 4282. § 90.

18. ap6L>iov : § 19. - _ropEdowro they went about.

20. MKKODV : A L~IKKO! L a pit' is connected with Latin lacua and lacuna. It is used in Xen. Anab. IV 2 § 22 for large tanks in which wine was kept Kat -yap OIYOS 7fOAbS Iv, Wore 4Y AQKKOLf KovLaTOis (plastered) EiXov. The MKK04 in this instance was a dry reservoir. See v. 24. The word is used in 4076 of the dungeon into which Joseph was cast. Cp. also Ex. 1229: iv K. 1831.

21. 'Povsfjv : J osephus calls him 'Pod/S,qXos.-Eis 4ruXfjv: so as to slay him. A Hebraism.


112 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %%%v11 23 ~~ M,q EKxE~qTE alfld.a' qA.RdWETE SE aUTOY Ebs EYa TCUY llaKKwv a 'P . v y ~ . ~ n _ a a . TIUV EY T~ Er/~.t,c~, xEipa ~E jkr~ E7fEVE'YK77TE aUTld' O?TwS E~E- x'Yrab aUTOY EK TwL xELpwV aUTwh Kal Q,7TOOCJ aUTOY T(U ?faTpf, s 2g ~ . v c . 9 'v v v ~ v avTOV. E'yEYETO ISLE '1w6Ka'ABEL 'ho TlpOs TOUS a~EA~ovs > > . avTOV, EeEBvcrav Tov Iw~-q0 Tov xaTi~va Tov 7rovK&Xov Tov TrEpt . avTOV, Kai AaRovTEs avTOV E*ppt*av Et; Tov XaKKOV · 0 8E XaKKOS EKEivos vswp OUK E1t'X4EV. 25EKaiBWaY OE oayeiv aprov' Kai. avaa~.E0avTES Tois o~8aX~e.ois i8ov, Kai i8ov o8otrropot 'I0-M,aqJIEiTav q'pXovro EK raXaa8, Kal of KaM,7)koc avT,~)v Eyquov 9v~uvajiarwv Kai pvTiv1qs Kal (TTaKT?js · E7ro- petiovro 8E KaTayayeiv Eis AiyvrrTOV. 2gEiaEV 8E 'Iov8as v v ., w 2 . 7rpos Tovs aBEX0ouS avTOV « TL xpr~(ryov Eav aTroKTEavwje,Ev T 6 2186TC OP &8EX00'P j/A~OV Kal KP14(,JIAEV ro' atpa abTO~ Q,7TAJIAEea aVTOY T063 'Io7A.a7j)16Ta6S TOUTO6S' at' OE XE6pES 71 EoTwoav E~rrs a os r/1A~v Kal av


iwiv Iuv * vro.v, oaTt aBXov e 0, c ~ . » a· . c ~, , 28 ?~A.wY EQT6Y. 'I~KOVO'av ~E 06 a~E)1.(~06 atYTOV. Kal7TapE-

22. bran 4j1%tjTav abTbv: so that he may deliver him. The primary sequence after an historic tense was sometimes used in classical Greek to present the intention of the speaker with greater vividness. In Biblical Greek it supplants the optative altogether. § 76. Josephus (Ant. II 3 § 2) represents Reuben as lowering Joseph by a rope into the pit, and then going off in search of pasture.

25. ~a,yeW aprov: § 77.-'Io·WaqkefTai : Josephus (Ant. II 3 § 3)

'Apai9as Tov""'Ia·lAai7XcTiuv y9vovr. He has

no mention of Midianites.-1yep,ov: yepECV, which is properly used of a ship, is here transferred to c the ship of the desert.' -yTtvris: Acrfv,1, commonly spelt jc?jTlvT, Latin resins = the resin of the terebinth or the pine. Theoph. 11.P. IX 12 § 1 Tit U TEp/AIYBOV Kal T'hS

7fEGK'7r Kal 9K T!V(aV dXXmv Aiq-rin yiperat

/..VETA T~v 6Xdo-TqcTtP. 'Psyrlvj is mentioned again in 4311 as a special product of Palestine, and here it is being brought from Gilead. It is therefore presumably the famous ° balm of Gilead' (Jer. 822, 288, 4611). The word occurs six times in the LXX always as a translation of the Hebrew word which our version renders ° balm.' -a·TaKTijs: cp. 4311. d-T0.KT4 is spoken of as a kind of myrrh. Theoph. H.P. IX 4 ad fin. Tis Qpdpvrfs 8F j AFY d'T0.KT~,

j Ei` rrXacTh. Josephus (Ant. 113 § 3) is vague in his language- 4pwpara Kal

Eupa ¢opTla KoptrovTas Alyurrrlocs & Tit raaa8,jvjr. 27. Eo·TCUO·av: § 16. - i~KOVO·av: not only ' heard,' but c obeyed: dsaKovecv has this double meaning in classical Greek, like the English 4 hearken.'


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 113 Genesis %%%v11 82

aopeirovro ol av8pwroi of MaBtnvaioa of EM.Vopot, Kai EelE&AKvo,av Kai ave,(3a,(3ao-av T0'v 'Ic)ay0 Etc TOD AdKrcov · Kai arEBovro Tov 'IcvT'o rois 'Io-~ua-qAiTats eircow Xpvo-wv

Kai Karrjyayov TOP 'Iwai~o eis Aiyv7rTOV. 29 avEo-Tpe*ev 8e Poveiv eat 7ov AaKKOV, Kai dX opa rov Icoor"?o ev r&^

& 'aKKm · Kai BvEppq~ev rd iuarta avrov. s°Kai avEO-rpE- *ev 1rpos Tovs a8eXoovs avrov Kai eiaev "To 1rat8dpvov Ok ETTw · Eyw 8E aov 7ropevop,aa Era; " 8I Xa,(3ovres 8E Tov xtTi~va Tov 'Ic)o-~o CON ep yov aiyi~v, rcai E/.tolw- . ~ , vav T6op Xtriwa aip.ara. $2rcat a7rerrecAav rov xlruwa Tov

So has auscultare in Latin with its French equivalent &outer. Cic. Div. I § 131 magic audiendum quam auacultandum.

28. ,rapsiropevovro : were eomin q

by, they having before been seen only in the distance. But see Introd. - ot av9pwarov . . . oi, M. . . . of .Epsro poL: the use here of the article, which is not in the Hebrew, serves to identify the Midianites with the Ishmaelites of v. 25 and hides the difficulty which otherwise presents itself as to the, introduction of a caravan at this point as a fresh fact unknown before.-of Ma8yvatov: the Midianites, here regarded as a species of Ishmaelites, in defence of which might be quoted Jdg. 822,24. Some of them dwelt in the southeast of the Peninsula of Sinai, along the Gulf of Elath (Akaba). Ex. 216, 31. But their chief home was in the north of Arabia east of the Gulf of Akabah. -EjeIhKVCav : here the subject changes to Joseph's brethren. - Xpvwauv

Hebrew, ° silver' ; Vulg. v i g i n t i argenteis; Josephus pvmverxomv. In Ex. 21$2 the normal value of a slave is estimated at 30 shekels. The translator

seems to have taken the word I silver' in the general sense of ° money' (cp. Fr. argent), and so made of it 20 gold pieces, the money to which he was accustomed at Alexandria. Coined money is not supposed to have been used among the Jews until the time of Darius Hystaspes, B.C. b21-48g. The silver with which Abraham bought the cave of Machpelah was paid by weight (Gen. 2316). In Amos 86 (about 800 B.C.) the Israelite corn-dealers are described as I making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and dealing falsely with balances of deceit,' i. e. having one weight for the corn which they sold and another for the silver which they received. There would be no meaning in this, if the customers paid in coin.

30. rov" : § 34. -WopsfiopaL : am I to go S § 73 .

31. $pi+ov alywv: a kid of the goats. Cp. Jdg. 6'9, 1315,19 : i K. lgZO. So Xlfcapov iE atycuv Nb. 716,22, 1524, 2816 : Dt. 144 : i K. 1620- rp6,yos atywv Dan. 106 - E c£,uaaev i?K /Sowv Dt. 218 - p ba·Xov _va & #oiuv Nb. 715,21, etc. -gpi¢ous d:srd ray TIKYtOV Tap aty(iiY ii Chr. 357-rcpibv srpo#drwv Tob. 7s.


114 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %%%VII 88 TTO6K6XOV Kal E&r-q'VCYKaV T~'TTaTpi a1nCJV, Kal ElTfav "TOUTOv a e i e 'A V » 88Cw Tov V40V O'ov ETTav 71 ov. ca' Epo1cEV · wiyvc)8c Ec XcTv v s « v E7TFyvld aUTOY Kac Et7fEV XtTWV TOU U60U ILOU EUTW · Aqpcov Oayev avr. , B?7p. v a , a Ic) rov-qpov KaTE ov vo-qp7ra0-EV Tov (rno. 348cEpp-q~EV 8E 'Iarco'),(3 Ta iM,dTCa a$rov, Icai ErrEBETO o-aKKOY ' Erc 777v 6o-ov'v avrovn, cal EaEiVBEC To'v Uco'v avOV j/cEi pas $5 B E a iTcvas. wvrjXnaav 8' rvres of vio avrov Kal at' Ovya- T EP JX0ov irapaKaVaat abr' El;, Kat OV Wcai OLK -90EXEV 7lapa- KaAEicrBac, AEywv oTC " Kara,8~o·o~,taa irpos Tov viov ptov 7rEV- ~ a _ . ~r ~ . ~ . 'gg ~ ' 6wv CIS a8ov · Kal Erc~,av~EV avTOV o aarr~p avTOV. oc 8E Mascrwaioc airaovro Tov 'IWo~o Eis AayvtrTOV T~)IIETpEoj TIfJ cm01SOVT6 (Dapac'd apXytayEipy.

35. ktyauv Srv: this use of dry with the direct oration is found in the beat writers, e.g. Plat. Apo1. 21 C, 34 D AB·ywv drv Ipol, W IIpGGTE KTX. It is as common in the LXX as elsewhere in Greek, e.g. 468, 481: Ex. 41.

38. Ma6yvatov : not the same word in the Hebrew as in v. 28, being here equivalent to Medanites, there to Midianites. From Gen. 241 we learn that Medan was brother of Midian.-c7r4 &ovTV : cadEwv is a eunuch, Lat. spildo. The genitive in Greek is in -woos or -ovros. The only other passage in the LXX in which the word occurs is Is. 397 aoycovcm vab,8ovras lv T~ oCKCp Tog PamVws. The same Hebrew original is in Gen. 391, 402· 7 translated edvov"Xos. The English rendering ' officer' is no doubt affected by the fact that Potiphar figures in the story as a married man. On this point see Introd. -d,pXvWays(p4p: not I chief cook.' Even as a matter of derivation it may equally mean I chief butcher' or I slaughterer,'

which brings us round to the Hebrew ' chief of the executioners.' The English rendering is ' captain of the guard.' In use the term signifies a high officer, something like the praefectus praatorio at Rome, who combined the functions of commander of the bodyguard and chief of police. It is applied to Potiphar (Gen. 3786, 391, 4112), to Nebuzaradan (iv A. 268: Jer. 401, etc.), and to Arioch (Dan. 214). The last-named is described by Josephus (Ant. X 10 § 3) as having the command over the king's body-guard. The word A,pXcccbyeapos is used also by Philo (I 804, De M ut. Nom. § 32 ) KaTaQThoas EIpKTO¢dXaKa, 1'us ¢7jQa rb X6yov, 11EVTEOp71 rJv a'rl8ovra Kai hpXowdyevpov and again in 1662, De S onan. § 2, and 1163, De Jos. § 28, where his allegorical treatment shows that he took the word to mean ° chief cook.' Josephus (Ant. 114 § 2) seems to have fallen into the same error -IIerf¢pys, c£v~p AIyGrrros &l rwv -1)apawBou /ayelpwv Tov" /SacvEws.


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 115 Genesis %%%I% T "I(dor'o S' E Ka ' 0-9 613 A&*yV7TT0V Kal eK711'(TaTo avTov 71 TIX IIETEOp17s o E$vovxos 4)apacl) o apXytaywpos, arri~p Aiyulr- rios, EK xEtpl~JV 'IQpa'Y~XEtrUJV, of Kanjyayov avrov EKEi. 2 T 0, Kal Tv 71 Kai??v Kvrptos NtETa aIcocri7r a 'q av p Efacrvyxaivcw · Kat f , f ~. ^ .. f s .~ E'yEvErO Ev TW ObKld rfapa rq^j vptc0 rq^i AllyrTa~. ~SEv 8E o Kvptos a$r®v on Kriptoc I,tEr' avrov, Kal ocra av 1roa~9 Vpcos Eiro~oi Ev rah xEpUiv a$rov. 4Ka% Evpev 'Iwmq0 r f ~ n I f n f I f n 1 Xapw Evavrtov rov Kvpeov avrov) Ev,qpECrrEV 8a avrctr · Kat KarEO-T90-EV avfiov E7ti rov oiKOV avrov, Kal iravra oQa 7'7v avrcp E*SuUKEV 8td XELP69 'Ica0- rj~. eIyEVETO se p,ETa To Karao-TaRvav a$rov E1rv Tov oiKOV a$rov Kal E7ri rravra o(Ta 4v avri~, Kal 71vXoy71crEV Ktiptos rov oiKOV Tov Aiyv7triov did f . Icatr~ · K a.t Eye4Br7 Evf Xoyta Kvptov Era aaovv~ovv roZ; vap- . , .. * f ^ f .. s , f Xovwv avry Ev rte otKw Kai Ev rq) aypco. KCLt ETfE~TpEI,IEv ^ f ^ TlGLYTa ova Yw aUTGJ Ets XE6paS IUO"YJr0, Kal OVK '0Y8ETG^ JY f e f ^ 1Z ~ f r KaB Eavrov ovBEV ar~v roO aprov ov ~a~BcEV avTOs. Kal iv f ~.p ~ ^ ~ r 7 Ica~r/~ Kayos rai E60EL Kal CJpa60s T~ oon o~0ospa. rcaa

2. ilv &v~p imruyXdvow : he was a man who succeeded, literally ° who hit the mark.'

8. ebo8oe : makes to prosper. Cp. v. 23. We have the passive of this verb in Rom. he efwEmBhcouav in the literal sense of being vouchsafed a good journey. The force of the Urc here extends to edo8oi, which is indicative, not optative, as it would be in classical Greek.

4. E6'llp1?Tf6: was well pleasing. The Greek here departs from the Hebrew. -1ScuKEV 8vd Xevpds : he put into the hand of. Cp. v. 22. At&bvac in the L%% often means ° to put' or set' as well as I to give' Cp. Dt. 281: iii K. 2022: iv K. 19~ Is.

5. 1y_vrre . . . Kay : at came to pass

that. § 41. - irl roi otKOV . . . tirL ab,vra: here the use of the word frd,wra in the latter clause makes the accusative natural as implying that Joseph's rule extended over all that his master had, but this distinction would perhaps be an over-refinement. See 4112 n. - iyevfj9,i : in Biblical Greek the 1st aorist passive of ytyvopa.: is used in the same sense as the 2d aorist middle. In the earlier editions of his N.T. Dean Alford tried to establish a difference between the two forms, but retracted in the later. See his note on i Thes. 16.

6. i'R4?TpE1lIEV: turned over. The reading briTflEtllEY entrusted would be more in accordance with classical usage. - ov jc9uv : 37s n.


116 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %%%I% 8 , r ~ ~ t r ~ , r t EyEVETO jA,ETa Ta pn/.(.aTa Ta'UTa KcGt- E7TERaXEY ~ yvvn TOD *L' L Kal CTITEV vp OV abro~ ToV4 i500aXjzoV"q abT~19 11IT' 'IC00*77 * K OLjt~B'qTb ILAET' EjAOV' 80 OE OVK ~BEIEV, EREV ST-,q yV- Y r vaKTov Kvptov avrov " Et, ot Kvrpaors , r , , M.ov ov yivc~O-KEa 81, E~.tE ov8E.V E,v TiovrK~ avrov, Kal TrarvTa onva E, rTav avTO AoKEV Et, s ~ r y . , t r , , r , ~ , . , ~ rag xEtpas 1.tov, Kai ovx U7TEpExEt Ev T?,'OLKtO~I, avrov ovBEV ENcov OBE, vt rEep rr-9Tat air_Epov ovBV 7r?w o-ov, 8aa To o-E yvvaiKa T n r y t n avTOV Ewaa · K al Tans 7rot77(rw To pTjM,a To 7TOV71POV Tovro Kal ajzapr-qraojuat ,vavTrov Tov BEOV; ~, DjvarKa 8E AarA, Ia~0 o~ t r , t r . , t r , .r, ~M,Epav E~ Tj~,tEpas, Kal ovx vTrT)KOVEV avrV KaBEVBEtv M.ET avri/s TOD o-vyyEVE019at av7^. IIEyEVero 8E Totavnq Tts ., n , w yXBEV f ImaTo E19 Tnv oL,KVrav Tov TrotEv Ta Epya puEpa · E v,a

8. Et E Kbpz6s Wov KTh.: Does my master know nothing in his house owing to his trust in me 8 § 100. The Hebrew word corresponding to el is ' behold,' but in Aramaic the same word means ' if.' The translator has here given an Aramaic sense to a Hebrew word.-&i Ep.l: cp. v. 23 b1 a6r6v. At' ipE here does not represent the Hebrew, which means with me. The R.V. margin gives the exact rendering- knoweth not with me what is in the house (= od cvvoz8ev Epot). This seems to give the most satisfactory sense. The master's confidence in Joseph was so complete that he did not even seek to share his knowledge of household matters.

8. Kal ofrX S=p1Xev: and has no superiority in his house over me. Cp. R. V. margin. - Ka1 arCus iroyo-d : the Kai here marks an impassioned question. - A fjpa : c p. 401, 447 : Ex. 214. 'P$fca in the LXX means ° the thing spoken of (Gen. 4125), and so simply

thing' ; then even ° act.' This is evidently the meaning that the word has in Lk. 216. It is therefore fair to argue that this is the meaning also in Lk. 18z, which was rendered in the old version for with God nothing shall be impossible. The Revisers seem here to have missed the sense by translating for no word from God shall be void of power. In the same way the word a6yos has in the LXX (e.g. iii K. 1289, 1429: i Mac. 1828) accomplished that transition from ° word' to ' deed,' which Dr. Faust, when the Devil was entering into him, is represented by Goethe as devising for it. 'Pjrbv is also used, like ~q,ua, for ° thing.' Ex. 94. For Xbyos = thing see Dan. 01 24, u,

10. 'Iwo-fjc~: dative -JpIpav Ij iiplpas: cp. Esther 37 jAdpav iE ~/AEpas

Kal /Aiwa 9K ,a,7v6s. § 88 . - K al o$X >irj- Kovev: the Kai here introduces the apod. in the same way as after 41y6,ero. § 41. On dasjrcouev see 37=7 n. 11. Too vowtv : the Genitive Inflni=


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 117 Genesis %X%I% 20 a q. 'a r w 12 a r avTOV~ KaC oMclq 'w C'V T~ OCKCd. EO'fd ' KQ,c E7TEQITaU'aT0 a'UTOY TIM 6jAaTClDY aZTOV XE'YOVO'a ~~ Koefa,~j91qTC tu,ET' Epcov." Kai KaTaAEiacw Ta i/,caTCa avTOV EOvyev Kai Ej~rjAeEV Eem. s / e ~ a r e r s ~ n is Kac E'YEvETO CJS Ell OTC KQTE~ELTfEY Ta q1,aTCa aVTOV EY TacS xEp~LY aUT'I~S Ka6 E0 v'YEY Ka6 Eej)1.BEY E*eft), I4KQG EKQr,XEQEY TOUS OYTas EP T',q OCK6G. Kac ELTfE7l aUTOCS ~E'YOVO'a ~~ vI~ETE~ Eiayyayev 1qj,tiv 7rai8a 'E,(ipaiov Eftirai~ECV j/Aiv ' E iO1jA9Ev r ' r 7 n ) ) r n 7rpos /AE ~.Eycav Koc~,c~e~/TC ~_.cET E~_.cov ~ Kac E~Ba-q ~a ~cav17 JA 15EV 8E TlJ d.KO'Ura6 aVTOY OTC 'U*CJO'a T'1~Y oCJY'l)"Y ~ r r e r ~ s p,ov Kac E,Cio77aa, KaTaXECIrcoY Ta cp,aTCa avrov aap EM,oc ~ .y _ 10 r e r EIwyEV KaC Eej)IBEY Eew." Kac KOLTaXqi7J'aVEC Ta cp.aTCa r' gavr ^ ' s 'WEV 6 K ' N I & ap -,q E W 71 VP&O-9 ELS TOP OLKOV abTOZ. "Ka" AaXTja-EV atiT~ KaTa Ta p~j~.caTa TavTa Xe'yovo-a " El o aa o `qy7rpos iAE is o 'Eapaios, v E10- r ayES TpOS njAAQ Efa6 a6 t,ioc, Kai EiaEV lAoc `Koy.vqAqTa t.cET' Ep,ov.V ''cog 8E 7')'KOV(TEY a a oTC v0ca(ra T/ v Omvrw /j.ov Kac E,8ocra, KaTErXECaEV Ta ycar TCa 7J avTOV crap' EM,Oi Kai EOvyEV Kai EejWEV Eeca." 'sEyarETO 8E c w e r e r a n a ~s ~KOVO-EV o Kvpcos Ta p?7/,caTa T77s yvvacKOS avTOV, ova Aa~-q(rEV rpos avTOV XEyovaa " OvTCOs E7roalo-EV p.oc o aais » e r ~ 20 , a c r a O'ov~ Kac EBv~_a,coe~j opy~. Kac EJ~a~EV O Kvpcos Icon ' r '. ~ 'r ~ r T c Kac EYE~aJ~EY avTOY EIT To oXvpc~p,a, Ell; T ovToTr ov E'V W oc

tive of Purpose. § 69 .-_v Tj otKi¢ 9(·w: Hebrew, I there in the house.'

12. KaTake(awv: there is another reading rcaraAurcw. Jos. Ant. 114 § b apooKaTaXiac~v Kai TJ tjad,Ttov.

14. K0.1 4K4AE?EV : this goes closely with Kai 461ero in v. 13. § 41. -EtcftyayEV : SC. d KupLor or airr6s (= ipse the master: cp. ° himself' in the mouth of an Irish peasant-wife). - i W7ra(tELv i1Wiv: § 77.

16. KaTaXyadvev : a strengthened present from stem Tcsr-, of the type of

aaokvw, XavBhvw KrA. It occurs only in three passages of the LXX-Gen. 3918, ii K. 621, iii K. 1818 : but is found in good authors, e.g. Thuc. viii 17 § 1

Plat. Epist. 358 B. Cp. doeM/cvavev Tob. 107, IrcXcuadvov Zech. 1118.

20. oXupwpa: stronghold. This word occurs in the FayGm papyri (Swete Introd. p. 292).-eis r6vrdwov KTI1.: an extraordinary piece of tautology - He threw him into the stronghold, into the place in which the king's prisoners are kept there in the strong-

I , a, I `: , i: i ! , C , i e ,, i ~ Iv . ~! _ ; I, i' i h r ' i ' r; I y. . . i _(~,d f i I. Ij _ l i _, If i , ' y ~ , , 3 y^ i. ~ ~li~., i ~ I ` I _ i ~ ~ . , ~,,,, 3 _.I i ~ i:. _._ ,. ' ~ ~ , 3 'y , u I 'j,~ I , I, ~ 3,~:i ,~`~: _vt~ ,; I i: ~.. i,l~a I, ',~: h ' nk;,i



Genesis %%%I% 21 SEqA.IOTUG TUtI 8ao-AE'(09 KQTExOLra6 EKE& ev r(?^i 6Xvjo(")/faT6.

v ~ i v ~ v v ~ ~ v e 2IKac -qY K' tog pETa Ic)ay0 Kac KarEXeEV avrov E~EOs, K ac EBwreEV a$r~i xapev EvavTLov Tov apXe8Ea-p,o0AaKOS. 22Kai EBmKev o apxc8Ea~hco0vXae To BECrM,carrjpaov 8cd xEapos'Iu~o-'o rcai aavras Tovs u7r77yp.EVOVS oa'oi EV rid SECrpc0T~qpiW, rcai

7ravTa ova arocovwv -EKE&. 23ovK "v o apxc$ea,uoouAa~

ycvO)Orccw 8c' avrov oUBEV · aavTa yap 7'1'v 8cd xwpos'Ic~o-ff,

> > ~ , a ~ , 8ca To Tov Kvpcov p,ET avrov Ecvac · Kac ova a&o's ezsocEC, Kvpcos evo8oi EV Tais xEpG-iv avrov.

I'E'yEVETO OE 1A.ETOC TO( .p1~/U.aTa ravTa 71papTEV o apXcocvo xoos rov j(3aavAECjs AiyvaTOV Kai o apXvcrvTO7rocos T~ KvpiW

avTisv 8amkeb Aiyv7rrov. 2 Kai iopyio'Brj (Dapac'd Eai rots > . ~ . ~ . 8vdev EbvoV"Xot3 avTOV, Erl Tio apXvowoXo&) reae EVI rip' apxc- 0croTroc00 ' aKai EBEro avrovs Ev OvXarc~ aapd Tce apxc- 8Ea/io0vAarcc Eis To 8EayWT~jpcov, E19 T06 ro"vov oZ 'Iw0*0 arircTO ErcEi. 4Kai wvEaTgo-EV o apXvE(rj.CW'rqs Tui 'Ice(60

hold = He threw him into the stronghold in which the king's prisoners are kept. The addition of ' there' after in which' is normal in the LXX. See § 69. But the further addition of ' in the stronghold' seems to arise from a misreading of the Hebrew teat.

21. asos: § 8.

22. dLpXe8sa-pa+QLag: Gen.3p,2='~23, 408, 411e. Cp. 404 dpXz&eQjccur1?s. Neither word is known elsewhere. - s Ew Kev . . . 6v& XEVpds : 4 n. -roes 8aqy pkvovs: the prisoners. 'Asrb,yew is the regular word used of leading off to prison. Cp. 4218 : Plat. Men. 80 B wr y6ns daaXBelris. Sometimes it implies execution as in Acts 1219.

23. iiv . . . yw(octcwv: analytic form of imperfect. § 72. - 8c' auTdv

cp. 8 dl ipi. Here again 81 avT6v has

nothing to correspond to it in the Hebrew, in which the sentence is also divided differently from the way in which it is in the Greek. - ailTds : § 13.

1. 14WaTa: things. Cp. 399 n. This use is very common. -,jWapTev: § 42. - apxeowoX6os . . . . fipX«iroaoOs: used also by Philo I E(32, De Somn. § 2 : 1163, De Jos. § 28. The functions of the king's cup-bearer at the Persian court are described in Xen. Cyrop. 13 §§ 8, 9.

2. 8vc(v : § 14.

3. sts Tbv rdarov ou . . . l KEV : liter ally in the place where Joseph had been led off there. § 69 . oD here stands for ot. § 34.

4. cvvE.a·TqcEV: put them under the charge of. This word is often used in classical authors of putting a pupil under a master or introducing a person


1. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 119 Genesis %L 13 avroirs, rcai arapEa-TrJ avTOis' 'a-av 8E 711.cEpas EP T? 71 ,vXax?^7. . ' ~ / ~ / ~ , SKac c8ov ap,~orepoc Evvavcov, EKaTEpos Evv7rvaor EP M,y / a ~ / ~ r e / r f vUrcTt, opao-L9 TOD Evvvvcov avrov, o apXcocvoXoos Kal o apxc- ucroaocos of ~Jaav Tcri 8ao-tXEZ AIYV' of ii Ev Tui 8EO-M,c0rr/pic~. sEio-~ABEV 8E apos a$rovs To apc~i 'Iwmrjo, , 7 ~ / Kac cBEV avrovs rest 7oav TErapayl.cEVOC. teat ~pcera Tovs 'EUYOIXOUS (Dapaca, of jo-av 1cETaVTOU EY T?7 oUJIaK ,q Traps Tip Kvpi(,j avrov, XEycuv "Tv OTC Td vpoacora vf,ccw o~KUBpcoVd (rj- v;" s~av avip' "'Evvavcov i8opEV, Kal o yIcEpo oi E Ei7rKpivcw avro ovrc E0'TCV." EiVEV & avrois 'I~rj~ " O vxi 8ca TOO BEOU j BcaQa~-qa-as avrmv EO-Tiv; 8yyrjo-a(reE ovv /AOL." / 98cKac 1qyo~aTO o a) pXcocvoXo/os To E)vv/avcov avrov Tc~ !Ie77 01 rcai EiaEV "'Ev TZ vTrvco ja,ov 77v al,cTrEXos Evavriov 1,cov · 1° Ev O71~'~ Ot?EG) Tp6s EV i aE 7rvBpes, Kal BXAovda avEV-qvo- xvia 8XaO-TOv'T- 7rErrECpoc of 80'TPVE9 O-Ta0v~'^s. "Kai To aoTrjpcov chapaW' Ev T~ XECpi ~,COV· Kal E~a,8ov T~v a-Taov)L' ,q XE&PC IAOV - Kal A q 77P L' WOX&*a a' ' v EIN To' 1roT ' I *80JKa To' 7ro"'P&OP a c VTq VLOP, Kat E ig > / « r Ecs Tas xEipas (Dapaca.» /Kac Esc7rEV avT~p' >Icoa- r/~ TOtlTO ~ wyKpcovs avrov. of Tpeis avBM,EVES Tpeis 77p.Epac Eiaiv ' 1°ETC Tpeis ~p.Epav Kai uv-qo-0-q'(TETa& (Dapac'o Tn^s apx7^7s (Tov) rcai arroKarawTrjo-w (rE Eri "'v apxcocvoXoiav 01 Kal

to a patron. - ira*Trl : like Latin aderat. The subject is Joseph. -;iWIpas: for some time. A Hebraism. § 88.

5. gpacis ToOivvsrvtovabro"v: these words have no construction and add nothing to the meaning. Let us call them I nominative in apposition to the sentence.'

6. Td irpwt: in the morning. Such adverbial expressions are common in the LXX.

8. b QuyKpfvcav : to interpret. Cp. Dan. 01 67 rb o6yKpqua ris ypaq5j9o 17 J odyrcpmis a>'rriw. ZvyKptvem also means ' to compare.' In i Cor. 218 71'VEUAaTLKOGS 7rYEUp.aTLKIL 0V'yKptYOVTES the

meaning perhaps is ' expounding spiritual things to the spiritual.' - SLacrb+v1cLs: = o GyKpwts. In LXX only in Gen. 408: ii Esdr. be, 711.

10. srv9Wivss : stems.

12. TOVTO ii U-fryKpvows: in Attic Greek attraction is usual in such cases, as in 18 Airr,4 ~ odyKpws.

13. b,pxcocvoXo(av: drat elpoAvov. I . ; .;~ r I~ 1~,,~ ,. a . ~I ~ - i , el,r i~ I; , ' I. ~ $,,I! ~~fi~: ~,'ia I a ,~ n~ .'' ~ I l hk=~ I ~' : 1 z'. I ~ I ~ 11~: ! : I . 13 I 4 ' ly. z I ~ ; i li ~~'a~ ;' , ~ :r~.~. ~I , ' I~. I '' I ` E I 1~ I I le t I, ~~r '311 pq. ~~ 1~§h, I . ' ~ LI'~I, I :! b I £, iao,~ ,~, I~ i~ , I9' ! Ijk , . I k ~ I ! I ,~ f 1 " 3 ~~ t l i ' ~~ ~11~. ,~ b · ; I ' r,y ; ,i 1~_y~ ,_ .t ; ~ ~ I 11' _ 11 ~ ; Il~lk ~ , ~ ;; i: i , : r'~ . i,, II>~ I,. I ', ~ I,ly~ 1 I fi, ",~ , ~ I~' ;q ;~ '' I I I ' t i i y nP, I I ;i ? ' d ' t I~ ~1,~ I I l~jtf i I ~ x~' y t I ~ - I I~' '' li ~I,IE 9y ' ~ ,3'.I~ I , ~1.6 II, E, I r I~ d ~ ,', , I~I~ ' li ~I·,,u. I ~ i r I _' ~ ~, ,~;~i.a I i I ~,;1,~, i:; P i - ! u;.,c. I (~i~k I I I i i~l'~ ~~I,. 3j I.~ f ~ ~ : III il~r~ ( ', I~ 'I>r! a. ( . I ~,~IV I I i II~a ,' E I a ~ , II,~ r I! I I~ i !FI'll~ I ~''M ~ I, ~ a,ye ! r I ~' 1 i, . ~ ;. ~, I' ~ I i, I i ~, .~ I , ll,~ I ~ i ~I ~ r , y; 6 a :I I 1 d~:: ' I ~~,~: `i~4~1~- I. q . I Iz E ! ~ 7~i~ ,,r;.;. I . ,i II ,~ G G - ,:;s!


120 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis XL 14 ~coa-ECS To aoTrjpcov (Dapac~ ds Tip XEipa a$rov KaTa Tqv P-qv a-ov T-qv irpo-rcpav, ws q`(Toa OIVOXO,~Jv. ",&WN ILV X T a-O,qT&' M,ov 8cd QEavrov oTav Ev roc yEV-qTaa, Kai oroaO-ws eV ,. . , . , E~.tov EAEOs, Kal J,tvrpBr/0-p aEpc EM,ov (Dapac~, K ac Ee aeECs ILE EK TO; oxupaiuaTOS TOVTOV · l ~orc KAo7r?^ 7 EKXalr-qv EK yes 'Eflpaiwv, Kal JME o$K ErroiTra O$&'v, aXX' EvEaaXov I,tE Eis To v a'KKOV TOVTOV." 1gKai REV o apXfovTOrrocos oTC op9~)s O-uvEKpcvev, Kai Ei7rEV Tip 'Iwo 0 " Kayi~ i8ov Evvavcov, Kal ciI,c77v Tpia Kava xOV8pvTmv aipew Eai T~s KE0aAjs j.cov 17EY & TW KCLVIJ T1.0 E7faYCJ a7T0 7faYTCNY TCrJY yEY'Y~fltU~,TI.JY IV O aa0'6)IELS (Da.pa01 Ea86EC, EpyOY QGTOTf060v' Kal Td! ?fETECVOG , ~ r , v , w , i TOV OVpaYOV KQ.T'!~O'B6EV a&a a7f0 TOV KavOV TO^ E7TaLCd T77S KE0aXjS p071." 18aL7TOKptBEGs & 'IfiJQ'f~0 Esl7TEV aVTIU " A LT'Y7 ~ avyKpc(rcs a$rov. Ta Tpia Kava TpECs yitEpac Eio-iv ' 19 ETc Tpvv jptEpmv aoEkEi (Dapaco T'V KE0aXrjv O-ov a7ro o-ov, Kai KpEM,a(rEa ae Erri ~Aov, Kai oayETac ra opvea TOD ovpa- , , 20, , . , vov TQ.S QapKOtS UOV a7T0 QOL. fl ~E EL TV^ 'q14Epaf. n ~ e ~ i S ~ v , i TV TpcT~ 'WDEpa yevE0*Ews qv (Dapam, Kac Eirocec aoTOV a&o'c

-jLPXfiv: Perhaps TLpj v would be used here in classical Greek.-jo·8a otvoXoaov: analytic imperfect. § 72.

14. 8Ld o-Eawoir": in thyself. -arovfj- D'ftS . . . E)1E0S : § 74 .

15. K)107Pn IKXrl7r7lv : § 6l. - X fLK Kov: 372 n.

18. Kav&: Kavov"v, a basket of reed (KLtuva), is used specially for a breadbasket (L at. cantstrusn.). -Xov8pvT~uv: in Athen. 109 c XovdpfT,fs is enumerated among the species of bread, and it is further explained that it was made of ~ELaI. Barley (KpLBsj), it is added, does not make groats (XduBpos). By Hdt. II 38 regal is identified with navpaL, which is supposed to be rye.

The Egyptians, he says, do not live on wheat or barley, like the rest of the world, AM dab dXupimv sroteuvTaL aLTfa, TG.s ~ELLI,s /.lE'TE~ETEpOL K0.VOV?L. In an- other passage Herodotus gives us the Egyptian name for these loaves, 1177 dpro¢ayiovcL SF & Twv dwp9LUV 7oceuv- TES dpTOUS, TOIIs L:KELYOL KUXX9f 0'TLS dVO/AI-

rouvL. Cp. iii K. 19s iuKpv¢fas 6wpefTqs. 17. YEV11'4CtTOlY : = y evvT,udTLUV, products.

20. hpUpa '1IEViPEOIS: an obvious way of expressing ° birthday,' but not employed by classical writers. The idea is generally conveyed by Td yEV4BaLa, the birthday feast. Xen. Cyrop. 13 § 10 rYre Elcrtacas cJ robs Otaous iv


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH Genesis %LI 8 Tois 7rawv ava TOV^ · K ac eap~(TB-q T/ s apXq^s TOO aa pXcocvo- vXoov Kai T77s apXjs TOO apXcwTOrrocov Ev M.E~CP TOW vai8cm aUTOV. 21 Kai a7rercaTE0-T~0-CV To v apXcocvoXoov Esc T'~v uapx~v avrov, Kai ESWKev To 7rojaov es T~v Xipa (DapaTp 22TOV 8E apxwcTO7rovov E'Kp' ,cao,ev, KaBd wvEKpwev avrois 'Im~j~. 21 ovK Ep.v~j0 B17 8E o apXcocvoxoos TO; 'IWOy~ akka EarekaBsTO avrov. 1 aEyE.Vero 8e METa w.o E*T-q /a Mepwvrv (Dapac~~ cv8evea vv1rwov. CJETO EtTTa~.va6 E?T6 TOU TTOTaIAOU, 2KaL GOOV lrlQ7lEp EK TOU n a i e ~ n i·p a ?TOTapOV aYERacYOV E?fra ROES KaAa6 TW EcOEG Ka,c EKXEKTa6 TOLLS aap~cV, Kal EROQKOLTO Ev T1.~0 axEC ' 3 OLXAab vE b!'T01. ROES avERacvOV /A.ET01. Ta,11Tas EK TOL ?fOTalA.OL, alQxpat TlU w n i b4 povTo e r ec~ea Kac ~e7rTaa Tacs o'apeav, Kal as ~oes aapa To XeiaoS Tov rorapov Ev Tia axec · 4Kai KaTEoayov at" ChrTa ~ a . e . . ~oes ac accrXpac Kal ~eaTac Tais crap~cv Tas e~rTa ~3oas Tas KaAa s TCI EcOE6 Kac TO' s EaKXEKTas..s. jye,p877 8e (Dapacd. , . bKac . a C a o EVTIEPOV' · Kal vov ElTTa o-Ta.xvss aa veaavov eva.o~677 T B. ev vc, EaKJEKT06 Kal KakOC · ~a*XXOC OE. Ea TTa O'TaxUEs a i a i a a i 7 i ~e~rTOC Kac ave~,co~Bopoc ave~vovro p,sT avrovs Kac KaTt~ e c . a . a . a 7rcov oc errra ~TaXves oc ~e~rTOa Kal aveM.o~9opov Tovs eaTa o-Taxvas Tovs EKXEKTOUs Kal Tovs 7rX~jpECs. iyEpen 4)apaui, Kal jv Evv7rvcov. BEyevsTO SE Vpcei Kal ETapaxB-q j *vX'9 a$rov · Kai avoo-TeiXas EKaXe0-ev iravras Tovs E 2. TIl1 &XEL : Hebrew ahu. This is perhaps the Egyptian name for the reed-grass of the Nile. The word is indeclinable. Sir. 4018 (lxet _art aravrJs v'BarOg Kai XeAous aroraptov". In Is. 197 the spelling is rJ RXt. 4. Pdas : § 6% G. 6. bveWd¢8opot: blasted by the 1. fTn Tip.EpWV : the addition of wind. Cp. Prov. lOb : H os. 87 : IS . 19T: itImpwv is a Hebraism. Cp. i Mac. 129. P hilo 11431, De Exsecr. § 4. -'Eylvero . . . I8ev : § 42.

rois TEYEALoIS.-aravclv: servants. SO frequently. The usage is common also in classical Greek, e.g. Ar. Ran. 40. Similarly in France a I gargon' may be a greybeard. In 4316 Joseph's father is called his srais.-_p.vfjo-A,l r~s &pXys: divergent from the Hebrew.

21. EsGllCfv: se. d dpxtomoxbos. 8. _y_veTO . . . KaL : § 41. -



y'Y~TOGS Acyv7fTOV Kal?TavTaS TOUS QO('YOUS aLT~S, Kal 86'Y)" o-aro aiiTOis papaw To Evvrrvcov ' K ai Ok ~v o aaayyekkcw

a$ro Tco 4)apaw'. °Kai EXaX-qcrev o apXcoivoXoos rpos 4)apa('d Aeycw "T'v aI.,CapTiav pov ava/.cq.cvn'0-KCJ a'rjp,cEpov. '°4)apaw wpyiw8q Tois aawiv avrov, Kal EBETO jj.cas Ev 0vXaKj,q^ ev T(~ oiKoj TOO apXvBea'p,o0vXarcos, Ep,E TIE Kai Tov apXc(rcTOaocov ' 11 Kai i8opEV EvvTrvcov ev vvKTi /.tca, Eyio a > . v 12 ~s Kac avTOs' EKaQTOS Kam' TO atlTOL EUU?TVCOV L8op,EY. ~v OE EKEC /a,Ee' jp,mv veavi(TKOS 7rais 'Eapaio; TOO apX ye,ayeipov, K ' St ' Oa a&~, Ka' a-vv' tvEv j~tZp. eyev A7 a& -qy?7o-ajj. t CKP 77 ~E KaBIOS wVEKpcVEV ~~A.W, OVT(JS Kal aUVERYl, E1A.E TE a7T0 KOLTa(rTa.B)wac E7TL T-9Y Q.pX'q"Y /.tOU, EKE6YOV 86' KpEtkaO'B~- vac.' 14~ArOO.TE6xaS OE ~apaGO EKOLXEG-EV TOY 'Iol~^qo , K al > . ~ . , . e6jyayev avrov EK TOO oxvpc0/u,aTOS. Kal eevp-q(rav avTOv K' "Weav 'v a-7oX'v abroO - Ka&' jX0cv rpok 4)apa&'). at 77 T`9 71 1sEiaEV 8E (Dapac~ TW 'Icoo-ff "'Evvrvaov eoipaKa, Kai o wy- ~. Kpwcw auto ovK eaTCV - eyco 8E aKr~KOa aEpc 0-ov AEyovTCw, . ,~ 1° arcovo-avTa o-E evvavca QvyKpivac aura. aaoKpcBECS SE 'Icio-~o Tai (Dapai~ EiaEV ""Avev Tov BEOV ovK a7roKpcB~asTac ,» lz~ To OIcoT~paov 4)apacj. EXaAqwev & (Dapaco TL Ic~a-'o XEycw "'Ev Tui varvc,o /.cov c~,u-qv go-Tavac Eai To xEiAos TOD 7rorahcov' 13Kai uiO-7TEp EK Tov Ir'oTal.cov avE,(3awov E7rTd 86eq .. ~ . ~ ., Kakac T~ Et*8f& Kal eAEKTac Tacs aapeav, Kac EvEp,ovTO ev b ttaayy_Ahcuv : ep. 408 d QvyKplvvrv. In classical Greek a future participle would be used in such cases. 13. _yevA9,1 . . . o·vv_(3q: § 42. 14. EE'h'Y0.yEV : Hebrew, I they drought him hastily.' - _tvprjo-av Hebrew, I he shaved himself.' 16. avev To"v Aso"v KT~.: without God there shall not be given the an swer of safety to Pharaoh. The word which in the R. V. is translated 'It

is not in me' has here been taken as a preposition governing ° God,' and a negative has somehow got in after it.

17. _·m1 Td XsiJvos : in v. 2 we had _or4vat _at Tov" aorawov"", which is better Greek. In a classical writer we might explain the accusative here as a pregnant construction, meaning · to go to the bank of the river and stand there: But see § 95.


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 123 Genesis XLI 29 r · 19 1 18ov E7rTv 85 a f E8avov 67Tcr0o T~ aXEC Kac cv a deg ETEpac av aUTmv EK TOD aoTap,ov, Irov71pai Kai aia-xpai T~p EiBEC Kai AE7fTU.L Tais o-apeav, Kai EvEM,ovTO Ev Tui axEC ' oias ovK

MOP TocavTas Ev oXIJ Ally vaT~ aia~XpoTEpas' 2°Kai .KaTE < < . r ~ f . , ~ . r

~ayov as ETrra 865Eg at acorxpaa Kac XEaTaa Tag ETrTa i(3oas r . f r 2t , f f Tag 7rpcuTas Tag KaAas Kac EKJIEKTGGS, Kac ELG-~XBOV E6S TaS KOCVaS aVTCJY' KaV OV 8ca8'I7AOC EyEYOVTO OTC E6Q'>7XBOV EcS v r f v c ~r f f v v v v Tag KocAcas avTCw, Kat ac o~rEVs avTiw acuxpac KaBa Kac T7/ v f r f r8_qV. 22apx7v. EeEYEpBEvbS 86' KOCIA KOC 6w80I 7faWV E' V TCY7 a v a c o r ~ v ~ r e v vavc0 I.cov, Kac c~o-aEp ErrTa o`TaXves avEt0'acvov Ev 7rv8l.tEVa Evc 7rX7j pets Kai KaAoi ' 23 aXXoc U EaTa oTaxvES Xe7rTOi Kai avEM,o0Bopoc avEovovTO ExopcEVOC airrcw · 24 Kai KaTETrcov of r ~ . f r . ~ r ETrTa O`-Taxves oc AETrTOC Kac avE/,CO0Bopoc Tovs E7rTa a-Taxvas Tovs KaXovs Kai Tovs vkq'pECs. Eiva ovv Toys Eeqy-qTa^&g, Kai ovK ?'IV o a7rayyErXAcv ~coc. f 2gKavc ETrEV sIcoc-qv 0 Tcn (Dapam r ~~ To Evvravcov 4)apa('i) Eav &-Tw ' 00 'a O BEO'S ?0E, Ev SE6eEY TG). 2°«ETrTv R kg at KaXavc Eav .y 107' , K av oc e (Dapaco at a o a ETA wt ~. f . , EarTa aTaXves oc KaXot EaTa ETA E0-TCV · To EW'7vtov (DapaW < < . r ~ . ~ ~ r ev E0_TCV. 2zKac as EaTa 86'eg ac knrTac ac avaj8awovQaa r . < < r , OTILUI~V avTCJV ETfTa ET'Y~ E'0-71V, KOCC Oc E7TTa o-TaXvES OL ~E7TTOc v e v a)Ltp,ov .ov. 2Kac avM4eopoc E"o-opTat ErrTa ETA 8 Tov 8pjMa d o i. 2°i8oE'qKa (Dapacv · oaa o BEOS ?fOCEC EECeEV TG 0 (Dapaav ip f r , f r f r E?TTa ET'I~ EpXETac EUB'qYCa 7TOX A.'Y~ Ev Traoy y-O AvymrTw 19. oBas . . . Tomvras : literally Common in the LXX and in Hellen- such as I never saw the like in all Egypt istic Greek generally. - rilv 8pX fiv more ill-favoured. A mixture of two adverbial accusative, at the beginning. constructions. The first is an instance 23. IX61LEVOL avrcuv : close after of that insertion of a demonstrative them. after the relative which is a mark of 28. To SE AJpa KA.: but as for Biblical Greek (§ 69) ; the second is the thing which I said unto Pharaoh, oYwv ato-Xpor9par. -aicXpoT_pas: § 12. with reference to v. 25. This is a good 21. &v&qXov _y_vovro : se. at E'R'TA instance to show how Ai7Wa passes from pbes at atQxpat Kal TeaTal. - KaA& : ° word' to ° thing.' See 399 n. adverb meaning ` as,' originally read U. 29. evArivGa : the verb EWIvECV 18


124 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEP'T'UAGINT Genesis XL1 80 80 q v hrT v a' n v n v 1 ' i 'I~eE6 ~E a ET'q XqA.OV htETa TOtvra, Kac ETTbX'Y~QB'I~rOVTa6 T'gs ar~-qa'1.tovjs Ev oX-0 TV y17 AiyvaTCO, Kai avaAcoaM o Acfcos T-qv yiw · $1 Kai Ok ErrayvcaTB~a-erac ' EbO-qvL'*a &i rids yes (bro TOD Xc~.cov TOD &-o/.tEVOV /,tsTa ravra, ioIxvpos yap ErTac ayo8pa. $2aepi 8E Tov &evrepmo-ac To' Evv7rvaov 4)apaca his, On &X-qeES Errac To g/Ca To' arapd TOO eeov, Kai raXvvei o Beos TOV vociaac avro. 8'uvv ovv aW4ac avI 0povcp.ov Kai wverov, Kai KaTaurqa-ov a$rov Erri T7^1s yes Aiyvarov · 8 4Kai 7roc-q(rarto (Dapac'o Kai KaTao-T~o-arw Torap xas CM rig y^s, Kai a7ro7rep7rrcdo-aTCdo-av Travra ra yev~j l,taTa Tis yjs AiyvaTOV Tcw E7Td ETOW ri/s evB71vias, 8grcai wvayayErcoa~av aavra Td 8pco'para rmv brrd ETmv rcw Epxo M,EVWV TOW Ka,i~v Tov-rcw ~ K aa wvaxBrjrca o ~iTOs vac xeipa (Dapaai, 8p&j'/AaTa Ev rais Trokeo-cv wvaxe?jTCU. 3gKai E(rTac Td &ail.ta7a ireov,ayp,EVa rq -^ y~ eis rd ETrrd Errs TOD Xcp.ov > > . . > a eo-ovTac ev y- (0 ,cyvaTCO, Kat o

used in Arist. E.N. I 9 § 11 for the external side of happiness, and EdBqvta itself occurs in Rhet. I b § 3 in the same connexion. Op. Philo 1438, De Migr. Abr. § 3 T~v QmparcKfiv Ebftpfav


Josephus (Ant. II b § 7 ) has in this context EVET'hpfa. Cp. Arist. E.N. 18 §g,VIIIl§1.

31. lad TOO )Lyo"v: by reason of the famine. An unclassical use of the preposition § 92.

32. 8EVTEpwoau, . . . Sts: the same kind of pleonasm is used in English, -

the repeating twice.' For 8evrepov"v cp. i K. 2(3a: iii K. 1834. It occurs 13 times in the LXX.-6T&: (the reason is) that. -TOi1 iroBjrav avrb : in Biblical Greek the latter of two verbs is often put into the genitive infinitive. § 60,

34. Kal voyavrw : a literal following of the Hebrew. -rosrG,pXas

prefects. For the form cp. Kcupdpxqs Esther 28: Xen. Anab. IV b §§ 10, 24

yevECUfpXi7s Wisd.133. The word rorbpX,qs occurs 17 times in the LXX and was probably a technical term of administration in Egypt under the Ptolemies. Cp. iv K. 18'x. Strabo (XVII § 3, p. 787) mentions that most of the voppf in Egypt were divided into Toaapxfat. - 6 aroaEpnrtTCOC4raucav : take the,liftla part of. Cp. 4724: Philo 1469, De Migr. Abr. § 37 Tirv ydp ciTOV dao-


36. go-rat . . . jra+vX%y1L1vcL: analytic form of future perfect - s rE¢vab,tETQL. § 72.- & go-ovraL: the stress laid on the plurality of the years might justify the use of the plural verb here even in classical Greek. In Hellenistic


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 125 Genesis %LI 45 At~lAl~j." aZvHpEO'EV fSE Ta' pn'Htara EvavTiov (Dapai~ Kai EvavTiov iravrwv Twv wai8wv a$TOV · "real JOrEV 4)apais 7rao-ev Tois irac(Tiv avTOV " M-q Evp7j(ToM.EV avBpw7rov TocovTOV, os EXEC 7rvev/..ta BEOV Ev airrc~i;" $9EiaEV & O apaie Tui 'Iwmrj~ "ErrEC~-q' AEC~EV o BEOS a'oC advTa TavTa, o$K EcrTev avepwMros poveM,urrEpo; 07ov Kai wvETC~iTEpos. 4° w Eo- E~ri Tip 0MQJ M,ov, Kai &i Tai o-TOp,aTi o-ov vraKOVaErac zras o )1.aOS p.ov 7f)l'1v~ 1 e 41 17fEV 8E1 papav V TL Op rVOV U?TEOEew O'OV Eyr. » EL OO w w Tw IwmJ0 " 'I8ov, KaBcraTquCr o-E a/PEpov E'T.C raajs y7^/s Ac'yva- " 42 oTov. xai TrEpCEXo1.kEVOS 4)apac'o Tov 8aKruXcov aa Tis 9 X o' 0 &Z rq'v Xdpa la)"* Kal Etp ; aZTo~ IrIEPLIETIqKep a&'V EvEBvo-EV avTOV a-TOX~v 8VG-0-L'PIqV, rcai arEpcEBIqKEV KXocov XpvO-O& aEpi 7ov TpdX-q,ov avTOV · 'Kai avE,(3iRao-EV a$rov a . , a , r a . ~ . W Eat TO ap/la To 8EVTEpov TOM avTov, Kac EK'qpv~EV E1,c7po01eEv r , r ~ , > > n n a r avTOV Kr~pv~' rcac KaTE~T~Jowv avTOV E~ o~,~s T^s y'~s ACyv~r- Tov. 44EiaEV 8E 4)apam Tui'Iway0 "'Eyi~ 4)apaai · a vev aov , a ~ . r ~ . » ovrc e~apei OMEIV; T77'v XEipa avTOV EAt 7ra~rj y-O AcyvaTOV. 45 Kab EKd1 4)apac~ To ovoM,a 'Iw~-q'0 Tov®o/.Coak jx · rcai

Greek, however, the observation of the rule of syntax about the neuter plural is capricious. We have the plural again in 53 and 54 and in 4220. Cp. Ps. 1723,37.

40. arhflv : only . Cp. Jdg. 1416. - Tbv Apbvov: probably accusative of respect and vaep4~w intransitive.

42. Svco-fvqv: of fine linen. Hdt. 1186 speaks of the Egyptian mummies as being wrapt in Qlv&wv woclvq. - Kaovdv : from KXeEw. Properly a dogcollar.

43. &fjpv66v Kr)L.: in the Hebrew the verb is in the plural and the sentence runs thus-and they cried before, him

abrekh,' the last word being supposed to be Egyptian. If so, the Alexandrian

translator ought to have known what it meant. The Vulgate has here-c 1 amante prxcone ut omnes coram eo gems flecterent.-ufjpvt: this accentuation is correct in principle, since the v is naturally long, but the word is generally written rcjpuE, like ¢oiv:i;.

44. 'E-y& -tapalu : So sure as I am Pharaoh.

45. TovAop.+avfjX : Jos. Ant. II 6 § 1 apoQriybpevcev afrrJv *oBoA0b,vrlxov . . . Q77pafve: 'YAP Td gvolAa KpU7TWV EUpE rhv (finder of hidden things). The Vulgate here has-Vertitque nomen eius, et vocavit eum lingua .Egyptiaca, Salvatorem mundi. Crum in Hastings' Diet. of the Bible



Genesis XL1 46 ESWKEY aVTfVI T'I~V 'Ao-EYYEB wyaTEpa IIETpEoj iepEWs `HAiov

ltoxEws a$T~ ELT yvvaiKa. 46'Icoo-10 8E 7v ETiw Tpta- KOYTa OTE EO'T'Y~ EvaYT60Y 4)apacj,8ao-6XECds At' ytirrTOV. E~jABEY SE 'IWTO EK irpoac')aov 45apaco', Kai &~XBEV Tra(rav yiw Aiyvi rTOV. 4Kat E'f067QEV !R1 y11 Y T06; Ec7Tav EaTEQGY T'1S Ev®'I~- vias 8payjjara · "Kai wv-q`yayev atavTaTd apaip,ara Twv E7rTd ETCw Ev ois jv j EvBqvta Ev y~ Aayv7rTOV, Kat EB1qKEV TN a Rpce- M,aTa Ev Tais roAEcrw · 80 'PtaTa Tmv 7rE8uw Tiffs TrAECes ri;jv KvK,w a$Tjs'SZv EB1qKEY Ev aUT~. 49Kat wlrr~yayEV 'hoo-r/~ QiTOY c~o'Ei T77V aM,p,ov T1qs BaXa~-qs 7ro,vv o-0058pa, Zeus ovk ~wvaTO aptBpq^oa· ov yap ~v apcep,os. 'Tw 8E ~. , Icocnqo Eyevovro vaot 8vo 1rpo Tov E'X0e^&v Ta EaTa ETA Tov Xb~tov, oils ETEKEV aVT,;,) 'AQEVLEB BLyaT'Yjp IIETpEoi 6yEfDs `HXiov VAEWs. NKaAE0-EV 8E 'IWai'lo To ovop,a rov 7rpW- ToTOKOV Mavvacr"' WYO)v ""On E7rtXa0e'*010a& p,E ErioEV o 77 BEOS Wawrmv TOW 7ovWV p.ov Kai advTWV Twv TOD raTpos Hcov · "

explains the word from the Egyptian, as meaning I God speaks (and) he lives.' -'AwEVVI9: Jos . Ant. 116 § 1 'Acavift: Hebrew Asenath : Vulgate Aaeneth. The name is said to mean

' dedicated to Neith:' - IIETps*~ Hebrew Poti phera`. The Greek name is identical, and the Hebrew very nearly so, with that of the captain of the guard. It is explained to mean

gift of the Sun-god' - Greek Heliodorus. -`Hatov ,rdaECOS : Heliopolis, the Hebrew On and Egyptian An, lies about 10 miles to the north-east of Cairo. It was the site of a great temple of the Sun. An obelisk dedicated to this god is still standing on the site of the temple of Ra (i.e. the Sun) at Heliopolis. Op. Ex. III 'Op, j Ivrcv 'HXEov ir6Tgs. For the form of

the proper name cp. Gen. 4628 'Hp45mv irAw.

47. 8p6ypaTa : handfuls, indicating plenty. 377 n.

48. 4v ots jv ii eb9,qvta : perhaps this points to a better reading than that of our present Hebrew text. -Ppdn paTa : the omission of the article is only due to its absence from the He brew. The Greek, as it stands, must be construed thus - the food of the city -plains that are round about On it self did he put therein. But there is no mention here of On in the He brew.

51. Mavvaoo-j: making to forget. Jos. Ant. II 8 § 8 arEWaEvEC E' ~rnilBov. -'RCtVT41V Tow T0O ararp6g p,ov : all my father's house, or possibly neuter, as in Lk. 249, ail nay father's afails.


Genesis %L11 b I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 127 v v ~ r , r , r «a a r b2TO b`E OYO~A,a TOV ~EVTEpOV EKa)IEQEY E~payc, OTC v~u~O'EY JuE O BEOi ev y~ Ta7fE6VCV0'ECDS EtI.OV." "IIapjXBov &7d ETrTd , . d , . , , . '. i . , ETA Tiffs EvBT)vcas a EyEVETO Ev y~ AayvrrT~, 'Kai ~p~avTO Ta

s , . , . ETrra ETT) ToD Xy.oU EP XEaBac, KaBa EcTrev IcoOno. Kac Eyes

VETO Xc/,cos Ev aaO-?7 T~ y~ ~ Ev 8E Trd o--o A At' yumrov o$K ~o-av aproc. "Kai EaEivaawv orawa j yj AiyvTrTOV; EKEKpa eEV 8E Tras o Laos Typos (Dapaio Trepi aprwv · ETiTrev $E d)apaw araov Tois AiyvTrTiocs " IlopevEO-8E Typos 'IW& rj0, Kai o Eav Ei7r~ vp,iv TrocTjo-am" 56Kai o XcM,os 7'jv Eiri rrpo(roinrov irao-71s T~s yes ~ a vE(peEV 8E 'IE)0410 Travras Tovs 0-cro,Qo1M)Vas, Kai c ' 'Xct 1TELo-t ToZ,; AlyvirT' t5. 5'Ka' ^ C irw to I 7rao-a& at x%~pac JXBov , ~. , , , , , Ecs Acyvarov ayopa~ECV Typos I~0 · ErrEKparr~EV yap o Xc/,cos Ev Trd0- ,q r- y~. 1, c. c. , , a , ~ _ , , . q n IOCOY OE IaKCJ~ on Ed-Ttv 7TpaQ'6S EV AIyVTTTEd EE7fEV TOGS e , ~~a r e g, v , r a , v n vcois avTOV "'Iva Tc paBvp,EirE; c8ov aKT)KOa OT C E~Tav tyros Ev AiyvTrTW ' Ka.Ta,8-qTE EKED Kai TrpLao-BE yu.iv E.ccKpa apc~- pt.aTa, iva ~E7)[tEV Kai M.-q' aTroBavcoM,EV." $KaTE,8T)(Tav SE of a&aooi 'IEa~'q"0 of 8EKa Trpiao-Oat o-iTOV Ee AiyvTrTOV , , , , , . , TOP ~E BEVCaje.ECV T0`v a&Xoov Ic~a-rJ0 OUK aTfEQrEG)lEV ~A.ETa Twv a8Ecw airrov ~ Jam yap " MTj TrorE owp,Rq -^ avri~ /u,aXa- Kia:' $qXBov 8e' of viol 'Io-pa~A ayopdCECV M,ETd Tiw Epxo- 52. '4p&p : explained differently the same as that which in the nest in the Hebrew, ° for God hath made me verse is translated oiros. - Yva rt: fruitful.' Jos. Ant. II 6 § 1 has sometimes written as one word EvarE. another interpretation -6 U vewrepos This way of expressing 'why' is 'E¢pafWns ~ ksro&soas U roOTo Q,EwaEvet, common in Biblical Greek (e.g. Gen. did rd droBoBiwac adTdv rp iXevBepE~E riw 444 7, 4716 : Ex. 54~ 15,22: Mt. 2748 ,rpoyGvorv. Acts 7ze), from which it is imitated 55. lrrefvao·sv : § 2b. - 4K1KpqEY : by St. Augustine in the Latin formula reduplicated 1st aorist. § 20, ut quid (e.g. C.D. IV 18). It is 56. l,r1 wpoo·lo,rov : a Hebraism. - not unknown to classical writers. cvrosohowas: ,granaries. From aiTOS Plat. Apol. 26 C Yva TE rairra AEyets; and pb,XXm. Only here in LXX. S'y91ap. 205 A. 1. ,rpdws : a market, Latin an- 4. palaKEa : cp v. 38 paXaracBiEvat, none. In the Hebrew the word is 4429 for the meaning of I harm.'


128 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %L11 6 , T e a / ~ g ~ p,EVtw · rJv yap o XyosEv y~ Xavaav. gIwo-q~SE ~v apXcw rjS yjs, ovros EircoAEwravTi Tip Xa(; T~s y'r/s · AeoY- t f > TES ~E oc aBE1ov fImO-r~'o 1rpo0-EKVV?7(rav avT(A) EM rrpo(Tc)7oY OEM T71v y~v. 7i8iav & 'Icl~01,qN0 Tovs a&Xoovs avTOV E7rEyvco, K j, VT L a &S a a& XoTp&o^ o &ir' a&(~V Ka' A ',-qo-Ev abTO^ O-KX-qp ', Kai drEV avTOis " noBEV jKaTE; " of 8E Ebrav "'EK yjs X avaav, f ff a~ ayopaaav /3pwHcara. ErrEyvcO 8E IcOano Tovs a8EX0ovs a$rov, avTOi 8E ovK E7rEyvmo-nv airTOV · 9 Kai E1,cYrj0-B71 'Iaa~No TmY Evvrrvicw cw REV avros. Kai Ei7rEV airrois " KaTaOKOrroi EmrE, KaTavo~o-ac Ta ixv71 Tis Xc6)pas 7jKaTE." i°ov 8E Eirrav "OvXi, KvpcE · o a aaiBES 0'ov iAeopEV zrpcd(Tao-Ba&,8pco'1.caTa · 1 I 1 I ) / 1 / ) ! ) it E01,,cev vcoc EPOS av8pc) rrov, Ecprwcrcoc E~p,EY · ovK Ecwv of aaiBES O-ov KaTaTKOaoc." 12EiVEV 8E avrois "OvXi, aAAa "Td iXY) Tris Y7 s rl 'pXBaTE iBEiY. oi 8E Eiaav "OeBEKd f t E0-1JEY oc 7ra_a8E,S O-ov a8EXOo, Ev yXavav · Ka vo o vEc ~ a c v C0- Epos ~.tETd Tov TtaTpos itm7v ayp,epov, o 8E ETEpos ovX vadp- XEC." 14EirrEV 8E a$rois 'Icoo-O " T OVTO CO-TCV o Eip7lKa $p,iv, XEyCJY OTG KOLTdLO'K07T06 EO'TE' 15EY T07JrCJ oaYEGQBE · v77 7-71v vycav (Dapac,), ovf /c q E~EB'qTE EYTUBEY la' v ~c./17'7 oa'8EX0o s v/Awv o vECJJ'repos EX9~ iaBE. i°airomTEAaTE Ee vM,mv Eva,

KCI,L AOG,&TE TOY Of.8EX0OV U,.t(NY' VJ.tEGS &1Td'X01q7-C E"(05 TOD

oxYEpOt yEVEQBa6 Ta p'l7'ltaTa 1JILCJY, E6 OGX'Y~BEtiETE ' OZ ' El 8E

, t I I I 9 1 f 17 11 M.~, v7) T71v vycav 4)apa0jI, Eyq Y K aTa(rKOaoa CUTE. Kac 7. jK0.rf : perfect of JKlu, used only in the plural. § 26.-6yopbane Pplo- para : § 77. 9. rd LXvri : R. V. ° the naked- ness.' li. stprivLKOt: R.V. ! true men.' 12. ,jk9arE : § 18. 15. vil rilv Sytav: so in v. 16. v>5 occurs nowhere else in the 1.YX. irytna commonly appears in

late Greek as vylEla, here as dyEa. § 10.

16. a,rdX9rirE : be ye seat to prison. 1st aorist imperfect passive. 3921 n.;l ov" : in the second alternative of a dependent disjunctive question either oE; or ,ah may be used. Cp. Plat. Rep. 461 D Kai d'KOx(J/LEV, el 'hgV xphxE! 3j O6 with 339 A el U aAqB~s 3j wh, xElp6,oopa! pa,6eiv.-sl pftv - verily = J wh v. § 103.


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 129 Gene& %LII 21 c EBETO aLTOLS Ev OVXaK'~ qii TPE6S ' 1 gE6TTEV OE aVTO6S T'~)'~ j1A,EpiqG TV rpav " T OVTO ?TO6'Y~QaTE, Kal ~~QEUBE ' Top BEw yap EyCd ooaov/Xna. 19E6 EbpYw6K06 EO'TE, d.(SEX0OS LI.tfdv CIS KC(.Ta(rXEB'Y~TCJ Eli T~ OvXaK'Y~ ' aLTOV ~E ~a(S~O'aTE Kal C(,7TayaG- yETE TOY ayOpaQtiOV T~S QbTO8OO`LC1.S VI.LCUV, 21KaL TOL OG8EX(hOY 1IJA,lOV TOY VE&;TEP0V KQTaynyETE 7fpOS ItE, Kab 7l6QTEV8'Yj0'OVTd,L TOG prjj_i,aTa vj.ccw' E6 BE IA-q, avroBavi` EaoirjQav OE a 21 v T a v TO' V v ~ ~~ r ovrc)s. Kaa EwEV Eis 1rpos Tov aBEA0ov avTOV Nat', s e r r 'v ~ ^ e a e r Ev a~,tapraa yap C'0-~.tEV 7rEpt TO; a~E~ov ~~,i,iw, oTC v~rEpaBo- fA,EV T??V BVqjw T~s OvXjs aVTOV OTC KaTEUETO 'YlIMJV Kal OVK f r a a r a f ~ e c Ea~IqKOVorajxEV avTOV ' E VEKEV TOUTOV E7T~XBEV Eo~/ias r a m $g s v v c v T ~ ^ GG B~.yras av" . aVoKptBEw ~E Pov,8~v EiaEV avTOis OvK EXd ~~a-a UIu.iv XEymv ` M' a&K'O-rJTE To araa8aptov'; Kal > r r . ~ . . r » ovK Et,o'r/KOV~aTE I.i,ov' Kal asov To atM,a avTOV EK~IqTEirac. $3airrOi Se' OUK E6Orav 6 aKOEL 10) , o yY8 OTUcrjo ap Epp1~VEUT'S avd IA.Eo-OV aLTIOV 'qY ' ~ a 7roa~Tpac~Eis tSE 01.?f airriw EKkavo-Ev 'IcDoIff. Kai 7raAtv vpoo'~XBEV apos avTOVS Kai Ei7rEv a$TOis' Kal EXa,8EV Tov IvItEiw aa' avTi~v, Kai E~o-Ev a$TOV EvavTiov avTivv. 25EYETEVIaTO 8E 'IceO"0 EM,rXia~av r Ta ayyta avTWV a'tTOV, Kal a7ro8ovvav To apyvpcov EKatrTOv Eis Tov o~ciKKOV avrov, xai 8ovvav avTOis ErrcwTVO'M,ov Eis Tiw r . ~ r ~ 26 . 'r ^ o~ov. Kat EyEVrjer~ avrois OUT COs. KOLL E7fLBEYTES TOY Q6TOv ~ v v *> > ^ '21 X r v z v E7Tt TOYS OYOLS avTWV a?T'I~IBOV EKEGBEV. v~as lSE E6S TOV M.apovMrov avTOV, &vvaa yopTao-jt,aTa Tois ovots avTOV OZ

19. d&xX+bs vwwv its: the genitive is shown by the Hebrew to be possessive, not partitive - one of your brethren, not one of you brothers. -TOV dyopao-pov rjs avTO8oc(as SWmv: the corn you have purchased. BcroEoala is properly I a gratuitous distribution of corn.' Cp.,frumentatio, Suet. Aug. 40, 42.

20. 'IfV?Tf118'hVOVTQV Td MILaTa SWaov: cp. 4186 d fQOVTae.-Ivot,~cav 61

oirrcus : these words are also in the Hebrew, but they seem to be misplaced in this context.

22. `PovPiv : 372~.

23. dvd pilrov : common in L%%, e.g. Gen. 4914: Nb. 26w, 3017. Cp. i Cor. 85.

25. myyta: = dyyeia. § 37.

27. its; § 2. - wipv-~mrov : Hebrew saq whence, through the Greek




E7Tdr.VCD TOU o-TO/AaTOS TOU (_tap0'Ir.7T7fOU' 28KQ,C EVTfEy TOGS G'.SEX- OOLS aVTOV "'A7TE8OB'1~ /-L06 TO apytlplOY, Ka6 GOOU TOUTO Eh TGJ M,apo-i7r7rco M,ov." Kai Ee&7 j Kap8ia avTi~v, Kai ET' r r "r 'r c . c 7l uav apoS a~.~,77 AovS ~.E'~/OVTES Tt Tovro Eaoy~EV o BEOS ~~.civ; 2s'Y~)180V 8E?fpOS 'IaK,~R TOV 7TaTEpa aLT(dv E19 y?/v Xavaav, K I & ' uXav ct&~J 7T' Ta T' 0-Vp,84E,81qK'ra a' oZ; XE'Yov- a& 7r7)yy I ap a 0 VT TE9 $°"AEAaX1qKEV o avBpoI7roS o KVP' rig y~s 7Tpos j/aa.s O-KX77poi, Kat EBETO jp&s Ev 0vAaK,q^ ws KaTa(TKOaEUOVTaS T71V yj1I. 31EilTaild.EV 8E aUTGI `Eip?jvcrcoi Ea~1.cEV, OVK EUILtEV KOCTaO-KO- 9TOL' g2 8(o'8EKa 068EAO06 EQI.A,EV, v601. TOU ?faTpOS ?j/.tQIY' O EVS OVX e r e r v v e r f vrrapxEt, o SEv M,iKpoTEpo; M,ETa Tov 7raTpoS qjAcov o-qNtEpov as y~v Xavaav.' 3sEi7rEV 8E jp,w o avBpceTros o xliptoS Tjs yes r r J TL r ~ a . v Ev TovTw yvceToI,tEBa JTL E~p-qKKOV 40-TE · a&EX0ov ba aOETE CJ OE jA,ET' EI.tOU, r0'v 8E ayopao-p,ov ris criTOsoo'iaS vM,cw XaaovTES airEJaTE' 34Kai aydyETE apos /tE Tov aBEX0ov c ~ r ~ r a ~ r r v/a,c,)v Tov vECOTEpov, Kal. yvceo-oj.tav oTt OV KaTaCKO7rov E(TTE, a~l~l' OTL ELP71VLKOL EQTE' Ka6 TOh U,8aoOV yCJL Q,7TO8liJUld L~(,LV, KOGL 7-,q yq -^ E'117TOPE&TOE.'

and Latin, our I sack.' Here the bag containing the asses' provender. In Xen. Anab. iv 3 § 11 it is used of a clothes-bag, and spelt Wdpot,ros. The word has a diminutive, which occurs in the forms tzapo-Lacov, tzapvfaarov (Sir. 1888), WapvdaEZOV, and japvv7rtov; Latin marsupium, whence ° marsupial' of an animal with a pouch. -rdv Sea-wdv rufr apyvp(ov avroir : the tying up of his money, i.e. his money tied up. See the plural of this expression in v. 36 . In classical Greek BEapof often means imprisonment,' e.g. Plat. Rep. 378 D, Symp. 195 C, whereas dEQAd means chains,' e.g. Plat. Euthph. 9 A, Acts


2028, Luc. Prom. 1. The use of SECpoE in v. 35 is in accordance with the implied principle that, when 8ECLabs is an abstract noun, its plural is BEVpot. In Jdg. 1514 however we have 3Ea'Awf - 8evwb,. - _sr&vW Tog mrbWaTOS : a pleonasm for at the mouth of.

32. ILVKpbTEpOS : = YEWTfpOS III v. 13. - Ets yw Xavb,av : § 90.

33. &,araAaTE : § 18.

34. rj yj _W,ropE4Ea-9E: imperative.

35. KaraKEVOV"v: this word occurs again in the L%% in ii A. 13s ; otherwise it does not appear to be known.


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 131 Genesis %LIII 5 vovv avovTovv s QaKKOVSrKKOVS avi~v, Katvt 3?'IV EeKar(TTOV o 8EO-,,cos Tov apyvpiov Ev Tui 0-aKK&,j a$TUw ~ Kal i&v rov's 8Eo-jioV'3 Tov apyvpiov av'r(4 avot Kat, 65 aaT-qp avfTCw, Ka,t Ef0oar7r 8?7- as E7rEV 8aav. E avf rois f IaKw,3 0 7raT-qp avrwv E~,tE?'TEK- VCJQaTE' 'IwUYq(p OLK EUTtv, %LjA.EC.w OVK EQTbv, Kal TOV BEVb- v r f f f v f r r ff a/tE6v X'Y~iIA,tJIEUBE' ET f EJA.E E'yEYETO ?favTa TavTa. $7EVTfEv y c v . > r ~~ v r e r f r ~E ToN Tip aaTpt avrov AEywv To',; Svo vcovs j.tov aao- f r f . , r , f , f IN % KTEtvov, Eav 1.67 ayayw avrov apos (TE ' Los avrov Ets Trw xEipa 1.tov, Kdy('#j avaew airrov apos al." sso 8E W rev "Ov KaTaR4qETaa o vteors pov ucO' vp~)v, oaTt o a&Aoos aurov arE r

Bavev, Kai avros p,ovos KaTaXAEanTav · Kal wp.,840'ETav avrov M.aXaKw9~vaa Ev T?^ o~ia ~ av TropEVE0-6E, Kal KaTaeETE 110v To' y~pas Ni.ETa, Xvrr77s Eis a8ov."

lO 8E. Xya.o so.s EfvtrO-xvO-EV EM. T7)s y7) s. 2 EfyervETO 8E, jvKa QvvETEXEo-av KaTa0ayeiv Tov O-iTOV ov 7'?veyKav E~ AiyvaTOV, Kai durEV airrois o TraT'p a$rcw "IIaAav iropev6EVTES 7rpiao-BE ~J.tiv M,tKpd E(ip04taTa." 'E'~airEV $E a$r~ 'Iov8as XEywv "Otap.i.apTVpia &aj.tE/,taprvp-qTac ~/,tiv o oiv8pw7ros XEywv ` OvK 4Ea~6E To. 7rpo0-wrrovrv pov Efa. v ~~. O aBXoOS vtttwv o vEwr


rEpos Kara,87,^7 7rpos p.E.' 'El p,EV OUV a7roo-TAAws Tov a8EX0ov jj.ti~v pEB' ~1,i,cw, KaTa,(3r/o-o~.tEBa Kai ayopa(rw/,tEV Boa Rp(ji M,ara · 5Ei 8E p.~ aaoaTAXEis To v a8EA0ov 7' /,tEB' jp.iw, o$ 7ropsv0-o/tEBa' o yap avBpwrros EiaEV j/,tiv XEywv `O$K

0*01EO-0c' 110V To' 1rp05G-0)7T0V C(XV 111q' 6 d84EX063 ~JAJV 6 VC&EPOS

-Ql1KKOVS: the Hebrew word is the same for which udpa-orros was used in v. 27.

36. '1iTEKYGrIa'aTE : C 'p. 4314 : 1 K.1683 fcaBbrc YT&VWOEV yuvaircas ~ po,u¢aEa oov, our:vs (1rEKYG7B'I;GErat arc yvpaLKr0v ,ufirfip a·ov. - XfjW*ECAE : § 37 . - _? _pE _y_vEro : have come upon me. 38. WaMKwBiwaf,: 4 n. 3. W apaprvpE¢ &vap.EWapr$p?Fas: cognate dative § BI. 4. KaTahc6WE8a Kat b,yoplMafpEV:

this combination of the future with the aorist subjunctive recurs in Es. 88. It is more intelligible when the sentence is interrogative, as in Gen. X18


132 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis XLIII 6 a e S ~ if 8 T v lo-pa r " r a i /.ce8 v~,ccw IJ. ecrrev ~e ~A Tc EKaKO1rovrjo-aTe la,oc, avayyeLAavs TivBpcjrq) eca eo-Tw v'piv a, ;80,0os oc 8e ei7rav "'Epcorwv Ea-qpcorq(rev 7//aas o avBpcaVos Kal T-q'v yeveav 71r%w, X cm 'Eta e`TC o aaT. p ' cov C; eca ~av oEy r/v/t~ rav vja_ aseaO s; Kai a7r'qyyeiXaj.tev avTUi Karl Tiw E7repw'T77avv avrov. fn,-q Y a . <a , a . ~ a " 8 ~ ,q 8ec~.tev ec epei ~~.civ Ayayere Tov a~e~ov v~,ci~v; ecaev 8e a . . f . '. a& OZ IovBas ~rpos Io-pa·~ Tov aaTepa a&OZ A7ro(TTecXov To vacUpcov ftET' ?JAOV, Ka6 aYarTaVTES 7fopEVQOptEBa, C'Va ~~jjxev . a .~ . . .~ a Kae M.77 a7roBavcoM,ev Kal rJM,eis Kac w Kal r/ a7ro(rrcevr~ 77M,cw. 9 EyID 8E EK8EXO/.LaG a1lTOY, EK xecpo; UOV t~r~o-ov a$TOV ~ E av a . a , a

'4 ayayco avrov 7rpos (TE Kac o-r~o-w arTov evavrcov arov, 1o a

jjuaprrirc(j's eGrop,ac vpos QE vaa-as Tas j/.cepas. EL M,r~ yap E,(3pa8vva1..cev, 7*IS-q av vae(rTpepa~tev his." 1IEl7rEV $E a a '7k 6 v a " a a a , n , avTOis I~pa·~ 0 7rar77p avri~v El ovrc~s e0rtv, TOV70 7roa7l- mare ' X a1/QETE OGTfO TGJY Kap?TfoY Tjs y7)s ev Tois ayyiocs vp~)v, rcai KaTayayere Tui a.vBpoivoj Upa T1^s peTiv77s Kal Tov 1.,CEXc- Tos, BvN,iaua Kal a~TarcT~v Kal TepEM,cvBov Kai Kapva. 12rcai Tf &4KO'R0G'fl0'aTi KTX.: Why did ye do me so ill a turn as to . . . P 7. E,rl, .4Trio-EV ;1W&s: asked about us. The construction is good Greek. Cp. Hdt. vii 100-sraplaaEE srapd r&s apcupas TtZv veLUV, i7rELpWTgLOY re EKfiGTQIS oMfws Kai Tdv xErJv Kai dsroypa¢G,uEVOS. -Et ITV: § 1«l.

8. 41r·RO?KEV'h : the Hebrew word here used is.translated L little ones' in Gen. 3420, 438, 466 : Ex. 1010, 24, 1287 : N b. 1827, 319, 3218, 17, 24, 28: nt. 2014. 'A>ro?KEU1s is a word of vague meaning, something like our L gear' or L belongings,' or the Latin impedimenta. See Ex. lOlo n., and cp, i Chr. 621: ii Mac. 1221.

8. tKSIXowaL: the Hebrew word which is here represented by 4KUXo,LLa,c 1s formed from the same Semitic root as G,ppa,6wv, ° pledge,' which was borrowed

by the Greeks from Semitic traders. Perhaps tKUXopaL adTdv may be ren. dered ° I undertake him.' -~papT7)KLas Io-op,av: literally I shall be having sinned. Analytic form of future perfect. § 72.

il. ~4TIY'hS : 3726 n. Josephus (Ant. II 6 § 6) has here T6 re T'%Is #aXLfvou

/LUpOV Kai d·Td.KT'IIY, TEp9j6LYBGY re Kai jLLAL. -AvWfawa: instead of continuing the partitive genitive the construction reverts to an accusative after rcarayl yETE. - v'TaKTfjv : 3726 n. - T EpEtLev9ov : Tip- '.LLVBOS, TEpEJALVBOS, TEpipLYBOS (Is. 180,

61$) are different forms of the name of the tree which is known in botany as pistacia terebinthus. Tip pLVBos does not occur in Swete's text, in which repiuty9os is the prevailing form. Pistachio-nuts are here


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH Genests XLI11 IS r0' &p ' t ov 8to-o-o'V Xd,8ETE Ev rals X1EP0%'V ~IJZV To' lip YVP YV- 6 airoo-Tpao' 9v rols papat Trots ~tk(6 &7r0(TTPAAarE ptov To tir 13 tkfO' ~JL~OV - U WOTE &yV6-%td' 4?artv. Kat To'V j8,EX0o'V ~[L~OV Xa',86TE, Ka'l a'va(rTd'vrE3 Kardfl-q7-4E irpok To"v jvOpcoirov. 14 6 81 OE Ig UOV 8 1 1 E 0 n vptv Xaptv EvavTtov Tov avop C07roV, Kat d7roorTa'XaL To'V a8EX~6V V'I.LW'V TO'V E'va Kal Tov Bevmlidv- Eyo) [LEV yap KaOa' 7')TE'Kv(a/.tat, ~,r1E`Kv&juaL-" "Aa,86VTC3 SIE' ol (WpEq ra' 8(~pa ra~,ra Kalb To' &Py I tov 8tirXoDv 1E*Xa,8ov VP 9V Ta2q XEpo-L'V CtV'7&^JV, Kat ro'v Bma~kdv- Kal d'vaa*ravTeg ov lojo- KaT es A&'yV7T70V, Kal fo-njo-av evam` "'&&V 8E' 'Icoo-'o a&ov'g Kal TG'v BEv&a1,&E'1v Top a'8,EXOO'v abTov^ ??TP 97' Tis OLIK' TOV 61A0,U LOV, Kal evErEt`Xar0 T~O L tas ar7ov Ewa- yay,Etv Tovi; dvOpco'Trovs dq r'v 01KCav Ka'& aod v Ov'lAaTa fo Kat EToL1aao-ov - pET ElioD yap Odywra& ol JvOpcozrm a'pTovg 7' Lav. "97r0L'-q0-.EV 8c' 6 d*vu9p-&J7r03 KaOa' e7L7rEV T 7V lle(rnlliep, '10J0- Ka' E10- ' a-/Ep 7-ov's a6u'poi'7rovs els T7'JV OCKLaV 71Y ,I(A)(7- W '81'80'PrE3 8E' oll dlvOpanrm JTL E1o-,qv1E'X0-qo-av d's Top Ebrav "At' T' ipy' 17roa7paociv 4?v roZs 05LKOZI 'Ioiaq I a o vptop To a liapo-t?rvots i[L(4 T'V dp 6 jpEZs elaay' Oct, roZ (TVKO- ,q Xq 01i meant by TepgJALPOOS. KdPVOL a gen- as in Ex. 1317 /AJ iroTe AeTaAeNjo-0 7-~ eral name for nuts. Here rendered Xa~. almonds I in the RX., as in Nb. 178. 14. 64-9: § 30. - T bv Iva we 12. Bura-6v: Btaw6s and Tptaa& are should say I your other brother,' and good Greek for 'double,' 'treble.' This so does the Hebrew. The Greek reading series of multiplicatives never got any may be due merely to a confusion be further. For &ao-& ep. 4522. It occurs tween two letters in the Hebrew. The eight times in the LXX. - &iroicrrp~- reference is to Simeon 4224.-1-1& ILJV: *cLTt : bring back. Unclassical. Cp. the A& here serves merely to empha v. 21, 448: Ex. 108. Often intransitive sise the 417(~ or else contrasts it with go back, as in Ex. 1317. - I LJ VOTE . . . the 6/4, which has gone before, invert AO-TLV: /AJ 70TE = haply. The expres- iDg the usual order. § 39. Sion perhaps originated in an ellipse iL6. 6lLo1&*p&ov: Gen. 4619.-T~v of some word like 6pa. Cp. Jdg. 31: pc-,11&Pp(%v: § 66. iii K. 1827. This is more evident 18. TOO O'VKO+cLvrlo-cLL . . . TOO XcL when the verb is in the subjunctive, Pew: 59. Y 'AF


134 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis XL111 19 OaVTiuac Kalb E7rcBET9at jlIiv, Tov Xa;QEiv jtLas Eis zrai8as Kai Tovs ovovs" 197TpOo-EABOJTES 8E apos Top Y a W a a I a a av9pWVov Top E~rc TOV OcKOV Icj(rr~o E,a~-qa-av avT%1 Ev Tai ?lvXGelv6 TOl! 06KOU 2°)lEyOVTES "~EO~,tEBLL, KiJpIE' KOI,TEa')7ttEV T'Yw apxw aptao-Oat j8pcdrtcaa , 2Kac EyE'VeTo 7v/Ka Iq~Bo~.c E VBo~cEV a Els ~To KaTawo-ac Kai hvoieal.CEV rov'q Mapo-ir7rovs Jltcw, Kai rO'8,E r 0' j LOV 4Kd"(TT0V 1-P ^ /iapo4 mm) avrov. TO apyVPLOP pyvp TV I jN,~ov Ev o-TaBp,qi aVE01rp4a/u.EV uvv Ev Tois M,ap0-ia7rocs j/.ccov, 'Kai apyvpcov Erepov hvEyKatLEuu,EB' Eavrmv ayopd o,ac 8paiM,aTa ' Ok oiBaM,EV rL"g Eve,8aXEv ro' apyv'ptov E613 Tovs /.cap(TiV7rovs j/.ccw." 'EirrEV 8E a$rois o avBpwros cc °IX CWT vM,iv, M.7% 0o,QEi0-®E' 0 BEOS vM,mv Kai o BEGS Tivv aaTE pulv vJCiav EBWKEV V'/"^v B7jo-avpovs E'p roig p.apo-iaaots vp.i~v ' S apy cov vIViv ESoKCpovv aa aEXcJ. > Kac EeyayEv aPo s To E vP avrovs IvIcEaiv, 'Kai -O'vEyKEV v8clp vioac rov'g rro8as airri~v, Kai 71VCYKCV xOpTaQ'ftaTa T06 S OvOGS aUT(DV. 25'Y7TOL~.taQav OE ra' Ofdpa ECJS TOV ElIBELV 'ICdO"o htEQ'Yjj,t,8pia ' 'Y~KOVUaY 26yap on EKEC JtEUEC apaa-Tav. EGQ~XBEV 8E 'IGJQ0 EL"; Tqv oiKiav, Kai apo9-rjveyrcav a$TUi ra% 8c~pa 'a E'&'Xop ev raZq a a T / a a / xEpacv avrivv Ecs Tov ocKOV, Kac 7rpo0-EKVV1q(rav avTUi Eat 7rp0a- a ldfOV Evt TIw yip. 2hpCdrT-qQEV OE avrov,s « TMs ExEE of ; E Kab 67EV aUTOCs " Ec vyatvEOr raT7p vr/.tCUV O ?IpEQRTEpOS Ov

20. KaT4hpAv: for K4Tafll£uTES KaT& i9,4gev, the Hebrew idiom being for once neglected where it seems to have no particular force.

21. e!s Td Karah9cav: the Hebrew word rendered I lodging-place' in the R.V. seems to have been understood by the Greek translator of the process of putting up for the night. Josephus (ant. 116 § 8) has here K0.T OIKOV. - Kal Td&: this second Ka! marks the

apodosis. § 40.-_v o-ra9w~: in full weight.

23. 'UECOS vpfv : se. eYj d Aebs. Cp. i Chr. 1119 MeWS pot b Bebs roO rotivac Tb A~14a Tov"TO : Mt. 1622. R. V. ` Peace be to you.' The Hebrew word here used is connected with the Arabic salaam. -svSoKyoOv d,aIXw : 1 have to my full satisfaction. Cp. Mt. 82 da_xoucc Tbv AtuBbv avTwv. The Hebrew is simply ' Your money came to me.'


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 185 Genesis XLIII 34 EVraTE; t N; "oL' S' J av -Tyta' EIr 5 E Or cm o 7raw a-ov to 7raT-qp t jllidV, ETC ,q. Kat Elbmv " E V'X0yIqT0'-; 6 (1POPW709 &&0 T 29 OE(~." Kal Ki'~PaVTE~ 7rpOO-EKVV?7crav. ava,8k' as 8E' TOIS 600aXfko4 'Iwo-'o IMEP BEmaikEltv ro'v a'8EXOo"v abTOZ To"V SILO- lj~ 7PLOV, KOLL EbrEv aZroZq OV'7-0'*; E(r-rtv 6 a'8EX003 VIAO)v 0 VEO)- TIE 7TP 3 11 -/ayELV Ka E117rev " '0 OE e 77 TEP03, OV 'ELITa 0 E a L 0 a-aL O-E, 7-EKVOV. "E7-apa'XO-q 8E" 'hao-'O- oww-rp' cro yap IV' a'8EX0,L a&0~, Kal Et~TE& KXaZa-a& 6 ri Ta EvrEpa avrov p E&TEX00M 8E' ELI'; 70' Ta/i&Jov C"KXav(TEv EKi. 8'Kal vt*a'/IEVoq To ITPOO-W7TOV e~Exoc*t')V E,VEKpa7Ev(raTo, Kat ELVEV "Ilapa'OETE 82 apTOV4;. KaL 7rapEO-qKav abroi IkoVq), KaL ab70Z-; KatT E'av- TOVS, Kat TOZq Alymm'ov; roZ,; o-vv8eLIrV0V(T&V 1J.ET' ai)To~ Kat? 011 V v Alyv'irrtot awea- mv I.LeTa T&)v &VTO O~ yap e8v' aVTO ol 'B,8patcov JpTOV3, 88Avylia y dp go-Ttv roEs Alyvirrtov; iraq 83 1TOL11 V 1TP0,8dr(ov. 4EKd'0tTav 8E' 9PaVTC`0v a&o~, 6 zrpai- 0TOK03 KaTa Ta 7rpr:(r,86a aV'TOV Kat 0 VE&)Tfp0-; KaTa TIqV VEOIT-qTa avToZ - geto-Tavro 8E' ol' alv0pwiro& E'KaTTOS irpo'g TO'V &8EX00'P a&oZ. pav 8E' pept8a 7rap' a&o~ irpo's aZTov's 17 ~tL.EyaX60,q 8E' pxpls BEma/Aelp 7rapa' 7a's pEpC8a-; irdmov 7TEVTa1rXa(rC`&)9 7poNS TaNS E9Kf&'V(0V. EMOV Se' Kal c,uc0V'0'8-qaav pET' abToZ. 28. 6 rats a-ov: thy servant. See 33. it(w-ravTo: the word which 4020 n. - KOLI *UMV ... T~ Oe~ not in commonly expresses the feeling of the Hebrew. surprise is here used for the expres 29. etwmTe: = ye promised. sion of that feeling. - I K&U-T09 1rPat T6V 30. UTVW-Tpi~ETO KTX. his &6CX+6V QtTOG: each to his brother heart yearned over his brother.'- to one another. The Hebrew is I each -r%RLe&ov: ep. Mt. 66 for this use of to his neighbour.1 34. jpav: so. ol retlies. - Ilm-Ict -raluetov as a private chamber. § 10. 31. IVGKp&T6a-cLro: he controlled MAq wapi: 378 n. The general himself. statement I was larger than I is further 32. PS&vylut ... lr&s wmp~v wpo-m specified by repTarXao-tws rpbtr&g &ei- Pcov. For another illustration of the P&Twv: ep. 4634. Nothing further is 'known on this subject PTInciple of helpiug one as you love A J J T-1 ~"g g A~


136 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %LIV 1 , I , , a r , . , r , r IKac EvETECAaro Im~ Tai ovTC E~rc T~/s ocKCas avrov ~EyWv " IlXjoraTE T ovs Napo-i7rovs Tiw avBpai7r(1)V,3pcd1CdTCov ova Edv wvcwrac apac, Kai Ep,,8dXaTE EKaorTOV To apylipcov girt' T4 o-701,taTOS Tov j,capo,i77rov a$TOV ' 2 Kai To Kovw p,ov To apyv- povv EM.,(3aAarE E is rO'V It.apO-677011 Tov vECOrEpov, Kai T~v , ~7 TcJtv Tov oc EyevBq 8.'9 TOV avrov. Iq E . , cm, Kara To pq/.ca Icwyo KaB&')s EiaEV. 'To' zrpcii $vE0xvO-EV Kai of avBpcmoc a7TE- X L & OVT&J E T -qa-av, a&O' Ka' oll ivot ak~ov. 'gecXO' v 8' avrmv , , . . f s ,. , . T-Jv ar 1k I o~w ovK a~rE~xov M,aKpav, Kac Ic~ EcrrEV Tco Errs T~/s , . , n r " , . , . , . , r ocKCas avTOV ~.Eycov Ava~Tas EacBaco~ov orrcO'co Tcov avBpc~-

. , . , , .. ~ r a ,

7rcov Kac KaraX"/1i(rig avrovs, Kac Epeis avrocs Tc oTC avr'aaE-

OCOKaTE /,coc aovr/pa avTi KaXcw; iva Ti EKXoaTE p.ov To f g , r , , g r e . r Kovsv To apyvpovv ; 'Ob TovTO E~rcv Ev cu acvEC o KVP'

M,ov ; avros SF oicovwM,0^) oicavi~ETac Ev avTUi ' rromqpd o-vvTE , ~, 'dp6i, p. , , s , ,

TEAEQBE a rfErfOC'I'KGtTE. OE avTOUS EG7TEV avTOis KaTa ar 7oe.'?~rrov a,"bIvarner Ta pr~,caraTavTa. c 8E drop Tc~.a~EC o Kvpcos

him' see Xen. Cyrop. I 3 § B, where Axtyages helps Cyrus so largely to meat that the boy has to distribute it among the servants. Josephus (Ant. II 6 § 6) softens down aevra,rXavEws into EorXacfoLo& polpavs. The importance here assigned to Benjamin has been used ax an argument that this legend took shape in the time of Saul, who belonged to that tribe.

1. 6Ca MV: § 105. - _WS6JvarE imperative from aorilt _vE,BaXa. § 18.

2. Kdv&u : drinking-cup. Outside this chapter the word occurs in the LXX only in Is. 5117,22. A plural Kdv&va is used in a letter of Alexander the Great to the satraps of Asia quoted by Athen. 784 a. Hence it has been inferred that the word is Persian.

Josephus (Ant. II 8 § 7) has here cK60os.

3. ro apwl &v+avcev : rJ ,rpwl ix adverbial (408 n. ) and Woavoev intransitive.

4. _EAAdvrwv . . . $a&Xov : § 68 . - Kat 'Iwo-fj~ : in such paratactical constructions Kai may be rendered in English by I when.' This use of Kai is found in classical authors, e.g. Plat. Euthd. 273 A, 277 B. Cp. Verg. fin.:

nec longum tempux et ingenx eziit ad caelum.ramix felicibux arbos.

- oiriow rfov $v9plaawv : unclassical substitute for (LET(L rots d:vBpwaous. § 97. - KaTaJlfjW+n . . . _peis : jusxive futures. § 74.

5. otwmay~ otwvltETav : cognate dative. Cp. 15. § 61:


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 137 Genesis XLIV 18 Ka' aTa TaDTa; u' y4E'VotTo roZ-; 7rato-tv a-ov roo)(Tat a'r Ta i7/.L 77 t 'El s I n d s To pr~Ca TovTO. EL TO ~I.LE~ apyvpbOV O EUpa~A.EV Ev TOLs papoirr7roas jt,I,CJV OC7J'Eo-TpE0a~A,EV 71'pOS QE EK y1~s Xavaav, 7rms av K~.Eifratp.EV EK TOO oiKOV TOO Kvpiov O-ov apyvptov * lr6)9 a'variov; 97tap' y av EvpEB~/ To Kovw T(~v rraiScw o-ov, arro8v7j- I jpas O EdI EBa?Ta.60ES TJ Kvp6IGjtLiOv. ) o UKET(J' Kaa E OlL l SE Ei7rEV cc Kai vvv ins XE'YETE, ovrws Ed-Ta6' o avepwrros crap' ca aP EupEB',q To KovBv, avros EO-Tat M,ov 7rais, vp.Eis tSE EQEo-BE KaBapo%" 11Kai Eo~aEVa~av rcai KaeEiXav EKad-TOS TOP M.ap- 0,calrov avrov Eai Tq'v y~v, Kal ?*Jvoa~ev EKao-ro; Top tkapow- 12~ I . &ITO' f I aov avTOV, r~pevva 8E Tov apEayvrepov ap~aM.evos f z . f Eols 4Bev Eac Tov vECVTEpov, Kal Evpev To Kovw Ev Tui pap- a%aaC0 T~p BEwa~ueiv. 1gKai BtEpp-q~av Td ip.aTta avriev, Kal f I b I ! f M E?fEB'Y~KaV EKaaTOs Top p,apawnrov avTOV CM TOP ovov avTOV, K 1 14 1 at 47TC'O-TpE0aP E19 T7%7V 1TO'XLV. ela-Wep ~E 'Iov8as Kal t f f ) I ~. 5 f OL a8EA0oa avTOV apos IWO-7l' cT& avrov ovros EKEi' Kal ErE- o-ov EvavTiov avrov E7ri Tq'v yjv. "EVTl 8E aUTOis 'Ima,0 cc TL TO ?Tpa'Y/.A.a TOUTO E7To&*raTE ; OVK OI.v00lTE OTt 06CJV6UI.A.W 06(OVtE6Ta6 avVpCJTfOs OVOS E'YCo' ; " 16E1.7TEV 8E 'Iov8as "T6 avTE- povpEV Tui Kvpico -q* Ta Xakrjo-wp,EV -q Ti &Kaw)B@qkEV ; o 8E z f f I ) f , BEOS Evpev T~v a&rwav T%w aravcov o-ov ' G8OU EUiltEV o6KETa6 I t t ) T I ~ » Tlo KUp6Cd ~p,i~v, Kal ~p.Eis rear Trap 1V0 Ebpf'O-q TO KOVOU. 1TEiTEV OE 'IWO-' ~ " M~j ju,oa yEV06T0 ?f06id-a6 TO p'q^,La TOLTO' o a*v9pwrros aap) WT UpEBYTO KOIVOV, avfTO s EOTab p.ov 7rais ' vHE_as 8E &v4,8q7E p,ETa o-wT9pvas rpos Tov iraTEpa t ,f ") f ,· f , El rev I Eyywas ~E avrW IouBas EtrrEV DEO1e,aa, rcvptE' 7. To AAWa roirro : cp.17. See 399 n. 11. KaAefXav : § 18. 8. s$paphv : § 18. - apyvpLov j 13. _w_o-Tps+av : returned.The Xpoa-tov : for the concurrence of the intransitive use of this verb is very two diminutives cp. Ar. Eq. 472: common in the LXX. Cp. Mt. 1244 Kal Ta"ura p' oGT &pyvpwv oATe xpvQ(ov hRLOTPEtrlG7 EIS TLV O1ROV Wov. &bous $vaaelves. 16. avTepo"vjuv, XaAA(ruyev: 431 n.


138 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Genesis BLIP 19 ,a,-qaaTCe o aais (rov p?7/i.a EvavTiov O-ov, Kai N.~ BvIi,c18^ s TI;J r:°ai8i o-ov, orc sir Ei UIETa' (Dapa&i. 19K11pLE, QU 1jpmTr)- o-as Tovs aaisas O-ov X Eycdv ` EL EXETE 7TaTEpa ~ a8EX0ov;' 2° `"Kai EiraEaEV TaKvpiq) Bo-Tw ~/tiv iraT-I'p 7rpEO-RvrEpos, Kal .. . ravov vEwTEpov y o aBEXOavTOV are, BavEV, >7p°r1s avr~, Kai os avTOS SE M,ovos v7rEXEi0B-q Tui 7rarpi avTOV, o & 7ra"'p avTOv yalMo-ep. Jim 8c' ToZq iTato-tv a-ov 0'7& ' KaTaydyeTe , a$rov Vpos htE, Kai EwP,EXovM,av avTOV.' - 11 4 , % , 22Kai EtrauEV TV Kvp y Ov 8vv~OETaa To 7rav8vov KaraXtrEiv TOP aaTEpa' Edv 8E Kq.TaJlEi7r~ To v ~raTEpa, aaoBaveiTac.' 4°a-v 8E Eiras Tois , waawv (Tov "Ea. v p-q v KaTaa~ o a8EXOov s vpw o vEU, rEpos pd' ~. vP,iw, ov apo~B 2 24 3 -o 770- E~Be ETV tBEiv To apo(Tm7rov /.i.ov. Eyes VC70 & jvirca avE,8-qp,EV apos Top 7raiSa a-ov araTEpa & -q,M,cuv, a~yyEiAa/.tEV avT~i Ta pyu,ara Tov" Kvpiov. 25Ei~rEV ~E ipciv 0 7raTqp jpmv `BaBiraTE 1raXcv, ayopawaTE 7f,ciyu,cKpd ~(3p&j-. .' 2gipEs ` Ov 8VP710-6 KaTaajvaafCaTa $E i7rattEV 1-c' aAV 'Et M.EV o aSEX0os 7'71.i.(ov o vEW'TEpos KaTaaaivEa p,EB' jM,mv, KaTaa10ao~.cE9a ' o$ yap wv~o-oj.tEBa IMP To 7rpo0rco7rov Tov avBpcarrov, TOD aBEXOov TOD vECOrEpov Hc~ 5PT09 p.E9' jpivv.' 2vEiaEV 8E o 7rais a-ov o 7raT"p jpi~v zrpos i/.tas ``TI.tEis yv&i- QKETE OT6 87J0 ETEKEV JA.OG j y1JIJ'Y~ ~ 28KOI,G Ee~XOEV O EVs aTf' ~IAO~ *" OnP ~,8P Y y E ov Kal Et>raTE ~ ao coTOs E ovev Kai ovK asov avTOv Ert. 29Edv o& Xd,8-qrE Kal Tovrov EK arpoor&i7rov I.tov Kai wj.t,8-,q^ avTUi paXaKia Ev Tj oM, Kal KaTa$ETe ~aov To y71pas La v av eto-ropEvo/.Lat, irpog ET' X '7T77T CL9 a8OV.' 80VDV Ovv e" Top 7raiU o-ov aaTEpa 8E ~~CCw, Kai To 7ravapiov /j,-q 7 ,I M,EB' jM.i~v, j 8E xpvxi~ a'UTOV EKKpE/A.aTaL EK T'I7s TOtlTOV OvX~s' 18. p,Erd 4kpa(a : pxTd here means FETE : the Kai introduces the apodosis. on a level with.. 21. 6m :37$6 n. § 40. 30. 4dv etcwopEVOpav: § 104. 23, 1fp0?8AVEPAf ETV i&eCv : § 113. 8i *uXii KTk. : this clause is thrown 28. WaJXaKIa : 424 n. - Ka1 Kard- in parenthetically as a reason for the


I. THE STOkY OF JOSEPH 139 Genesis %LP T 81 w >vEiavT V ~, iv T ra$, top [ef jM,w, KatEa'Taa Ev Tn~0 1) oo ap TEXEVr7j0-Et, Kai KaTdeOVOVV of 7rai8ES crov ro' y~pas Tov ow,vrJs Ea>s a8ov.126 y, aai8os (Tov raTpos 8E jjzmv ME> ap aais o-ov Ex8E8EKTaa To raa&ov Traps TOV 7rarpos XEycw `'Edv ~ ayay~ avTOV apos oE Kai aTj~ avTOV EvavTiov a ov, jpapr1qKWs EooMav apo s TOV raTEpa Tao-as ra'q q'j_vE'pag.' 83 vvv ovv rapaM,EVw (Tot rais avTi Tov rat&'ov, OLKET773 Tov 87raa8avaR7jTa) METa Tw a8Ew. "ams Kvpiov ~ To E top > yap ava,8 '(To,~a,awrpos Tov aaTEpa, Tov aavaov ~,c-q ovTOs > e a 'r r r , r ff jxEB 'Y~pfiov; LVa 1A.'Y~ LvGV Ta KOI,Ka a EUp'!7?EG TOY 7faTEpa jLOU. 1 Kai ovK q'8V`vaTo 'IGVO'?'j~ ~ avEXEO-Bav 7ravTCw Tcw 7rapEo," , > > > T cc', . > f > ..,ff KOTtrw avT~, aA~, El E~arroo~rwAaTE 7ravTas a7r E~.~,ov Kab OU 7fapG?TY~KE6 OLOE6s ET6 Tld 'Icoayo jVLKa OLvEyvCJpIr.CETO 'ICO~(p TOGS af.8E)1.006S aUTOV. 2Ka6 Q,~KEV OO)V'V UETa' K)IaUBpOV ~ iKOVo-ap (SE?fOGVTES OI, Aiyvrrrvov, Kai arcOV0TOv > , > T EyEYETO Ebs Tov otKOV (Dapaco. g ETTEV 8E Icua~o apo s Tos a&4ous avrov "'Eyoi ELI/it 'Ia ~0 o a8EX0os vpi~v, ov a14- (jr,Oo-BE Es AvyvrrTOV' ET6 O 7TaT-qp tAOV C; ff a. OUK~ K6 >c . EOLVavTO a&X~Oi a7roKpvBivat a$Tt~ ~ ErapaXBrJoav yap. 4Kai EiTrEV 'Eyci Eilli 'Icoo--q"o o a8EX0os vJ,i.C~v, ov &1T4800-Of ELI-; AiyvrrTOV. 5vvv ovv ~a,~ XvaEi(TBE, /MqU orKX7jpov yuiv Oav7/Ta) on a> rE8oo-BE /GE CzJSE ~ Ell; yap ~D,w a1TQTEAV [LE o BEGS Eje.7rpo0`BEV LIAM sTOVro yap BEifrepov ETOs XyUos E7ri > , > , Tjs yes, Kay E_Ta )OLTfa 7rEVTE E'rg Ev oa~s OvK Eo-Tat aporpvaovs Ov8E aj_qTOs ' 7arfE0'TEL1EV yap tkE o BEOS Ep,Trpo0`BEV vM,i~v, apodosis, which begins at Kai go-rat in v. 31. 32. lKMsKrav : 439 n. 34. eSpfjcee : shall find, i.e. come upon. 1. avIXecAav : endure . R.V. 'refrain himself before.' -'RapVPTIKEO = 7rapElO'T'ISKEI. § 37.

2. aKOVCTav IyIvero : a substitute for hKOVOB,7-it was heard. § 72.

6. 3,poTptaws : ploughing . Only here in LXX. From the simple verb bpbw is formed dporpov denoting the instrument; from Efporpov again is formed a verb bpoTptdw (Jdg.14ie), and from this we have the abstract noun ciporp(do-es.



Genesis %LV & iJ9fO,E67TEQBa6 VJA.CJY KQTQr.XEb/.tpa E'rl T~S ynS Kat EKBpEt'JaG

ilftCUY KOLTQr.kEt*cY /.tEya6X'Yw. BYiJV OVV dX 1l,.tEbS JU,E 01.7TE(TT01X- KUTE ME, OGXk' ~ O BEOS ' Kat ETTOL'Y7fTEV I,tE CdS TfaTEpa (Papai~ Kai Kvpcov 7ravTOs Tov oiKOV avrou Kai apXovTa aa"s yes AiyvhrTOV. 9 (T7rEV0*avres ovv ava,(31qTE 7rpos Top 7raTEpa p,ov v w a r , . r r r a . ", , Kat EcaarE abr6 Tab E ~EyEV o vios ~ov I~cb Erroc~EV /Ac o BEOS Kvpcov 7raa-qs yes AiyvrrTOV ' K aTaarjec ovv rpos 1AE, Kat /A~ I.,tEivIJs ' 1 eKOGG Kd.TOGK'Y~QE6S EV yV hEQEII,'Apa,8ias, Kat V a , . , a e , , c lo , e .. Eve/ Eyyvs UOV w Ka' ol Vl ~ov Ka ol vl rio'v vli a~ov, Ta apo,(3aTa O-ov Kat at 80'Eg O-ov Kai oa'a poi EKE& ' il Kai a , a n .y v , y , a v a EKB~DEt~IID QE EKE6, ETt yap 7lEVTE ET'Y~ ~1ep,OS' cva ~.t77 EKTpc,(3rJs v v e t , v , v r r , f f f ]2a v o-v Kat Ot vcoc O-ov Kac 7ravTa Ta v~rapxovra Qov. c8ov s600aXpto' ~,u^v 8X' 600ak/.4o' Bevta/Aelp TOV I & 0) C7rOVCrLV Kal ol & aSEXOov /,cov oTC To a-TOM,a M,ov ro' Xa)Lovv rpos vpas. 18a7rayyeLAaTE ovv Tce aarpi /,tov vao-av T-q'v 8oeav /.tov T7'Iv ev Aiyu7rTq) Kai ova METE, Kai& TaXvvavres KaTayayETE TOP , T ff 1¢ , a , 47 r , . , aarepa pov coBE. Kac E7rcarE~cw c Tro Tpax~ov BELta- pEiv Tqv a8EXOov a$TOV E7rEaE(rEV Ear' airrui, Kai BEVCapEiv EKXavuEV Eric T ~ T paxrjXco avTOV. Tas Tovs a8EX0ovs avTOV EAav~rEV Ea' avrois, Kai p,ETa Tavra AaWqo-av of aBEkooi airrov apos airrov. 16Kai 8cE- 'Kai KaTaocX7ja-as 7rav-

7. Ka1 IKApI+awrrk.: and to rear up from you a great leaving (- posterity). BarctXeapes seems to be used for variety in the same sense as Karctaeypa.

8. dW j b 8E6s : § 108.-ors waripa fiapaGf : the same expression is used in the Egyptian tales of a trusted officer.

10. rfcEp 'Apaptas: Goshen in Arabia. 'Apai3las is an addition of the LXX, which causes a verbal contradiction between this passage and 4727 ; but 'Arabia' is here supposed to be

the name of a °nome' in Egypt. Goshen seems to have been the district watered by the Sweet Water Canal, lying to the east of the Delta, and bounded on the east by the Arabian Desert.-So·a o-oL _KEc: &ei must be taken with fop Zyyvs t= at the beginning of the verse. There is another reading ZQrI, which is more probable, as there is nothing corresponding to iKei in the Hebrew.

14. _7fL'REVIw . .~. 414aEO·sv: inten- sive participle. § 81.


I. THE STORY OF JOSEPH 141 Genesis %LV 23 RO'I'O-q j OwV'Y~ et's TOY OlKOV 45apaW1.E'YOVTES "aHKa0-av of a'86 & mqo - eXap-q 0) t La o' 'loi 8E' (Dapa' Kal j 04EpaiTE " airrov. 17 iiaEV 8E (Dapao'i vrpos 'IwMjo "Eaov Tois aSEX0ois O-ov ` Tovro aoago-aTE · yEj,tic-aTE Td aropaa vj,tiev Kai &1TAOaTe el's ynv Xavaav, 1gKai aapaXaj(3ovTES Tov aaTEpa vJ,cmv Kai Td v7rapXovTa v/W)v 77KETE ?TpOs M.E · K ai Uow vftiv aowTwv Tcw ayaBw Aiyvarov, Kai 0ayEaeE Tov jtvEXov T~s qs. , '9 w y 8E EvTEvav TavTa, XaaEiv a$TOis ` a/iaeas EK y'r/s AiyvaTOv Tois Trai&`ois vttiov Kai Tai-; yvvaaeiv, Kai avaXaaovTES Tov 7raTEpa vf,tiw aapayivEO~BE · 2° Kai I.tq0EiayaBE Tois o08aX- pois vI.twv T(^Dv 0-KEVOv, Td yap advTa ayaBa AiyvrTOV ytiv »> 21 3 . E (rTav. E7oa'qo-av 8E' ovvrws oa vi<o.t `Io-pa71.X· BwKEV 8E Iwm'cp avTOis &/Jdeag Kara Ta EpqtLC'Va vvo papaw TOD ~.· aaavEws, Kai EawKEV avTOis E'1r&o-vr&o-/A0'V Eas 76 o8ov 22Kai 7rawv E8 wKev ~w~as, Kai Ttu BEVaapEiv AwKEv TpaaKOUiovs Xpv(Tovs Kai 7rEVTE aXXaawovaas a-TOXas ' 23Kac > > , . , ~ , , r, Tco aaTpt avrov aaE(rTECAEV KaTa Ta avTa, Kat OEKa ovovs aa7rvrwv Tiv aya6mv AayvwTOV, Ka.a vrE,K o- atpovras o a a j~ta, 16. Myovrss: we may say that this participle agrees with the vague plural implied in EtepohB,t ~ owvh. § 112. -"HKaavv : 427 n. -ii Aepareta a$TOir - his court. f7. W6pia: -aopeia, means of transport. § 37 . Here, no doubt, camels and asses. The Hebrew word means I cattle: 18. jKETE : imperative of ~Kw. 19. WV' 8e IMAM KTX. : and do thou give this command, that they should take to them xoaggons from the land of Egypt for your children and women, and take ye your father marl come. There is a sudden change of construction from the oblique to the direct oration. To substitute MoETE faUTOCS for Napeiv avTOis makes the Greek run

smoothly enough, but there is perhaps something amiss with the Hebrew at the beginning of the verse.

20. Kat pil ~Etcric9e uTa.: and spare not your goods with your eyes, i.e. regard not the loss of them, a common Hebrew phrase.-Td . . . a dvra dya6d, : the whole goods. § 63 .

22. 8«cds : 4312 n. - r pvaKOClovs Xpvo-oft: sc. vTarqpas. The Hebrew is three hundred (shekels) of silver.' Cp. 3728 n. - d kkaccodcas o'rokGs

changes of raiment. Op. Jdg. 1418 rptdKOVTa dXXacvop.ivas aTOXds lWarlwv.

23. aYpovTas, aipovcas : the common meaning of afpew in the L%X is Ito carry.' Cp. 466: i K. 1821, 177. ->)we6vovs : Hebrew, ° she-asses.'


142 SELECTIONS FROM TAE SEPTUAGINT Genesis %LP 24-28 a i ~l v a e a vovs acpovQas aprovs Tip rarpc avrovn Et's 24iEeaTrEiO-rEV- XEV SE toys aBEkoovs avrov Kai bropevP071crav- Kai EiaEv avrois " Mid Opyi~EQBE Ev rV o8~." 'rcai avi,(3r/crav Ee Ai- yvirrov, Kai JXBov el's yiw Xavaav rrpos 'Iarc('-),8 rov itarEpa avrmv, 28Kai av~jyyEaXav avrui AEyoarrES orc "`O viol 'Iwo-?7 ~ ~~, r cai ovros ap* 7ra~1qs Tis yes Aiyv7rrov." 4 '~96 av oi,8, a to- 2 Tel, I -r,q i 8& 1 otaIaK ' O ~ Y'P C27' TeVcrev abroZq. W_ X-9crav 8E aUrCd?favra rQ p7)BEVra vVo 'Iwor7o, ova EirrEv avrois' IS 8E Tas ap,a~as as a7rEO'rECXEV'IwT~J0

i~O-rE ava ka,&iv avrov, avECwIrvpr~0-EV Tu 'IaKm,8 TOD araTpr'1s

a ,0;)V. 21JITEV 81 'Jop ', ,M1 bT E aq eya li,oi EC-rw Et Erc o vios /10V 'Iwa-~o ~~ · aropEV9Eis o*op,av a$rov irpo roD avo8aveiv M,E."

24. M;1 opy(tecAE : the Greek translators are at one with the English here: but a reminder not to quarrel is hardly in keeping with the magnanimity hitherto displayed by Joseph. The Hebrew word is wider than the Greek,

and covers any form of mental disturbance. Perhaps Joseph is merely wishing his brothers a safe and comfortable journey.

27. G,vegwwfrprycev : here Intransitive; revived.



IF the story of Joseph may be viewed as a novel, the story of the Exodus belongs rather to the romance of history. Both narratives indeed have their national side. For the story of Joseph accounts for the Israelites coming into Egypt, while that of the Exodus accounts for their going out of it. And both also have their per. sonal side. For the story of the Exodus begins with the birth and upbringing of Moses and in its initial stages pursues merely his individual adventures. On the picturesqueness of the whole tale it is needless to dilate. Like Ulysses in beggar's rags, its majesty shines even through the garb of a literal translation into Alexandrian Greek. Subsequent Jewish imagination has enriched the life of Moses with additional details tending to the glorification of the national hero. Thus Josephus (Ant. II 9 § 2) introduces a story similar to that of the Magi and Herod in the First Gospel - how one of the sacred scribes of the Egyptians had prophesied to Pharaoh that a child was about to be born among the Hebrews who should humble the pride of Egypt, and how Pharaoh in consequence issued the edict that all male children should be put to death. But Moses, as Livy would say, was I due to the Fates,' and, though set adrift on the Nile in. his paper-boat, even as Romulus and Remus in their I floating hull' 1 on the Tiber floods, he could not perish: for he carried with him the destinies, not so much of a nation as of a religion. Help came to him in the form, not of a she-wolf and of a shepherd, but of the princess of the land and the daughter of the oppressor of his people. By her he was educated to become the saviour of his race.

The name of Pharaoh's daughter, according to Josephus, was Thermuthis. Her first care was to provide a nurse for the child, and she tried with him one Egyptian woman after another, but he rejected the alien milk. Then Miriam, who was standing by, as l Iav. 11 § 6 fluitantem alveum, quo egpositi erant pueri.




though a disinterested spectator, made the happy suggestion that the child might perhaps not refuse the breasts of one of his countrywomen, and was accordingly allowed to fetch his mother.

Thermuthis was rewarded for her womanly compassion by the extraordinary beauty and intelligence developed in the child as he grew. People would turn round on the road and even leave their work to look at him. His stature too at the age of three was remarkable. Of all this we know nothing from the Old Testament beyond the hint in Exodus 22, that Moses was a goodly child. But the New Testament tells us that he was I divinely fair,' adding that he I was instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians' and that I he was mighty in his words and works' (Acts 71°~ 22).

One day Thermuthis in the pride of her heart presented the child to her father, and even asked that he might be appointed heir to the throne. Pharaoh, willing to gratify her, took the infant in his arms and placed the royal crown upon his head, with the result that it was dashed to the ground and trampled under foot by the babe. Then the sacred scribe, horror-stricken at the sight, exclaimed that this was the very child against whom he had already warned the king and insisted that lie should be got rid of. But Pharaoh's daughter hurried the boy out of the royal presence, so that he lived to be the hope of the Hebrews.

That Moses when grown up should have commenced his career by manslaughter and have fled in fear of Pharaoh's vengeance was more than Josephus could bring himself to relate to a Gentile audience. So he quietly suppresses this part of the narrative and substitutes an account more gratifying to Jewish feeling.

Egypt was being overrun by an invasion of Ethiopians and was in danger of utter destruction, when the Egyptians in their distress asked advice from God. 'they were told to call in the aid of I the Hebrew.' Thereupon Pharaoh asked Thermuthis to let her son act as general. This she did after extracting an oath from the king that he would do no harm to the youth. Moses accordingly assumed the command and at once exhibited his superior intelligence. Had he taken his troops up the river, the enemy would have had notice of his approach; so he marched them overland through a country infested by dangerous reptiles and by those flying serpents, which we know from Herodotus also (II 75, 76) to have been among the



marvels of Egypt. Their wings, he says, were like those of bats. Moses however had provided himself with hutches full of ibises, which he opened on reaching the dangerous part of his route; and these pioneers easily cleared a way for his army. Then, falling suddenly upon the Ethiopians, he cooped them up into the royal city of Saba, which Cambyses afterwards called Meroe, after the name of his sister. Built on an island, this city was impregnable owing to its fortifications and dams. But what the war-god could not do was accomplished by the love-goddess. Tharbis, the daughter of the king of the Ethiopians, played the part of Tarpeia.' Smitten with passion for the beautiful and brave youth who was attacking her country, she sent secret emissaries to arrange for the betrayal of the city, if only he would promise to marry her. This Moses consented to do and, after destroying the Ethiopians, returned in triumph to Egypt, only however to find that his life was in danger owing to the envy aroused by his success. That was why he had to fly from Egypt, not because, as in the Bible story, his spirit had been roused to wrath at the sight of the oppression of his countrymen.

Josephus however does not fail to record the gallantry with which Moses rescued the distressed maidens at the well, and how he was in consequence rewarded by the priest of Midian with the hand of one of his daughters.

It will now be instructive to take a glance at the history of Moses as presented from an alien, though not hostile, source. Artapanus, whose name suggests a Persian origin, though his ideas are Greek, was used by Alexander Polyhistor, a contemporary of Sulla, as one of his authorities on the history of the Jews. According to this author, Merrhis, the daughter of King Palmanothes, being wedded by her father to Chenephres, king of the part of Egypt above Memphis (for at that time there were several kingdoms in Egypt), but having no children by him, adopted as her son a Jewish infant, to whom she gave the name Moysos. This was he, who, when he grew to man's estate, was known to the Greeks as bZusaeus, the teacher of Orpheus, while among the Egyptians themselves he was called Hermes, because he taught the priests the sacred writing. He was the author of many inventions both for the benefit of Egypt and for

1 Is the resemblance of name more than accidental?



the behoof of mankind, and it was he who sanctified cats and dogs and ibises. He was animated by a single-hearted desire to secure Chenephres on his throne, which was then exposed to mob-violence. Nevertheless his adoptive father looked upon him with suspicion and availed himself of an Ethiopic invasion as a seemly pretext for getting rid of him. He therefore put Moysos at the head of a rustic army of some 100,000 of his countrymen, acting apparently on the Roman principle with regard to the Jews that, if they perished, it was v i 1 e d a m n u m. Moysos however and his followers carried on the war successfully for ten years, during which they had time to build the city of Hermopolis, where they consecrated the ibis; and Moysos himself so won the esteem even of his enemies, the Ethiopians, that they adopted from him the practice of circumcision. When the war at last came to a close, Moysos received but a cold welcome from Chenephres. His troops were partly despatched to the Egyptian frontier to keep guard and partly employed in replacing a brick temple in Diospolis by one of stone. As for Moysos himself, Chenephres charged one Chanethoth with the task of getting rid of him. To this end, when Merrhis died, Chanethoth was sent along with Moysos to bury her beyond the borders of Egypt. Being warned however of the plot against his life, Moy sos contrived to bury Merrhis safely in an island-city, to which he gave the name of Meroe. Then by the advice of his brother Aaron he fled to Arabia, managing on the way to kill Chanethoth, who had laid an ambush against him. In .Arabia he married the daughter of Raguel, the king of those parts. His father-in-law wished to march against Egypt and secure the crown for his daughter and her husband: but Moysos dissuaded him from this purpose out of regard for his countrymen, who were in Pharaoh's power.

Shortly after this King Chenephres died of elephantiasis, being the first to be smitten with this disease, which was a judgement upon him owing to his having compelled the Jews to distinguish themselves by wearing muslin instead of woollen garments. Moysos prayed to God that the oppression of his people might cease, whereupon a mysterious fire was seen burning from the ground, though there was no bush or timber of any sort in the place. Fleeing at first in alarm, Moysos was arrested by a divine voice which bade him march against Egypt and conduct his people to their ancient father-



land. Encouraged hereby Moysos resolved to fulfil the divine command. First however he went to Egypt to see his brother Aaron, whereupon the new king of Egypt asked him his .business and, on receiving the reply that the Lord of the World had sent him to release the Jews, promptly put him into prison. But at night all the doors of the prison-house opened of their own accord; some of the guards died, others were overmastered by sleep, while the weapons of all were broken. Then Moysos went forth to the palace, where he found the gates open and the guards disabled, so that he could go in and waken the king, who asked him the name of the God on whose service he came. Into the ear of the still jeering monarch Moysos whispered the awful syllables, on hearing which the king fell speechless to the ground, and so remained until Moysos himself recalled him to life. So powerful was this name that a priest, who spoke slightingly of a tablet on which Moysos had written it, died immediately of convulsions. In spite of his recent experience the king still asked for a sign. Then Moysos flung down his rod, which turned into a serpent, and, as all shrank back from the hissing reptile, he took hold of it by the tail, when it again became a rod. Next he smote the Nile with his rod, whereupon it turned all colours' and overflowed the whole of Egypt. Then, as it went down, its waters stank, the fishes died, and the people were perishing of thirst, when the king promised to let the Israelites go in a month, if Moysos would restore the river to its natural condition. Moysos, agreeing, struck the water with his rod and all was well. Then the king summoned the priests from beyond Memphis, threatening them with death and their temples with destruction, if they could not muster magic enough to cope with Moysos. Under this stimulus the priests succeeded in producing a serpent and changing the colour of the river, which so elated the king that he redoubled his oppression of the Jews. Then followed plague on plague. A blow of Moysos' rod upon the earth brought forth winged creatures that hurt the Egyptians, so that their bodies were a mass of ulcers; then came frogs, locusts, and sand-flies. As the king had not yet learnt wisdom, Moysos brought on hail and earthquakes during the night, so that those who escaped the earthquakes perished by the hail, while those who avoided the hail were destroyed by the earth-

1 Reading conjecturally aoadxpovv for roXdXovv.



quakes. At that time all the houses and most of the temples collapsed. This last lesson was effectual. The king let the people go; and they, having borrowed caps and raiment and all kinds of treasure, crossed the rivers on the side towards Arabia and came in three days to the Red Sea. There, so said the people of Memphis, Moysos, being acquainted with the country, waited for the ebb-tide and brought the multitude across on dry land. But the Heliopolitans add to the story that the king with a great force, accompanied by the sacred animals, came in pursuit of the Israelites, because they were carrying away the property of the Egyptians. Then a divine voice told 1Vloysos to strike the sea with his rod, which being done, the floods parted, and the force went over on dry land. The Egyptians, having plunged in after it, were met by a flashing fire in front, while behind them the sea closed over their road, so that they all perished. The Jews, thus miraculously released from danger, spent thirty years in the wilderness, during which they were fed on a kind of meal resembling millet and in colour as white as snow, which God rained on them from heaven.

Artapanus adds a description of Moysos as being tall and of a ruddy hue, with long grey hair and a dignified appearance. The above exploits, he adds, were accomplished by Moysos when he was about eighty-nine years old.

The preceding narrative, which has been preserved by Eusebius (Prceparatio Evangelica IX 27), is interesting both in its resemblance to and its difference from the Bible story. It seems hardly to have received as much attention as it deserves. Among other things it shows that Josephus' story of the war between Moses and the Ethiopians was at all events not invented by himself. The Heliopolitan tradition too about the destruction of Pharaoh's host is in accordance with Manetho's statement that Moses was a priest of Heliopolis. This brings us from Jewish or neutral sources to the representations of declared enemies.

Manetho, the historian of Egypt, gives the current tradition of the Egyptians with regard to the Exodus as follows.

An Egyptian king, named Amenophis, was desirous of seeing the Gods, as his predecessor Orus had done. So he consulted with a prophet who was a namesake of his own, Amenophis, the son of



Papis,' and was told that he would be able to see the Gods, if he cleared the land of lepers and other polluted persons. The king went gladly about the task and had soon a collection of 80,000 physically undesirable individuals, whom he sent to work in the quarries to the east of the Nile. Unfortunately there were among them some learned priests who suffered from leprosy. The prophet hereupon feared the vengeance of the Gods upon himself and the king: but, not daring to tell the king so by word of mouth, he wrote a prophecy that the polluted ones would get help from somewhere and be masters of Egypt for thirteen years; which done, he put an end to himself, leaving the king in great despondency. After some time the king, in answer to a petition from the polluted ones, granted them the city of Avaris, which had been left empty by the >hepherds, who had been driven out of Egypt more than five centuries before. Here they established themselves under the leadership of Osarsiph, a priest of Heliopolis, who now changed his name to Moses, and taught them to contravene the religion of Egypt, to sacrifice sacred animals, and forswear communion with strangers. 'this Moses sent an embassy to the Shepherds, who, after being driven out of Egypt, had established themselves in Jerusalem, promising to restore to them their ancestral city of Avaris and help them in regaining possession of Egypt. Two hundred thousand of them came at his summons, and Amenophis, fearing to fight against God, took refuge in Ethiopia, whose king was friendly to him, where he stayed during the thirteen years of his predestined banishment; after which he and his son Sethon or Ramesses, now grown to manhood, returned and expelled the invaders and the polluted ones, who are described as having used the images of the Gods for fuel to roast the sacred animals, which they compelled the priests and prophets to slaughter. This last touch is so like what the Jews would have been glad to do, that, if not true, it is well invented. (Josephus Against 9pion I 26-31.)

Manetho was a writer of great authority who lived under the first Ptolemy. A later writer of Egyptian history, Chaeremon, who lived in the early years of the Christian era, tells the tale somewhat differently. King Amenophis was frightened by the appearance of

1 On the Egyptian monuments there is mention of a king Amen-hetep III, and of a priest of the same name, the son of Hip. Budge, Vol. IV, p. 110.



Isis to him in a dream, and a sacred scribe Phritiphantes told him that, if he purged Egypt of polluted persons, he would no longer be liable to perturbation. Accordingly he expelled no less than a quarter of a million of people. These, under the leadership of Moses and Joseph, whose names in Egyptian were Tisithen and Peteseph, came to Yelusium, where they met a body of 380,000, who had been left there for some unexplained reason by Amenophis. Making common cause with one another, the two hosts invaded Egypt. Amenophis fled to Ethiopia in such a hurry that he left his wife behind him. She gave birth in a cave to a son named Ramesses,l who, when grown up, chased I the Jews' into Syria and restored his father Amenophis.

Another Greek author, named Lysimachus, departs more widely from Manetho. He puts the date much earlier under a king named Bocchoris. The land at that time was suffering from sterility, and the king, on consulting the oracle of Ammon, was told that he must clear the country of the impure and impious beggars known as the people of the Jews, who clustered round the temples seeking food; those that suffered from leprosy and scab were to be drowned and the rest to be driven into the desert; then, when the temples had been purified, the land would bring forth its fruits. The command of the oracle was obeyed. The leprous and scabby mendicants had sheets of lead attached to them and were consigned to the depths of the sea; the rest were left to perish in the desert. To them, thus abandoned by gods and men, one Moses offered the following advice -to march straight on at all hazards till they came to an inhabited country, to show no kindness to any man, nor give good advice to others, but only bad, and to overthrow the temples and altars of the gods wherever they came across them. Adhering faithfully to these principles the refuse of Egypt established themselves in Palestine, where they called their city `Iepoo°uXa (Sacrilege), but afterwards changed it into `IepoQOXvM,a. (Josephus Against Apion I § 34, p. 466.) Josephus, who had the advantage of having learnt another language than his own, is easily able to dispose of this piece of popular etymology, as well as of another for which Apion is responsible, namely, that the Egyptian exiles, having reached Judaea in six days,

1 The Tauchnitz text has here (Against Apion I 32) MeQQjvip, but, as the son has already been called Ramesses, the error is obvious.



were laid up with buboes on the seventh, whence it was called the sabbath, because sabbo was the Egyptian for a bubo. (Josephus Against Apion II § 2, p. 470.)

The account of the Exodus given by Tacitus is au echo of the hatred of the Alexandrian Greek for the Jew. Lysimachus is the author whom the Roman historian is following, as will be plain to the student who compares V 3 and 4 of the Histories with the account from Lysimachus above given. Tacitus adds that the way in which Moses discovered water for his thirsty host was by following a herd of wild asses.

Justinus, or rather the Augustan writer Trogus Pompeius, whom he is epitomising, is not quite so one-sided. He shows an acquaintance with the story of Joseph and with the tradition of the beauty of Moses, whom he represents as the son of Joseph. But he agrees with the Egyptian version in saying that, when those who were suffering from scab and tetter were expelled from Egypt in compliance with an oracle, Moses was expelled with them and became their leader. He adds that Moses stole the sacred things of the Egyptians and that the Egyptians, who endeavoured to recover them by arms, were forced back by storms. The geography of this author however is perplexing. Moses, he says, after seven days' march without food through the desert, having reached Damascena, the home of his fathers, where Abrahames and Israhel had been kings, occupied Mount Siua, and there dedicated the Sabbath as a fast for all time. The exclusive habits of the Jews he explains as due to their having been originally shunned as plague-stricken (XXXVI 2).

The merely literary point of view from which we are treating the Septuagint relieves us from any obligation to speculate on the amount of historic truth underlying the story of the Exodus. We could wish that it exempted us also from the task of examining the internal consistency of the tale. But a few words must be said on this subject before we close.

To begin with, how could two midwives (Ex. 111) suffice for a population in which the males alone numbered over half a million (Ex. 123' : Jos. Ant. II 9 § 3 ) ?

Again, where did the Israelites live ? Was it apart in Goshen ? Or mixed up with their oppressors in Egypt? The narrative, as we have it, sometimes puts the matter one way and sometimes



another. Ex. 812 and 91 , for instance, tell us that in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, there were no flies and no hail; but on the other hand the marking of the houses of the Israelites with blood (Ex. 1211, `3) and their borrowing jewels of their neighbours (Ex. 1211) implies that they were living in the midst of the Egyptians.

'thirdly, how is it that after Moses has solemnly told Pharaoh I I will see thy face again no more' (1021), he does see him again in the next chapter (11~?

These and the like difficulties seem to find their easiest solution in the assumption of a mixture of sources. The theory is that E represents the Israelites as a comparatively small body of people living in Egypt itself, while J represents them as very numerous and dwelling apart in Goshen. The account of the institution of the Passover is referred to the priestly document P.

The supernatural elements in the Story of the Exodus centre round the rod of Moses. We are reminded of this magic rod, which earth and sea obey, when we read in the Egyptian tale of I The Taking of Joppa' of I the great cane of King Men-kheper-ra . . . to whom Amen his father gives power and strength.' Just as the New Testament knows more about the childhood of Moses than the Old, so it knows more about Pharaoh's sorcerers. We learn from ii Tim. 38 that their names were Jannes and Jambres. This information is confirmed by a Neo-Platonist philosopher named Numenius, who is supposed to have lived in the age of the Antonines. He says that these were the names of the sacred scribes who were put forward by the Egyptian people to oppose Musaeus, the leader of the Jews, 9 a man who was most powerful in prayer to God,' and that they were able to dispel some of the most grievous of the calamities which he was bringing upon Egypt (Eus. Pr. Ev. IX 8). The name of one of these sorcerers was known to the Pagan world still earlier: for Pliny the elder speaks of a school of magic many thousands of years after Zoroaster, which depended on Moses and Jannes and Lotapes and the Jews.'

Josephus tells the story of the passage of the Red Sea, but hardly

1 Est et alia magices factio a Mose et Janne et Lotape ac Judaeis pendens, sed multis millibus annorum post Zoroastrem. Win. N.H XXX 11, Detlefsen.



expects it to be believed by his Pagan readers. He cites the account, agreed upon, he assures us, by all the historians of Alexander, of how the Pamphylian Sea made way for the march of that monarch, when it was the will of God that he should destroy the Empire of Persia. It is worth noticing in this connexion that the Euphrates is recorded to have yielded a passage on foot to the army of the younger Cyrus, when it was not the will of God that he should possess himself of the Persian throne (Xen. Anab. 14 § 18).

In Roman history too there is an incident which reminds us of the passage of the Red Sea. For Livy (XXYI 47) records how the elder Africanus was enabled to take New Carthage owing to the combination of a low tide with a strong north wind, and how he encouraged his soldiers on that occasion by an appeal to their religious feelings - I Neptune was opening a new way to the armies of the Roman people: let them follow the God 1



II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS Exodus I 8 gAYErTT1~ 8Ev 8ao-tXeV'q v S EaTEpOs E3rrs AcryvaTOV, !os OK *SEC T0' V ~Ifd~'Y~(~. 8E~67TEY 8E TCJ EBVE6 ct&oU "'ISO' 'lap 'X P' a VX~003, Kal Ia 'a ~rc'p ilka; '086re COV a7l ey XV OUP KOLTaO'OOLO'UJ/A.EBa aLTOLs, 11'q 'KOTE 7TA'Y~BlIVB~, KaV 'YwLKa av U'vl.La~ j~t6U TIOXE/A.OS 7rpOo-TEB1~C-0VTac KGtb OVTOI?fpOS TOVs iJ'7tEY0LVT60VS, Kal EK?1'0XEilA.'I7QavTES T)1A.a.S EeuEUUOLTa6 CK T'Y~S 7 f 11 v f r ~ ~ f r .Y h yes. Kac ErrEo-T~O-EV avrocs Erraa~TaTas Tcw Epycw, cva KaKUio-mwv airrovs Ev Tois Epyocs ~ K al criKOsoI,c71o-av roXECs oXvpas Tui 4)apac~, Trjv TE IIEaB(a Kai `PapEo-or7'/ Kai "SZv, ~ EUTbv `HAiov 7TOAcs. 12 KaeOrc 8F aUroLS Era7TEivovv, TO(TOUTC.VJ 7XEiovs EyivovTO, Kal iTxvov o-0o$pa oroospa · K al ERSEwo- e r ~ . a 'r lg , r O-ovro ob Ally vrrrcoc ir' Ti~v vccw Io-par~. Kal KaTEwva- a ~ . , a . e . r 1¢ ~ o-TEVOV ol AcyvTrTCOC Tovs vV s Io-pa'9 ?~ ya, Kac KaTCV~uv&)v avTWV T'V Cc,)iw Ev Tois Epyocs

8. Paweus lTEpos : generally identified with Rameses II on the evidence of v. 11.

9. vrrEp iip&s: § 94.

10. Karaco~wluixe8a airovS : let us outwit them (since we cannot overcome them by strength). Cp. Judith bll, 1019: Acts 719.-wXv1AvvAp: se. rL yEvor : but in the next verb the plural

subject is resumed. -rrpocTeeiicovraL the indicative expresses the certainty of the consequence in the assumed case.

11. irrto-Trlcev . . . Yva KaKwo-W0-w:, § 76. The verb corresponding to irrEorqoev in our Hebrew text has the plural affix ; in that of the LXX we may in-

164 Tois O-KJ1qpois, Tai MqAui Kai

fer that it had not. -IIeLM Kal `Pape4rcfj : Pithom and Raamses. - Ka1 MV KTX. : an addition of the LXX. In Gen. 4146,48 we find Heliopolis already in existence. Indeed according to Budge (History of Egypt II 67) there is evidence that this ° City of the SunGod' was in existence as early as the Vth Dynasty of Egyptian kings, i.e. about B.C. 3500.

12. c0Spa P~d8pa: § 8b-ip& Ma·o·ovTo . . . d,rrd : § 98.

14. KaTw8vvwv : imperfect of KaTOduvdv, to afflict grievously. The passive of the same verb is used in Ezk. 94 and in Tobit. -vriwi, : mortar. Op. Gen.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 155 Exodus I 20 TY7 TfX6vB60t Kal 7Ta0-6 T06s Epy06s TObs Ev T06s TfE060GS, Kd,Ta i a' T., I KaTE8ovXo0vTo abTO'g ~LET' 8' r VTa a Epya WV V a &as. IsKai EiaEV o 8ao-&XEV's Tciw Alyv7rTioiv TaiS j.taiacs Tmv 'ERpaimv, Tp ju.aa avTmv ~J ovopa IE70capa, Kai To ovo~La 7779 BEVTEpas nova · Isrcai EiaEV "aOTav pacovO9f Tds 'E8paias Kai Cowv apos Tiv TircTEw, Eav M,EV apo-EV ~/, aTrorcTEivaTE airro · CUP 8E BjXv, 1rEpvaovEi(rBE avro." 1zE0o,8~9~o-av 8E at p.aiac TOP BEOV, Kal o$K E7roi~c-av KaBoTC wvETaeEV airrais o 3ao-AE~Vs AcyvrOV, cal E~uooyovo~vv Ta apova. sE~ KaXErev 8E' o 8ao%XEV's Ac'yv'7rTOV Tas patas Kavc EaEV avTa.cs Tc oTC E7rot~ja·aTE To apay~,ta Tovro rcai ECWOyoveiTE Ta apMEVa;" IsE ~av & al l,taiac Tai (DapaW "O$x cps yvvaiKES AiyvaTbv ,, 'E,8paZaL, TL'K70VO-&V yap lrp& 77 'aEX01EZV 7P4 abr's T' l P Ift 0 a as i.ta.6as, Kab ETLKTOV." 20E; 8E E?T06Et O 063 Tats paLacs, Kab

118. - W%wAtqL: = r rMwBet¢, brick-mak ing. § 37. - oiv KareSovkoifvro: to which they enslaved them.

15. patats : in LXX only in this chapter and in Gen. 3517, 3P. It is used in Eur. Alc. 393 as a child's word for 'mother.' In Plat. Thecet. 149 A it is used as here for a midwife. Does waia stand to the uq- in Whr,qp as yaza to yi `I - Feir+wp4 : the LXX makes the name of this midwife the same as that of the wife of Moses (221), but in the Hebrew they are different.-Kal TL 8vcpa Krk.: had the construction been continued regularly, this would have been Kal rp 8euripg ro gvo,ua 4)ouc£.

16. paLoimAe : § lOg. -'Espatas apparently I Hebrews' was the name by which Jews were known to foreigners, and I children of Israel' that by which they called themselves at home. Hence the name Hebrews

comes to the front in the account of their relations with the Egyptians. - Mv pJv . . . Mv U : § 39.

17. itcuoy6vovv : preserved alive. Cp. Jdg. 819: i K. 28 KGpeos VfiYaTOL Kal ~woyovei, 279 11: iii K. 2181 2181; iv K. 74. So in N.T. Lk. 17$$, Acts 719, i Tim. Ela. The word appears to be used in its natural sense of producing young alive in Lev. 1147. Cp. the use of toro troLeiv in Jdg. 2114.

19. KaL ETVKTOV : these words seem to arise out of a misapprehension of the Hebrew tent, which, as we have it, runs literally thus-' for they are lively; not yet came the midwife to them and they brought forth.' The word rendered 'they are lively' having been taken by the Greek translator as a verb (rlKrovcw), no meaning was left for the verb at the end.

20. rats WataLs : in Attic Greek this


156 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus I 21 ' . 21 E7TE6tSi~ Eo ETTX 'OULEV O naOS Kal Lo-Xvev a-0o8pa OaOLTO at M,aiat ro'p BEOV, Eaoirjo-av Eavrais oircias: 2l XVUETa- ~EV 8E (Dapaii aavri Tco X4 a$rov XEyw "Ilav apaev o Edv rExBn Tois 'E,6paiots Eis Tov aoraM,ov pi*arE, Kal aav Bjw, CmoyoveiTE a$ro." 1sHv OE TLS EK Tis 0vXjs AEVei o; EAaaEV T,~)v BvyarEpcw AEVei. 2Kaa Ev ya(rrpi EXa/3EV Kal ETEKEV apcrEV · i8ovres > ~ , 8 ~ ~ $ 8E avTO a0TEiov E0-IfE7raa-av atrro p'iwas rpdq. ErrEt i ~ovK jwivavro auowEvTa KpUIrTEtv, ~aaEV ave TW 7' I i p,19Tr/p avrov 9iyv Kal Ka-EXptarEV avr~v acr0aATO7riTo-?7 Kai EvE,8aXEV To > > , . '~ . I, q 7Tat~tov E6S aUT1w,.Ka6 EBY~KEV a7JT1w ELI-; TO E~OS?raga ro'v 7rOTaptOV. 4Kat KOGTEQK07TEUEV j d.&Xo1~'~ aLTOU paKpoeEv p.a9Eiv Ta To avoR~a-o~tEVOV avTUi. SKaTE,8,q 8E j evyarhp ~apaca hov~ac-8at Eai Tov aoTaM.ov, Kai at' aapat avris

would be r4s wafas.-isrXfj6vvEV: intransitive = lsrAhevev.

21. 1sroftlo-av lawais oi,Kfag: the Hebrew is' He made for them houses,' i.e. gave them descendants. Does this imply that in the time of the writer there were Jews who claimed to be descended from these two midwives? If so, the fact had been forgotten later, for Josephus (Ant. 119 § 2) expressly says that the midwives were Egyptians.

2, i86wrEg, 1PKE1raa·av : Hebrew,

she saw, she hid.' - a L0'Tf10v : a pretty child. Cp. Acts lie : Judith IlaB 'AcretaEi cJ 4v T~ Wet cov: Sus. O' T. ~AQrELOf (urbanus) with its opposite dypomos (agrestis) recalls the contempt of the town for the country. The meaning of the word was ~deepened by the Stoics, who used it in the same sense as Aristotle uses QaovBaios. In.Jdg. 311 dQrEIOS is used where the

Hebrew has' fat' : Nb. 2282 odrc doreta ~ oEbs cou : ii Mac. 828 b di XoywpJv d0rEL0Y dvaXa/Siuv. In ii Mac. 1248 we have the adverb dcrelws. These are all the occurrences of the word in the LXX.

3. oirK iiSfrvavTo :. Hebrew, ~ she could not.' - 9tjkv : the Hebrew word, which is here transliterated by Biyv, is the same which is used of Noah's ark in Gen. 614 and which is there rendered Ktpwrbs. Jos. Ant. 119 § 4 p.qXavwvrac TXEyua rv SG#Xwov i,uoepis rj xaraaKeGy Komi& (made like a cradle).

4. il &&X+4 : Jos. Ant. II 9 § 4 Maptdvpu17.

5. t£Spav : maidens . Cp. Gen. 2481. The word occurs also in the L%X, in Judith and Esther, and is found in the fragments of Menander. The accent is against supposing a connexion with di3pbs, and the word seems to be an importation into Greek perhaps


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 157 Exodus II 10 ?TapETfOpEU0Ur0 7lapa rOV 7TOTapOV ' Kau 68OUQa T7'1V OZ,&V lb a 3 i 'a ~ i ~ i g ~ i Tut exec, airoo-Tec~aaa T71 v a,(3pav avecAaro avrrw. avoc 6ao*a 8E opa aaviov Aaiov Ev Tq -^ eiflec · Kau EOeioaro a$rov ~ BvydT-qp 41apaai, rcai E~,q "'Aro rwv aac8icw rcw'Eapaicw Tovro." 7 Kai ei1rev j a8eXoq ' avrov rq -^ Bvyarpi 4)apaca " OO E)IELS KaVQfo HOC yUVa6Ka TpO0EVO'tJ0-aV EK TGJV 'Eapaicw, Kau Br~Xdaec roc To vat& 8~ 8E E Ur 'i) Bvyar71p (Dapaco " Ilopevov." EMovTa 8E j veavcs EKaXEMev T'q'v M,'rjrEpa TO; 'rrac&'ov. 9ei7rev 8E 7rpos avriw j Bvyar1qp (Dapaca"Ocarrj pVTov ptoc To rrac8cov Tovro Kac B7jXao-ov Aoc avro, Eyco 8e 8cdaca roc Tov j.tcu-005v." EX a,(iev ' j y -q' ~e vv To rat&OV Kac EBrjXa~ev avro. 1° aSpvvBEVros 8E rov rrac8iov, eiorjyayev . ~ > avro apos rrw Bvyarepa apace, teat eyevrW9 avr~ e&; vcov · Errcwo~t.aaev 8E To' ovolLa avrov Mciwiw Xeyova·a "EK Tov

from a Chaldee word meaning I female companion.' The Hebrew word which U13paL here represents means young women,' and is supposed to have given rise to the name Neaera, but that which underlies lt#pav at the end of the verse is different.-&vsUaro: ep.10. 'Avacpeiv like tollere means both I to take up' and I to destroy.' Here it has the former and original sense.

6. _~e(o-aro avTOU: literally spared him. Here pitied him.

7. yuvaiKa Tpo~evovcav : a we nurse. Philo II 83, V it. Mos. § 4 rpOoClPEC TOU tai ,ucoB4i rpo¢euoew.

8. ;l EE . . . il Auy&'rrlp -PapaG, : the construction seems modelled on such phrases as 1&' &s o I'XadKwv. It is not warranted by the Hebrew. -ve&ws : in classical writers mostly poetic, as Soph. Ant. 784.

10. bSpvv9dvTOS : cp. Jdg.1324. The word occurs eight times in the LXX,

always in connexion with the growth of children, except in Ps. 14311, where it refers, directly at least, to plants. On the construction see § b8.-_ycvij9rl avmp sls vi6v : Hebraism, § 90.-Mwv cw Myovo-a KrX. : the derivation here suggested is based on a superficial resemblance of the Hebrew name hsosheh to the verb mashah, to draw out. Josephus makes the name Egyptian, which is more consistent with its being given by Pharaoh's daughter - Ant. II 9 § 6 rJ yAp u8wp p.w of Alyv7rM xaXov"mv, Boils S_ Tots _~ udaros ow&wras

in another passage (Against Apion I 31) lie tells us -rJ ydp irEwp of Alyirrr9ov p.iaii KaAoiraw. Renan (Hist. Peuple d' Israel 1159) agrees with Josephus in regarding the word as Egyptian, but thinks that it contains the syllable mos (= son) found in such forms as Thoutnaos (= son of Tehuti or AwB), Amen mos, etc.


158 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus II 11 UOaTOS a1nOY QYE6OY." 1'EyEVETO OE EP Ta4s 7'71.cEpacs fA17 Tais 7roXX ais EKEivacs ueyas yEPo/AEvo-; vvTOV 'I(Tpr arpos Tovs a&loos aTovs vcov s a77X. KaTavo7jaas . ~ ~ .. ~. ~E Tov rrovov avTmv opa avBpw7rov AcyvaTCOV Tvarovra Tcva 'Egpaiov Tcw EavToZ a8EAOiw Tcw vimv 'I0-Parj~, - 1'7rEpcj3AE- t~a,fEVOS 8E coSE cal cd8E vx opa oBE,Va; cal aaTaeas Tov Aca - yvVrcov EyKpv*EV avr. v v T~ a~lu,/-4o ~. l' E~eEABc.w 8E T, j1c~ Epq T~ 8EVTEpa opa duo av8pas 'Eapaiovs 8ca7rX1qKTCCoju,EVOVs,. K' X' T' lrx-qo-" P;" at 1EYE& T~,) II&KODW-6 "Ata' T1 0-v' Tv'*iTT1EL9 op to 140 8E Esi7rEV "Tis O*E KaTEa'r-qo-EV apXovTa Kai SeKaITTiw E0' jpldv; j A,' OLVEXEiv I.cE a-U ()E/lEts ov Tp07fOV OGVE6)lES EXBEs s , » ~ r T cc ~ a Top AcyvaTCOV; E~o~(3~8~ ~E M~voys Kac EcaEV El ovTC~s . . t _ >> 15 V Ep,0aves ysyovev To pql.4a Tovro; 'qKOVa~EV 8E papaw To p~/N,a Toirro, Kai E~Iq'TEC avAEiv Mwva-iv · avEXc6p-q(TEV 8E Mcwa-is aao 7rpoo-oi7rov (Dapac'0 Kai 0iK-qo-EP Ev y~ MaBcaM, Wo'jv 8E Eis yes MaBedp, Ered9eO-EV Elri TO; opEaTOS. `sT~u 8E iepei MaBed/,c joav brra 6vyaT_pes, roaM,aivova"aa Ta arpo,eaTa Tov 7rarpos avTC~lv 'IoBop wrapayevottEVav 8E ,qvrXovv Eces Eakqa'av Tds &E~attEVas, VoriTac Td arpo,(3aTa 11. Iv 'rats h1apaLs rail WokkaCg AKeivaLs : " a long time after that." Cp. 23, 418. The Hebrew here has only I in those days.' Acts 728 6s di· &Xr1 - poirro afrr4r TEQOapaKOVTa&T)S xpbvos. 12. oo&E Kal ooSE : this way and that.

13. 8vasrh,)Kryop,1vovs : only here in LXX.

14. El o11TGls KrX. : Has this thing become thus known? Hebrew, I Certainly the thing is known.' On et interrogative see § 100, and on pupa 399 n.

15. Iv ytj Ma8vw : Gen . 3728 n. Josephus calls the country; T pcryAoBdr:s (Ant. II 9 § 3) and the inhabitants of TpuyXo8frra: (II 11 § 2). The Midian-

ilea were the descendants of Abraham by Keturah.

18. Wovp,a,tvovo-av . . .'Io86p: added in LXX, as is also the name 'IoBbp (= Jethro) at the end of the verse. The name Jethro (Hb. Yithro) does not occur in the Hebrew until 31, where the LXX again has 'IoBbp. The form Jethro comes from the Vulgate. - 8ijapEVGs: cisterns. Plat. Crit.117A: Philo I 847, De Sonan. I § 29 . The accent shows that it is not used as a participle. But Plat. Tina. 57 C uses ~ 8exopivT convertibly with J Setap6,j (63 A) for I a receptacle' There is a Nereid called De~aplvq mentioned in Rom. Il. XVIII 44.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 159 Exodus II 25 TOV 7TaTpOS aVT(NY 'IOBOp. 177rapayevoI,r,evov 8E ol rOtIa,C-5 a r a v v a r s r ves E~e~a~.~ov a~rds ' ava~Tas ~e Mcw~/s eppva-aTO avTas, Kat ~vTAr/(rev a$rais Kal Eaorwev Ta rrpo,8ara a$rwv. is aapeyEVOVro 8E rrpos `Payovi~X Tov aaTEpa avri~v' o 8E EtrrEv airrais "Ota Ti ETaXIivare Tov irapayavEa-Oat oyu.epov; " tsai 8E a 7rav "*AvBpcoaos Aiyv7rrt,os EppvcraTO jfi,as a7ro Tciv r j PIP a , , r a as arovp.evuw, Kai ~vrXrl(rEV ~Piv Kaa eTroTa(rev Ta apo,8aTa r)f,cwv. 200 $E eitrev Tai; BvyaTpaa-tv avrov " K al rrov go-Ti ; K al iva Ti KaTaXeXoiarare Tov av8pmrrov ; K aXEa~aTe ovv airrov orw 0ay- C 77 ,q rov." 21KaTCVrciTBr) 8 E Mmvr ~s saps Tip av9pc')rrw' Kai EeE8oTO lErroc' )pav Tn'v BvyaTEpa a$rov Mcw",^ yvvaiKa. 22 a , . e , jr ME & . a r Ev ya~Tpt 8e ~aRov~a ~ yvvr~ ETC ME& ' K al e~rmvo/.tacrev MWVo-~s To ovop,a avTOV r-qpTaM,, Vycov "°OTt, TrdpotKOS eiN,t EP yp cMoTpia." r e . . . a r a r e 28METa vE TaS 77pEpas Tag 7TOkkas EKE6vas ETE~1,EtlT'Y7QEV O 1k J6aaaXEV`S AtayvrrrTOV ' K ai caTeavvafav of«vtoa lo-pa~X a7o Tcw Epycvv Kal a%veRor~av, Kal avE,8ro1 j J8oi) a$Ti~v apos Tov Beov aao Tcw Epymv. 'rcai E10-rjKOVo-ev o Beos Tov trTevay- p,ov airrwv, Kal Ettmjo-8-q o Beos Tis SaaBrjK1qs a$rov T~s apos a I ' 'lo I lyi, W-q abT6^Ls. LovT -pa-qX, Kat (1)

18. `PayovjX : the father-in-law of Moses is called by many names

Hebrew Re'uel, LXX PayovfiX, Jos. (Ant. II 11 § 2 ) Payodalaos, Vulgate Raguel, English Reuel (Es. 218, Nb. 1029) ; Hebrew YithrB (Es. 31, 1812), LXX 'IoBbp (Es. 216: Jdg. 116) ; Hebrew Yether (Es. 418), Jos. (Ant. II 12 § 1) 'IeBEy'ha:or ; Hebrew Hobab, LXX 'Osd# (Nb. 1029), 'IcoPdp (Jdg. 411), Vulgate Hobab. - ETaXvvars roi aapayev1o·9av : Gen. 41$2 n.

21. F.ESr~lopav : Jos . Ant. II 13 § 1 Ear¢&pav. 116 n.

22. Tqpchw : Hebrew Gershom. Jos. Ant. 1113 § 1 riqpvLs Aiv cipalvet Karl `E#palwv Evdaearov, arc eh tivrp JP yilv.

23. &,,ra rev Ipywv : by reason of their toils. So perhaps in the nest clause. § 92.

25. tyv(oo-An adrots : R.V. I God took knowledge of them.' The Hebrew for airrois, omitting vowel points, differs from that for I God' only by a ' jot.'


160 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus III 1 'Kai MwvO-js Iqv aocp,aivwv rd wp6,8aTa 'IoBop rov yaM,- apov airrov rov iepEws Ma8cajL, rcaa IV ra Trpo,&ra Uao " . ~ 1 . 5 2~ . T,qv Epr/jAov rcac ~XBEV Ecs To OP013 Xwp~,(3. w0B-q 8E avrw , V 11 . ~ , ayyEXos Kvpcov Ev rrvpc OXoyos Etc rov 8aTov · rcac opa orc o aaTOS KOtLEra6?TVpt, O OE aarOs OV KOGTEKatETO. dE1,7fEV OE Mwvajs "IIapEABiw 4optaa ro' rO' pEya Tovro, orc ob 4~ . ~ b , KaTaKacETac o 8 aT ws ~E t8EV Kvpcos on vpoo-ayw L 18d 'K 'XEO 0 Vp a EY W, E a -,Ev a&'v K " L09 & TO~ 8 CTOV X WV " M wvoy Mwvo-~." o 8E ETC7rEV "Ti EaTtv;" 50 8E Ei7rEV "M?'l Eyyi(T- s ('JtSE wa-aa To' vtro871/.ta EK 7(~v 7roU)v orov, o yap 7o7ros Ev c . d ~ , ~ , » s · ~s Lc~ w Eo-"Kas y~ ayca E~Tw. Kac EwEV Fryw o BEOS Tov aaTpos a-ov, No's 'ARpaa/,t Kai NO',; 'IaaaK Kai VEOS Ia- " E o oKc,J,3.a7E0'TpE*EV bMwvois Tapawrov a$rov· Ev,a- ,(iEiro yap tcaTEftRX4av Evoirrcov 7ov BEOV. 7Ei7rEV 8E Kvpcos 7rpos Mwv(T'^v "'I8('Ov i8ov T7'7v Karcwo-cv Tov Xaov /.cov Tov Ev Aiyu7rTO, teal ^s Kpavyis avrcov arc7jrcoa aao TOM Epyo8cw-

1. ilvWoya6vcuv: § 72.-yapspo"v: yag#p6s is a vague word for a male connexion by marriage, Lat. afflnis. It is sometimes used by classical authors in the sense of srev9ephs, as here, but it generally means the correlative I son-in-law.' In Jdg.116'IoBdp . . . rov yaWppou" MWOQiWS, the Hebrew has not the proper name, and yajuftpoO is rendered in the R.V. L brother-inlaw.'-v,rb T~v Epqwov : Hebrew, 'bebind the wilderness.' The meaning seems to be "deep into the wilderness."-sis rb Bpos XWpfip: Hebrew, 'to the mountain of God, to Horeb.' Jos. Ant. 1112 § 1 Bai rb frLYaloY K aaodpevov epos. The use of the two names Horeb and Sinai is supposed to indicate different documents. Josephus says that the place already had the reputation of being the abode of God, and

that therefore no shepherds had ever ventured to drive their flocks there.

2. &yye7log Kvpfov : in v. 4 gupLOr. So in 1419 24 we have first o dyyeXos Toe Beou" and then KupLOS. Cp. Jdg. 1322.-TOV Parov: the bush. The Hebrew also has the article here. This seems to show that the story was already well known by the time this account was written. Outside this chapter p6,ros = rebus occurs in LXX only in Dt. 3316 : Job 310. It is masculine in the LXX but feminine in Mk. 1226: Lk. 208. In classical authors there is the same variation of gender.

6. Efiaaiktro : a word specially used of pious fear. Hence dvyp edXapis. Cp. Lk. 225 : Acts 25, Ss, 2212.

7. 'I8iav Y8ov : § 81.- 8vb rC*v _pyo&LWKrc3v : § 92. Cp. 56, lo, is : i Clir. 234 : ii Chr. 216, 810 ipyOSLWKTOVVTES


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 161 Exodus III 18 KTCJV · oiSa yap TAY owv-qv airrt;v, BKai KaTEarJv EfEXE01Bav avrovs EK XECpos Aiyvaracw Kai Eeayayeiv avrovs EK Tis yes EKEiv?Js, Kai Eia-ayayeiv a$rovs Eis yip ayaejv Kai roXX~v, Eis y'w pEOV0-av yaXa Kai /,cAc, Eis TOP T07TOV Tcw Xava- ' XET7a' P Ka" 'Aptoppat6V Ka' (DepeCa' V Ka, rep- vaLWV Kat W & & W L y I I Va' V K I 'Ieflova-atcov. 'K I P& I'M Kpavy' eo-a cov Kat Ud al at V 77 a , 9 . ~. . a Twv vccw Ia~parJ~ 7JKEC 7rpos JAE, Kay(,) EcapaKa T0"V BXy,cj,cov ov 10 % - ' A' ' o& OV,8ovmv abrovh- Kat vvv 86po 411roo-Tet'Xco I qvirn a-E apos (Dapaco ~(3aaWEa Aiyv7rTOV, Kai Efa$ECS Tov Xaov ',cov TOVS movs MmvO-~s 7rpos Tov Of& "Tis Eip,c Eyi~ oTC 7ropev0-op,ac apos papaw 8a(TtX& AiyvVrov, Kai On Eeaeco Tovs viovs 'I0-paix EK yes AiyvaTOV; " 1 2EL9TEY 8E o BEOS MIdLtTE6 Ae'ymv "°OTc Ec-oN,ac p,ETd a~ov ' Kai Tovro (roc To U'qp.ELOV OTC Eyld (TE Efa?f00'TEXI.~ ' Ev TCP EeayayE6Y QE TOY /la(1Y pOV Ee AiyvIrTOV, KOGL XaTpEUUETE TCd BEfd EY Tld OPEC TOVTCJ." 18Ka1. E FEY MldVQjS TlpOS TOY VE()Y "'IOOV EyCJ EeEkEVQOpaC 7lpOS TOLS r v ~ v v a n v a i "' n r vcovs I~pa7l ~ Kac CP) Trpos avTOVS O BEOS Taw rraTEpu~Y v ~ > > I' 5 rJja,wv aaEa-TaXKEV ILE apos' EpcaTr/aov(Tw'.tE TL ovo%ca

i Esd. bee. 'EpyoEtmrrrfis was the current word at Alexandria for a superintendent of works (it is contrasted in ii Chr. 218 B with vwro¢dpos), as is shown by its use in the Fayflm Papyri; Philo II 86, Yzt. Mos. I § 7 also employs it. Cp. lpyoaap&r,ts i Clem. 341.

8. lWovcav ydXa KaL WW : cognate accusative in a loose sense of that term. In the next verse we have the same construction in its more precise form. -Tepyecafaov : added in the LXX.

9. eX&,.,.av . . . excpo.a-ty : § ss. BaluAds (= BAiys) occurs in the LXX only here and in Pt. 267.

12. "OTV iCOiaav : the use of t4r& here

is due to the presence in the original of a particle to which it corresponds. Both in the Greek and Hebrew perhaps the construction may be explained by an ellipse- (Know) that I will be with thee. § 107. - KaL karpeGowc : the Kat here has nothing in the Hebrew to correspond to it. Translate - When thou leadeat out my people from Egypt, ye shall also sacr'LI'cce to Clod on this mountain. This sacrifice was to be a public recognition of the fact that the exodus was under the auspices of Jehovah. Perhaps then the QqWwv referred to above is not one given by Jehovah but expected by him.


162 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT F'xodus III 14 atJTGJ; ' rL Epw ?TAGS aUTOVS; " 14Ka6 E REV O Of' 7Tp~s Mw'U (Tiv Xywv « a Eywr Ec/ac o wvyv · f f est ETaEV « O varws Ea peis rois e veis IrparX ' cO ('ay arEOraAKErV ~eE apos v s ve/aas. f ff 15 Kae Ei1rEV o BEOs 7rciXcv rpos Mwvaiv " Ovrws Epeis rocs viols aI(rpa-qrX . 'Kpcos o BEOv S n~)v rarr wv v,cw, No',; aA3paafaKac EP BEOs'I01adlc Kai BEOS'IaKai,8, aaE(rraXKEV /AC apos Up,as·' rovro ,,cov EQrcv ovo/.ca aiciwcov Kal 1.Lvrj(a.owvov yevEiov yeveais. 'eEXBC'dv ovv wvayayE T-qv yepova~iav ties vices 'I(rpa-q'X Kal Epeis vpos airrovs ' Kicos o BEOs nWv aarEpwv vlCiv iaai VP /.tot, BEOS 'A,8pad1.c teal No's 'IQa01,1( real No's 'IaKaiR, Vywv "'Erc0`corriErE(TcEppav v~Cas Kai ova wI,caE,8r/KEV v/.civ Ev Aiyuarcp · " l7rcai Ei7rEV "'Ava,(3c,(ia(rw vp,as & rig rcaKCi(TEws rwv Aiyvariwv Eis ties y~v r%cv Xavavaiwv Kai XErraiwv real 'Apoppaiwv Kal OEpE~aiwv Kal rEpyEwaawv teal Evaiwv Kai a r a ~. r , r fff la , a IEaovo-acwv, Ecs yip peovo-av yaAa Kal ~.cE~c. Kal Eao-a- Kovaovrai a-ov rids 0wvjs · real Eio-EaEVO"a aw Kal i yepovaia

14. b &v: the difference of gender between this expression and the Greek rJ 6v marks the difference between Hebrew religion and Greek philosophy in the conception of the Deity. To the one God was a person, to the other a principle. Jos. Ant. II 12 § 4 Says Kai o BEJs adr4i vill4alvEt rev gavrov" apoQ>)yoplav, ou apbrepov cis G,vBp(baous aapEaBou""oav · arEpl is od pot N/LGS E1frELY.

15. K16PLOS 6 06s: the Hebrew word corresponding to Kdpcor here, as usually in the LXX, is JHVH, the name which had just been revealed to Moses and explained as meaning d t'uv. The Jews considered this name too holy to be lightly pronounced, and therefore in reading the sacred teat aloud, substi tutedfor Jahveh,wherever it occurred,

the word Adonai (= Lord). The fact that the Seventy thus translated Jahveh by KGpcos seems to show that this practice of substitution was already established in the third century s.o. The English version regularly represents the word Jahveh by LORD. The form Jehovah has arisen from the practice of disguising the sacred name even in the tent by putting under it the vowel-points of Adonai, When Kvpcos stands in tie LXX for the proper name Jahveh, it is used, like any other proper name, without the article. - y EVEwv yEVeais : a Hebraism.

16. rhv yEpovPfav: the body of elders. We hear of elders also in connexion with other Semitic peoples, such as Moab and Midian. Cp. Nb.

2`L7.-·E7lV?K07t i7f6rKE1kPaV: § 81.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 163 Exodus IV 6 'Io,pa-q'X apos 4)«paw RaavAEa At'yvarov, Kal Epeis iTpos avrov ``O BEGS Tiov'ERpaicav 7rpoo-KEKA-qTav ~tn,as wropeva'co'N.EBa ouv o8ov TpW v jNtEp(4 Eis T'v Ep1qp.ov, iva B&rcoM,EV Tui eEw ~p.i~v.' IsEy%a K oi8a ora ov 7rporjOrETaa vj.cas (Dapai~ j8aQvEVs Aiyv7r- Tov aropeu8ivav, Edv M,-q' M,ETa XEtpos Kparatas · 2°Kai EKTEivas T-qv xEipa aaTa~ca Tovs A1yv7rTiov; Ev 7raort Tois Bavi,tao-iovs M,ov ois votrjaw Ev a$rois, Kal M,Era Tavra EeairoO-TEJEi vM,as. 21 Kai 8 ciJcrw )(apw Tip taco TO' Tw EvavT%v Tcw Aiyv7rT' W)v · a r. 22orav SE aTfOrpErxY~TE, OUa7TEXEVrU'EO'BE KEYOt aG'TI~o-E6 yvv' aapa YELTOY03 Kal w~Krjvov abTig OWE' XpvG-a Kai ip,aTaO-t.tov, Kal E=BrjO-ETE Eai Tovs viovs $M,cw f . , l ~ r 'r ICU E7ri TaS evyaTEpas v~,tc~v · Kal ~KV~EV~aTE TovS Aayv~rTV- ovs." 1'ATrEKpiB'q 8E McevC-~s Kal EiaEV "'Edv I..tq' ai- (TrevC-w(Tiv /AOL /a,,9bE EiO-aKOVo-ca(rtv T~s 0cevjs p.ov, Epova1V a ; f f 2j yap oTa 'OvW^ rrTaa o-oc o eEOS, f TL` Epc~ 7rpo s avTOVrS rev f r " r r f E' v ff e 8e" ~E aVTlo Kvpaos TL TOUTO EQTI,v 70 Ev T'~Y~ XEGpt ~OV ; O .p "e r ff g s "'r f f ff Et7rEV Pa~os. Kat E17rEv Pa~ov avTrJv E~m T~Jv yiw. f f Kal EPP yEV avT?'7Eat T?'7y~v, Kal EyEVETO oys · Kat E0vyev Mcovo*s aa' avrov. 4Kai EiZEV KUptos 7rpos Mcav(riw "'EK- TEtvov T"v XEipa Kai EaAagov T~s KEpKOV· " EKTEivas ouv f f / ~. f .. T'Yw XE6pa E7TEXajGETO T~S KEiOKOU, Kal E'yEVETO paRsos Ev T~ XE6pl aVTOV ' "" tva 7f6(TTEVUIUQW Q06 OTL fd7TTa6 (Tot O BEOs / , Q f f TfrJV TTaTEpIOV avTGtlV, BEOS ARpaa~e, Kat BEOS I~aaK Kal BEOS f r ff b. ^a f r I (( f / IaKCeR. EtaEV ~E avTi~ Kvptos ara~av Et~EVSyKOV T71P r f r ff , f , xeipa (Tov Ets Tov KoAaov Qov. Kat Ew77veyKEV T77P xEipa avrov Eis Top KoArrov avTOV · Kal EerjvEyKEV T~v xEipa airrov 20. 4V 7rGL?V TOYS Aavwao·iois N.ov with all my wonders. § 91. 21. &,aoTptXrjre : Nb. 2414 n. 22. wWKilvov : originally a military term - Latin contuberfaalis. The Hebrew word means a female so- journer without any reference to a tent. -cKAebo-are: do yespoil. Hebrew, ° ye shall spoil.' 5. ova irco-relbo-wo-w : referring back t0 tanasov" Ti)s rcEprcov, the intermediate words being parenthetical.


164 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus Iv T a r a v a r e v a e v r EK TO; rcoAaov avTOV, Ka Eyev17B~ ~ xECp avrov coo~EV Xccw. 7rcai EMU 7raAtv " Eia·EVeyKOV T-qv xEipa ITov CV; TOP KoX7rov f~ , a , , a . , a (TOW rcac CLO-77VEYKEV 777v XEipa CV; TOP KO A7rov a&oD · Kal a . a r a . r a E~veyrcev abr'v CK TOD Ko~aov avTOV, a~rEKaTE(Trr7 a v r v a "' Ca' P v r r

CIS rrw xpoav T?js a'aprcos avers · Ca'P ~E p.77 7rc0-TEV0-cvTcv roc /mq8E E1o-aKOV'*0*WCr&V rids Ocov~s TOD mrJp,Eiov TOV TrpcoTOV, 7rcmrEU(Tov(Tiv roc Tis 0wvis TOD cr-q/.Ceiov TOD CO-Xarov. 9 rcai E(rrac Eav I.L~ TrcCrTEVUcd0w roc Tois wO-i "JAEioas Tolirocs

p,-q8E Eio-arcovowcrcv Tis 0covjs Crov, X7' 07,7 a7ro TO; v8aTOs v a ·· a v v r v y v a n w TOtI ?TOTaftOV Kac EKxEEC$ E7J'c TO' ' K a6 E?Tltt TO vSCJp O EDGY Iaa'Y7S 411f0 TOD ?f0T'altOV ayA,a E?f6 TOD 6pOL." 1°Fr1,7TEY 8E Mwvays 7rpos KVP' " DEOp,ac, KupcE, o$x iKavos eipCc a , a . . . e . a , a a ~ y

Typo T'r)s E)(BES ob8c apo rrJs TpcT~s ~/NtEpas oC a0 Ov 77p;co XakEiv Tai BEpaaovTi aw · i0 -xvo0cevos Kal 8pa8V'yX('00-(TOT

6. 6cE1 XuCov : Jos. Ant. II 12 § 3 'T7raxOVGaS U XeuK~v Kai TLTC4vq1 (chalk) d1.wlav apoexdlaeaev.

9. Toes Svo-L cqWclovs : § 1. Josephus makes the third sign of turning water into blood to be actually per-

formed at the burning bush. - k fjW+U§ 37.-iK;,sEis : the accentuation seems due to false analogy from vowel verbs. § 21. - o 1G,v : = d d v. § 105.

10. ,rpd rils IXA'ss KTk. : a literal translation of the Hebrew phrase, which is condensed into ° heretofore' in R.V. Yesterday and the day before is meant to cover all past time. The meaning of rrpd rig fXBEr must not be pressed : its form is assimilated to that of srpd Tjs rpir7js, Ex. 2129: Dt. 4¢9. This use of rrp6 in expressions of time became common in later Greek, owing apparently to its coincidence with Latin idiom. Jos. Ant. XIII 9 § 2 apd 6arw et8iuv 4~eppovaptwv : Y lut. Cles. 68

Rpd pc8s j,uipas = ante unum diem; Sully 27 apd y8s vorviuv KvvrcXlmv, 37 apd 8ueiv ~Aepwv 3j &eaedra. Here we cannot suspect any Roman influence to have been at work, and the occurrence in Herodotus of the phrase arpd rroXXou in the sense of ' long before' indicates a tendency to this use of the preposition in pure Greek. We find 7rpd IuKpou" Xpdvou in ii Mac. 108. - io-xv4auvos : cp. 888, where the Hebrew is different. This word, which naturally means I thin-voiced,' is used as though it were to-X60mvos of a person with an impediment in his speech. Aristotle (Probl. Xi 35) says that the ZaXvd¢wvoc are incapable of speaking low because of the effort that is required to overcome the obstruction to their voice. In Probl. XI 30 1QXvoqswvla is distinguished from rpavX6T,Zs and q/eaXdr7js. A person is rpavX& who is unable to pronounce some par-


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 165 Exodus IV 17 EyGJ Ei1d,G." 11 E REV 8E Kvpios arpos Mcw(T^v " V'S ESmKEv O'TOpka OGVBpCO7TC0, Ka6 T6 s E7TOL't~UEV UCKCOOOV Kal KGVOOV, a1ETfOVTa Kal TUOXOV; Ok Eyld O NOT ; 1 2Kat' V7lv 7TOpEUOU K't E'yo' ' '~O) T' O`T N acr a aVOL 0 Ojka COV, KaL O`VjU,8&,8 " (1 ) O'C 08 IL-EOUIELS Aa4aav." "Kai Ei7rev Mcvva~s "DEOp,at, KvptE, 7rpoxEipa aav wvapEVOV a"ov AV aaoo-TEXEis." 14Kai evM.c)BEis opyV KVP' Eai M(0voyv Ei7rEV "Ok i8ov'Aapiw o a8Ekoos aov o AEVEirrjs ; E7rivrap,ai oTa XaXmv aaX?jwEa avros 0`ov · Kai L '8o' abT'q geEke'o-era& EIS (Y'VV 'VT-q(T' 0*0&, Ka' 18 V 0 V a &V L W QE r xapO'Erav Ev Eavr(1 lgKa.a Espes irpo. s avO.V Ka.i $c~0'Es Ta 77 e r r ~ . r ~ . ~ . ~ r . r p77[taTa p.ov ELT To (rTO/.ta avTOV ' K al Eyu) avoym To QTO~,~,a O'ov Kal To O-TOHta a$rov, Kal wp,flyao,&) vM,as a aroyo-ETE. 1sKat avors 0-ov XaX7o-E7rpo. s TOP Xaorv, Kal avo.s E' OrTav orov r . r. ~ '. . . r 17 (7-TO' ' Q U OE aUTGJ E~'~Y~ Ta 7TpOS TOV OE KaL Tip

ticular letter, whereas the ,>GeWs exaggerates some letter or syllable, but laXvoowvla consists in an inability to attach one syllable quickly to another. Herodotus (IV 155) seems to use the words synonymously - ad,'ts ioXvb¢wvos real rpavMs, ryi o6vopa &iN BaTros.

11. SvcKw~ov : used by Aristotle in the sense of I stone-deaf.' Here however it is used for I dumb,' while KmOs (which in itself may mean either deaf' or I dumb') is here reserved for ° deaf.'

12. wp,(iePdaw we: I xoidl instruct thee. Cp. v. 15, 181> : Jdg. 138 : Is. 401s : i Cor. 216. Also rpoj%ydaevs Dt, 67. IIpo0rsL#drem is used by classical writers in a somewhat similar sense. Plat. %n. 74 B, Phdr. 229 E : Xen. %m. 12 § 17.

14. 'Aapluv: as Aaron was three years older than Moses (77), we may

suppose that the order for the destruotion of male infants was subsequent to his birth.-0 AE11E(T11$: Moses was as much a Levite as Aaron (Ex. 62) : but to the mind of the writer the word probably signified function rather than descent, so that its use here involves an anachronism.-mot: added in the LXX, the meaning no doubt being °'for thee."

16. Td lrpb$ Tdv 8cdv : the Greek translator has substituted this abstract expression for the blunter I for God' of the original. Aaron, instead of taking his instructions directly from God (as Moses does), is to take them from Mosey Td apJs TJv 9e6v (- his relations with God) may therefore be taken to mean I I his medium of communication with God." This seems to typify the relation of the priest to the prophet under the ideal Hebrew theocracy.

~I t ! ~n 3~ ~ k e ,j, s ;~ i~ y 1= r; , ~' ..:.,~y: i j~ I.. ~: .,~'I


166 SELECTIONS FROM TI3E SEPTUAGINT ~. Exodus IV 18 pawOV Tav~T'qv T'Yw Qrpa0ELO'"aY ds O0GY Xn'lA.o-,q EV T,q xEbpb Q07h Ev '~?fOL'Yr0-goEY a7lT~ TU. Q'Y7/.LEba." ls'ETropevB1q SE Mwvo-77s Kal azr~0,TpEOEV apos 'Ioeop Tov yaftapov avrov Kai& Xt yEt " IIopevo-ol.tac Kai aTroaTpEow ITP09 Tovs aSEaoovs l.tov Tovs Ev Aayv7T(V, Kac oifropav El C*7t C&^Wtv." . s , . « , ~ » , . . Kal EtaEV IoBop Mwv~ Ba~a~E vytawwv. M,ETa ~E Ta , , , ~ , , A,tEpas ra's iraX,as EKEtvas ETEXEUT'Y7O'EY O 8a(rtXEV'q Avyv7r- Tov. to ETLrrEV SE Kvptos 7rpos Mwvo-jv Ev Ma&dp. " Ba8aCE aTrEABE Eis Aiymrrov · TEBv1q'Kao-av yap 7ravres OL ~1qTOVVrEs Qov riw Ovxrjv." 2oavaAa,(3WV 8E Mwvays Tr/v yvvaiKa Kal Ta T1a606a avE,8iflno-EV a1JTQ. ETT6 'FOG 1J?TOCUyba, Kal ETfEO'TpE0Ev ets AiyvaTOV ' EXaaEY OE Mwv(T17s Tr/v paR8ov T'v aapa roD BEOV Ev Tj xEapi- avrov. 21Ei7rEV 8E Kvpcos irpo5 Mwvo+ cc IIopEVO,.tEVOV a-ov ME' aaoa-rpEoovTOs Eis Aiyv7rrov, opa aavTa Td TEpara a CI EV Tais )(Ep(riv o-ov, lroq(rccs avTa , . , . . , EvavTtov papaw' Eyw 8E (rK~1qpvv,~J T,'v Kap&av avrov, Kal o V' ILq' EearomTEixr~ To v aaov. 22w 8E EP' TGJ (Dapaco ` Ta$E AEyec Kvpaos " Tios rrpwTOTOrcos /aov 'Io-Pa7jX ' 23E era, 8e roc `Eeaaoa-TEvov ToAaoyuov iva /.kov Aarpev~-,q' Ei pEV ovv j,ti~ flov~,Ea E~avoaTEiXaa avrovs, op ovv, Eyi~ aao- KTEUVw TOP VIOV QOV TOY ?lpwTOTOKOY."' 27E REV OE Kvpcos wpos'Aaptuv "IIOpEUB'9TL E6; O"vYOGYT'Y7O-Gv , , a· ·f~ . , i . , , M(00-E6 CIS T1~Y Ep'Y~A.OII Kat E7fOpEVB'Y~ Kal ow'IwT1~o-EV avTGO 17. rilv o-rpa4Efcav sts Syv: added 18. Bd8ye l ,rEk9E : a literal trans inthe LAX ziTPE0ELY = classical TPi71'ELV, lation from the Hebrew. Cp. gda-K to~ -Iv fl . . . Iv abTb: § 69, in Homer and vade age in Vergil. 18. Ba8ys Byialvwv : 'rytacve cor- 20. Td arav8(a : for the names of responds to the Latin vale as a formula Moses' sons see 18g~ 4. of leave-taking. - p,erd 8E . . . At- 21. IIopevoWivov Qov . . , gpa : § 58. yS,rrov : these words are repeated from -E&wKa Iv rats Xspvw cov : § 91. 228. They are not in the Hebrew and 23. lVIroKTEVYaJ : the present of stem do not suit the context. On the form rrrev- is here strengthened by nasalisa· of expression see 211 n, tion instead of by inserting t.


h. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 167 Exodus v 5 EV TO) OpEb TOU BEw, KaV KOGTEotx-quav Ol.Xk4kOUS. 2gKaL dvrjyyEaXEV MwU0rjs Tui 'Aapi~v advTas Tovs Xoyovs Kvpiov a . . r ~ e r a a r e ovs aIrEOrTEvEV Kai 7ravTa Ta pijp,aTa a EvETEa~aTO avTUi. 29E7TOpEUBn ~~E MwvT~s Kai 'AapWV, Kai wmjyayov T7Jv yepovo-iav T%ov vii~v 'I(rpa?jX. 3°rcai Ad~go-EV 'Aapl~)v 7rdura Td p~jN,aTa ravTa a EC o BEOS apos Mwvayv, Kai Eaoiq(TEV Ta a' p,Eia Evavriov Tov Xaov. s1Kai E7ri0'TEV- TEV o Xaos, cai EXapq OT6 E?fEQKEfaTO O BEOS toys viovs 'I(Tpa~k Kai oTi Ei8EV a$TCw T~/v BJV'0mv wv4as 8E o Laos apo0-Ercvv77(TEV. 1 Kai p,ETd Tavra eiorikBEv MwvOris rcai 'Aapcw 7rpos (Dapaci tcai Eiaav avTm " Ta8E XeyEV Kvpios o BEOS 'Icrpwjk "F*a7ro(rTetXov ro'v Xaov p,ov, iva p.oi eopramw- > > r »> 2 v? r « r ~ T e aw Ev Tq EP O. real EtaEV papaw Tis EyTw oU Evaa- rcovropaa Tjs Owv~s avrov ci0TE EeaoTOarTEiXav Toys viovs 'Iapa7jJ ; o$K o78a Tov rcvpaov, real Tov 'Iapa7'IX o$tc Efairo- ~TEXXw." sKai X Eyov(Tav avT~ "`O BEOS Tivv 'E~3paiwv apo0-KErc~1qTav jp,as' aropevaoM,E9a ovv 6806 Tpai~v ~pEpcw Eis T~v EpV,tov, o7rws BvOrwfa,EV Tai 6EC~i, t0j aoTE wvav- r T aV~.~ ~orv l f Vs -q(r,q jpiv Br aTOS os. » ¢ eav EarEV aUTO^as o 3aar,kEv AayuaTOV " "Iva Ti, Mwvo-~q a.& 'Aapwv, &aorpEr0ETE Toy , y X aor v fLov aao Tmv Epywv ; &7TEV0I.TE EKaO'TOs vj,tcw 7rpos Td Epya s » 5 '3~ r "a v ^e r avTOV. Kay EiaEV papaw I~ov vvv,~Bw o Laos

27. r(~ Spswrov" Oiov" : iii K. 19s n.

28. o,Ss &,rf?TEAEV : wherewith he had sent hinx. An irregular attraction of the relative. Op. Gb Sv . . . xaTaEouWvTat.

29. i-rropev9r1 . . . o-vvfjyayov : in this change from singular to plural the Greek exactly follows the Hebrew. Euvdyew is the verb to which o-uvaywyj (12a) belongs. Josephus (Ant. II 13 § 1) makes the elders go out to meet

Moses and Aaron, having heard of their coming.

1. W& kkyEV g4pvos : instead of these words Josephus here makes Moses recount to the new Pharaoh his services against the Ethiopians.

2. ov . . . avTOir : § 69.

5. irow,rX,l9et : is numerous. The word occurs in the LXX only here, in Lev. 114 8 rohvrXigBei aoclv, and Dt. 77 7foXU7fh'nBELTE 71'0.p& r(LVTa TA i`9vn.


168 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus v s s r a . , . r _ s r p,-1 ovv KaTavavo-cil,cEV avTOVS aao Tcw Epyov. ouvETaeEv 8E 4)apacu Tois EpyoEccriKTacs Tov Aaov Kai Tois ypa/ ~Eycw 7" OvKerc apoa~TeB'qo-ETat 8c8ovac axvpov Tai Xa6 el's T7' a IXOC'S Ka' Tp' v jI.L' ap - a&o'L IV 1TXLV00Vpyt'aP KaO 'vEp t &7"q ep 7ropeverBwTav Kai wvayayETCjTav EavTOis axvpa. 8 Kai T77v avvTa6v Tis 7rXaveias 7'7s aiYroi irotovmv Ka8' EKacrTqv e r ~ n a , s n ~ r r '~ittEpav E7f6flaXE6S aUTOCs, oUK a0EJIEbS OV8EY ' U'xOXaC0Umv yap, O60G Tovro KEKpayao-w AEyovTEs "EyepBi~I,cEV Kai BUQGJ- M,EV Tip BEUi' 9,8apvvE(rBm ra' Epya Ti~v avBpc')rrcw TovTUw, Kai M,Epc%cvaTmo-av Tairra, Kai M.-q M,Epciu.varcoo-av Ev Xoyocs KEVOis." i°KaTE(T7rEV8ov 8E airrovs of Epyo&caKTac Kai of ypappaTECs, Kai EAEyov apos rov Xaov AEyovTES "TaBE AEyec 4)apac,J'OvKErc 8i8ml.u vAiv axvpa ~ il airroi aopevo/.tEVOc C v ~ 1 ,wUEryETE Eavrois aXupa ovBEV Ea, v Evap/TE, ov yap aoatpETac aro, ris wvTa6ECds vHcmv oeErV. _, g Kac BEmrarpq o Xao. s Ev o~- C ,q ~ Al wvayayeiv KaXa~.t77v dl,; aXvpa ~ 18oi SE EpyoBcc~KTac KaTE(T7EVBov avTOVS AEyovTES " IvvTEXeiTE Ta Epya Ta KaerjKOVra KaB' j/.tEpav KaBa7rEp Kai oTE To aXvpov E8cr8oTO v/civ. _ 1¢ v , rB77~e ypa/tjtaTen Kac Epaa-TVycaav oc as Tov yevovs Ti~v vc'c_w 3Io-paX oc~ Karao-raBVTES E>ar> av, rovvao 77 Tciiv E7rccrTarmv Tov (Dapaai, AEyovTES " AM' Ta o$ wveTEXEa·aTE

6. a-vvkr4v: gave orders to. Cp. 618, 1236: Nb. 118. Used absolutely in Ex. 912.-ypa14N.0.TE17TLY: these were Hebrew, not Egyptian, officers. Up. vs. 14, 19.

7. 'Rp00'TEAj?ETGL 8v&dvav : shall it be added to give. The impersonal form of a common construction in Biblical Greek: Gen. 37$ n. On the use of straw for bricks Swete (Introd. p. 293) com pares Flinders Petrie Papyri II xiv 2 ~s rd ltXvpa apJs rev aXLvBov.-arW v Aovpy(av : in Swete's text only here in LXX. Josephus uses aXcvBela.-4X9Es

Kal rp(Tlv ~Wlpav : a general expression for past time. See 410 n. § 86.

8. o-uvraEw: used by Demosthenes (e.g. pp. 60, 95) of the contributions which Athens levied from her allies. The ° tale' of the bricks in our version = the I count' of the bricks, i.e. the fixed number which the Israelites were expected to provide. - KfKp4ya0'tY

perfect used as present; found also in good authors, as Soph. Aj. 1236.

14. MyOYTfS : here we have a participle which has nothing to agree with except the agent implied in the passive

aI ~I i, ii u. ,I I ~ ~: , i i . .t . , i I . ., f i s ~ ~(:: ti F i~. i I t s r ~~,: i, I , ~ ;. ~ 3 I i ~, a ,.i , I - iJ,,~ ' ' J : r . 1 ~. : i a ~, ~ ~ I,; ' ' : ' ~ ~ ~ f''. I 1 tr I ~i . ~ I'' I ' 9 . j s I4 j 4 #, lit t I p , ~ ~ i ~ ' ' ' ~ s; i~ ~,. i: I I nt ,~ ,~i,_ I ~, I _II n ' ~ . F ~w: I ; i h ~iL~, I j ~; F a `~' ! I~ , ~' Ir ~ , ~,. I ~ ; r' I I ' ' I, 1.. , a , ~~ , . l ~;:; J Ii ' ~ I ~ Ii ~ P ' , ' ' !` ~ I I ,I I f;: ~~ ~ I r ~ I ~ I ; ~~,, ft: I r i ~s i. i Fi a i 1, I f ~ ~I, , , ' ~ ~, .. , y., , ~ 4 ~ y. i j ~ ea i ~ I ,.F. ~f 4 ~ t a ' 6 I I~~. ~ ' ' i r~ I ; >a:: l ~i ~ 1 I;''~',', i i.,i li 1 I" ,: i i. ~I i I r, I~,, f`~ I! ~ ,


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 169 Exodus V 23 Tag a~uvrdeets vp(~v rig 7rXavBias KaBd7rep ExeES Kal rpir-qv » is ~ , jp,epav Kal To' r~s mq/a.epov; eweA9ovres Se of ypayu.a refs ri~v viwv 'Ia~pa"X Kareao-quav apos (Dapaco XEyovrEs "'Iva r6 OUTIds TTOLE6s r06s COLs 06KErats ; 'saXvpov o$ ~i 8orav rois oiKErcus Cov, Kal r~iw 7rXiv8ov jN.iv XEyovwv aoteiv, real i8ov of iraiSES o'ov ftep.a(rriycovrav ' aBaKrja~evs ovv rov Xaov o-ov." '7Kai ei7rev a$rois "%xoXdCere, oxoXaa-rat CUTE ' Std Tovro XE'YETE `rlopEVBIOtA.EV B6-c)M.ev rw Of,;) jM,cav.' lsvvv ovv aopevBEVres EpydCeG-Be' To' yap axvpov ob soerjoErai ~ . » lga,

vpiu, Kal rev wvrayv Tiffs rrAtvBvas a7ro~Ck)0'ere. ec)pcw 8E of ypa1.t~.tareis ri~v vimv 'Iapai~X Eavrovs Ev rcaKOis XEyovres " WK aaoAeiqrEre r~s aAivBias To' rcaB~KOV r~/ j1.tEpq,." 2owvrjvrq(rav 8E Mmvav real 'Aapwv EpXop.EVOts eis o-vvavr~wv avrois, ErcnopeuoM,EVmv avr(4 arro (Dapaoi, 2' Kai Jirav a$rois "*IBoa o 9eos real Kpivat, ort E,(38Av~are rev 6o-M.'v jtkwv evavrtov (Papac0 rest evavrtov rcw eepa7rovrcw avrov, 8ovvat pouoaiav GS rds Xeipas avrov aVorcreivav" ~2'E?TE?rpEi'lEV U Mcwris zrpos Kvptov real eirev " DEO/.kaa, Kvpte, ri EKarcWOas Tov Xaov roirrov ; real Iva

23 . > > ', ra aireoraArcas /E; Kai aoov apos apace

verb 4aoTeywB~oav. This is even more unreasonable than when the construction which precedes is impersonal, as in Gen. 45;6. § 112. -Ka6GmEp . . . o-fip,Epov: to-day also as heretofore. TJ rids a~pepov (bgepas) is a periphrasis for vrjlAepov. Cp. iv rp" vhN,epov Ex. 134, Dt. 44: Jv Tj chAepov bpEp¢ Josh. 58 (cp. 2229). The phrase fms T?)S P4fA.EpoV jp,Epar occurs in the Hexateuch in Gen. 1988, 2683, 354: Nb. 2280: Dt. 114 : and frequently in Joshua. Epict. Diss. I 11 § 38 dab TIS ?~(IEpOY TOLYVV ilpdpas. See i K. 171 n.

iB. MKJ?E6s KTk : R.V. I But 1118 fault is in throe own people.' The original is here obscure.

17. o-XoXacral io-re : more expressive than QxoaQrETE. This is a kind of analytic form. Exoaacrhs occurs only here in LXX.

19. kiyovrES : here, as in 14, there is a subject ypaIA/AaTet's, with which the participle appears to agree, but does not. § 112.

21. ipSEk4garE : Ye have made . . . to be abhorred. § 84 .-kp+alav: the usual word for a sword in Hellenistic

Greek.Cp. Nb. 2228: Lk. 286.


170 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus VI 1 XaXjQaG E7I6 T(P0-Gd OYO1A.aTt, EKOGKCDQEV TOY /laOV TOVTw, KaL ovK Eppv(rco ro'v Xaov am" t Kai eiaev KVP' 7rpos Mcw- a-iw "'"H8rJ oijrec a aoe~j0,w rap' (Dapaco' - lp yap Xecpi KpaTaca 4 'earoo V L 66 VT -,rEXEZ ct~,roh, Ka** b 8paXtovt V50-q)Lip' eK,8aX ^ a&o' f f n )) eK,Tis yes av~rov. 2'EAaAgo~ev SE o Beos 7rpos Mcev(Tjv Kai ei7rev arpos avTov "'Eye Ktipcos ~ 'Kai c'01cbBrJv rrpos 'Aj8paaj.t Kai 'lo-adK Kai 1 / .A ) N / / f IaKC~a, 8eos cw avriw, Kai To ovOp.a ~e,ov K' tog ovK C'8 VP avroas · 'Kai Eo-Tr/o-a Tip 8ca8rjKrw p,ov 7rpos airrovs GJQTE OOVVa6 avTOis T,qv y1w TiUV Xavavaildv, T1w yYw 'Yw aap(J)Kr~Kamv, ev ~ ) ) f g . ) . ~ Kai arapWK7)(Tav e7r avT77s. Kac ey(j) f ~ to f / d e f / ewrJKOVo-a Tov 0Tevayp,ov T~ov vccw Io~pa-q'., ov oc AcyvaTCOc KaTa8ovAovvTac avTOVS, Kai EM,v7j0- B~v Tiffs ~aaB1jK~s vM,i~v. f , ~ ) ) s~(3a&Ce ec7rov Tois vcois 'lo-par~X X eycw "Eyc~ Kvpcos, Kac ) Wce v/cas aro T~s Svva0-Tevas T,~)v Acyv7rTewv, Kac pvo-olcac e EK Tjs 8ovXias, Kai )Lvrp(Aio-ouaa ' UM,as Ev apaxiovc '(P L L(7- ' ~,uE 0 KP' E6 /IEYdX- & V IqX ^ Ka' q - 'Ka' X~poopat?IL=T~j ig ,aoa E,.LOi, Kai EUOiIA,at 7l/ilOV BEOs, Kai yYC1j'01EUBE On Eyld KplOS O No's V/tCJV O Eeayayldv ET s KaTawaa~reas /

1. _v ydp Xsvp( . . . Kal _v xTX. : the second clause nearly repeats the first, but the Greek translator has varied the phraseology to avoid monotony. The 4v denotes the accompanying circumstances. § 91. But on whose part was the strong hand to be? The words might be taken to mean that Pharaoh would be so glad to get rid of the Israelites that he would not only permit but force them to go, and 111, 1288 might be quoted in favour of this view. A comparison however with v. B of this chapter and other passages, such as 148, seems to show that the

strong hand' here spoken of was to

be on the part of Jehovah. It is evidently so understood by the Deuteronomist (Dt. 268) and in Jeremiah (3921).

4. r>)v ySjv ilv . . . W avT.1S : literally the land which they sojourned, in which they also sojourned upon it. This bit of tautology represents five words in the original - I the land oftheir-sojournings which-they-sojourned in-it.'

5. ov . . . KaTa8ov)Lo'vvTav : 418 n. 6. Eovk(as: - EoAelas. § 37.

7. _pawip . . . _pot : § 13. - Karar 8vva,rTSIas : oppression. The word occurs five times in the LXX, but apparently not elsewhere.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 171 Exodus m so , , g v , , e , v , a , r TfDV A6y117TrGCVV Kat E~a~IO E6s T1w y'I~V Ets '!1V E~ETE6Va T'V XEipa ~.tOU SOLYa6 aLT'Iw TUJ 'Ai(3padp Kal 'IQaQK Kal , . _ , . , . , IaKCJa, K at 8 (L'a co v~Lav avT7)v Ev KX71p~ ' E'y es VP LOS. oEXd~-qaEV 8E Mcwails ovrc0s Tois viols 'Ia·pa7jJt · Kal ovK , , , . , . , . .. EtoyKOV(rav Mmvo·~ a9o T~s o~Lyo~rvxtas Kaa a~ro TOM Epycvv Ttuv 0rK~1qpluv. ioErl7rEV 8E Kvptos apos Mmuiv XEycov ltcc EiO-EABE XaWq_ aw papaw ~(iaoAEi Aiyv7rTOV iva EeaVo(MEi~.~ TOVS 10L V9 lo-pa"X EK Tjs yes avrov." 12AaA?jG-EV 8E MWVG-7^1s EvavTi Kvpiov XEyojv "'IBov of viol 'Io-pa~XovK Eia ~jKOVO-dv I,tov, Kal , . . ~ . > » TfCJS EtO-aKOVUETab [.tov (Dapacj; Eyco 8E axoyos ELI..tL. 1gE1.7fEv 8E Kvptos apos MWvO-jv Kai 'Aapcw, Kai wvEraeEV avrois apos 4)apa('I) 8aaAEa Aiyv7rTOV a)(TrE Eeairoo-TEiXav Tovs V I ' '1 O`Pa'X 4K yjT A1yV'7rTOV. LOW; 71 28TFI i1LEpa E'Xa'X?jcrEv Ktiptos Meev~p j^ e'v yp At' yv7rW 2°Kai EXaAq(rEV KVP' Typos Mcevuiv A~ycov "'Eyce KvpLOS · 1taAquov apos (Dapacw aaaaWa Aiyv7rrov, Kal Eyce Xeyco apos O-E." So Kai EVrEV Mwvrjs Evavriov Kvpiov "'I8ov Eyi~ CG-xvoOcwos EiM.i, Kai 7r&s

9. Eio·iiKOVO-MV McuvG-p : so in Herodotus e10-aKOVem - I obey' takes a dative. In v. 12 below it has a genitive.

12. EYaYTV : § 97. - Wyo$ : destitute, not of the inner, but of the outer, a6yos, or, as it was sometimes called, the aoyJs srpo0opuc6s. This is a bold rendering of the Hebrew, which means of uncircumcised lips.' The same original is rendered in 30 by LQXvbOWVOS.

13. awv/PraFEV aLTOts wp6s: gave them a commission to. Cp. 58. - ,rpos cPapacu : before this the Hebrew has the words ` unto the children of

Ei(TaKOVOETai p,ov 45apaW

Israel and,' which are not in the LXX.

28. RH hidP¢ . . . Kal A&kricEV : to supply before this Kai iy4VETO to which the Hebrew points, would make the passage more in accordance with LXX grammar, but it would riot relieve it of its tautology, which may be surmised to arise from a mixture of documents.

29. Kal Eyw klyw : the sense requires d to be supplied before this.

a.~O. KaZ EZ'RfV MQ11Hl$ : 680-72 is a repetition with variations of 410-18. Here the communication made by the Lord to Moses is in Egypt instead of in the land of Midian.


1?2 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus vii 1 ~ "'IBov 88cuxd ae xai a7rev Kvpcos rrpos Movo-jv XEymv Beov 4)apaW, xai 'Aap~uv o dMeA0os o-ov Eo-Tat a-ov apoorj- rrJs ~ 2a·v ~E ~a~rjo-ecs avriv 7rdvra orra roc EvrAXop.av, 0 8E aAapwy v o ase?Oors o-ov XaA?7~evr~ev7rpo. s (DapaWyW Wa$e eaealroo-Teasac Tos woes aIa-pa?'X Ex Tis yjs avrov^. sayc. o 8E (TxXr/- pvvco riw xap$iav (Dapaca, xai 7r~1q8uvia Td ~r~peia N,ov Kal a C ~ Fa' A2 '7rrou - 'Kal Ok ello-aKOV'(FeTat V~ttcdv TepaTa ev yn IYV (Dapaw'. xai ETrcaaXi~ T~v xeipa fcov 6r' AzVYV7r70V, Wall a eeaeo aw,v wvap,ec rpec pov To.v Aaov pcov Tov. s vcovs aIcrpa'k EK f r . e r r 6 . r r 'y'>)s Acyu7rrov wY ex~tx~ea ~.ceya~ xac yvco~ovrawrav- c Ally' a a r fpc KTes oc vaTCOC orc eyco El v.pcos, a r , f a exrecvmv T?7v xetpa e7r " Aiyv7rTOV · Kal eeaew Tovs viovs 'Io-pa~X Ex JtEoov auTiv ° 7 r , n , 7 . r 7 r 1 n earoc77

(rev $e M~v~s Kal Aapcw xaBaaEp eveTecAaro avTOCs Kvpcos, OUrlss Errob7aav. 7Mcevmjs $E it' ETCOV Oyso?jxovra,

aAapc.w 8ev o a$Xos arovn eari~v oy8or7rxovra n c r Tpcmv, 17vaxa EX dXi7~ev ~rpos (Dapaco'.

8 Kai airev Kirptos 7r'pos Mcw0jv xai 'Aapcov XEycov 9" Kai Eav XaA7jr7 7rpo; vM,as Dapa%o XEycov `CUTE?7p,iv 0-77p,eiov

77 TEpas,' xai Epeis 'Aapwv Teri a8eXOui o-ov `Aaae riw paa8ov xac pyov eac r-q'v y~v eavavrcov (Dapaco xa.c evavrcov

Ti~v BepaaovTCOV airrov, xai E0Taa 8paxcov."' 1°eio~ABev MOM ^S xai 'Aapwv EvavTiov (Dapao'j Kai& Tmv Bepa-

Trovrcav a67-0V, Kal E7roigo-av ovTms xaBairep EvsTeiXaTO av- r . y f . . c r , Tois Kvpcos ~ xac Epyev Aapmv rl'?v paRBov evavTCOV papaw xai Evavriov rivv BeparovTCev avrov, xai 4'y' To 8p ' 1' wvexd keaev 8E 4apaio roVs aocbwTds Aiyv7r-rov Kal Toys

1. papaw : dative. -Wpo~jr,is : in its primary meaning of Iforth-teller,' spokesman.'

3. o· pEia . . . KaL rr'para: this is the first instance of this combination so common afterwards both in the Old and New Testament ; e. g. Dt. 4111, 8'2,

719 : Dan. 01 434: Mt. 2424. Cp. Jos.

B. J. Prcem. § 11 Kal rd apd radr'q$ (the capture of Jerusalem) a-4weia Kal ripara.

10. EpL1IffY : - fpp91Pev. § 37. 11. ?O+I,PTis: in LXX only here and in Daniel, where Theodotion has


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 173 Exodus VII 19 0apparcovs · rcai Eaoa-q(rav Kai of E7raovoi rcw Aiyvaricw rags oapp,aKiavs avri~v c~(ravrcn, 12Kai Eppc*av EKaQros rev pda8ov airriov, KUL EyEVOVro BpaKOVres · K ai KarE7rcev pld,88og ' 'Aap(j')V Ta'S 4KCL`VC0V Ad,880VT. Kal KaTL'aXVorCV 71 KapBia 4)apac'), rcai ovrc eiO'7jrcovaev a$rWV, KaBdTrep Everei~.aro a$rois Kvpcos. 14Eiaev & Kirpcos apos Mcovo-iv "BeRoipr?Taa 71 Kapsia papaw TOD p.' Eearooreixac rov Xaov. '8aa2crov 7rpos v v , e v s v ~ , ~ v v a v ~apam To' Trpc~a · c8ov autos eKaopEVerac eac TO v8cep, rcac E~ wvavrwv a$r~ Erri To" XeiXos TOD Irorap,oW Kai r~Jv pa,(38ov rev o-rpa0ei0`av eis o0av X7j1u,~p Ev r~ Xecpi a-ov, is · f p 0 &(j) Corr ak OS E XEycw "'Eeaaroo-TeaXov rov o iva Icoc KEV JAE Tfp4 Xav Eov XaTpev0-~ Ev T ,q Ep7j/.tq) ·" Kai i~ov ovK Et Ems rovrov. 1T ', , «f , , a ~v , .if f v ra8e ~.syec Kvptos Ev TO' yvcjag or c eyco Kvpeos c~ov _ paROfJ 7_ EV . xECpMov ea. r. a8c)p r. ev T~ u o v oEyGJ TU7TTC0 T~ '0 r717 6 7roTa[.t(V, rcai p,eraaaAei els a" a' 18rcai of iXBves of Ev Tai 1roraM.(~ reXevr~jaovo-cv, rcai Eao~&,ea o aoraM,os, rcai ov wv'q - ~ovrac of Al yv7rrcoc aceiv vbWp aao TOD Vora~.cov "' 19 E FEY 8E Kvpcos rpos Mcwo-~v "Eiaov 'Aapiw r~) a8eXOi~ O-ov `Aaae rev paa8ov aov IV r7Xecpc a~ov, Kac e*Krecvov TIqv Xeipa

Qoq5oE and in one passage (120) ExaocEoE. -+appaKOVS: cp. 911, 2218 oapua,coJs od 'IrEpL'?OLiQETE. The use of 0apjAaKbs for a ° medicine-man' or ~ sorcerer' seems to be peculiar to Biblical Greek Dan. 01 22, 27, 57, 8. -4iraov8oE : _ hay dot, enchanters. Cp. 22, 87,18,19: i K. 8s: Dan. Of 22·'~ etc. The contracted form does not occur in the LXX. +appaKEavs : _ o apAaKefals. § 37.

13. KarEcXvasv : intransitive, was strong. Cp. 17.

14. jkPG,priraL: a Hebraism, for which cp. 815,32, 97,34. The form Papeiv

occurs in the LXX only here and in il Mac. 139 peftapqA4ws. BapGvew 18 common.

15. lo-0 wvavT.Gv : analytic form of the future. § 72 .-~-A rd XEtkos rov" iroTaWoO : § 95.

17. rvvrw . . . Iar1 Td Mop: as in English, ° smite upon the water.'

18. 47rotlwsv : future of hrbtecv. We have the aorist in 21 and in 18.24. These are all the occurrences in the LXX.

19. et,rEV W rrk. : this verse is inconsistent with 1b-18 and contradicts


174 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus VII 20 s v v a f i v s v v v a v o~ov Eau Ta vsara Acyu7rTOV Kac Eat Tovs aorap,ovs avTCev xac i E ac Tas 8cmpvyas avTOV cal Eat Tav EaX7) avTw Kal E7rara^v v a a v y T ,f7f v f i T wvEVT77rcos Map avTCw, Kal E(rTac acpa Kac EyevETO aqia Ev araup y~ Aiyv7rrov, Ev TE Tois ~uAots rcai ev Tois XiBovs. 2°Kai Eaoago-av ovTas Mcova~s Kal 'Aap('Ov KaBaaEp EvETEi aaTO airrois KVP" ' K al Eaapas Tp pa~(38q) a$rov E-gaTaeEv r'8&)p r' 9V T~O WOTalz6 9vaPT' v (Dapa' Ka' gvav-r' v T,~)v o V 0 & to (a L to BEpaaovTCw a$rov, Kal M.ErE,8akEV 7rav To v8cop To Ev T~ 21 'e i e f n f i 7rOTapCfO EGs ayta. KOLL OL t'X0 UES Ot EV TUJ 7TOTaI,1,lN ETE~E'U- v s i a i v , f i e f i T'qQav, Ka t ETIId~EO'EV O ?fOTa~.tOS, Ka ObK 'Y~8UvaVT0 O6 AtyvV- Tcoc aceiv MOP EK Tov TroTa~,cov, Kal q'v To ail,ta Ev vao-?l yip r 22 f i v e r v e s v AcyuaTOV. Earocr)orav 8E 6o-avr&)s rcac oc Eaaovoc Ti;jv Aiyv7rricw Tai; cpaphc,aKiacs a$rmv' Kai 10-KX7' j KapBia (Dapaci, Kal o$K EiO-rjKOVo-EV avrcw, KaBaaEp Jump KV`P&OS. "E7racrTpaoEis 8E (Dapac'o Ei^ABEV el's Tov oiKOV avrov, Kal f f . v f f v f v 24 v ObK ErrE(TT?Ja·EV TOP vovv avrov ovBE Eau TovTw. wpveav ~E advres of AiyvaTCOC KvKAe~ Tov vrorapov wmrE aceiv Mcop ago Tov rroraM.ov, Kai OVK i8vvavro aceiv v8ap ago Tov aroTaM,ov' "'rcai avE7rA-qprA')6-q(rav ErrTa jp,Epac M,ETd To raTaeac Kvpcov TOY irorap.ov. 24. It is assigned to P.-8ufipvyas: canals. Cp. ridt, vii 23: Strab. I V 1 § 8. -cvvEO-rrlKas v"liwp: like our standing water. -tY TE rots tikoV$ ical 1v rots Wow : R. V. ' both in vessels of wood and in vessels of stone,' which is no doubt the meaning intended here. 20. Ear&pas rj ~bs&p aOTOO: cp. 1418.

22. lwo6rlcav 8e owaGTwg : these words are more consistent with the miracle promised in 49 than with that which has been related. -~a-Kkfjpuvev here intransitive. Op. 7N, 1315. It is generally transitive as in 421, 78, 912,

101,2D,27, 1110, 144· & 17. Cp. Rom. 918, Hb. 38.

23. ivfffryoev rov vo4v : this explains the elliptical use of iyorctvat which meets us in Greek authors in the sense of ° dwelling' on a subject, e.g. Arist. E.N. VI 12 § 8, Pol. VII 17 § 12

V?TEpOY IS' i7rLGT'ISOavTES Be? Ecopla·at p,"aX- aov.

24. vd,vTes of AtyGarmov : What then did the Israelites do for drink ? If this statement belongs to the narrative which puts the Israelites away in Goshen, the difficulty is removed. Josephus's explanation (Ant. 1114 § 1)


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 175 Exodus VIII 8 lEiaev 8E Kvptos rpos Mcava-jv " Ei6,e0e apos (Dapa&') Kal Epeis apos airrov ` TaBe Vyct Kvpcos 'E~avoO-TecAov Toy Xaov ,r,ov Wa p.oc JlarpevOwmv ~ 2al $E M,-q' ,govEC w Eea7romrei- ) ) I I a . _ I aac, c8ov syca Tvarca wavTa Ta opca a ov rocs Rarpaxocs. 8Kal EeEpEUeEral O ?fOTal.LOS Rarp06XOVS' Kai av' avres eirE- Xeva~ovraa eis toys oiKOVS O-ov Kai CIS ra raM,eia 7@v rcocrcwmv Orov Kai Eat r@v KAwcw O-ov, Kal Eai Toys oiKOVS risv Bepa- 7rovrcw O-ov Kai TOD Xaov O-ov, Kal EV TOTS 0vpapao' iv 47ov ) _. , 4 ) ) / Kac ev rocs rcAcRavocs (rov Kac E7r c 0e Ka c eirv TovS 6epa- I ) ) ~ I ~)) aovTas (Tov rcac eM TOP Xaov o-ov ava,8r7'oovrac oc RaTpaxoc. 6eiaev SE Kvpcos epos Mwvoyv " Eiaov 'Aapiav rq^) a8cX0qu ~/ ) O'ov Ercrecvov r-0 xecpc T7%lpafflov a-ov e7rc toys aroraj,tovs ) I ) b f I Kac eat ras BcWpvyas Kal erc Ta e~Iq, Kal avayaye Tovs par- )1) s ) / ) ) a paxovs. KGtc E~ETE6vEV Aapcw rev xECpa Eat Ta v8ara AI'.yL7TrOV, Kal'yayEV robs aarpaxovs ~ rcai ave,8a,6aa-0,q o ~(iarpaxos, Kal ErcaXvq/ev rev Y71'^v AeyvirTOV. ze7roi710-av ) 8e ce(ravrW rcac oc erraocboc rWV Acyv7rramv Tats oap'.tarcvacs avrwv, Kal av?jyayov Toys 8aTpa'XOV3 EM Y77V Alyk`TOV. grcai CKa1 (Dapaiv Mcwo~qv Kai 'Aap%w rcai Jump "Evea- a-Be aepi Ep,ov irpos Kvptov, rcai 7rEpcEVrc) Toys flarpaxovs a I ?/LOD rcai aao TOV EM,ov Xaov, Kal Eearomrekc~ aiYrovS Kal

is that the same Nile water which was foul and deadly to the Egyptians was pure and sweet to the Hebrews. -oirK il&vvavro Mew: Josephtts (Ant. II 14 § 1) says that the water caused pains and sharp anguish to those who did try to drink of it.'

1. EtcW& . . . Kal EpEfs : § 74. Vs. 1-4 end chapter 7 in the Hebrew, but begin chapter 8 in the English.

3. Td T0.iLfE0. TTOV KOGTOiIYWV : bed chambers. § 10. -+vp&pAxa-#,v: lumps of dough. The word occurs again in

1284 and in Nb. 1520, n. Cp. Rom. Sat i Cor, 56,7: Gal. b9. Jos. Asst. 1114 § 2 rds re Kar' o7KOV atrrwv SxalTas fi¢dvx3bv Iv iSorois (eatables) edpxoKbpsvox Kal aorois. - K hydvovS : K at#avos = Attic Kplpavor an oven or rather bak8ngpot.

6. o PArpaXos : collective tree of the singular, as in the Hebrew. Cp.18 zJv vKVi¢a, lots rfiv dKplda, 1014 roxaGrn dKpls § 48.

8. ita-rroo-rEi& . . . KaL AGc-WCev: 434 n.


176 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus VIII 9 BVQWO-ev TlO KVpLCJ.~ 8E1,?fEV OE MCtIUO-T?S 7rp0q (DapaW "Ta- eac apos NcE 7rorE EuecoM,ac vEpi you Kai aEpi TZv BEpa7rovTCev (Tov Kai aEpi ToU Aaov a-ov, aoavaTac Tovs 8aTpd`Xov3 avo a~ov Kal aao Tov Xaov Uov Kai EK Ti~v oiKCi~v vM,cw' 7rX~Jv EP , to ~ . ~ « ~ ~ » TZ aoratL(~ vaoAECi0B-qo~ovTac. 0 8E drew Ecs avpcov. Ei~rEV ovv "`SZs Eip~Kas' iva iS7,7s orc o$K &,rcv aA,os rrXiw

Kvpiov · 1' Kai 7rEptacpAq'o-ovTac of Rarpaxoc aVo O-OD Kai EK T,~Jv oiKvv irM,vw Kai EK Twv bravXECw Kai a7ro Twv BEpa-

aovTCav (Tov Kal a7ro ToU Xaov mow rrXq'v Ev Tiff irorap.oi , » lg ~ . . ~ . ~ v7roXEt0B-qo-ovrac. EeikBEV 8E M&vr~s Kal Aapcov aao (Dapaco ° Kal E,(3orJaEV Mcava-js 7rpos Kvpcov aEpi Tov opc-

o-M.ov Ti~v ~(3aTpaX&)v, cps EraeaTO 4)apaco. 18 E7roiqo-EV 8E Kvpcos KaBoL7rEp EiaEV McwTis, Kai ETEAEVT77o-av of 8d'TpaXo&

EK Ti~v oiKecw Kai EK T%w &aU~ECOV Kal EK Tisv aypcw ' '4Kai wv7jyayov avrovs Bc/.tmvcds Bt/.tcovaas, Kai aiCETEV ~ 15~ · . . a , ~ . ~ y~. c8cw 8E ~apaco 05Tt ysyovev avaipvys, E,8apvvB,q KapBia avrov Kal ovK E10-"KOV0-EV airriw, KaBa7rEp EAaA-qoev Kvpcos.

9. T4av ,rp3s iLE KT11.: Arrange with, me when 1 am to pray. The Hebrew differs here. See R. V.

10. o~K E?Tw Mos rrkhv Kvp(ov: again a slight difference from the Heb:ew. See R.V.

il. E,ravhewv: genitive plural of EaauAtr, a word which bears different meanings, one of which is ° cattleshed,' as in Nb. 3216° 24,36, another village,' as in i Chr. V2· 33. In the Hebrew there is nothing to correspond to the word in this passage, though there is in v. 13.

12. opLclsov" : Hebrew, I about the matter of the frogs.' The Greek rendering is a curious one. Can it mean about the tiwitation of the frogs (to the

river), with reference to v. b ?--Papn(u dative, as appears from the Hebrew.

14. Aywmds 9ycuvvs : heaps upon heaps. A Hebraism. § 85. AyAwnd = 8,qjAwvtl is a longer form of B,t1Awv a heap, connected with rEB,11,c. For the word cp. i Mac. 114. It occurs seven times in the LXX.

15. t8wv SE 4)apa&

. . . ~~a,pvv6y il Kap8(a avro"v : nominativus pendens, of which there are plenty of instances in classical Greek. There is nothing to suggest this license in the Hebrew, which runs literally thus - I And Pharaoh saw . . . and he made heavy his heart.' § 80. -dv&,4ugLs : literally a cooling. Here a respite. The word occurs only here in the L%%.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 177 Exodus VIII 81 isEirm SE Kvpios apos Mcevaiv "Eiaov 'Aapcw `*EKTEi- YOY T 6 77 a6?OTaeOV TxUJ,A0TjS y~5, ~ xEtpTv pQRtSO VSOV MOV x O xal. E(rOYrd.G 0-xY60ES EP TE T069 avBp(d7TObs xat Ev T06s TETpa- , ' r f eerevev ov3v fAap, aoMv. xat Ev 7ra-va~ y~ Atyr7TOV. r » ",E w .. . , ~. , ~ . , T-0 XEapt T?jv pa,8sov xat ErraTaeEV To Xisp,a TrJs yjs, xai EyEVOVro of O-xvi6ES IV Tois avBpce7rovs xai Ev Tois TETpd- ~ro~w · xai Ev 7ravTi xc6/.taTa Tjs yjs EyEVOVro of a-xviOES. 1gErocrav 8E &o-avrmS xai of Eraov8Tais'0apMaxiavs avTCw i~ ~ayayeiv Tv Orxvioa, KU" ~j8avTO · xaEyOVro of E o i vv i E V CxviOES Ev Tois av8pc6rroas xai Ev Tois TETpa7romv. '9E'~irrav ovv of EaaotBoi Tui (Dapaco "OdxrvXos BEOV 40-TIP TOVTO · " xai EcrxX1qpvvB1q j xap8ia (Dapaai, xai ovx Ei~rjxovdwv airrmv, xaeaaEp AaW~o-EV Kvptos. zoETTEV 8e Kvptos 7rpos Mcovoyv "'OpBpto-oz, To VpCOi xai 9 , , a-T~BEvavrtov 0apaca. xat tOOV, avrO, s E$EAU.(rETa6 E7T6 TO ZJOfdp, xa6 EpEbs ?TpOS aLTOV `TGa8E AEyEt KIJp60S "Eea7ro0TEl- Xov Tov Xaov p.ov iva pot XaTpEU0-ce(rav Ev T~ · z t Eav 8E I,t-q 8oap Eearoarei,ac To' v Xao,v ~cov, is8ov, Eycv, Eaaao(7rEr AJc) , , , ', , , r , a , , Eac ~E xaa Eat TOYS BEpa,aovras a'ov xat Eat Tov Xaov orov K'L V a G To 3 oixovs vp,wv xvvoM,vtav, xai a11qa~Brja-ovrav al

16. Td Xaop,a rt yes : cp. Job 1419. Xw,ua is properly earth thrown, up (by the spade), the result of the process signified by xchvvupr, or Xbcu. From this general sense we have XWwa - Latin agger, while here the word signifies loose earth, answering to the Hebrew word which is rendered dust. -cKVi+ss : nominative singular QKVt~. In Ps. 104gi PKYL7rES : Wisd. 191 QKViaa. § 5. Josephus (Ant. II 14 § 3) has 0Beipes and the R. V. ° lice.' Josephus comments on the shamefulness to the Egyptians of this plague. Cp. what Herodotua (II 37) says of the careful-

ness of the Egyptian priests about avoiding lice on their persons.- 4v wd"0 -it: § 63.

20. "OpApta-ov : dpBpfoev is Biblical Greek for dpBpedew, which occurs only in Tob. 95, whereas dpBpl~ew is very common in the LXX. Cp. Lk. 2188.

21. KvvdpvLav : cp. Ps. 7745, 10481. The common house-fly in Egypt has a poisonous bite, as it has sometimes in England in a very hot summer. As soon as one arrives in the harbour of Alexandria, one has experience of this Egyptian plague. Josephus (Ant. II 14 § 3) seems to give the rein to bin


178 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus VIII 22 e r OWL= Tciw Aaayv7rTUav Tis KvvoItwrrJs, Kal Es Tq v yrw 40'? ~s s f ) f 22 , 7 t I ) r Elmv Ear avTr/s. Kay aapa8oeao-c) Ev T^ q 1qM,Epq EKEivT T1 qv yiw I'EOq.i,, E0' Js o kaos M.ov E7rEaTav Err' avr~s, go' is o$K f e , a ap a a i a r c EO'Tat EKE6 77 KUyO/..tULa ' GYa cc ~~s OTG Eyf~ Ebp,6 K' cog O K1JplOS raornS r77s yiS· ~KaV 8CJofd 86aQTOkiV a6OG IU,ErOV TOU E,dpV. aoV^ Kal af va pE(rOY TOV^ 0`0Z XaOU ' Ev OT7 Z ,7 avpaov .. a ~f f ,~ ~ a . a Eo-Tai Tovro Eat TES yips. Eaoar/o'EV 8E Kvpaos ovrais, Kai 7rapsyEVETO j Kvvopvia vX~6os ccs Tovs oircovs papaw Kai Eis TOVS oircovs T~Ov BEpaaovrcw a$rov Kai dg raoat, 77'7v a yjv Aayv,7rrov · Kal Eec)XEBpEVB?7 j y_ aa Ts Kvvo~vcqs. 77 o 77 I 'K 'XEG c (0 L Cd OVTET E a TV 8' 4)apa' M0)V0`jV Kal 'Aap'v Xe`ycov "'EXO' BtiQaTE Tio 6E6 vM,WV Ev T~ yp." 28Ka1, E REV Mmvays "Ov 8vvarov yevECrBav ovrws To pq^l,ta TovTO, Ta yap 88EXv,yjAaTa

Ti~v Aiyvaricw Bva~opEV Kvpica rco^ BE&i ~p,ivv' Edv yap evaw/kEV Ta 88EXv'yjAa7a Ti~v AiyWrTicw EvavTiov avrmv,

XiBo,8oX?7 B-q(rop.EBa. 27o8ov Tpa(0v 7/M,Epmv 7r0PEV0-0jAE8a el's T 7' * I OV'0-0~&EV 7 OC~ jfk4;)V KaO 'irep Jarev Vptos IV ep-qPOV, Kat a r~/.civc » Kal ? r " aEyc~ a r e . t EiaEV ~apac~ a7ro~TE~u~ vilas, Kal, fancy here-8ilplwv 'Yap aavrolwv Kal aowTp6srwv, ivv cis *cv ov8Els daqvT~KEc srp6TEpov, T~v Xcirpav adTiav E`yepccEV, 60' iuv airrol re dacua7wvro, Kal ~ yI T1)s hrc EVEXEIas Tjs 7rapd rav ycWp-y(ZP daECTi- Mo.

22. wapa8ot6mw : make remarkable and so distinguish. Cp. the two uses of ° distinguished' in English. The word occurs also in 94, 117: Dt. 2869: Sir. 1018: ii Mac. 389: iii Mac. 29.

23. Sioo·w 8vacTOkfjv : make a separation. The phrase in this sense occurs only here. 1n i Mac. 87 the meaning is different. -dvd WEo-ov . . . KaL dvd *ov : a common Hebraism.

24, irkA8os : adverb, in abundance.

The Hebrew runs literally thus - ' and fly came heavy to the house of Pharaoh.' -1j(AEepEde,i : from iEoXEBpEdw. The right form, according to L. & S. is f~oroBpEGw, which occurs in iii K. 186 and is adopted by the Revisers in the N.T. (Acts 32a).

28. Td ydp S8EMyWaTa KTk.: this looks as if it referred to sheep or oxen (cp. Gen. 4g84), but the Hebrew has the word for I abomination' in the singular, which may be taken as a cognate accusative after ° sacrifice,' so that the words may mean merely our sacrifcce will be an abomination to the Egyptians, i.e. the sight of a foreign ritual will be hateful to them. -Xc9oPoX,lBriP6PAAa : TcBoPoWv is common in


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 179 Exodus I% 4 BVraTE TGJ BEW 7JpCJV ElJ T'~Y7 Ep'Y71A.Gp , a,X' ob paKpav OGTI'OrE- veirE aopevBiwai · eveaa9e ovv aryl Epov arpos Kupiov." 29JiTEP $E Mcwo-is "aO8E EyliJ E~EXEVQOpaG aTfO O-OD Kai EV~o- v v i v ~ i ~ v e i v M,aa 7rpos Top BEOV, real a7reXev(rErai arro a~ov ~ rcvvop,vaa Kal aao 7~ov BEpaaovTCw O-ov real Tov aov^ o-ov avpiov' p.-q' 7rpo(r- B~s Era, (Dapaco, EeaTrar~o-at TOD /A ~ E ea7roQTEiXav rov Xaov Bvo-a& Kvpi(j)." $°EejWEV 8E MWV01^s a7ro 4)apaQ'i Kal - V*eam 1TPO'S TO'V M q 0e6V - "&o" a-Ev 8E Kvpios KaBdrrEp EiirEv Mwv(Tis, Kal 7rEpaeiXEV rev Kvvop,vtav 17TO' 4)apac'o Zcai Tcw 8Epa7rovTCw a$rov Kal rov Aaov airrov, Kai ov rcaTEAei06r7 ovBEpia. 32Kai E,8a'PvPev papaw T7)v rcap8iav avrov Kai EM TOD Zcacpov 7ovrov, Kai ovK jBE~1qO-EV Eeaaoa-TEiaa Tov Aaov.

'Ei7rEV 8E Kvpaos arpos Mcwojv "EioliMe apos (Dapai~ Kai EpEas avrui ` TabE X~yEV KVP' o BEOS Tiov 'E,8paimv "'E6aaoa~reaXov rov Xaov M.ov iva pot Xarpeucrcaaav· 2Ei M,EV ovv p"q


,6ovAea EeaTroo-Teikav rov Aaov M.ov aAX' Eri EvlcpaTEis airrov, ..

i8ov xetp Kvpaov ErrE(Tra1, CP rois Kr?jvewv O-ov Tois EV Tovs arEsiovs, Ev Te Tois i77roas Kai ev rois vaoCvyiovs real rats KaM,rj,oas real 80VO-'LV real arpo,8aTOVs eavaros p.eyas a-0ospa. 4Ka6 aapa8oeaiQo) Eyfi! Ev Ti u tcavpW EKEivqJ ava pEp'ov rCJv

Biblical Greek, but rare outside of it.

28. o$ WaKpdv $aroT6veCTe iropsv9fjvav: Hebrew, 'going-to-a-distance ye shall not g6-to-a-distance for-going.' R. V. I ye shall not go very far away.'

29. "We Eyw : R. V. I Behold I go out from thee.' The Greek translator seems to have taken the first two words together in the sense of E c c e e g o 1 In the rest of the verse the Greek has the 2d person, while the Hebrew has the 3d. - Toir ph Igasroo-Teihav

§ rs.

2. Et pev ouv : there is no clause with e1 EF IA4 to balance this, such as one would expect in classical Greek. § 39.-&KpaTefs : § 37.

3. vsrogvy(ovs : Hebrew, lasses' - Tafs KaWAaoes : The feminine is the prevailing gender of Kb,wrlAos in the LXX. It is masculine only in Lev. 114 : Dt. 147 : Jdg. 85: 1 Esd. 648. - srpop&rms : Hebrew, ° flocks.' It would seem that the Egyptians kept sheep, notwithstanding their abomination of shepherds.

4. yrapcLSot4aw: 822 n. - dvd p,4o·ov


180 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus I% 6 n n , . ~ , ~ . n e ~ KrrwWV TWV AvyvVTwv Kat ava Je.e~ov TWV rcrgvcw Tmv vtcw ,IO-pa).X' ov TeXeurr~0-E& a7ro. 7ra.vTCO VOV TO;)v Tovn ,IG-paq. A vttcw pr)TOV." "' 6rcai EBWrcev o Beos opov X Eycw "'Ev r~ avptov t ~ n , . n n _ s . , 7roya-ei Kvptos To pr~jua Tovro E'lr' rrJs yes. rear eaoar7Qev Kvptos To pil.i.a TovTO~T~J Elravpcov, Kai E'Teke vrr~crev 7ralrra Td KTrjvr/ Tciw Aiyvvricev ' a 7ro 8E Tcw KTrJvcav Tciw viiw , 7, ,Ia-pa~X OIK ETE,EVQEY OvSE.V. t,OC.w 8e (DapaCd. Oart oLK T?7 , . , v . a~ , v , . ETE~EIJ" ~EV a7f0 7faVTldY TCJV K?"Iw(dY TfdV Lt(dY Ia'pa~ OA , ~ . , , el8apvvBr7 ~ K apBta DapaW, rear ovrc Eea1Te'aT4EtXCP Tov Xaov. sEiaev 8E Kvptos 7rpos Mcw0-jv Kai'Aapcw XEymv "AaReTe vM,eis aX ~jpets Tds Xeipas ai9dX77s Kap,waias, Kai 7raadTw Movvis eis Tov ovpavov EvavTiov 4)apaw' rcai EvavTiov T(~v eepaaovrcw a$rov, 9Kai yev77Bn'TCO KOPEOPT09 on imc-av "P y~v Avyv7rTOV ' K al EoTat e7rt Tovs avepwaovs rear e7tt Ta TETpa7fO8a AK1~, 0X'UK'T68ES avaCEOVcra6, EY TE ro^L9 avBpW'7roas n » 10 .Kat Ev zois TETparowv Kawram A, .r? y?7 ayvTOV. Kal Aa- )Sev Tiw aiBa,77v Tjs Kap,waias Evavriov (DapaW Kai Eawev a$riw Mwvais E1'q Tov ovpavov, Kal EyEVETO eXK-q, 0XvrcTiBeS avaCEOVo-at, Ev Tois av6pWaots Kai Ev Tois TETpaaowv. 1'rcai o$K 7'18vvavTO of 0app.arcoi (rrivac Evavriov Mcwo-~ Std ra' "XK77 ' ' E TO Y' T % F K-9 ev To4 0apjAaK0^&3 Ka' e'v IE eyev ap a A L vrdo-0 yV Aiyvrl'Tov. i2E01rcXrjpvvev 8E Kvptos 7*n% v KapBiav 4)apaci, Kai dK eia-rjKOVa~ev avri~v, Ka6d wve'rafev Kvptos. '$Eirrev 8E Kvptos orpos Mcwo-~v "'OpBptaov To apwi v , . . v , . , . ' rear mr~et evavrtov ~apaW, rear epeis apos a&o'v TaBe XEyet . . . Kul dvd W~a-ov: 828 n. - h Tdv = lSjAa, a thing. Gen. 399 n. 7. i6uw 8e $apaw . . . iSapfivAil h Kap6(a : 816 n. 8. at9b,hqs Kapivalas:·soot from the furnace. From 10 it appears that KaEuvalas is a substantive depending on

alBQX,1s. Bauwaia does not seem to be so used anywhere else. On the form aiB4T,z see § 8 . - a ao-6Tw : imperative of 9aava, 1st aorist of ad,vacu.

9. 4~wKTf&sS : 0 XUKTES = 0Tdrcracva a blister (Ar. Ran. 238) occurs only here in LXX.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 181 Exodus I% 28 KVP' o BEOS TWV 'ERpaiWV "'E~aroa~TEvov Tov Xaov ~.tov iva XaTpEU(TWa-iv l,to6. 14EV r(dyap vvv Kaap~ Eyca Eea7roo'TAAW ?TQ~.vTa Ta U'U7IavT'1?1.GaTa II.OV ELS T77V Kap&'aV COL Ka6 TWv BpaTVrWV QOL KaV TOU Aaov (rov, ' GIN OL Y S O v~S O E0T Eyes aAAos Ev 7T '0-- ,q T? a 7 ~. lwvv yap aIro0-TEL Tiw XEipa ~raTaeW ~E, Kai Tov ~.aov ~ov BavaTUia'W, Kai EKrpt- R'Y~0-'~Y~ a'?TO T~s y'Y/S 18KaG EVEKEV TOVTOU (S6ET1~p'Yje'f~S tva Eu8Et' .- eWilda6 Ev 0-Ot T'r)v LUX& 11OV, Kale. OTTWS &ayyEX~ TO OVOlA.aC p,OU EL ?Tdl0-'~Y~ Tj ,q 'Y~. 17ETt OLV (TV Ev?fOGq TOV "aOU IA.OL TOU > ~ , 16 ~ ~ a ~ a i .~ a ~,t~ E~aroO-TEiXaL avTOVS , tBoU EyW UW TavT? q?Tr/v wpav aUpaov xaXaCav aro,A'v aoo8pa, 7')Tas ToaavT-q ov yEyovev Ev At' .TrTco a0> . ~^s jttE.pas Kwrav EvWs 7s -q~ jtEpas TaUTJs. yv lsvvv o& Karao-arEVO'ov awvayayeiv Ta KT-qv-q Crov Kai ova -L' 4o 'v T~) m& 'VT69 ap I a o -Ttv E 7 L (d 77a y 06 11VOPWITOL Kal T' , KT-q" ova Crov E0Tav EP Ti 7rE8y Ka.yc. Ea,oAB-0 GS oL,Kaav, 77 c. , , , . e . i _,_ 2 pr ?TEM ~ OE E?T aLra 'Y~ xaXa~a, TEAEIIT'q'(76. O ~OaOU/.LEVOS O p1lAa Kvp6TlDV BEpaTfOVTWV (DapalQv~ayEV TOKTwT O0U ! y 11 , ovg, 21os b 7rpoowavov Ets Tovs otvc (TXEV rp &avoaa el's To E MP77 pjj,ta Kvpaov, a~^KEV Ta KT7jv1 CV Toas 7Esioas. 22E lEv 8E Kvptos 7rpos MWVayv "*EKrecvov riw xEipa crov Eis Tov ovpavov, Kat Eo-Tac XaXaCa Errt aa(rav yiw AtyvaTOV, E7rt TE , . . . , . Tovs avBpW?TOLS KCLt ?a KT'Iw'Y~ Kat cul aacrav 8oTa'v?lv Trw , . _ "ge& , ETIt T1~S yes. E6VEV 8E MWVQ'I7S T1w xE6pa EtS TOY ovpavov, KaV KUpLOS AWKEV (pWYOtS Kai xaX aC av, KaV BLETpE- 14. wvavrfjp,ara : literally occurrences, but used here with a sinister meaning to represent the Hebrew word for 'plagues.' Cp. iii K. 837. So in classical Greek Tvxat in the plural commonly means ' misfortunes.' 16. 8vayyeXn : § 24. 17. _vsrMt : § 37. 18. Ta4Ttlv Tiiv &pav : accusative of point of time. § bb.-jTLSTom,6T'1I - classical oYa. A Hebraism, which recurs in v. 24 and 118.Cp. Ezk. 69 d . . . glAota airrois. § 69. 21. apoo-_cXev . . . els : § 90. 23. +wv4s : voices. A literal translation of the Hebrew word. But thunder was habitually spoken of as


182 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT ]@"d" IX 24 xEV TO arvp 471 "^s yes' rcai EOpEeEV Kvpaos XaXaCav 171 aaa~av yjv Aiyv7rrov. ~-q'v ~E ~ xaXaCa Kal TO' irvp 0Xoyi-. Cov Ev T~ XaXdC~ · j 8E xaAa~a iroAj o-0obpa, ins Toaavrn Ob yEyovEV ev A1yu7rrqp aios is ~/.LEpas yEyEVr~Tac er avers a. q5 1 i v e i o ~ lr s v EBvos. E7raTaeEV 8E ~ xaXa~a ey irao-D y~ Ally a7ro av9pWarov EcUs Krljvovs, Zcai 7rao-av j8oTavqv "v ev TfP^ 1rE&T .. EaaTaeEV j xaXata, real, xavra ra% C-vAa Ta Ev Toys WEsiovs ' 2a ~ I r T ' e c v a·uvET a Ev aXa~a a~,~v CI y~ rE~E~,~,~ OZ 77a-av o1, v1,oa ITpa-IN ovrc EyevEro j XaXa~a. "aaroo-TEiXas 8E 4)apao') EKaE(rEV Mcdvo-'~v Kal 'AapCw Kd,G Ei?rEV a1Jr06s "'H/.LdCprl7rca c . . ~ . . . c . e To vvv · o KVPLOS 81,ZCacos, Eyce 8E Kai o Laos pov a~EREis. 2aEVea(rBE ovv aEpi Epov rpos Kvpiov, Zcai 7rava-a(r8m rov yEVn9jva1. Omvds BEOV Kal Xaaa~av Kal irvp · Kal Efayro- O'TE)lGJ iJl.las, Kal 071KE'J'G 7fpO(rrEB'(rEo-BE liEYEW." 29Eh,TlEY OE airr~ Mcwo-is "`SZs av EeE)LBm riw 1rAiv, EK7rETao-ca ras XEi- pas /cov, Kal al Omvai 7rava-ovral,, Kai j xaXaCa Kal o vEroS ovrc E~Tav Ere · iva yms ors Tov Zcvpiov ~ yip. a°Kai o-v Kal of ~dropres (Tov e7ria-TalAat OT& ObSe'r(A) ve00',8-qa0eT0'v NOV." ep ai To ~E Xivov Kal ` rc Z,e 'Eat , ` rc ce ~ a ra Ec-"l P '7 ~7Y~7 ' ~7 yap P ~P TAI'

' the voice of God.' Op. 48: i R. 1217. -7Pp4EV : this use of Pplxew for 'to rain' is common in Biblical Greek, e.g. Gen. 26, 1924 : Mt. 445 : Lk. 1729. It is condemned by Phrynichus as nonAttic (Swete Introd. p. 296).

25. dtsr6 . . . Ices : H ebraism. § 92.

29. ors &v: as soon as. Cp. Ceb. Tab. IV wr $v ElQABmmv EZr Tdv Plov, I% irr $v aapAfts : in N.T. Phil. 223 csrs $v dal8m Td arEpl ipk. -1tWau Tilv s rdkiv

Cp. 1222 OOK i EfAd?E?BE 9K40'TOS T'Iw Bdpav. This transitive use of iEgp XECBat, like Latin egredl, is not unknown to classical writers, but it is

here used because it exactly reflects the original.

30. ar4dPja-AE : for the perfect used as present op. Soph. Aj. 139 pfyav gKYOV 1`xm Kai aE0616,j1.tai. The R.V. has here ' ye will not fear.' The vagueness of the Hebrew tense-system renders such variations possible without any difference of reading.-Tdv 9Edv: Hebrew, I JHVHGod.'

31. aapEa·Trluvta: supply f iv-had come, i.e. the ears had formed themselves. Similarly dairy-maids talk of butter 'coming' in the churn. The Hebrew word here is Abib, which is also the name of the month in which


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 183 Exodus % S KU6a, TO OE Xivov arEpp,aTiCOV ' $20 8E irvpos Kal j Avpa Ok EaA~jy~0-av, otyM,a yap q"V. Ne~X~XBEV 8E Mcevoys a7ro q)apa&i EKroS 'rig?roAECds KOGG EeETE6VEV TQs xEipas rpos KVP' tov · Kai at' 0mvav ErravO-avro, Kai -q XaAaCa Kai O vETOs a· a , EN A v g¢ a v v v a OVK EQTa~EV OUKET6 ENA T1q "v. vcw ~E papaw oTi < < , , ~ , ~ , 7mravTav o vETOs Kal ~ XaAata Kat at ocevaa, 7rpoo-EBETO TOD ate,apTavEtv, Kal E/3apvvEV avrov Tn'v Kap8iav Kai Tmv BEpa- aovrmv avTOV. 35Kai EtrKX1qpvvB77 j KapBia (Dapaco, Kay ovK E 'ealT ' V V 77 EorTeuev Tok vlo's 'Iapa A, KaBarEp EAdAr/crEV Kvpaos Tw MWv~-^ . 1 ELTfEY 8E KVP' irpos Mcovaiv ,E'Ywp " E io-AeE vrpos 4)apac~i · Eyco yap 90-AV' airrov T~v KapBiav Kai T%w BEpa7rovTCw avrov, iva E6js E7rEXB~p Td mqM,Eia TavTa Ear' a$TOVS ' 2o7rws 8t-qy7jQ'~o-eE Eis Td Lira Tcw TEKVCw v/a,irw Kal Tois TEKVOCs 7-97JV TEKVCw ova E/a,7rE7ravXa Tois Aiyvmrioas, v v , n e , e ~ v , a Kal Ta Q'91.4E6a 1.LOU a E7f01.'Y~o-a ev aUTO6S, Kal yY(OQEQBE jrt Eyes Kvptos." BEiajXBEV 8E Mcw(T~s Kal 'Aapcw evavTiov (Dapa(J'i Kal Eiurav aUTUi " TdBE AEyEi KVP' o BEOS Tiw s , "a r ~ , ~ ^i ~ r Eapawv EIdS T6vOS OU ROV~1,E6 EvTpaTf'Ywab pe ~ E~aTIOQTE1,X0v the buds spring. -wsrepparltov : was in seed. The word occurs in the LXX only here and in Lvt. 122. 32. &avpa : Gen. 4018 n. - 8+np,a late crops, as compared with the barley and flax. The Hebrew word corresponding to gypa is of doubtful meaning. R.V. ° not grown up.' For 64,qwos cp. Xen. ffc. XVII 4 and in N.T. St. James 57.

1. Tyco ydp ~U-KXfjpvva KrX. : ep. the Greek conception of Atd as exemplified by the tragedians, e.g. Soph. Ant. 6214 : also the Prophets, as Is. 69, lo. Here the final cause of hardening Pharaoh's heart is explained to be that God might exhibit his power as a deliverer of

Israel. - Yva Et-Ss kira9p kA.: the Greek here differs slightly from the Hebrew. See R.V.

2. 1p,z4,rakXa : cp. Nb. 2229. This form of the perfect of ilk,rafrm is quoted by Veitch from Plutarch Demosth,. 9. The earlier form is iWaiaatKa as from a dental stem.

3. Avrpa,efyval pe: reverence me. The verb in this sense with a geni. tive is common in classical Greek from Homer downwards, but with accusative it is post-classical. From the meaning. of ° reverence ' it is an easy step to that of ° be ashamed,' as in Ps. 344: ii Then. 314 : Tit. 28.


184 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodna % 4 , w ~ ¢ el , b, ILI Brov Xaoiv'tov ava XarpEViOwo,tov. av E EiJ~ps o-v , f f , f , f . , d EearoorrEiXav rov Xaov l,tov, i8ov Eyw Eaayw ravr-qv rev wpav avptov aKpa.Ba TroXXiv Ew aravra ra, opia 070V , 'eal KaAOEa riw o*av rig yjs, Kal o$ 8vvrjo-p KariBEiv rev yjv · real KarE 8Era6?faY r0 7TEp6QQOV rY7s yns r0 KdraXE608EY, O KaTA67fEV V(A.W i Xaka~a, Ka6 KQ.rEOErat ?fav ~AOY TO ~vOp.EYOV 11IA,6v s , ^ . 6 'i i t f r , e s i E7Tt r~s yr/S KaW r~8rjo-ovrav QOV al ovrcvai Kal at oarctav ^ . ^ t f . f ^ TOW eEparrovrwv 0'ov Kac aao'at at oiKaaa Ev arao*- ,q y -,q r%ev Avyvrawv, da ovUrorE Etwpa~ cawoat irarE~pes a-ov ovBo1 f rporaaroc avWV, a0f js jiue,pas f , ^ d yEyovao-av Era r77s yes Ews 'rig j~tEpas Tavr-qs.' " Kal ErcrcXivas Mwvo-js EtrjA9EV arro 4)apaci. 7rcai XEyovwv oa 9EpaaovrES apace irpos airrov 1"Ews rivos EQrai roirro ~jIa,iv O-KCinov ; EearoQrEvov toys avBpcrivovs orrws AarpEVo-wow rui BEUi avrcw · 47 ELBEVaa 18ovXEV on aaoXwAEV Aiyv7rros ; " ercai IrC'UTPaPav rO'P TE Mwvayv real 'Aapiov -ffpos (Dapaca, real JvEV avrois "IIopEVE- QBE Kai ~arpev~arE Tui 6E~i ' rives 8E rcaa rives Eiaiv of aropevo1.tEVOV;" 9Kai XE'YEG Mwva* "Xvv rois veaviTrcois Kal vpEo-avrEpOVs iropEVcrop.EBa, wv ro^&S viols Kal 9vyarpa(rw t .~ , t . f f Kai apoRarois teat 80V(r'1v i'llcw · E~rw yap EoprqKvpaov. loKai J11rEV apos avrovs "Eorw ovrws, Kvpios /.tEB' vp,cw

5. T~v S+w ·rfs yAs: literally the eye of the earth. A Hebraism. Cp. Nb. 22x·11.-oi 8vvfjo^p: a fair equivalent for the vague use of the 3d person in the Hebrew.

6. WpdaaWros : great-grandfathers, Latin proavi. Only here in L%%. The Hebrew means only I grandfathers.'

7. ro4lro : R.V. I this man,' a meaning of which the Greek also admits by attraction - o-Kaoaov : a stumblingblock, like oxhv5aaov. Dt. 718: Jdg. 8", 1116 (A) : ii Chr. 2828: Is, b714.

IKAos is used by Hom. Il. %III 564 in the same sense as cKGAop, a stake. - elUvayofiaw : Hebrew, 'Dost thou not yet know?'

8. Kai, 8srfarpg+av : and they brought back, just as in the Hebrew. In the R.V. the sentence is turned into the passive. -TIvES 8e Kal TWOS : a literal translation from the Hebrew. The form of the question seems to imply that a detailed answer is expected - · These and those shall go.'

10. "Ecrcu o;rron KTX. : the passage ought perhaps to be punctuated as


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 185 Exodus X IT MOOT& a7TOQTEXXGJ ViLLaS, IA-q' Kal 7"Yw df.?TOQKE'U'1~'w Vftfdv; (.OETE, On 7TOmqpl",a 7lpO~KE6Ta6 V~d.LV. 11i1A.'17 OLTfuS ' ?TOpEVE QBIDo-aY 8E OG aV8pES Kal XaTpELQd",TI~JO'av TlU eEql' TOtJTb , vyap alTOt E4'qTEn6TE. f E$&,8a1O YOY 844%E avTOV y S arr0 v 7rpoo·cSaov 45apaW. "EiTrEV 8E Kvptos zrpos Mcwo-y/v "aEKTEivov T1qv XEipa bra ynv AtyvrrTOV, Kal avaR~TCj arcpts Etna Tnv yiw,

Kai KareBErat rao~av ~l3oTdv-qv Tiffs yes Kai VavTa TOP Kap 18

irov 7-(w euAcw ov v7rEVrrETO i xaXaCa. Kac ETrr/ pEv

~. ~ ~ . .

Mcwo-~s Tnv paabOV ELs Tov ovpavov, Kal E7r9yayev avEM,ov

N V ` ° % Pomp Eri v yjv oaIOv T-qv 771iE p av EKEiv v Kal ~v T v vvKTa · To 7rpc)i EyEVjB1q, Kal o avEpOs o voros avEXaflEv r TrJv a' '8a Kat av~yayev av"v E1rL 7rao-av y~v AvyvWTOV, , i 2 , i , a a i , i Kaa KaTEaavowv Errt aravra Ta opLa Atyv7rrov roX,qo-oo8pa' > > . ~ , apoTEpa avTis ov yEyovev Toaavr?7 aKpas Kal p.ETa TavTa ovK EO`Tac ovrcos. 15Kai EKav~EV T~v 4av T~s y77s, Kai E0eapr/ j yj · Kai KaTE0ayev araa-av,(ioTdv-qv Tis yips Kal advra TOP Kapaov TWV evAcw os vVEXEi~er~ &IT' Tw/s xaXa~1qs ~ o vx


vVEXE y91q xXc)pov ovBEV CV Toas 6Aoas Kai& Ev ara" 8OTd'P-0

aEBiov Ev y7,^) AiyvaTOV. 18KarEOrrEVBEV 8E 4)apaio KakErav MWVO-~v Kal 'Aapi~v XEylj)v "`HM,apT1qKa Evavriov Kvpiov Tov BEOV vja.c~n Kai Eis vj,L&s ' 171rpo0-BEeao'BE ovv M,ov Tiw apap-

follows-"EcTm oirrWs BGpLos JAeV uuiav, KaBbra daoQrgMm up.&s. p~ Kal rev daocKeuhv u1Awv; So be the LORD with you, as 1 let you go (i.e. not at all) I (Am I to let go) your belongings also? Look out, for mischief is upon you. Without the p.h the passage would run as in the Hebrew and there would be no question-mark after vp.wv. For the threat with which Pharaoh closes his speech, cp. v. 28. - d,aocKEVfw : a word of vague meaning, as we have seen already. Gen. 438 n. Here it includes the women and children: cp.

v. 24, 1287. In Dt. 2014 the women are excluded.

it. lglflnkov : the verb in the Hebrew is singular, but means I one drove,' so that iZEPaAov correctly represents it. R. V. ° they were driven.'

13. l,rfjyayEV : Hebrew, I the LORD brought'-G,vAaPev: took up in the sense of brought.

14. Kal d,vfiyayev abrfjv : Hebrew, 'and the locust went up.' -AKpts : collective for a locust-swarm. Cp. Jdg. 712 wQel dKpts cis aA$Bos : Nahum 317 § 48.

17. irpoo-&4ac6e : from ' accepting'


186 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus % 18 T6aY CT& V1JY, Kay TfpOUEtIeaa-BE TtpOS KUp60Y TOY BEOV VlA.CJY, Ka6?fEptEAETId af,7l'' E,.I.OV TOV VaYQ.TOV TOVTOV." 1sEy1.BEY ~E Mcowis aao (Dapa%~ Kai qv'eaTo 7rpos Tov BEOY. ie Kal /.IETE,8aXEY Kvpcos avEpov aao 8aXao-(rqs 0-0o8pov, Ka6 OI,YE XaftEY T?~Y d.Kp6sa Kay E*OaXev aiJT'Y~Y EGS T~V Ep'UBpCtY eaXacr- .. , , ~av ' K ac ouX vaE~.EacpBTj aKpcs p,aa Ev ira(rV y~ AiyuaTOV. 2°Kai E0-KX?jpvvev Kvpcos T~v KapBiav (Dapa&' ), Kal ovK Eea- 7rETTECAEV Tovs viovs 'I(Tpaq"X. ziEiTrEY 8E Kvpcos epos Mom ^V "*EKTECVOV Tqv xEipa a'ov Ecs rov ovpavov, Kac yev7JB"TCa (rKOros Eirc yiw AcyvaTOV, *-qXac¢rJTOV OOKOros." 22EeETECYEY 8E Mcwr~s riw xEipa Eis . ~ . Tov ovpavov, Kal E'yEYETO QKOTOS yvo0os euEA~a Errc aaa~av yiw AiyvrrTOV Tpeis j/1 Epas ' 2 $ Kal ovK Ei&Y o$SEis Tov a8E,-

0ov a$TOV TpECs jp Epas, Kal o$K E~avE(Trq OU(SE6S EK T'r)S KO6T-qS aLTOV TpE6S j/jEpas ' 7 TaTl 8E Tois viols 'Iopa7JX 0CUS '~Y Ev 7Ta0'6Y OAS KaTEy6YOVT0. 24KOI,L EKOCXEG-6V (Dapai~ MWU 0+ Kai 'Aapwv AEycw "Ba(SLCETE XaTpEVaaTE KvpiW Tip BEGV

vp.iw ' 1 rA'v Ti~v apo,8aTCw Kal Tow 8o%w vaOXi1rEaBE, Kal 7'7 e v c ~ i ' c » g' v 3 aTf00'KEL1~ 'UiIA.CJV a7lOTpEXETlO /-LEO' 1lilA.l~Y. Kac El9TEY MCOJ- cris G'AAAav Kal wv 8ci)TEas j«jCiv oXocavTm'.caTa i'caTa Kal 9vwas. a a 7roc~ja-ol,cEV Kvpi~ Tc`i 9EUi jpmv, 28Kai Ta KT-q'v-q 7'7/,CCw aopEV-

atonement for sin, apooUXeQBat here passes into the meaning of ° to forgive.' -rbv 6b,varov ToOTOV : Hebrew, ' only this death.'

21. llqA0.~'qTOV crK6TOS : the neuter cxbros occurs in good writers, but the masculine is more common.

22. ?K6T0S yv6+os Avekka: Hebrew, ' a thick darkness.' Cp.142o Kai 4yEvero cxbros Kai yvbq5os, 2021 efs rbp yvG¢ov

Dt. 411, g22 Qx6ro: yvb0os BueaXa. yvG¢os = Moos. For the asyndeton cp. 154.

23. oBSELg Tdv &8EX+dv a0ro"v : § FiB. -Ev rr&aw ots K6TEyfVOVTO : in all the

places in which they dwelt. KarayfvevBat occurs also in Nb. 68 : Dt. 90

Bel. 0' 21.

24. ir*hv . . . V 7f0Af'RE0'AE : R . V. ' Only let your flocks and your herds be stayed' (i.e. left where they are). The meaning intended by the Greek is perhaps Only leave yourselves without your flocks and your herds. Or has rrXhv drawn rd rrp6/9ara KrA. info the genitive ?

25. bXoKavrwWara : iii I~. 189 n. d sroya·oyev : which sae shall o,ff'er. In classical Greek rrmeiv and AErem are the


Exodus %I 5 II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 187 aETac M,EB' jp.(~v, Kal o$X v7roXEt0B77aoM.Oa oaX'v' asa avTmv yap ~~.~ro~.tE9a Xarpevo-aa Kvpi~ Tqi eEW jj,tmv ' j/a,Eis SE ovK oi8a~,cEV Ti XarpevaWp,EV Kvpioi Tai. BEi~ ~~.cwv a a Q e a m 27 a r v r v EwS TOU E~I~EI.v 'Y~.taS EKEC. EQK~I'I~pUVEY ~E Kvpcos "v KapBiav (Dapac'), Kal ovK E,QovJlrj6r~ Eea7roo-TEvac avrovs. 23 1 r r`air' a r ^ .r Kac ~E'YE6 papaw A9TE~I.BE E~A.OV,?fpO~E~(E QEAtUTC~ IT& rpoo-BEivac i5Eiv /tov To vpoaw7rov ' ·0 ' 8' av jpEpa o0B~s /AOL, aaoBav-^J." 29XEyEV bE Mwajs "EiprJKas' owKETC o08rj- r a r » aop,at Boa Ecs 7rpoawrrov. ' E lbrEV 8E Kvpcos 7r'pos Mcovajv "*ET& M,aav 1rX7jyiw Eadew a't 4)apao'i Kal br' A* v7rroP, Kalt IkeT' 7aVT Efairoo-reX6 iT ly a a UMas EavTEVnBEV ' a av 8' EeaTOo-TErXXCorE ~ vtcas, wv v 7ravT' EK,3aw AEC U' EK,80k,q. 2X GGX'YjO'OV OLV KpUfp~ GIs Tdt ldTa TOL /law, KOtG a6T'Y~0-GITCJ EKa(rTOS ?Tape TOV ?TX'Y~(TbOV O'KE1J'Y1 s v v c r » g r v ~r T7' 7p Kac xpv~a Kal c~.caTa~,tov. Kvpcos SE EBwKEV T~v Xapcv r(p Aaui airrov Evavriov TWV Aiyv7rriwv, Kal Exp7jo-av airrois' Kal o av9pwaos Mwva-is /j.~yas Eye v'rj877 a-0o8pa Evavriov Ti~v Aiyv7rTiwv Kal Evavriov (Dapa('A) Kai Evavrio7 aavTtvv T(6 BEparovTwv avrov. 4Kai Jim Mwva-7^1s " T d8E X EyEC Kvpcos ` I IEpi /.tE(Tas vvKTas Eyi) Eicr1ropfv'oja,av Eis pEoov AcyL?TTOL, 6Ka6 TEXEUT'YjQEC 7fav 7TpGJTOTOKOV CV yV

regular words for I doing sacrifice,' like facets and operari in Latin: but 7romiv does not seem to be constructed with an accusative of the victim, whereas ~i~em is. Verg. Ecl. III 77 cum faciam vitula pro frugibus.

26. TL kaTpEG?Q11LEV: cognate accusative-what service we are to perform.

28. 'RpdPEXE . . . i 8Eiv : literally take heed to thyself about seeing me again.

29. EtprIKas : Hebrew, 'Thus heat thou spoken.?

1. euv 'WG,vrL : like our I bag and baggage.' -lKsaW . . . EKPoan : cog nate dative § 81. See 81 n.

8. KaL 1Xpqcav at-rofs : these words are not in the Hebrew here and seem to be imported from 1286, but they serve to bring out the meaning. Here, as in 321. 22, the Israelites are regarded as dwelling in the midst of the Egyptians.

4. IIEpL jUu-as viKT0.s : the use of the plural is classical. See for instance Xen. Anab. 112 § 8, 1111 § 33 : Plat. Phileb. 60 D, Rep. $21 B.



Exodus %I 8 Aiyvirrc~u, aro 1rpwTOTOKOV (Dapaca O'S Kd8q7ac 1171 TOD Bpo-

vov, real Ews apwTOroKOV Tis 9epaaaivr7s rids 7rapd rov l.tvXov Kai Cow; 7rpwroroKOV aravTOs rcrqvovs ' B Kai EGITav Kpavy71 /.teya~Iq Kara, 7raa~av YqP AIYV Ifa6 Tocavr'I~ OUKEr6 7TpoQrEB'Y~?Erat. 7Ka6 EP 7TaQ6 T06s viols 'IrpajX ov ypveea rcvwv TV yXwrQl/ avrov, ovSE aao avBpcriaov Ews rrrrjvovs ' o 7rws i8r~s ocra rapa8oeaCec Kvpcos a . , ava E.te47ov Tcw Acyvrrcwv Kac TOD IapaO. rcac KaTaar)- a-ovraa Vdvres of &'s G-ov ovTOC apos JAC Kai 7rpoCrrcvvrj- (TovOiv JAE AEyovres "EeeABe w Kai eras o Aaos o~ov ov o-v aor~yn" Kai .era Tavra" E6Wev 8E Mwv a~js a7ro 4)apaiv ja,sTa evI,cov. 9E rev 8E Kirpcos apos

Mwvaiv " O vK E60-aKOV'crETaL vM.(~v apace, iva 1rA,9Bvvwv aX?1evvw fl,ov rd OrIql,teia real ra rEpara Ev y-,q^ AiyvaTW."

Me) ajs 8E Kai 'Aapcw broiyrav rrdura rd oyjCeia real rd rEpara ravra Ev yj Aiyvirrup &,amov 4)apaoi ~ E0 -rc~-q'puvev 8E Kvpcos Tiw Kap8iav Dapaci, real o$K eWrjKOVTev Eea rooTeiXav toys viovs Ia~pa, Eyes Aiyv7rrov.

~/ 21 'Eyevrj8r~ ~E /,teo-ov~r~s r'hs VVK709 real Kvpcos hraTaeev aav TrpwroroKOV EP y~ Aiyv7mW, ago arpwTOroKOV 4)apaco

6. jTLS r0L4ATq: 918 n.-oi~Kkm 'Rp0?TEB4jPETaL: § 112 .

?. ov yp4jEL afroov : shall not a dog growl. Demosthenes (p. 353, xig 39) has odds yp0 in the sense of I not a mutter! In the mind of the Greek translator a contrast seems to be here intended between the stillness among the Jews (iv is an insertion of the LXX) and the ° great cry' among the Egyptians. But this way of taking the passage leaves no meaning to the words o$U dsrJ dvBpcbaov 1ms aTh vovs. For yp6rea cp. Josh. lOn : Judith llls Ma 00 ypvEec KuWv Tj y7AQQro

atrrou dsrivavrl coy. - rrapaBot4 tat 822 n.

8. _g~hAEV 8E Mowc4ls : these words form a natural sequel to EYpqKas K7-X. at the end of chapter 10. From Josephus we might gather that in his copy 118 followed immediately upon 1029 (Ant. II 14 § 6).

10. itasrocTEWu : infinitive of consequence. § 78. The short summary of events given in this and the preceding verse seems to belong to the same priestly document from which the Institution of the Passover (121) is taken. 1229 follows very well on 118.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 189 Exodus XII 37 TOD KaB-qp.EVOV Eai TOD Bpovov Eds 1rpcoTOTOKOV rids aiyQa XWriBos Tis Ev Tui XaKKO), Kal E6s 7rpwroroKOV aavros KTrj- vovs. 3°Kai avaaTds papaw vvKTOS Kal of BEpa7rovTEs niov Kal aavTES of AiyvWTtot, Kai EyEVjB-q Kpavy7'7 M,EyA71 a r f r f v T f r f Y` f E' p Ev ~ra~ y~ My' · o v yap ~v ocKCa Ev V ovK ~v Ev avTp TEBv77K~;. s1Kai EKaXEawv 4)apai~ Mwvmiw Kal'Aapcw v y? f GG s r v f r C' K VLKTOS KOtc ELTlEV atJTO6S Avqt~r'Y~TE Kal E~EJ~BaTE EK TOD )IaOL /.tOV, Kal Vj.tE6S Kal OI. ucOC 'IQparjA y3aSiCETE Kal XaTpeirC*aTE KvpaO) rui BEw vPwv Kaea, XEyETE ' $2 Ka% Td, 7TpO,8aTa Kal TOYS 80'ag 'UI.tldv A.VaXaaOVTES TTOpEilEQBE, E1' )oyYjraaTE S~ Kaf tEr. l 8g Ka%c KaTEatarCOVro Oc AtyJr

frlOC TOY /law Q7TOV8j EK,8akE6Y aLTOVS EK TiS yjS' Eh,?lav yap arc "IIavres jpis af VoBv)r(TKOpEV. ~f $avE.AaPEV 8E. a Laos To o-Tais apo TOD Cvp,c)9jvac, Td ovpaM,aTa a$rCOv Ev8E8EI.c,wa Ev Tots ip.ariocs a$rwv girl ro;jv $~oi 8E viol 'I~pa~ Eaoi?laav KaBd awvETaeEV a$rois Mwvmis, Kal -0*T~a-av 7rapd Tcw Aiyvaricw O-KEV7J apyvpa Kal Xpv(Ta Kal ij.taTtQ~.tov. 8°KaV E(Sl.VKEV Kvpcos T~v xapcv Tai kaiv avTOv EvavTiov T%w AiyvTrriWV, Kal Exp77(Tav avrois · K ai Ea'Kt'r XEV(Tav toys Aiyv7rriovs.

$7'AaapavTES SE of viol 'I(rpa~X EK `Paj,tEO'owi~ el's %oKXOj'Oa Eis eearcoaias xAca8as arE~wv of av8pes, vrXjv rids aao-

28. AFIKK(D : dungeon. It is the word used in Daniel for the den of lions. See Gen. 3720 n.

30. Kal ZtY0.?T&s : participle for finite verb. § 80.

31. K0.L AKGXEPEV KTl1. : inconsistent with 1028,29 and seeming to point to a mixture of sources in the story.

33. KarEsvtowro : 61 n.

34. o-Tats : dough. Herodotus (II 36), in speaking of the queer customs of the Egyptians, says ¢upcuci rb 0v

crais roicG srocl, rbv 8r` a~abv rpcG xEpct.

35, 36.Cp. 112, $. 37. 'A,r4pavres : § 80.-EoKX`9a

- EoKxWB in 1320, with the Hebrew suffix denoting motion to a place left clinging to it. Op. Nb. 226 Jdg. 141 2. - ijaKOO~(,as X6X%,4&as 800,000 adult males to represent the

76 souls of the house of Jacob' mentioned iii Gen. 46a°.-r4s duocKEVip: 101 n.



Exodus %II 88' QKE7!n S' 88Kac E7ILI.tbKTOS 7f0)lVS O'7IYOGYEa'1' a$roiss Kai 1rpo-

Aara Kai Roes Kai KrrjVq 7roXXa 010o8pa. a° Kai EVE*av A f / ! Ally' a / f / f To o-rais o E~vEyrcav E~ AcyvTrTOV Evrcpv~cas a~v..covs, ob yap e v criB · E E aAov d airrovs of Ai v7rrcot Kai OVK yap ~~ ~ ~a yN y j8v'9~o-av EaytEivac, ovBE ETrc(nrc(Tp,ov 4aoi~o-av Eavrois Eis riw o8ov. "'as 8E EfaTfEO'rEt1EV (Dapa('d rov Aaov, ovx W81jy7jarEv avrovs o BEOs o8ov yes (PAco~TCeil.t, in Eyyvs JV · E iaEv yap o BEOS " M rj VOTE 1tEra~A.E)1.jQ'0 rCV XaCJ 68OVr6 7fOJlEpOY, Kai cbroa·rpEifr'o Eis AiyvVrov:' 'BKa~ EKUKAfidO'EV O BEOS TOY Xaoy 6806 T-96 Eis ~v Ep??M,ov, Eis riw EpvBpav BaAa~o-av / f / < <, f f f , TrEI,cMO 8E yevea avE,8-qcrav ot vcoc Iarpa"A CK yjs Acyv- Vrov. '9Kai AaflEV McevmrJs rd o0-ra 'Ic1)(T'0 /LEO' . $I «f Eavrov · opKCe yap mpKCO'EV rovs V40VS a'par~A AEycw E~rt- G-KOr~ EmcricEftrac v/a,a.s KVP' Kai awvavoL'aErE p,ov rd o0Ta EvrevBEV ',cEB' v~,tmv." 2°'EeapavrES 8E of viol 'IO-pa?'IX EK IoKXCJe EQrpar07fEtSEVQaV 9v '006p, vapa TN-qV Ep-qpov. 2'0 8E ®EOS 'l/yEVro

38. Ir(yKros WOX49: ac. 6XXos. It would appear from this that the Hebrew nation was only in part descended from Jacob.

39. 4vKpv+Ios: f yKpv0tas (apros) was a loaf baked in the ashes. Lucian Dial. Mort. X$ 4 d U oao8ov" irVws, &-rep 4yKpv¢tas llpros. Cp. Gen. 188: Nb. 118 : iii K. 1712, 198. The accusative here is due to the fact that liroev

made into.'

17. STS 1yy'us w : R.Y. ° although that was near.' This sense may be got out of the Greek by taking the words closely with oux 6E4y,goev av TOGs-'°he did not make the nearness of the ,land of the Philistines a reason for leading them that

airri~v, jp.Epas pEV Ev o'rVAT

way." - Mi rroTe peTnpRX4ol: Gen. 431s n.

18. &firAwa-ev : led round. KvKXouv generally means 'to go round,' as in Gen. 211: Pt. 21. § 84.

20. 'OAdp, : Etham. Called BovBclv in Nb. 338· 7. -,rapd riiv ipqWov : on the edge of the wilderness. The first two stages of their journey then, from Rameses to Succoth (12$7) and from Succoth to Etham (13s°), were not through the wilderness. Succoth - Thuket - Pithom on the Sweet Water Canal, a little west of Ismailia.

21. fiPIpas iAEV ifTA. : A pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night is just the appearance presented by a volcano.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 191 Exodus %IV 8 vE(p6-qS &ELeab aVT06S T'Yw OOOY, T`qY OE YIlKTa Ev O'TVAC`J TfvpOS' FOLK EeA67TEY (SE O QTAOS 'rjS vEOA71S ip.EpaS Kal O O'T'UA,OS TOD 7TVpOS YVKTOS EDavT60Y TOD AaOV 7laYTOS. 1Kai &A-wEV Kvpcos irpos Mcevo~iw XEycev 2"Aak?yrov Tois viols 'I~pa~jX, Kal aaroaTpEipavTES a-TpaTOvEBEVO~aTCO- o-av aaEVavTC Tis EaaAEws, ava p.Ea·ov MayBmAov Kac ava tA.Eo'OV T~$ Bakdaw-qs, Ee EvavTias BEE,(rEaocu'Y' Evui7rwv avTiov, o-TpaTOaEBEV0-ECS Eai Tiffs BaAdcrans. $ K al Epei -(Dapaiu T6 Xa(~ a$rov `Oi viol 'Irpaik 7rXavwvTac oirroc Ev Tn y~' O'vvKEKXE6KEV yap airtovs i~ Epr)1.cos.' 4Cy i) ag

a~K~Iqpvvi~ T'V KapBiav papaw, Kal KaTaBaco'eETac o7rio-W a$riw · K al EvBoeao-Brjo-oM,ac E'z, 4)apaw' Kal Ev ara0-0 T~ a-TpaTy avTOV, Kai yvci(Tovrac aavTES of Aiyv7TCOC oTC Eyco

s , ~f v e , a g v s , .. E6'A.c KVP' Kal Eao611Qav OVTIdS· Kal av'l~yyE~'Y~ Tlu j8a0'GXE6 TCJV AiyvVTiWv orc " 9 rE0EVyEV O XaOS ' " Kal /ACTC- 0 a' (d & K aPSL'a ITP 0Iq j Kap8t'a (Dapa' Ka' Tmv BEpa7rovTCOv avrov Eai Tov Xaov, Kal Ei7rav " Ti Tovro Eao yO-aI,cEV Tov Eewroa-TECXav Tovs vcovs Impa77A TOD p.77 8ovWECV jM.iv;

gECEVeEV 0VV 4)apafU T4. apiA.aTa aUTOV, KdLL 9TU~.vTa TOP Xaov airrov wva7rrjyayev UIEO' Eavrov, 7 Kai Xa/3iw EeaKOana aipI,taTa EKXEKTa Kai arao-av T'v 7OP Tcw AiyvaTicw Kal Tpca-TaTas E7ri vdvTCev. BKai ETKA7jpvvev Kvpcos T7/v Kap-

2. rAs Ivavhscos: 811 n. This is the LXX substitute for the Pi-habiroth of the Hebrew text, which is supposed to be Egyptian. Presumably the Alexandrian translators knew its meaning. -MaY&ukov : hiigdol, a Hebrew word meaning ~ fort.' -BffXa-f71'+4Y : B aalzephon. Jos. Ant. II lb § 1 BEXcf¢cuY. -a;rrtov: this can only refer to Baalzephon.

3. T4 Xa4 airroi: the Greek here

differs slightly from the Hebrew. - sraavaovraL: R. V. 'are entangled in.'

5. dvrlYY&ri : § 24.-To4 Etasro"eCkae : § 80.-roir pii 8ovkefiew iiWfv: § 60.

7. r;v Y,r,rov : the cavalry. There is a tendency in Greek for words denoting collective ideas to be feminine. Thus b Etas I salt,' but ,y dins I the sea' (the brine). The Hebrew has the same word for rev Yrrov as for rd Hpyara.TpL?T4T0.s : captains. Op. 104; iv K.



8iav (Dapac'o ~(iaoWECos Aiyvlrrov Kai rcov Oeparo'vroov a&6, '_ '~ , ~ . ~ , rest KaTE&WeEV o7caw r(;Jv vamv Ia~paqA · oc 8E VI I0-paq

A EeE?fOpE7JOVT0 Ev xECpi in~r~. a rcai rcaTESic)' av of Aiyv-

wrrcoc o=iaca avrcw, Kal Evpoaav avrovs aapEURE/(iA7jKOras rapa. ny Bdkacruav · K al aara j iarros Kal Ta icpM,aTa

. < < , ~ > 4)apaca Kal oc ca7Eis rest ~ o-TpaTCa avTOV a7rEVavTa Tjs ErraAECOs, ie Evavrias BEE)1QE7f(bCw. '°Kai 4)apac'o apoo-- jyev · K al avaW~avrES of viol 'Io-pa'A roZs 0'00aXjuoZs opcowv, Kai of Aiyvarcoc Eo-TpaTO7raEVrav o7ricrcd avrWV, Kai EOO,(3j9r~crav o-0o8pa. avEl(3o~o-av 8E of viol lo-pa7'IX 16 11 rpog KI;PLOV Kai EiTrav arpos McwQjv " I lapd To M.i~ iraap- xECV ~,tvy%/jlara Ev yj Aiyvvrc~ Efrjyayes j/Ca,s eavaT~o-av CV Tj 4p1q'(A.Gt1 ; TL TOVTO E7T06'YlQas jpiv, Eeayaywv Ee Aiyvarrov; 12OV TovTO JV To pipta o EXaXrjo-aj.tEV rpos ev All) Xeyovres ` Rapes jpas oaurs 8ovXEV0-c)j,tEv T 0^ A&yvvT" &9'; ap LT to Kpdavvv y' j/,tas 8oAEVEw Tois Ai- yMrriovs ~ a aoBaveiv lp T~ EprjM.(P Tavrr~:' '$EiaEV 8E MwvO-js Trpos Tov Xaov "©apaEiTE' aT-9^TE Kai opaTE T7')v acarnpiav T7)v Trapd Tov" BEOV, 'Yw ?f06'Y~a-E6 -q/Ltcv O"qpEpOV' OV Tp07fOV yap EmpdIfaTE TOVs Alyv?TT60VS (T'YJ/.I.Epov, OV i * a a v Iv ~ .. r · 1 ¢ r arpo~Br~E~6E ETC 1186P avrovs Ecs Tov awva xpovov Kv-

g:, 72,17.19 , gasp 10-, 162k The word is evidently chosen by the translators because it contains the number three, as the Hebrew original does also.

8. Av XwpL 6+nXj: g l n. 9. ev"pocav : § l g. -irapeWfkPXqKb rss : encamped. A common word in late Greek. It is explained by L. & S. as being properly used of distributing auxiliaries among other troops, as in Polyb. 133 § 7 rCjp E4 ,uccBo0bpcuv Tots Op irl rb EEttJv vipw srapEVigaXe, rots 5W rra. Hence srapeApoXh I a camp,'

as in v. 19 or ° army,' as in i A. 1746. -rSjs IsravaEaus : v. 2 n.

10. ,rpocAyev : led on (his forces). -4o-rparow&vcav: R.V. 'marched.' frTpQT07rES8VELV seems to have this meaning in I)t.140 : ii Mac. 928: iv Mac. 188.

11. irapd rd p,>) VW&pXEVV : owing to there not being. Cp. hb. 1418. This use of aapd, is classical. - 9 avara3o-aL: § 77.

18. 8v Tpdwov yCtp : the meaning is - « Ye have seen them to-day, but ye shall see them no more." -sts rLv at&va xp6vov : for ever. AlGrva is here


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 193 Exodus XIV 21 pcOS 7TO)lE1,t'I~QEt TlEp6 v/tldv, Ka6 UftE6s QtynQETE." 1°EiTrev 8E Kvpcos zrpos Mwo-'w " Ti j8oas apos pcE; Xa~a-ov rois viols 'I0rpaijX Kal ava4ev6drmoav · 1gKac w brapov rp pa,88w G-ov, real EKrecvov rev xeipd (rov an nP 9dXao-(rav real pjeov a$r~jv, real eiOreA9armw-av of viol lo-pa*X el's EaEa~ov ris 6axa~o-ns Karl ro ~qpov. l7rcai i8ov Eyw 0-K~-qpvvm r'I? rcap8iav (Dapao%) real ri~v Aayvar%cw aravrwv, real do-eAevcrovrac oaiMm a$rwv · Kal EvBoea(rBrj( ev ftpaco real Ev 7ramo r~ arparta a$rov real Ev rois apN.amv is i Ev roZs ir7rocs avrov. Ai- Ka ~ Kai yvciQOVrac aravsofyvrrcoc orEyci eitc Kvpcos, EvBoeaCopEVOV pov Ev 4)apair~ v vKac ev rciq aaplcaQCV Kac aaaos ava rov. a~ lg ERpEV 8ev o

uyyeXos roD Beov o irporropsvo/,tevos r'r/s ar'apq.t,8oXjs r@v viivv 'I~parjX, Kal EaopevB~ Ere rWV .o7rcAw Eejpev 8e real o 0-rvAo sos rys ve0A-qs aa ro. orpo0-c~rov.~rov avr~WV, cal ermrr7

a EK a 2ercw oa rciaco avrcw. Kal e&9 wXBev avav /teimov runw Acyv rrricov Kai ava l.cEoov rrJs aape%c/3oXjs 'Iapa7jX, Kai Ear)/

Kai EyEVero O-KOros Kai yvo0os, Kai 8c~,Bev ~ v v~, Kai ov auvEyav aXXjAocs o~-9v rw vicra. 2EeEewev 8E Mcw-

1ea-is rev Xeipa Eai rev BdXaaorav · Kal v?rrjyayev Kvpcos

grammatically an adverb, elr rb;, del XPbYOV.

14. ?VyjPETE: literally shall say nothing = do nothing. This is the characteristic attitude of Hebrew piety in and after the age of the literary prophets. Op. Ps. 4610 ' Be still and know that I am God': Is. 3016 ~ in quietness and in confidence shall be your strength.' The text ° their strength is to sit still' (Ia. 307) has vanished from the Bible under the hand of the Revisers.

18. E'RapOV T'p Ah(3SV aov : Es. 7s°.

18. L,rnoq: Hebrew ° horsemen.'

19. If,Qpev : Gen. 3717 n. - a apEp foaiys : the context seems to show that this word here means I army on the march' (Lat. agmen), not camp.' Cp. v. 24. The Hebrew original admits of either meaning. -AK TaDV W?86v . . . 1 K r&v 01rLVQ1: the Hebrew phrase is the same in both cases.

20. sy,eEV il vfrt: Hebrew, ° gave light during the night.' The Greek ought to mean ' the night passed.' Perhaps the Greek trap dator had a different reading.


194 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Exodus XIV 22 r ~ a r r r a . r T-qv BaXacro-ay Ev avEf,cP voTq) acacw oXqv "v vvKTa, Kat s. r . El06yQEV TI7V 8akaaaav 6parv, Kac. EaG-Xca-B?7 To. 8wp. 22 Kai Ei~9ov of viol 'I(rpa~. Eis M.E(Tov Tiffs BaX a~o-~s KaTa TO ~'Y~pov, Kai TO 'UOGJp a&ois TEiXos EK &fcIDV Kay TE6xOS Ee EVIoVV(.t(.JV ' ~ K aV KCLTE8UJeaV 06 AiyvTrTCOC, Ka% E60"jXBOV 07f6O'ld aVTCtIY Kay 7TaS l?f7fOS 4)apais Kai Ta' aLpftaTa Kai of ava,(3aTac eCls j.tEO-ov Tis BaAdor(T77s. 24Eyev1q'8-q 8E eV Tj 0vXaK~ T~ EcvBcv,q Kai brE,8AE*EV KVP' E7ri T7'Iv rrapEPRo1ilv Tisv AiyvaTivw Ev o-TVAca 7rvpos Kai vE0E~1qs, Kai wvETapaeEV T"v aapEj,tRoX'v Twv Aiyv7rricw, 25Kai G "8 *eovas Tt7jv tiplA ' S ~ N IV VVC 1q(PEP TOV3 a aT(jJV aVTWV, Kal Wayev a . . r . T r s r " r s . aVTOVS ~A.ETa 81ag. Ka6 EtTTav ol AcyvaTCOC ~vycol.tEV aao VpoTcri7rov 'ITpaijA' o yap Kvpcos Tro,EpcEi aEpi airriw Tovs AiyvTrTiovs." 2gEi7rEV 8E KVP, 7TP013 Mcwo-jv "11EK- TEwrov T77V xEipa Orov 9741 Ti w BaXacraav, Kai aaorearamr7jTCe T'80)p Kal I?ITLKOAV~ ' (a To" 3 A' o V aT V tywrTLOV9, EM TE Ta appa,aTa ~ r » 2q ~ r . . . ~ Kac Tovs avaj8aras. Ee-ETEavev 8E Mcwa~s T77v XEipa E'rl T,qv BaXaa-o'av, tea'& aaEKaTECrT-q To v8mp rpos j(AEpav Eai

21. 1v 8vip,y: § 91.-v6Tp: south wind. Hebrew, ° east wind:

22. Ta $8Wp a$TOCS TEtXos: imagination here calls up the picture of , a wall of water on either side of the Israelites, but, as the cleaving of the water has been ascribed to the wind in v. 21, the meaning here may be only that the water protected them from attack on both flanks. In 168 however it is clear that the other meaning is intended.

24. rb +vaaKq T'n WLY'a : cp. i A. 1111: Judith 126 dvEQTi? apasTtv &Bm~v 0uXaKfiv: i Mac. 680 Kat 41,ygvETO iWBmsj. Prior to Roman times the Jews are said to have divided the night into

three watches-The beginning of the watches' (Lam. 213), 'the middle watch' (Jdg. 713), and ~ the morning watch'

25. cvv1&ricEV : clogged. This represents a better reading than that accepted in our Hebrew text. See R.V. margin. - ,jyayev : causative made them drive. § 84. -,roaEWEt . . . robs AiyvsrT(ovs : this transitive use is not uncommon in late authors. Instead of aEpf we should here have vaEp in classical Greek.

27. &KEKQT4?T11 : § 19. -1'Rl X46 pas : genitive singular towards its (usual) place. R. V. text I to its strength,' margin I to its wonted flow.'


Ii. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 195 Exodus %v 2 i e ~ a i *~ ' ra ~ ~ i xc)pas. oc 8e At'' e~vyov v~ro ro MOP, K ac e~Ewva~ev Kvpeos toys Aiyv7rriovs f,cEaov ris eaXaTTqs. 28Kai Eaava- H ~ , , 0 . . ~ ,

mrpaoev ro v8Wp eKaXvsJrev ra app,ara Kal toys ava,Ciaras Kai vaoav rev 8vvatLcv papaw, toys eiaaeaopevM.EVOVs o7riam a$riw cc's Tiw 9aXa(rcrav · Kal ov KareXei0Br7 E

avrw ovBE CTS. 2°oi 8E viol 'Iapa'X E?IOpEUB-qQaV Bed pas Ev JA.ETCd riS BaXdCTmqs, To' 8E v8cep airrois Teixos IK 8eeW v rcai rECxos E~ evcwvp,cw. $° Ka% Eppvaaro Kvpeos rov I~pa~, Ev r~ j~A.Epjt EKEI.v~ IK xECpOs r44 Acyv7rrcwv · Kai iSev 'I(rpa~X toys Aiyvariovs reBvIOKOras arapd To' xeiXos ris BaRaQ(r?7s. $1 i8ev 8E '1o-paq'X rev xeipa rhv

pa'X A bro' a-ev Vptos roTq Allywrrtots- c0o,8'0-q 8c' Ey -qv, a L77 77

o Laos rov Kvpcov, Kai Eai(Trw(Tav Tip eeui Kai Mcovap TV Bepaarovrc avrov.

'Tore ~(Tev M&Jv0-7^)s Kal of viol Irpaq'X rev cri8~v Tavr)7v rZ Beui, Kay a Tav XEyovres ~~'"AG-c)[&ev rui Kvpi~, Ev8oeWs yap &8oeaarrae ly Kai ava,8oir-rp Eppa*ev El's Od'Xaaaav. Q~o~jeos rcai ~Keara(rr~s E'yEYETO /106 eis ~c~rrJpiav· OV709 p,ov eeos, Kal 8oeaaw avrov, Beos TOV aarpos UOV, Kal 40' )(Tc) avrov.

-1~vyov wird rd Mop: Hebrew, ° were fleeing to meet it.' The Greek perhaps means the same. -pdcov rfys Ank4wcqs : for this prepositional use of Ago-op ep. Nb. 338, 355: i A, be, 1111: Phil. 215.

31. rlv XEEpa : work . A Hebraism. -d _aotria·EV B4pwg: even the things which the LORD did, explanatory of T~v Xefpa.

1. riw qi&ilv ra4r,lv : composed by Moses, says Josephus (Ant. II 18 § 4) fy _~aArpV r6py. This is not however

a very exact description of the metre, which runs somewhat as follows-

I sing unto Jahveh, for his might is great: horse and rider he flung to drown. -_vEb6ws ydp &e86gaurrav : § 82. 2. ?KE'RCVPr fiS : the vocative cKS raQrd occurs in iii Mac. 89. The He brew word here used means ° song,' t.e. subject of song. The Greek translators may have had another reading. The LXX also omits the subject of the sen tence, which in the Hebrew is Jah. In


196 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT 'Kvpcos mrvrpiacw wokEpovs, Kvpcos ovopa airrcri. ¢dpM,ara papaw Kai rev BvvaM,ev a$rov EPP* el's 6aXa(r a-av, E?T6XEKT°VQ aiva,8aras rpco-raras tcarsaoB~o-av cV EpvBpa 9aXai(TaV. 5aovrO) EKaXvqrev avrovs· K f8vc IT 8vO'v (Lac' VOoT. a,re -av cc 0 & gi Seem` a~ov, KvpcE, &8oeamrac Ev 1'a-Xvc · ~/ 8eeca aov Xeip, Kvpce, EBpav0-CV EXBpovs. 7Kai rw aXrjBec rids 8o~9s o-ov wvErpc*as roes vvEVavriovs avrEmrecXas rev opyrjv a1ov, Kai KarE0ayev airrovs ins KaXap-qv. 8 Kai 8cd rov irvevp.aros rov BvM,ov aov BcEO-rr7 ro v8cep · Errayn cLaei reixos rd v8ara, Eaayn ra tcvM,ara Ev ucay ris OaXa"a"s. BELTTEV O EXBpOs ` Occ6eas KaraXrjM,*op,ac 'e.epcc~ mcvxa, E1,caa40-co *vXr/v fcov, Is. 122, where the same words are used just after an allusion to the Exodus (Is. 1118), the subject is I Jah Jehovah.' The LXX has there simply g6ptor, which might go to show that Jehovah is a gloss on the rare word Jah. The same Hebrew which is here rendered #os7BJs Kal vKeracrsjs appears there as ~ 86za N,ov Kat it aCvecIs pou. 3. gvpvos a-vrvrplJorv vokipovs Hebrew, ° Jehovah (is) a man of war.'

4. Errv1KTOVg dvnPdras TpV?TdTa$ asyndeton. Cp. 1022. The Hebrew here is simply ° the choice of his captains,' there being nothing to correspond to dva(38ras, and the expression is subject to the verb that

follows, not object of that which went before.

'S. a6vrsp 1Kbw+EV abrobg: R.V. The deeps cover them'

8. 8vd roG vve4Wa,ros uTX. : through the blast of thine wager (Hb. ° nostrils') the waters stood apart (R.V. I were piled up'). The metaphorical use of

nostrils' in Hebrew seems to be derived from the behaviour of angry cattle. -i,r4yl iacsl TfZXO$ KTX.: the waters became solid as a wall. R. V.

The floods stood upright as an heap.' 'E,rdy,? is inexact here, but quite corresponds to the different Hebrew word in the next clause rendered in R. V. ' were congealed.' 'Sleet is post-classical.


II. THE STORY OF THE EXODUS 197 Exodus XV 15 aveXw T-0^ M,aXaip-,q JAW, Kvpvsv0-C& 77 Xeip M,ov.' 1°aaE0rrecXas To rivevM,d aov, EKdAvifrev a$rovs 9dAa~a-a· EBvcrav iv(rei M,oAyos Ev vBaTt oroo8pco. nTiS o%totos Boa Ev Beois, Kvpae; Ti; o1,totos 0'o( ; Se8oea0-jtEVOs Ev ayio(S, 9avl(wTOS Ev 8oeavs, rrotWv TEpara. 12 EeETE6vag T'Iw Seeaav Qov, · rcaTSaaev avrovs y77. 1-'W8rjyrpas ^BtKavowvr~ O-ov Tov Xaov aov Tovrov OV EwrpcLaw, aapercakeras Tq -^ i(rxvt Cov eis rcardw',ea ayaov (rov. 14,q-VKOV(Tav EBv17 Kai copyi0"er~0-av · "ives EXaRov rcarotKOVVraS (DAwTVeiM,. 15TOTe Erirevorav ~yeM,oves 'E&+ Kai apxovres Mcja,8evrmw 9. dLVSkw : future of dvaLpEiv. § 21 . R. V. ` I will draw my sword.' - p,aXa(pp : § 3. - Kvpvsvcrev il Xe(p NLOV R.V. `my hand shall destroy them.' The usual meaning of the word which is rendered `destroy' is `make to possess.' Here we get very close to KUPLEU?EL.

10. pdaspos : earlier and poetic form of Abav#Eos. § 35.

il. r(s isp.oLbs cov Iv AEOLs : this admission of the existence of other gods might be used as an argument for the early date of this poem. When the Rabshakeh (ii Kings 1886, 194) represents the `living God' as but one among many, he is regarded as having spoken blasphemy. - E v gy(oLs

Hebrew, ` in holiness.' The Greek ought rather to mean ` among holy ones.'

12. Lcar&LCv a6rovs yj : a general expression for destruction, since in

this instance it was the sea that swallowed them.

13. Tp &Kawo·bvp : R.Y. L mercy.' Dr. Hatch (Essays in Biblical Greek, p. 49) has. shown how the meanings of ELKacovvvT and AEijpocGvn run into one another in the LXX. In the N.T. there is one instance (Mt. 61) of the use of BLKaLOOdv7l in the sense of iNEgpoc6v>r, and the use of ElKaws Mt. 118 would be explained, if we could render it ` a merciful man: - IapeKGUcas uA.

Thou hast summoned (Hb. `guided') them by thy might to thy holy reatingplace. Op. 17 LiylaotLa, sanctuary. These expressions look like references to the Temple.

14. fivXiaru(W : the references to the Philistines, Edomitea, and Moabites argue a poet of later times acquainted with the subsequent history of Israel.

15. w`?7rEV0'aY: R.V. `were amazed.'


198 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT EXa,8EV a&OV9 TpOp0S, ETOIK'1?(TaY?fOLYTES 06 KOLTO6KOUYTES Xavaav. 'gETl67fEQ06 E9J'' aVTOUS Tp0(A.OS Kal 0OROS, psy_Bey(ipaxiovos O-ov a1roXcBcjBrjrmcrav· e"ms a-Ap sap_X9n o Laos o-ov, Kvpce, Ews b arapEABq o Laos ~ov ovTOs ov EKrrj(TW. '7ei~ayaycov KaTaovTevo-ov airrovs cc's opos K~1qpovoj,cias (rov, eis ETOCp,ov KaTOCK17Trjpcov O-ov o KarqpTiao), Kvpce, ayiaa-pa, Kvpce, o 71'TO' at' XeipES (Tov. 'aKvpcos,8ao-cXevcw Tov aiWVa Kai Ea' ai('ova Kal ETC." '9°Orc eimhXBev irvos (Dapai~ wv ap/a,aO-cv Kal avat3aTacs ds BdXaawav, Kai ETM'yayev Exodus XV 16 Err' a$TOVs Kvpcos To vbWp Tjs

15. Kal 6pXovres Marapetrauv : To make these words tally with the Hebrew verse-division, they should be taken with what follows, thus-Kai dpXovrES Mmapetrcuv, Aapov avroJs rpopbs. For dp7tovres the R.V, has ° mighty men.' The Hebrew word really means rams.' Moab was specially a aheepbreeding country, and in ii K. 34 Meaha, king of Moab, is described as a 'sheep-master.' The rams seem to be put by a poetic figure for their owners.

16. Inivkcov . . . 1Laoai8cu6irroro-av: the R.V. has the indicative in both cases. The difference is sufficiently accounted for by the ambiguity of the verbal form in Hebrew. - daoXLewefjTaoo-av : let them be petrzRed. The notion of being turned into stone by terror was current among the Greeks, as is shown by the story of the Gorgon's head. In the Hebrew phrase however it is the notion of quiescence that is uppermost.

17. 44 Gpos KXripovoFtat cov : until

Solomon built the Temple. no hill in Palestine was especially the abode of Jehovah; and it was not until the time of Hezekiah and Isaiah, after the destruction of the Northern Kingdom, that Sion became the one recognised centre of the national religion. - dytacpa, S4pw: the Hebrew word here rendered Kdpte is Eldonai, not, as in the preceding clause, Jehovah. The Greek translators are obliged to use the same word for both. In our version they are distinguished by the use of different type.

18. Pao-Lasbcuv : the participle is not due to the Hebrew. § 80.-rbv atfova urn. : Hebrew, ' for ever and ever.' Possibly the addition of Kai 971 in the Greek is due to a confusion between the latter part of the Hebrew expression and the very similar word for and still.'

18. "OTL eta·qa9EV : this explanatory note appended to the song seems to show that it was not originally intended for this place.


II. THE STORY OF SHE EXODUS 199 Exodus XV 21 BaAa~-qs~ of 8E viol 'Io-pai~X brop60ijo-av Std 6Jpa.s Ev N.E0,W rill BaXa(T(r?7s. ~°Aaaova~a 8E Mapvdlj , j apooi7as j 18eXo' 'Aapcw To Tvp.·rravov Ev Tel xeapi avTjs, Kai Ef4X0oa-av 7raaac at' yvvai Kes o7i(m avr7)s J.teTd, rvp,advcw rcai xopwv. 21E6pxEV 8E avrwv Maptdp, XEyovaa c4*ACr(d1A.EV T01 KUpLI~)9 Ev84CJs yap 8e8oeamrav iaaov rcai ava~arrlv Eppyrev eis Bdkamrav:'

20. MapebW: Hebrew Miriam. The name is the origin of our Mary. The mother of Jesus is called MapuijL in Mt. 12°. In the 19th chapter of the Koran, Mohammed makes the people of Mary, the mother of Jesus, address her as ° 0 sister of Aaron 1'-rvpiravov: Hebrew t"oph, plural tuppim, from the verb tapap (probably onomatopoetic: cp. ° tap-tap'). The Greek word rGpsavov or rGaavov is doubtless from

stem rvir-: but the thing was foreign to the Greeks and used chiefly in the worship of Asiatic or Egyptian goddesses. Our word ° timbrel' is, according to Skeat, a diminutive of Middle English timbre, which comes from Latin tympanum through the French.

21. 1jfjpXEV &I nLr6uv : R.V. 4answered them.' = Avmpw : as in 161, but the Hebrew there is I I will sing' and here I Sing ye. '




The scene is now changed. Egypt is left behind, and the Israelites are hovering on the confines of Palestine. Moses is still their leader, though he is nearing his end, and the bones of Joseph are being carried with them for burial. Over the Israelites themselves a great change has come. Instead of being slaves cowering under a taskmaster, they are now an invading horde, spreading terror before them and leaving destruction behind. Already mighty kings have been slain for their sake, while others are quaking on their thrones. halak, the king of Moab, in his perplexity sends for Balaam, the prophet of God, whose fame filled the land from Mesopotamia to the Mediterranean, to curse these intruders from Egypt. Balaam, the son of Beor, is represented in our story as being fetched all the way from Pethor on the Euphrates (Nb. 225, 237: cp. Dt. 234), a place which has been identified with the Pitru of the Assyrian monuments, near Carchemish. He is made to speak of himself (Nb. 2218) as being the servant of Jehovah, and is everywhere thus spoken of (228, 34, 35, 238, 17, 2411, 13). This looks like an admission on the part of the writer that the worship of the one true God' was to be found in Mesopotamia, where Abraham came from, and was not confined to the children of Israel. Balaam indeed figures as the foe of Israel, having all the will to curse, but being allowed only the power to bless (Dt. 234, 5). He is credited with having counselled the Moabites and Midianites to entice the Israelites away from the worship of Jehovah through the wiles of their women (Nb. 3118) ; and, when the five kings of the Midianites are slain in revenge for this act, we read "Balaam also the son of Beor they slew with the sword' (Nb. 3118). The passages which connect Balaam with Midian are referred to the priestly document (P), the association of the elders of Midian with the elders of Moab (224, 7) being set down to the harmonizing hand of the editor. In our story, which is made up from



J and E, Balaam, having delivered himself of his prophecies, goes back to his home on the Euphrates (Nb. 2425).

It is probably a mere coincidence that the first king who is recorded to have reigned in Edom is Bela the son of Beor (Gen. 3682). The words in Micah 65 look like an allusion to some account of conversation between Balak and Balaam which has not come down to us.

In the New Testament Balaam is the type of the covetous prophet, I who loved the hire of wrong-doing' (ii Pet. 2'1). This is in strong contrast with his own words in Nb. 2218- I If Balak would give me his house full of silver and gold, I cannot go beyond the word of Jehovah, my God.' In Rev. 214 there is a reference to 4 the teaching of Balaam' in connexion with idolatry and fornication.

Plato says of Minos that he was not a bad man, but had the misfortune to offend a literary nation. The same may have been the case with Balaam. The literature of the Jews, though so much scantier than that of the Athenians, has gone deeper into our hearts, and the character of Balaam seems to have suffered in proportion.

The great stumbling-block in the story before us is not the incident of ° the dumb ass speaking with man's mouth': for, if once we pass the limits of mundane reality, who shall pronounce judgement on degrees of credibility? As Charles Lamb truly remarked - ' We do not know the laws of that country.' It is rather the moral difficulty arising from the arbitrary and unreasonable conduct ascribed to Jehovah, in first commanding the prophet to go, and then being angry with him for going. From the time of Josephus (Ant. IV. 6 § 2), who says that God's command was given in deceit, various attempts have been made to get over this difficulty, but they cannot be considered successful. It ought therefore to be a relief to the mind and conscience of the devout, when the critics come forward with their supposition that there are again two stories mixed up here-that the bulk of the narrative in ch. 22 (vv. 2-21, 36-41) comes from E, while the incident of the ass (vv. 22-35) comes from J. If this be so, then in the story, as told in E, Balaam is perfectly obedient to the divine command, not going with the messengers until he has been told in a vision at night to do so; whereas in the J ,narrative Balaam's way is perverse before God, in that he went against the divine will, The vision at night and the spiritual perception of the



ass are thus seen to be two different literary contrivances for leading up to the same end, namely, that Balaam was to go, but to speak only as God told him (op. v. 20 with v. 35). In confirmation of the hypothesis of a double source it may be noticed that in 2221 (E) Balaam is accompanied by the princes of Moab, whereas in 222" (J)

he has only his own two servants with him.

That the future may be, and has been, foretold is an opinion which has been widely held in past times and may be widely held again, notwithstanding that the current of thought has been running of late the other way. The flourishing institution of oracles among the Greeks rested upon this persuasion. The prophecies of the Cumwan Sibyl were an engine of Roman state-management; but, as they were also a state-secret, they do not help us much. The Sibylline verses so abundantly quoted by ,Lactantius as evidences of Christianity would indeed be overpowering proofs of prophecy, if they had not been composed after the events. The same, it is now admitted, is the case with the remarkable mention (i K. 132) of Josiah by name some three centuries before he was born; while the similar mention of Cyrus in the book of Isaiah (44"), instead of being the stronghold of the defenders of prophecy, is now one of the chief arguments for the composite authorship of that work. But prophecy is likely to gain no fairer trial than the witches of old, if fulfilment is to be taken as proof of spuriousness. The last words of Balaam's prophecies appear to predict the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great. Are we therefore to set them down to that period? To this it may be replied-Certainly not as a whole, but we must take account of the universal tendency to alter existing prophecies and even to compose new ones suited to fresh events as they occur. The former tendency is dwelt on by

Thucydides (II 54) in his comments on the oracular verse rj~ev AU)PUtKOS?fOXEfkOS Ka,L Xd/.&os a°/j,' avrqi,

which could be made to suit either a pestilence or a famine at will by the insertion or omission of a single letter. So again Strabo (XIII 1 § 53, p. 608), speaking of the well-known prophecy of

Poseidon in the 20th book of the Iliad (11. 307, 308) - v"vv 8E 8~ Aiveiao Pt,q Tpuieoo-iv &va$es 11 'Swv 7ra^ cat 7ra, 28fs,rot' KEV (A1ET09f10'BE 'yfVWVTa6,



says that some people in his day read VavrEQnv in place of Tpcoeo-ocv, and understood the lines as a prophecy of the Roman Empire.

The oracular verses which circulated among the Greeks in the sixth and fifth centuries, such as are recorded by Herodotus and Thucydides and jeered at by Aristophanes, afford a fairly close parallel to these prophecies of Balaam. These Greek prophecies are generally assigned to Bacis of Bwotia: but according to ~Elian (Y.H. XII 35) there were three Bacides ; and, as Bacis merely means I the speaker,' to ascribe them to Bacis may be no more than adding them to the numerous works of I the author called Anon.'


III. THE STORY OF BALAAM AND BALA. 1. iirl 8vcptov Mco4P: in the west of Moab or to the west of Moab. The reading however seems to arise out of a misunderstanding of the Hebrew. The word for ° plains' is like that for evening,' and ° evening' stands for west' The 'Ardbah, i.e. the plain, was used as a proper name of the Jordan valley. -,rapd Tav 'Iop86Vrlv Hebrew, beyond Jordan.' As the Israelites are now east of the Jordan, we may infer that the writer lived west. -K%T(l.'IfpEVX& : over against Jericho, which was west of the river. 2. gat t&wv Ball&K : § 80. 3. srpoW(aX6LorEV . . . 8,r6 apoclosrov shrank in loathing from, loathed the sight of. § 98. It is only here that apocoXBlj ew is constructed with d,rrb.

Generally it takes a dative of the thing loathed.

4. yepovort4: yepovola - ylpovres, as in Ex. 318. -&XteEt : _ 9KNEGEEL, future of ircXetXm, the stem of which is identical with our word ~ lick.' Cpi. iii %. 1888 WAttev, 2288 ii;gXyav : Judith 74 &Xliouccv : Ep. Jer. 19 &XEt,YEPB0.L. -IKXfJaL : this must be aorist optative, as the ox might lick.

5. BcAo4p: Hebrew Bil'11m.-41&t3obpa : Hebrew, ° to Pothor.' The final a represents a Hebrew suffix, which has the force of motion to. Cp. EoKXwBa Ex. 1287: Aawvb,Ba Jdg. 141. Earl To"v rroTapi) KTX. : Hebrew, I He sent . . . to Pethor, which is on the river, to the land of the children of his people' We ought therefore to put a


comma at ,rorQ/aov, and take yjs as a local genitive, in the land. In 237 Balaam's home is called Mesopotamia (Hb. Aram). In 2426 we read that Balsam immediately returned to his place (i.e. to Pethor on the Euphrates), yet in 318 he is slain among the Midianites. The passages which connect him with Midian are supposed to belong to P and 224, 7 to be the device of an editor for harmonising two different stories. -rile 44OLV Tijs'yIs: E a. 106 n.

8. to-x1ke ovrog jl ibis: § 66.-Edv Svveope0a : if haply we may be able. Like si forte in Latin. -wwrtitak it abraov : to smite some of them. -K4KarfjpavTaL : § 20. Cp. 249. One of these passages has evidently suggested

the other. Presumably the prophecy is older than the narrative.

7. 9i yepovvla : this must not be pressed, as though the whole body went, especially in view of 1G.-,rd WavTeta : the rewards of divination. In Prov. 1619 and Ezk. 2122 jav7e^&ov is used in its ordinary sense.

8. Tt of av8pcoiroL Kra. : a reproduction of the vague Hebrew interrogative, and perhaps intended to mean °° Why are these men with thee?" R.V. What men are these with thee ? '

il. 'I&ov kah itekfjw0sv : Hebrew, Behold, the people that is come out' -Et &pa 8vvJlo-op,aL: ep. AP duvw/MBa in 6.


or add to it: Op. 241$' roAgat adrL WMpbv d) KaMY7faP 4/mvroU. The Greek translators seem to have had here also the word which there corresponds to Tap' 1pauTOU". 19. Kul 6p.Ets: like the former messengers. 20. K&MPat: § 77.-01 iv: § 106. 22. abrbs : § 13.-dv" : Hebrew, 12. lPTLY ydp E4Xoy-qpUvos : § 72.

13. 'A7roTp4)(ETE : a dignified word in late Greek. 2414 n. Frequent in the inscriptions of manumission at Delphi. -,rpbs rav afipwv Sp.&w : Hebrew, &to your land.'

17. IvTlWaus . . . rkpjow: § 82.

18. aroyPae a$rd p,vKpLmrrX.: to make it small or great, i.e. to take from


' placed himself in the way.' -6&aPaaeiv avrbv : for an adversary against him. . Cp. 32 ets Btapohhv cou, where the Hebrew is the same. OcdpoXos = satan,

adversary.' In such passages we have the doctrine of the Devil in germ. - hrl.jfPjKeV: § 19. An imperfect in meaning - was riding on.

23. 6v9Eo--rriK6ra : a present participle in meaning. Op. 31 and 34 dYNQTlKaS. - Tj Aipgy : not in the Hebrew, which has here the name Balsam.

24. alfka#kv : furrows is the usual meaning of this word. The R.V. has here in a hollow way between the vineyards.'- +payWbs KTX.: § 51. Jos. Ant. IV 6 § 2 Kai-d TL ?TeP6Y, xwpiov srepregX'Ip*vov atpacfals 5147rXaZf,

25. srpool9X&+ev . . . 8vt9Xe+rev the preposition in the former compound has its full force, but not in the latter. Neither word is used again in the LXX. The Hebrew is the same for both. In the N.T: d,roAipew occurs only in Lk. 846 in the sense of ' to crush.' -rotXov : Josephus here uses the word OpvyK6s.

26. eis gv: in which. § 90.-8EgLdv od8E Aptcwp&v: ep. i Mac. 546 odK IV EKKXivac da auTjs Seicdv j dp1QTepdv

Nb. 2017 Kal ouK &KACVOUjAeY Eei;sd oW evwvaa : Dt. 227, 1720 : i K. 012: ii Chr. 342: Is. 3021-in all which passages the mere accusative is employed, as here.

27. E9uploOri . . . Ka% arusrrfiv : got angry and began to strike.



29. _W,rAra&Xas: there is a perfect rrirratKa from rrairw as well as from rraiw. The later form rrhratXa, which treats the stem as a guttural, is here useful by way of distinction from rriaaMas in 28. Ex. 102 n.-&v igeK_v Tqo-& cE : would have stabbed thee to death. 'EKKEV?E!V occurs in seven other passages of the LXX.

30. -rjs wiippov hlpkpas : Ex. 614 n. -pii ~rrepop&ru KTX.: Did I out of contempt do so unto thee? Hebrew, I Was I with custom accustomed to do so ?'

32. Ets Svasokfjv: v. 22 n.-04K 8ov4ta : R.V. 'perverse' On the moral sense which came to be attached to the word d:cTeios see Ex. 22 n.

33. we piv . . . IKetvrp SE : § 30. - Bv4Krewa . . . ~puaroyo·6~prlv

§ 76.

34. bv61vTrlKas : v. 23 n. - &,roovpa~ ficoWaL: passive in form, but middle in meaning. Cp. 236,16,17. § 83. -+vhbep Xahijcav: the Hebrew here is simply I thou shalt speak. '-Ets w6Xw MwBP: to a town of the Moabates. Vulg. in oppido Moabitarum.



36. 'Apvlov: an indeclinable proper name. The Arnon was a river flowing into the Dead Sea from the west, and seems here to be regarded as forming the northern boundary of the territory of Moab (I the border of Arnon' - the border made by the Arnon). As rivers are masculine in Greek, we might expect ds here instead of 8.-& p,tpovs rcuv upiwv: in the direction of the borders. Hebrew, I on the extremity of the border.'

37. ObXt 6,sr(o-rstha : the Hebrew corresponding to this might have been rendered daoo-rEAXwv dhr&retNa, but the Greek translator seems at this point to be getting tired of the emphatic repetition. He fails to mark it again in 38 where duv41vec 6vvarbs

geo/Aat would be justified by the original.

39. H6heLs lsradaewv : this shows the meaning which the translator put upon the Hebrew proper name.

40. A7rlPTELkev: perhaps sent some of the meat, since a sacrifice among the Jews, as among the Pagans, was preliminary to a good dinner.

41. Thv a-ri1XTiv roi B$aA : Hebrew Bamoth-Baal. Bamoth is the word commonly rendered I high places.' The situation was chosen also as affording a good view of the Israelite encampment.

2. Kal 4v41veyKEv : Hebrew, ' and Balak and Balaam offered.' - Awl r6v Pwp,6v: more literal than the R.V. ' on every altar.' So in v. 4.



8. Hap"AL Irf: Stand by at. A regard for Greek would make 7rapavTivat to be constructed with a dative, but a preposition follows in the Hebrew, which is represented by ?7r[. -it ILoL +avdTQL KTh. : in case (hod shall appear unto one. - b Oe6s : Hebrew, 'Jehovah: - KQL irapfaTij . . . Tbv 8e6v : not in the Hebrew. -Metav : se. 686v. R.V. ° and he went to a bare height.' The Greek can only mean ° he went straight.'

g. 4+VO'T'ijK4L : = 4 0ELTThKEt 20a8 standing. Cp. v. 17.-6XOKOLVTNp.6r Tow : in this form of sacrifice the meat was wholly burnt, and not eaten. - Ka1 4ywij6j irvsvpa Oeov" in' abT~ : not in the Hebrew.

7. zrapapokjv: the word 7rapasAl

was not inaptly chosen by the Greek translator to represent the Hebrew original, which is often rendered ° proverb.' The Hebrew word originally meant I setting beside,' and was applied to a species of composition like that which follows, consisting of couplets, in which each second line is a repetition under another form of its predecessor. The meaning of ° parable' in the N.T. is different. It is there ° comparison' in the sense of I illustration' or

analogy,' which was a recognised use of rapapoXh in good Greek: cp. i K. 2414 h aapa#A~ ~ fi dpXala. From aapaPorh comes the French parler through the Latin parabolare.

8. Tt 8pdcauWav : What curse am 1



to pronounce upon ham? ra is cognate accusative.

9. G*ohaL, rpoo·voiww: R. V. ° I see, I behold.' Ilpocvoeiv occurs eight times in the LXX. In L. & S. it is recognised only as a false reading in Xenophon. - povvrov : iv K. 218 n. -XMAS pdvos MroLKIo-U: this prophecy was amply fulfilled by the isolation of the Jews among the nations of the world, which was brought about by their religion. This, according to the High Priest Eleazar in the Letter of Aristeas, was the express object of the Mosaic system. - 1v 19vscw : the Jews habitually spoke of rd 90v,? (the Gentiles) in contradistinction to themselves. -EhxpLP&o-oLro : aorist middle of 1~0.Kplpdrew. This verb occurs also in Job 288, Dan. 0f 719.

10. rd o-,rip1m : Hebrew, ' dust.' The translator has seized upon the

meaning. - &ipovs : Hebrew, `fourth part of.' The word for ° multitude' differs only by a letter from that for fourth part.' - &arAhvoL J +vXJ ICA.: Hebrew, ° Let my soul die the death of the righteous.' The meaning of this prayer in this particular context is not clear. In the Greek the last two lines do not correspond in meaning, which shows that something is wrong. But the Greek of the second line gives amore natural close to the prophecy, which relates to the prosperity of Israel, than the Hebrew as translated in our version. Perhaps the word rendered ° last end' ought to be taken to mean I posterity.'

il. eWyr1Kas tirXoylav : § 68.

13. It Jv : there is another reading iir off, which grammar requires. - oiK &41 abT6v : the Hebrew here has no negative, but either reading makes good sense.-&W i: § 108.-lKetBEv: §87.


14. its dypoO o·Kosndv KOL. : to the look-out place of the field, to the top of that which is hewn in stone. R.V.

into the field of Zophim, to the top of Pisgah.' Zophim is here a proper name, but means ° The Watchmen: Pisgah is also the proper name of a well-known mountain overlooking the Jordan valley from the east. The translator is supposed to have arrived at AeXaEevA&ov from an Aramaic sense of the root.

15. lyw 8E roptia-olLat AWfP*rjO-CtL rbv OF& : Hebrew, ° while I meet yonder.' Here, as in v. 3, the Hebrew omits the reference to I questioning God' - possiblyout of a feeling of reverence. Here the sense is incomplete without it.

18. Iv&or:o·a: iApr" : give ear to me as a witness. Hebrew, ° hearken unto me.' The Greek rendering can here be traced to a different pointing of the Hebrew text. The same consonants which can be read I unto me' may also be taken to mean I my witness.' 'EvwritecOac is a common word in the LXX, e.g. Gen. 426: Jdg. 58: Jer. 2318. It occurs also in Acts 214.

18. 8eaprslOfwaL: to be misled. He brew, I that he should lie.' Alaprav occurs only here in the LXX. In Judith 816 we find odx irs dvOpw:ros d Seas daeA,j9iva1, I OM ors vldf dvepc5aov Stacrvo$va:. -8visXiIA4vas : to be terrVed with threats. R. V: , that he should repent'



20. tiiov tbkoyttv KTk.: the Greek here reproduces the Hebrew - I Behold, I have received to bless.' The R.V. supplies the word Icommandment' -GbXoyiio·w KA. : R.V. I and he hath blessed, and I cannot reverse it.' -o8 ph daoo-rp44rw : intransitive, as often - I wall not turn back.

21. 0VK IWT" iLdl(00$ KTk.: R.V.

He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, I Neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel.' The Hebrew nouns here used may mean either Isin' or I sorrow.' ' Iniquity' and I perverseness' decide the question in the one way, Iu6XBos and sr6vos in the other: but the derivatives of these latter, poXB,qpla and srovqpfa, would coincide with the English version.-Td Wo#a Bpxdvrmv KTx.: the glories of chiefs are in him, i.e. 1° Israel has glorious chiefs." BY. 'and the shout of a king is among them.' Perhaps the Greek translators changed I king' into I rulers' to avoid the appearance of anachronism.

22. ws 8dga p0v0Kipf0T0$ : the I unicorn' figures all together in eight passages of the LXX-Nb. 2822, 248 : Dt. 3317: Job 390: Ps. 2122, 280, 7769, 9110. In the R.V. it is everywhere reduced to a ' wild-ox, ' except where it is absent altogether (Ps. 7760). From Dt. 3317 it appears plainly that the animal had more than one horn. The rendering of the Vulgate then -cuius fortitudo similis est rhinocerotis -is devoid of plausibility. It should be noticed that the parallelism in sense, which is very close in most of these couplets, is here absent altogether.

23. o$ y4p icTev olauvicpas KTX. this is a literal rendering of the Hebrew. The R.V. margin puts a meaning into the words thus: ° Surely there is no enchantment against Jacob, I Neither is there any divination against Israel,' i.e. it is useless to call in diviners to curse them. - Kard Kaipdv KTX. : quite correct as a rendering of the Hebrew, except that ImrerEcel ought to be perfect, but the meaning is not plain in



either language. The parallelism of sense is here also absent, and it looks as though Israel had been originally meant to balance Jacob.

24. yaVPV018jo'ETCLV: this must come from yavpto0p, not from yavptav. There is also a form yavpoOp Wisd. 62: iii Mac. 311. ravptdv occurs in Judith 97: Job 314, 3921 23. On the voice see § 83. -·rpav~Lwruov : ·rpavpartas properly means a wounded man, as in Ar. Poet. 14 § 13 : Lucian V. H. 1138. In the LXX it is used for one who has met his death by wounding, e. p. Nb. 1918, 318: Jdg. 1621: 1 K. 1752. The word is very common.

25. oliTE fbkoyw KTX. : § 81.

27. Aevpo srapah4sw K·rh. : punctuate here ets 76srov dAaov · The words el ftpi?EL TIp BEIp go with Kai Kardpavat -If it shall please (hod, do thou curse me him from there.

28. Itoyfop : - P eor. - rd aapa·rEtvov Eis Tip 1piwov : to the place which stretches along to the desert, in apposition with Kopu¢hv. R.V.'that looketh down upon the desert.'

1. EtS cvv4v·r>)cw rots otarvoit : to meet the omens, i.e. to observe signs from which he might infer the will of God. Cp. 238· 15. R. V. Ito meet with enchantments.' The Hebrew


word is the plural of that which is translated olwvwIu& in 2328.

3. d aXri9&vfus 6pcov: this seems to point to a different reading from that of the Hebrew as we have it. See R.V.

4. X6yia 9400: cp. v. 16 : Dt. 339 and Psalms passim.. St. Paul in Rom. 32 uses the expression Td, X6ym To) eeoe, which is there rendered ° the oracles of God.' Cp. Acts 788 : i Pet. 411: Hb. 512.-4v v"wvqr: R.V. 'falling down.' -66'RoKEKoXvppL4voV KTl1.: § 51. To sleep with the eyes open seems to have been regarded as the sign of a wizard. In Orqciv . . . afrrou we have a triplet instead of the usual couplets. It would seem from v. 16 that a line has dropped out.

S. tos xaXot KTA. : the sight of the Israelites encamped, which has made a desert place seem populous, suggests a vision of the people permanently set-

tled in a fruitful land, and flourishing like a well-watered grove of trees.

6. LS V46ML o-KWlitovo-aL : even us shady dells. R. V. I As valleys are they spread forth.' -Wap4&ELo-os : a Persian word meaning a ° park' or pleasureground,' which is familiar to readers of Xenophon. The Hebrew word is here the same as that which is translated I garden' in Gen. 2 and 3. In Nehemiah, Ecclesiastes, Canticles, and Sirach the.Hebrew has parde"s, which is probably a loan-word from the Persian. -wK,lva(: R. V. ' lign aloes.' Curious as this variation seems, it is not an unnatural one. For the Hebrew word in v. 5, which is rendered olKOC by the Greek and ° tents' by the English translators, differs only by a point from the one which is here employed. The word I lign-aloes' stands for 1 i gn u m a 1 o 5 s , which is a Latin translation of the Greek tvaar6q. The bitter


anachronism even for prophecy. For the form of the comparison, see § 65.

8. wsfla-.y k-rk.: in 2322 with a slight variation. The difference in the original amounts only to that between singular and plural (adrav, a6iro6s). KaL Td sr&Xq KTX. : and shall suck the marrow out of their fatness. R.V. 4 And shall break their bones in pieces.' The two can hardly be renderings of the same original, though the one process is preliminary to the other. The metaphor is in either case from a beast of prey, but the Greek lends itself very well to the idea of the Jews absorbing the wealth of other nations. 'EKpueai&w occurs only here. For srdXos cp. Eur. Cyclops 380: of cap6s

EFXOp E61Tpal0&TUTOY 7rdXOS.-SoX(cLv: arrows. Op. EX. 191$ i) 1SOM8c KaraToFEUB'ISe'ET0.C : Jer. 279 ws PoXls /aaXqTou" 6UYETOV. This line is out of keeping with the simile of the wild beast, which is resumed in the following couplet. 8. KEKarfjpavraL : § 20. Numbers %%IV 9 III. THE STORY OF BALAAM AND BALAK 217

aloe was also known as dydXAoXov, which is perhaps the Semitic word bor$owed and modified so as to give it something of a Greek air.

7. itsksiwerCLL &vOpdsros KTX. : R.V. Water shall flow from his buckets,

And his seed shall be in many waters.' -v*w0ficerm il ny pacOw(a: his kingdom shall be higher than Gog. Hebrew, I his king shall be higher than Agag.' Gog (Ezek. 382, 391) seems out of place here. Perhaps the true reading is Og (cp. 2428), which has three consonants in Hebrew and might easily get changed into either Gog or Agag. Moreover Og is elsewhere mentioned as typical of a mighty king (Ps. 13411, 13620) and he had just been subdued by Israel (Nb. 2133-3b). On this supposition the ° king' will be Jehovah. With the reading I Agag' the king would naturally be Saul. But to take a person yet unborn as a standard of comparison for another person who is in the same predicament is too much of an


10. ovveKp6Trla'EV Tats XEpo-iv: cp. Lucian Somn. 14 7jyavdKTEt Kai 7w XEFpE QUYEKp6ret, Kai TobS 6156YTas lpgrpfE.

13. irot1caL aBTd 7rovTIpbv KTX. : to make it bad or good (i.e. a curse or a blessing). 2219 n.

14. $aroTp1Xw: this appears to have been the regular word for ° go away' in Alexandrian Greek, and not to have been suggestive of anything undignified, being used on the most solemn occasions, as in Josh. 2314: Tob. 143: Aristeas § 273 Kdv IK TOO NP d7rorpg-

Xwcw.Op. also Gen. 1219, 2461, 329: Ex. 321, 1024, 215, 7 : i K. 822. It seems to have supplanted dr~pXogat. Jer. 449 drOTpgXOVTEq 6.7rehEU?oYTaL. - W iPXCiTOV T&v ilpepwv : Dan. 01 1014. This is the phrase which is used at the beginning of Hebrews. Cp. ii Pet. 33 gWoovTac ggr' loXdrwv Twv 1J/AEpwY . . . ~,araLKTaI. 15. a d,Xq9&v6S dpwv : 6 p@p is here a substantive, not a participle, as in v. 3. 16. 4'R10-T4ipEV0S KTX. : here we have the line which was wanting to complete the first couplet in v. 4.



17. &tJm afrrqr: Hebrew, 'I see him.' The Greek has no sense, and is due to an error on the part of the translator. - WaKapfgw, Knl o16K 1yytgw: I pronounce him blessed,. though he is not nigh. R.V. °I behold him, but not nigh.' The seer in vision sees the distant future, not the present. Op. v. 14. -AvareaeE ucrpov arrX. : this must refer to David, the one Israelite king who is recorded to have conquered both Moab and Edom. - a v9pcuaos

R.Y. ° sceptre.''-TOUs d,pX,iyovs : R.Y. 'the corners. '-'Rp0v011ffJ?EV: apovolAe6ew is a late Greek word meaning ' ravage.' Both it and apovou$ ' spoil' (Nb. 3111) are common in the LXX.vlo'vs EJ6 : R. V. ° sons of tumult.' The Greek translator either took

sheth' to be a proper name or left it untranslated. His difficulty seems to have been occasioned by a mispointing of the initial consonant.

18. 'Ho-a5 : Hebrew Seir. ° E sau' is an alternative for ° Edom' ; Seir is

a mountain in the land of Edom. - 4VotlcEV 4v icXbv : R.V. ' While Israel doeth valiantly.' On fv see § 91.

18. 4jlyEp8j?fTa1: ac. rts. R. V.

shall one have dominion.' - Kat livokeW rrX.: and shall destroy one who is escaping out of a city. R.V.

And shall destroy the remnant from the city.' This seems to refer to some blow to Moab later than the time of David:

20. isalv Tv 'ApaAIiK : Balaam is supposed to catch sight of some encampment of the nomad Amalekites, which happened to be within the field of vision. He can only prophesy of a people when he has some portion of it before his eyes. So the modern clairvoyant requires to be somehow put en rapport with the person about whom he is questioned--r4 o-,rtppa airTlbv

R..Y. ° his latter end.' Both the Greek and the English translators are consistent with their rendering of the same Hebrew word at the close of the first



prophecy in 3310. But the Greek rendering has here the disadvantage of quite losing the verbal antithesis which exists in the original between · beginning' and I end.' In i Chron. 442 we read that 500 men of the sons of Simeon went to Mount Seir and smote the remnant of the Amalekites. This appears from the context to have been in the days of Hezekiah.

21. r6v gavatov: in Jdg. 118 (LXX) the Kenites are spoken of as the descendants of Jothor, the fatherin-law of Moses (Ex. 218 n.). In i Sam. 158 Saul, when about to attack the Amalekites, warns the Kenites, as old friends of Israel, to withdraw from among them. -Kat Idv Sig KTX. : R.V. land thy nest is set in the rock.' The parallelism of the couplets requires this line to repeat the preceding one ; it is therefore a mistake to subordinate it to the sentence that follows. - voccuG,v : = veovotd v. Cp. v. 22. The Hebrew word thus rendered (qen) contains an untranslatable pun on the name I Kenites' (qeni).

22. Ka1 Idv ylvslraL KTX. : and if it become unto Bvor a nest of wickedness. R.V. 'Nevertheless Kain shall be wasted.' This extraordinary divergence may be partly accounted for

without supposing a difference of reading. The Greek translator took the proper name Qain here for the common term ° nest' (q'en) used in the preceding verse, and on the other hand treated as a proper name the word bta'er, which means ' wasting.' Gray even suggests an explanation of sravovpyfas. -'Aow$pwt cv atXpaXco Te4wouctv : when did this take place? It was in the time of Shalmaneser II (B.C. 860) that the Assyrians first came into direct contact with Israel. That monarch defeated the king of Damascus, and mentions Ahab among the allies of his opponent. But his campaigns were apparently confined to the region of Damascus, and would hardly affect a nomad tribe on the borders of Moab and Judah. The earliest possible date seems to be the reign of Rammannirari II (s.c.811), who I subjugated all the coast lands of the west, including Tyre, Sidon, Israel, Edom, and Philistia.' At that date however Assyrian action on the regions of Palestine was still exceptional. It was not till the time of Tiglath-Pileser III (B.C. 745) that the danger of Assyrian conquest became pressing and constant; and it seems likely that the Kenites, who were so closely Con-


nected with Judah (Jdg. 116), did not suffer seriously till the invasion of Sennacherib (B.C. 701).

23. KaLl E86V Tov"Sly: there is nothing answering to these words in the Hebrew, though the analogy of vs. 20 and 21 requires it. The destruction of Og has already been recorded (Nb. 21$$-N).-iiTav 6b TairTa: Bu'vac here seems to have the sense of appoint. As this is the beginning of a new 7rapa floX~, it would appear that rav"ra refers to what follows.

24. K0.1 4tEXe6?6Ta4 KTk. : Hebrew, literally land ships from the hand of Kittim.'-KkTmZGw: Hebrew %ittim = Kirlov, a town in Cyprus. The name was extended from the town, which was originally a Phoenician settlement, to the island (Jos. Ant. 16 § 1 %joefos 8~ Xeoelud T~v v$oov *Xev · Kvsrpos aunt POOP Ka~ei'Tal), and from that

to the Greeks generally. In i Mac. 11 Alexander the Great is spoken of as having come from the land of %eTTgeip, and in 85 of the same, Perses is called Ktrtgmvpa0'tXevS. Kittim is represented in Gen. 104 as a son of Javan (='Id foves, 'Icuves). The destruction of the Assyrian Empire took place about B.C. 606, but not in any way owing to the action of Greek ships. If the Hebrew text is sound and this last prophecy was fulfilled at all, it would seem to refer to the time of Alexander the Great, when Assyria shared the fate of the Persian Empire, of which it then formed a part. -'Eppatovs

Hebrew Bber. In Gen. 1021 Shem is spoken of as ° the father of all the children of Eber.' - bpo8vpaSdv

properly with one heart, with. one accord. Here perhaps = all together. Hebrew, ° also:




SAMSON is the most frankly Pagan figure in the whole Bible -a hero like Hercules, with a good appetite, ready to feast or ready to fight, invincible against the foe, but helpless before women.

His name in the Hebrew is Shimshon. The form Samson comes from the Vulgate, representing the U/4(uv of the Septuagint. This last may be an error of the translators or it may represent an older and truer tradition than that of the Massoretes with regard to the pronunciation of Hebrew.

The name, according to Josephus (ant. V 8 § 4), means I strong.' Modern scholars, however, connect it with S'laemesh, the Hebrew word for the sun; and, as Beth-shemesh, or the I House of the Sun,' was near the hero's birthplace, some would have us resolve Samson into a solar myth. For ourselves we prefer the more terrestrial view which sees in the story of Samson a number of local legends drawn from the annals of the tribe of Dan. There was doubtless really a strong man in the district of Zorah and Eshtaol, who did doughty deeds against the Philistines, which were afterwards related with embroidery. We must remember that, though the legends of Samson are to all appearance very early, they were not put into writing as we have them until after the Captivity (cp. Jdg. 1519 with 18n.

The story of Samson as a whole may be analysed into the following parts -

(1) The birth-story 13. (2) The marriage-story 14. (3) The story of the foxes 15'-9. (4) The jawbone-story 159-'°. (5) The story of the gates of Gaza 16'-3. (6) The story of Delilah and the death of Samson 16'x.

Of these the first and the last two have no organic connexion either with one another or with the rest, while the second, third, and fourth cohere closely together.

There is reason to consider that the first story is the latest of all 223



for the fact that an annunciation of birth should be thought appropriate shows that the person of whom it is told has already become celebrated. As in the case of Sarah (Gen. 161), of Hannah (i S. 1b), and in the New Testament of Elisabeth (Lk. 1'), the mother of the wonderful child had previously been barren.

The connexion of Samson with the institution of the Nazirate which is common to the first and the last story (Jdg. 13", 161'), looks like a priestly attempt to throw some cloak of pious purpose over the otherwise unsanctified proceedings of the hero. This institution is mentioned as early as Amos 21'~'2 , side by side with prophecy. The law of the Nazirite may be read in Nb. 61-n: but the regulations there given refer to a temporary vow made by the individual himself for some special purpose. The only parallels to the lifelong Nazirate of Samson are Samuel (i S.1'1) in the Old Testament and John the Baptist (Lk.1'b) in the New. But the notion that Samson was a Nazirite in any sense is hard to reconcile with the general tenor of the story. In eating honey taken from the carcase of the lion Samson was breaking the law of the Nazirite (Nb. 68); nor is it likely that he abstained from wine during the seven days' feast (Jdg. 141'); moreover men were peculiarly apt to die very suddenly beside him' (Nb. 69) without his consecration appearing to have been in any way affected thereby. It is to be noticed also that in all but the first and last legends the secret of Samson's strength lies, not in his unshorn hair, but in the spirit of the Lord coming mightily upon him (14g~ 18, 15"), a form of inspiration which reminds us of the Berserker rage of the old Norsemen.

In the days of Samson, as in those of Samuel and Saul, the Philistines were the oppressors of Israel. These were foreign invaders who succeeded in giving to the whole country of the Jews the name of Palestine, which it retains to this day. They established themselves in the fertile lowlands on the sea-coast of Canaan. It is an interesting question where they came from. Possibly it may have been from Crete during the Mycenaean period, when Crete was the centre of a naval dominion, the power and wealth of which is illustrated by the recently excavated ruins of Cnossus. If so, their culture and mode of life may have been similar to that of the early Greeks as depicted in the Homeric poems. The epithet luncircum cised' specially applied to the Philistines indicates the Jewish sense



of the difference between themselves and these foreigners: for many of their other neighbours were of Semitic race and practised circumcision like themselves. These considerations might afford a reason for the name of the Philistines being translated ' foreigners' (a.Jv,oouaov) in the LXX. On the other hand we may be looking too far back. In the books of Maccabees iJtXo¢vXot is several times used as a name for Gentiles generally. Now the inhabitants of the maritime plain of Palestine were thoroughly Hellenized at the time when the translation of the LXX was made, and may for this reason be called ahAo40,ot by the translator.

How far the rule of the Philistines over the Israelite tribes extended does not appear. The northern tribes do not come within the purview of the story. But the southern Danites and the adjacent tribe of Judah (Jdg. 15"'g) are represented as being completely subdued by the Philistines and living in unresisting subjection. Samson is no military leader, like Barak, Gideon, or Jephthah, and organizes no armed rebellion. He like his neighbours, lives at first on peaceful terms with the dominant race, and is ready even to take a wife from among them. His feats of arms are not acts of war, but outbreaks of fury provoked by personal wrongs.

In the peculiar relations of Samson with his Philistine wife, whom he goes to visit at her father's house, it has been thought that we have an instance of an old form of marriage, which is believed to have existed among certain peoples, in which the wife, instead of migrating to her husband's house, continued to reside with her own family, and was visited there by her husband. At the time of the Samson-story this usage may have prevailed in the case of intermarriage between Israelite and foreign races. Abimelech had similar relations with a Canaanite woman in Shechem. Similarly we find in the Iliad that the married daughters of Prism continued to reside in his palace; and traces of the same usage survived in the Spartan institutions.

To the story of the foxes and the firebrands there is a curious parallel in Roman folk-lore. At the Cerealia, on April 19, foxes with burning firebrands tied to them used to be let loose in the Circus. Ovid Fasts IV 681-

Cur igitur misses vinetis ardentia taedis terga ferant vulpes, cause docenda mihi.



He goes on to tell the story, as it was told to him by an old innkeeper at Carseoli, of how a boy of twelve, having caught a fog that had been robbing the fowl-yard, wrapped it in straw and set it on fire, and how the fox escaped and burnt the corn-fields.

Factum Wit, monimenta manent; nam vivere captum nunc quoque lez vulpem Carseolana vetat. Utque luat poenas gene heec Cerealibus ardet, quoque modo segetes perdidit, ipsa perit.

The fox episode ended in dire disaster to Samson's wife and fatherin-law. This however is passed lightly over as having happened to Philistines. Not so the tragedy of the closing scene, in which the hero, blind and captive, is brought out of the prison-house to make sport for his enemies. Milton has seen how the pathos of this situation lends itself to a drama after the Greek model. What can be finer than the dithyrambic lament of the chorus over the stricken

hero - ' with languish'd head unpropt As one past hope, abandon'd . . . . a ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~e Or do my eyes misrepresent? Can this be he That heroic, that renown'd, Irresistible Samson? whom unarm'd No strength of man, or fiercest wild beast, could withstand; Who tore the lion, as the lion tears the kid; Ran on embattled armies clad in iron; And, weaponless himself, Made arms ridiculous, useless the forgery Of brazen shield and spear . . .'

Samson slew at his death more than he slew in his life, yet he brought no deliverance to his countrymen. The moral of his story is the same as that of Ajax as depicted by Sophocles, and is thus drawn by Milton -

But what is strength without a double share Of wisdom? vast, unwieldy, burdensome, Proudly secure, yet liable to fall By weakest subtleties, not made to rule, But to subserve where wisdom bears command.'


IV. THE STORY OF SAMSON 1. & Xetpt: into the hand. § 91.

2. dwilp ets : § 2. - Eap&X: R. V. I Zorah.' A town lying near the edge of the highlands, on the present railway from Jaffa to Jerusalem. Josh. 1533, 1941.-deb Sfjyov: an accommodation to Greek ideas, to which there is nothing to answer in the Hebrew. - ro"v AavEt : the translator has retained the Hebrew termination of the tribe name, which is here plural in sense - of the Danites. For the termination cp. 156 7-op AalAvel. - MavwE : Hebrew Manoah (= rest). In i Chr. 254 the Zorites are called Manahathites, which may be only a coincidence.

4. Wi9vcpa : c p. vs. 7, 14 : i K. hl, is

1-Ios. 411: Mic. 211: Jer. 131$. - pi . . . arav. : § 88.


5. vagEtp : a retention of the Hebrew word for want of a Greek equivalent. It is from root I nazar,' ' to separate' or I consecrate.' On the law of the Nazirite see Nb. f31'sl. The Alexandrian Ms. has here 71,ytavWEVOV Narrparov, which is perhaps referred to in Mt. 228

dircot 7rX1?pwBj Td Ar7Biv Erd r@p apo¢rr TWY GTC


- a pfETae roir o-cua-at : Samson did not, like Barak, Gideon, or Jephthah, liberate his countrymen from a foreign yoke: he only killed a large number of individual Philistines. The work of delivering Israel' was, according to the book of Samuel, begun by Samuel and Saul and completed by David.



6. "Av9pao,ros 8E00: need as a title of Moses in Dt. 331: Josh. 148.

8. 'Ev 1p,ot : a literal rendering of a Hebrew formula of entreaty. Cp. Jdg. 813,15: i K. 123, 2524. In Gen. 4320 the same original is represented by Ee6AeBa and in 4418 by Uowac : so also in Ex. 410, where it is reduced in the English to' U: -gbpu'A&ovate : our Hebrew text has here only Adonai without Jehovah before it: but the translator's text evidently had both words, as ours has in 1028. Adonai, when it occurs by itself, is regularly rendered by Kdpce, so also is Jehovah: when the two therefore come together, one has to

be transliterated, as in i K. 111, or else they are left indistinguishable, so that we get the combination Rdpcos K6pcos, as in Amos 58: Ps: 1408.-Tdv uv9pcosrov

inverse attraction. Cp. Verg. Ann. 1673 -Urbecn quam statuo, vestra e s t.-Wkrco &h Erv : Josephus (Ant. V 8 § 3) represents the second appearance of the angel as being granted to the prayers of Samson's mother to allay the jealousy aroused in her husband's mind by her interview with a handsome stranger. - o-vvsyac4rw: Ex. 412 n.

10. iv hpkpqt: the other day. A Hebraism.

11. Et o-`v 4t: § 100.



12. Ns1v AEfIPETft IfTX. : the Alexandrian Ms. subordinates this clause to the next in the manner suggested in the margin of the R. V. - vuv aF AB6vros rou p$paT6s Qov, rt go-rat rJ Kplpa rov" sr=5aplou Kal Td 9pya atrrou;-Kplceg: this word seems to be chosen because of its etymological correspondence with the Hebrew, without much regard to the meaning in Greek. The original it represents is derived from the same root as shophet, 'a judge' (cp. the Carthaginian sufet-). Bptcts is used to translate the same Hebrew in Dt. 18$ and iv K. lz. In the former of these passages it refers to the priests' I dues' ; in the latter the English runs thus' What manner of man was be?' The latter is the meaning that suits this passage: so that Kplcra may be taken to mean distinctive sharks (the Alexandrian Ms. has here ro Kptpa).

13. 'Aaa jr&vrwv . . . +vXbEeTav § 98.

14. 11 BWsr&ov Tog oLvov : a literal rendering of the Hebrew. -cGcepa p11-

Awpa : a doublet. In v. 4 the Alexandrian Ms. has 0'LKEPa, which is a transliteration of the Hebrew, in place of p4Bvcua, which is a translation of the same. Here both have somehow been allowed to appear. Bleeps was a generic name for fermented liquor. It is used 13 times in the LXX and once in the N.T. (Lk. 116). -sr&v . . . Wfi

- p,qaEV. § s s.

lli. 'R0Vi?fOpfV : dress, i.e. make ready for food. Cp. i K. 2618, where Abigail brings to David uEvre apS)9aTa ae7royAiva. See iii K. 182$ n.-Ipt+ov atywv : Gen. 3781 n.

16. apraov : bread, in the sense of food generally. -KaL UV 1royQp$ KTX.

better sense would be got by putting the comma after sroyaps, instead of after dXOK0.dTml6a-and, if thou dust prepare it, ofer it as a whole burntofering unto the Lord. The Hebrew too seems to admit of being thus taken. Manoah could not have thought of making an offering to his visitor, whom he still supposes to be a man.


17. grv &80& KTk.: the clause with Wot is really subordinate to the one which follows. R.Y. ° that when thy words come to pass we may do thee honour.' The Alexandrian Ms. has Iva, brav Wig To pi7Wa vou, 8ot;avwN,ev ve.

18. Ets TI : To what end? Cp. lblo.-TO"vTO EpwT$s KTX.: roO7-o may be regarded as a cognate accusative after ipwT¢s with rJ 6voLuf ,uou in apposition to it. But it really owes its position here merely to the Hebrew.

19. Kal riiv Ova-tav : R.V. ' with the meal-offering' The BuQta is distinct from the kid, resembling the Greek ovaoxdrat. Cp. v. 23 oaorcadrwpa

rca2 0vo-ia;,.-8t4XAp&wev rrOLq0`CL&: the literal rendering of the Hebrew here is

and (the angel was) acting-wonderfully for-doing.' This is not very intelligible in itself, and the Greek translation is less so. Apart from the original the latter might be taken to mean ° cut it up to dress it.' -PX& wovrES : participle= finite verb: cp. v. 20. § 80.

20. [via-av : § 18 .

22. eEsv : notice that ~ the angel of the Lord' is here spoken of as God. Cp. Ex. 32.

23. KaAors Kwp6s : a literal translation of the Hebrew, but meaningless



in Greek. R.V. ° at this time,' i.e. at the very time when her husband supposed that they were incurring God's anger. -;1KOVTLcEV : ° made us hear.' This word occurs eight times in the LXX, e.g. Ps. 6010, Jer. 309.

24. Xap*wv: Jos. Ant. V 8 § 4 gag yevbpevov rb* aacdlov EaW~ava KaXovvw, LoxvpJv de' drov1palvet rd Evotca. See Introduction to the story. -;,spuve*~ : Ex. 210 n.

25. cvvEKaropEdEO·8av airr~: to go forth with him, i.e. to aid him when he went forth. R. V. ° to move him.' The words seem to point to some legends of Samson which have not come down to us. - a apEWPoXp : this word is said to be Macedonian, which probably only means that it is of military origin. See Ex. 149 n. ° The camp of Dan' is the proper name of a place. Hence the R.V, here retains the Hebrew Mahaneh-dan. In our text of the Hebrew the situation of this place is given as between Zorah and Eehtaol, i.e. in the heart of the Danite

territory ; but in Jdg. 1812, where an account of the origin of the name is given, the place is said to be I behind Kirjath learim' in Judah. It would seem therefore that the Kal, which the LXX has after Uv, but to which there is nothing to correspond in the Hebrew, represents the true reading. There are reasons for supposing that the expedition of the Danites recorded in chapter 18 took place before the time of Samson; so that there is no inconsistency in its name being mentioned here, though the story of how it came by its name is told later. -dwd ONTov . . . Kal 8vd WIoov : Op . Ex. 829.

1. its ®apw6Aa : aubducting the two last letters, which are due to Hebrew inflexion, we are left with AapvQ - Ttmnah.. Jos. Ant. V 8 § 4 e1s 9apvd, v6W v. See Ex. 1287 n. - &)6Xo4fiXauv

a LXX variety for tbuatcrcetp,. Cp. Amos 18: i Mac, see. See Introduction to story.

2. UpaKa: § 33. a. M*, asK : Cp. 162 ,Afi oaXc..-



tL&ta: cp. v. 7 n6BvvBv. ° She is right in my eyes.' The Hebrew word is the same as in Nb. 2310, L Let me die the death of the righteous.'

4. lK6iaricw : revenge, namely, for the wrongs done to the Israelites. - airrds : Le. Jehovah. Samson was only seeking a wife. Jos. Ant. V 8 § 6 Tov" Beov" Kard Td 'Ei9patots cuA01pov EmLvoov"rrosTav yQ/aov.-KUpeevovrFt: § 80 .

S. tupvdWtvos : wpGeoBat ( - Lat. rugtre) occurs ii times in LXX, e.g. Ps. 211s Lbs aEwv d dpxkrwv Kat tSpv6N,evos

Ezk. 2260 ors aiovres cupuGEtevot.

6. 4~Xaro W n5rav KTX. : i .e. be had a sudden access of supernatural strength. For the phrase cp. i A. 108 K41 io6'XeGTat dal c4aveu""pa $vplov. The low view of inspiration in the Samson legend shows a primitive tone of thought and is an argument for its

early date.-trvvkrpt+nv: Hebrew,Ltore asunder.' The Alexandrian Ma. has Wcsracev.-wtrEl trUYTptlllfL : R. V. ° as he would have rent.' Milton- Who tore the lion as the lion tears the kid.'

7. KarEPqtrav KaUXdAqo-av : singular in the Hebrew.

8. trvvaywyil 1tEkLO-o-&v : A has here cvcrpo¢ fi. Polpbius I V 7 has T~v cuva ywy3w Tcov fixawv. As cvvayLUyl is the translator's habitual rendering of the Hebrew word which occurs in this passage, we cannot infer that cuvaywyh #Actrciuv is Alexandrian Greek for a swarm of bees.' Jos. Ant. V 8 § (3 has &trvyXdvet ap,hveL E.LeXLTTiov e v rtp ?TjBEL TOU XiOYTOS iKFEYOU Y8Y0??EUKGT47V. -o-76p,arL : Hebrew, I body.' Possibly cT6warc is a mistake in the Greek for ccuuart, but it recurs in 9.


8. fswKfY a&TOLS : Josephua in telling the story makes Samson bring the honeycomb as a present to his bride. Perhaps this is an attempt to make the conduct of Samson more consistent with the law of the Nazirite.

10. IaroLqaev . . . ar6TOV : for the phrase rote& abrov Cp. Gen. 198, 4020. -1;t hopes: for semen days. Not in the Hebrew. - g rv o$rws grow"vciv of vtavtcKOL: A has iaolovv and the R.V.

used to do,' implying that the custom was obsolete.

11. IyIvETO . . . Kat: § 41 . - &rs Ei8ov abrbv : A iv rip ¢opsccBac afirovs ad-rov. The two verbs meaning ° to see' and 'to fear' are easily confused in Hebrew. -KX,1TOfis: invited guests. R.V. ° companions.'

12. IIpdpkr1pa : apart from this content the word rrp6pX,Ipa appears only four times in the LXX-Ps. 484, 772 : Hbk. 28 : Dan. A 823. -o-w&dvas

Hdt. I 200 ; II 86 (cwdbvos woclvgs), 95; VII 181. EevBwv here means a garment of cambric or muslin. Op. Mk. 1461 aepe#e/3as7A4vos vw86va : Mt. 2759. The name points to the introduction of the material from India.

13. o8dvLa : another rendering of the, same word which has just been translated by ccv86var. Op. Mt. 276s with Jn. 1940 for the equivalence of the two words. Josephus (ant. V 8 § 8) has dBbvas where the LX% in v. 12 has aw86vas. - 61 XCLWWOIJVCLS o-TOkdS LWs r(wv : the Hebrew is the same as for oroXds I,uaTlwv In v. 12. Op. Gen. 460 &XXa.acoGcas oTOMs.


234 SELECTIONS FROM THE SEPTUAGINT Judges %IV 15 14, TL SpLOTJv Kra.: in the original this forms a verse-couplet (3 + .3). A hag & TOV &BOYTOS !<~?JXBEY PpWQLS, KaL iE lvXupov E~17XBEV ywLLV. Josephu9 (Ant. Y 8 § B) gives the riddle thus -~,jolv dTL TJ aLfwftopov 'YEYEVV'I/KEL ,6opdv ~EEiav i~ airrou, Kat sravJ Lti?8ovs Evros.

iJi. TETiipT'fl : Hebrew, ' seventh.' The Greek reading improves the sense, though even it is not consistent with v. li. -&ybcav: to dispossess us by force. A 7rTWXEU?al : R.Y. I to impoverish us' : R.Y. Margin ' take that we

have.' There is a confusion here between two words .that are similar in the original.

18. ira,w : only. Op. Gen. 4140.

17. _rL ras tmrd ilwtpas : strictly from the fourth to the seventh day. For the reinforcement of the accusative of duration of time by ELrf cp. v..14 &I rpea ~gtlpas.

18. l4vaTSCXae : A dvvaL. R.Y. ' before the sun went down.'-Tt ywKV TEpov Lcra. : the answer, like the riddle, is expressed in a verse-couplet (again 3 + 3), ax is also Samson's retort. -


EL p.;l KTk.: Josephus (Ant. V 8 § 8) transforms the reply thus - K ai d FraIA1`WY EhrEY OUSE yVVQLKdS E2YCl rt So- XEp(JTEpoY, IT91 U'LlV iKoEpEL TdV ~AkTEpOV

XGyov.-qporpvdmars: cp. iii K. 1918. 'Aporptav for dpov"v occurs in some dozen passages in the LXX. Cp. Gen. 456 n.

19. Eis'Ao-Kb,Xwva: i.e. to aPhilistine city at some distance. The thirty companions themselves were protected by the laws of hospitality.

20. IyIVETO . . . W: became the wife of one. A K0.L 0'UV(PK1jQEV j yvv77

IaW~wv Tip vuW¢aywyW auTOV, ds 73v &acpos adro"v. Jos. Ant. V 8 § 6 KaL j aais . . . ouviw Tai afiro0 OAV vuWoo ar6'X4) yeyov6m. - & t~Waatv - t w is

attracted into the case of ¢tawv preceding. In the Hebrew the pronoun is in the singular. 4kXaf.rEw in the LXX is constructed with a dative ; ii Chr. 192, 2087: i Esd. 321: Sir. 371.

1. pe6' hwUpas: after some time. - Iv ip+p atyaov: § 91.-raWtiov: Gen. 438° n. § 10. -obK I8wKEV avTdv: R.V. would not suffer him.'

2. Abyauv Ehra : § 81. Notice that A4ywv and Elaa are treated as parts of one verb. -ByaAwrEpa Ssrlp: §§ 12, 94.

3. 'HAqiwWae KTX. : I am made guiltless once for all as regards the Philistines in doing mischief to them. - pAT aOTwv : not along with them, but in dealing with them. § 98. The construction is due to the Hebrew.



¢. W"Kas : e $aw7eKas. § 11. The Hebrew word may also mean °jackals.'-KlpKOV wpbs KtpKOV: a literal following of the Hebrew, which happens to coincide with our idiom. - Kat %&ricfY : in place of the Hebrew c in between,' which A represents here by ~v r(o /Mc4r.

5. iv rotq o-rG.Xvovv: § 91. -8srd . . . Ka1 Laos . . . Kat W2: both . . . and . . . and. § 92 .-&Xdvos: putby the Greek translator for the word rendered in the R. V. ' shocks,' which represents an earlier stage of harvest work. On the form of the word see § 8. - 6s BWwAmvos Kal Batas : R.V.

and also the oliveyards.' The difference seems due to the fact that the word for yards is often used specially of vineyards.

6. vvp4to:: son-in-law. For this meaning cp. ii Esd. 2329 (- Neh.130). A has here yapppos. - r o0 Aapwf, : of

the man of Timnah. 132 n.-Ty, tK T8v +Uwv afiTOV : R.V. ' to his companion.' Perhaps we should here read rcp-to one of his friends.

7. raiTIv : feminine for neuter. § 47. O'urms looks like a gloss on radr,4v, one of the two being redundant. R. V. I after this manner.' - &n at pilv 4Kstitj0'41 AV $Wtv : (know) that of a truth 1 will have my vengeance on you. § 107. On el /c$v see § 103.-&rXa~rov Kosrb7ao : at the last I will cease. Cp. Ruth 118 Wxacs Too xaxicac upJs afrr~v grc. Samson is careful throughout to avoid aggressive action; he merely retaliates for wrongs done to him.

8. Kvi1W>)v I,rL wqpdv : leg on thigh, a literal rendering of the Hebrew, but what it meant originally is hard to say. For the adverbial accusative cp. Dt. 64 91'p6?V1AOY K6TLt arp6cmsrov.-wXTj * yuydJvqv : accusative in apposition



to the sentence. -TpvpaXL4: this word is used six times in the LXX and once in the N.T., in Mk. lOzb, where it signifies the eye of a needle. -'HTlLw

Jos. Ant. V H § H ALTdY KRT4fKEL' 7rETpa &' &TIP dXvpd Tis 'IodEa 0vXiis.

9. _#sp+lwav : R.V. L spread themselves.' § 83. Witch quotes Auth. 12, 234 for the poetical form _pt¢,t. But in the LXX the double or single p is a question of Ms. spelling. - l 1eGEL

Hebrew Lechi.

10. Et,rav 3,vfjp : a too faithful rendering of the Hebrew, which employs the singular of man after a plural verb to denote the inhabitants of a country collectively. § 48.

il. KvpLEVa-ovcev : R.V. L are rulers over us: Cp.144.

12. &o4vat . . . _v XEVpt : § 91 . The meaning is not quite the same as that of dov"vaL 8L& xELpbs in Gen. 394· 22. = pi ,rorE csrvavr9iw,ln : a literal rendering of the Hebrew-lest ye fall upon me yourselves. Cp. 14 and Ex. 914 n.

13. oTL dad sj : § 109. - K aXW8foes in LXX only here, in 14, and in lEll~ >Q. The word is classical.

14. ;Mov : Hebrew, L he came.' - lcus ELay6vos : i .e. to the place which is reputed to have been so called after the exploit which is about to be related. See Jos. Ant. V 8 § 8. The Hebrew is Lechi and the place is the same as that which is intended by AEUEC in 9. -jXis XaEav . . . avro0 : R . V. ° shouted as they met him' The Hebrew word for meet here is different from that trans-



fated by cvvavrdv in 12. -ovmw4ov: = Qrvvraeiov. Cp. 189: Sir. 219 : Is. 181: Dan, 346.-&cp.ol: Gen. 4227 n.

is. ZKpepvp,p,4vrw : the Hebrew here has new. On the form of the word see § 20.

16. 1Jc6XEI+dv Mkev*a : the Hebrew does not here contain the idiom which corresponds to this formula, but rune thus-I With the jaw-bone of an ass a heap, two heaps (have I slain).' The Hebrew word for heap however is the same as that for ass, so that there is a play on words, as though one were to say-« With the jawbone of an ass have I ass-ass-inated them."

17. 'AvaipcmLg Maydvog : the nominative is right because we have here what is known as the suppositio materialts of the words. The genitive is subjective, "the destruction made by

a jawbone." Hebrew Bamath-Lechi = Jawbone Hill. Names have been known to give rise to legends as well as legends to names.

18. IK)LavU-ev : cp. 1829. Hebrew,

called.' A has Epolvsv. Cp. the double meaning of the English cried.-446& oalo-as : aorist without augment. Hebrew, 'thou bast given.' A ESmKas. Translate - Thou bast vouchsafed through. the hand of thy servant. The force of the construction edBoKSiv iv here is different from that in ML 317

ii Cor. 1219, where it means acquiesce in, be pleased with.

18. Epp1qJev Tav XftKKOV : R.V, ° clave the hollow place.' Proleptic. -a1~r*the feminine may be justified on the

ground that it agrees with rqy4 understood, but it is probably due merely to the presence of a feminine suffix in



the Hebrew. - IIqyii roO hreKaXov W6vov: Hebrew, `Spring of the Caller.' As the partridge is known in Hebrew as the caller, it has been suggested that the name may have originally meant Partridge Sprang and have had its meaning adapted to the story of Samson.

20. KaL Upwiv irA.: this is the remark which generally closes the account of a ruler. Cp. 127.9,11,14 ,

the story itself Samson is not represented as a ruler, but rather as an insubordinate subject of the Philistines. The next chapter, which ends with the same remark, may have come from another source, especially as the story of Delilah is a duplicate of the story of Samson's Philistine wife.

i. T&gav: one of the five chief cities of the Philistines.

2. dw,lyyAri . . . Myowns : the word

corresponding to dvMAq has alipt out from the Hebrew. On the construction see § 112, and on the verbal form § 24.-4Klo+vcav: literally were dumb. Cp. 1819. The word occurs eleven times in the L%%. -"Eros &a~ado~ KTk.: ( Wait) until the morning dawns, and let us kill him. Present 51a¢auoKecv (Polyb.), 8ta¢tSvKew (Hdt.).

3. p.ECOVUKTIov : cp. Ruth 38: Is. 6910. In Ps. 1188 the word is used adverbially. - _v hp.toa rAs vvirrds : § 82. The Hebrew is the same as that which has just been represented by Imcovv irrlov.-r6ov 6vpCov Tag wfiXrig TSB ae6keao9: the doors of the city-gate. -dvEP6mrar o-EV . . . p oXXq~ : lifted deem up bar and all. R. V. ° plucked them up.' - 8vipq : Hebrew, ° carried them up.' - Tofi iirL arpoo-loirov XEpp&v: which faces Hebron. It is not necessary to suppose that Samson carried the gates all


the forty miles from Gaza to Hebron: still this may be what was intended. Cp. Jos. Ant. V 8 § 10 cis TJ da_p XE#pwvos tlpos 95_pwv KararfBlqo9. -KaL EA!qKEv adTd _KEE : not in the Hebrew.

4. jy&7C'ItPfY: _ _¢larloEY . Cp. 15. -1v `Ako-wpllX : A has here _ac rov XEC/cappov Y,wpqx. The Hebrew is nahal Sorek. It seems plain that the first syllable has somehow disappeared, leaving the reading before us. Nah,,al

= wady or torrent-valley. - AaAsMHebrew Delilah. Jos. Ant. V 8 § 11 Aahlatr Td dvop,a. Josephus assumes, perhaps hastily, that the woman was a Philistine. We may notice that the lords of the Philistines came up to her, i.e. from the maritime plain to the hills.

5. of apXovTES : the Hebrew for this is SPranim, which is used only for the five princes of the Philistines, and is therefore presumably Philistian. It has been conjectured that this is the same word as Hpavvog. It recurs in vs. 8, 18, 23, 27, 30, in all which pas-

sages B renders it, as here, by ffpxovTES, but A by aarpaaac. In i %. be, n, 64,416,18, 77, 292,6,7 B also has ca-

Tphaac. This rendering reproduces the foreign effect, but is otherwise inappropriate. -&vswlo·b0aafir~ : a result of literal translation rather than any recognised Greek construction. -86scoN._v o-oe izvfjp: dvsjp here = each. A Hebraism. § 70 . As there were five lords of the Philistines, the bribe amounts to 6500 shekels of silver, or 275 times the price paid for Joseph.

7. vsvp_au$ : = vevpais. Cp. v. 9. Properly I bowstrings.' R. V. ' withes.' Jos. Ant. V 8 § 11 Odpevos, Et KXfipavcv &7-d KTA. -Sypae$ : literally snoist and so supple - a recognised classical use. 'Typbs is a rare word in the LXX. It recurs in 8 and is used in its literal sense in Job 818 : Sir . 391$.-SL*+AapW_vacs : R.V. c dried.' -L$ EL$ rwv 8v9p(awwv : cp. 17 ws 7rdwrES of avl7pwaroc

P8. 817 lJS ETS TV7Y ttp,'YbYTwY. S. wn Sce+BapILIva$ : in v. 7 the



hypothetical nature of the sentence justifies w~ bve¢Bapovats: but here we ought certainly to have od. For another clear case of /a4 for od take SUB. 048.

9. eve&pov : this form is common in the LXX, whereas ivi8pa occurs only in Josh. 8s· s : Ps. 9ss. -o-rpiwp,a : in the literal sense only here in the LXX. Used in a metaphorical sense in iv K. lba° cvvgcrpoev crpippa = made a conspiracy.-Iv Tip bo~+pavASjvav afrra ,vrvpds : when it srnelleth the ,lire. A literal translation of the Hebrew.

12. Kal rd TvE8pa . . . raN,elov : if

our Hebrew teat is correct, this clause in the Greek is both wrongly translated and comes in the wrong place. A here agrees with the Hebrew.

13. 'I8of : Hebrew, ' hitherto.' The latter part of the Hebrew word for hitherto is the same, apart from the pointing, as that for behold. -v+6ups

§ 23. =cEq&s : locks, literally chains, in which sense the word is used in Prov. 622 cetpais 51 rav iavrou" dpapru"av IKacros o¢lyyEraa. Samson's long hair was plaited into seven tails. - 8v& a,WaTL: = c ripwvt, warp. The word occurs in Biblical Greek only in this contest. Delilah was to weave Samson's hair into the web she has been weaving on her loom, and fig the web, with his hair in it, to the wall by means of a peg.

18, 14. K0.1 IuKpOfICps . . . fr~avev Iv T4 8v4oyarv : this passage is absent from our Hebrew, but it is needed to


tell the story fully. It seems to have dropped out owing to the occurrence of the word corresponding to r~ EcaoWart both at the beginning and end of it.

14. its r6v roiXov: not in the Hebrew. - _gfjpev . . . ro(Xov : carried away the peg of the web from the wall. R. V. I plucked away the pin of the beam, and the web.'

16. _?TEVOXWpq?EY 0.OTdY : Josh. 1716: 1s. 2820, 4919: iv Mac. 1111 rd

3 if t~ d I p ~b

aveu"N,a orevoxmpov1mvos : ii Cor. 48, 612. -wX&yo4rvX>)o·ev: the subject here changes to Samson. 'OT&yoqvxeiv occurs ten or eleven times in the LXX, but corresponds to the same Hebrew as here only in Nb. 214: Jdg. 1016 (A). It occurs in the Flinders Petrie Papyri (Swete Introd. p. 292).

17. rilv W&o-av KapB(av : § 46. - tLyLos et0v" : a translation of Hebrew nazir, which A here represents by varetpacos. 136 n.



20. ius Israt KaL 8sral: no Greek phrase, but due to literal translation. A has KaBcus act. Cp. 20$°· gl: i K. 310, 2025 : i Mac. 380 ms dra~ Kal 81s. -_irn vaX6jcop,a&: passive in middle sense. § 83.

21. XaAKe(avs : § 35. -;w 3,afj9cw to turn the hand-mill was the work of the lowest slaves.

22. KaAius _gvp~caTO : R.V. ' after he was shaven.' § 83.

23. A%-ilav: Dagon, who used to

be considered a fish-god, is regarded by modern scholars as a corn-god. On him cp. i K. 51-b : i Mac . 1083,84 . - d 8e6s : i .e. Dagon. Hebrew, ° our god.'

24. ET8av : § 18.

25. dTE jy%01641l KTX. ' R.V. ' when their hearts were merry.' 'AyaBuvew is common in the LX%. For the meaning to cheer, cp.182D,198~ 9~ 22: Ruth 37 : ii K. 1328: Eccl. 119.-way4rcu

the more classical form of the aorist is faawa.- Kal _P4vyov airrdv : not


in the Hebrew. On the spelling cp. 159 n.

26. RTiiKEV: § 27.-IaurrjpvXBfj o·opaL: § 83.

27. k,rt *a $41m: § 95.-9twpo9v ~ns iv: looking on at. § 98.

28. IKkavcfv.: 1618 n. -'ASwvatf KupLf : A has here Kdpw KGptE ; see 138 n. Perhaps the second translator avoided the term 'AEwvaiE as having misleading associations for Greek ears. The Syrian god Thammuz had ever since the fifth century s.o. been wor shipped by the Greeks under the dame 'Adwns, derived from the title Adon (Lord) by which his Semitic worship pers addressed him. Ausonius (Epi-

gram 49) mentions Adoneus as a nether-world title of Bacchus. The name got confused with the Greek 'AiBwvEds.-Aft: § 4.-rfov Sfro o+AaA Wwv: § 14.

29. -robs No Kfovas : R.V. I the two middle pillars.' A supplies the missing word-rots Evo crvXovs rots ,uEoous. Josephus (Ant. V 8 § 12) says parenthetically -olKOS 8' fiv Evo KLbvwv vrE-

ybvrwv abrov" rbp gpoOov. - lo·rJKEt: § 37.-Kal IKp4Tjcfv: not in the Hebrew. -ova . . . Kat ova: no one who was writing Greek as Greek could here avoid rJv pkv . . . rb;, EE. § 39 .

30. ip4?TajfV : A EKXEIVEY. R. V. I bowe'd himself.'


IV. THE STORY OF SAMSON 245 ~` ~ i I ~ i .l E , I f . 1 ! ~ . 1 lI III I I I ~ ~ ' h E ' y 'I r ~ I I lU i ~. ~ ' I 1 I ~ II ' , ( , , , . 4 ' , ~ ~ e I ( I i I ~ ~ p tl ~ I; f . G ~ ' !I 'I. a~ i ~ 1 ~ ~ I il ., 1 1 1 ,. i It 1 I s ~ r ~ i I , ,~ ~ i `~ , i 1 1, . ... ~~ ~ - I ~ f f' ,~ - ~ ,





WHILE the death of Samson has in it all the elements of a Greek tragedy, the combat between David and Goliath breathes the.very spirit of Epic poetry. The resemblance of Goliath in all respects to a Homeric hero is striking. We might call him an Ajax depicted from the Trojan point of view.

The slaying of giants is the delight of the infancy both of the individual and of the;,race. In the nursery we are told of Jack the Giant-killer, while in the Odyssey we read the adventures of Ulysses among the I,aestrygons and the Cyclopes, which have their manifest echo in the story of Sindbad the Sailor in the Arabian Nights. Older than all these is an Egyptian story of a fight with a giant, which dates from the XIIth Dynasty, and is therefore some 1300 years earlier than the time of David.'

But there are giants and giants. It was a Peripatetic doctrine that a difference in degree may constitute a difference in kind. Thus a ship, according to Aristotle, will not be really a ship, if it is either a span long or two stades. In the same way, though man is defined merely as a rational animal, yet inches have a good deal to do with our feeling of a common humanity. The giant that is to come home to us as a fellow-creature, whom we can either hate or love, must not go beyond all bounds. He must not be like the giant that met the children of Israel in the wilderness, of whom the Talmud has to tell-how Moses, being himself a strapping fellow thirty feet high, took a sword thirty feet long, and, making a leap of thirty feet into the air, just managed to nick that giant in the knee and bring him sprawling helpless to the ground. A giant like that we may dread, as we might some elemental force, but we cannot properly hate him, as we are expected to do in the case of a giant -

Kai -yap Bav"ta,' ErcrvKTO vc"pvov, o$& EuiKEi av8pi ye wrooayu,~, Wa piw vlitsvrv (Hom. Od. IX 190, 191.

1 Budge History of Egypt III, p. 8.




Now Goliath, especially as depicted in the Septuagint, is a giant within quite reasonable limits. In his braggart defiance of 'the armies of the living God' he reminds us of the huge Gaul who stood insulting the might of Rome, until Torquatus slipped under his targe and stabbed him with his short blade (Liv. VII 9, 1U), or of that other champion of the same race, whom Valerius Corvinus despatched with the aid of the heaven-sent raven (Liv. VII 26).

The Hexateuch is full of references to races of extraordinary stature that inhabited Canaan before and at the time of the Israelitish invasion. It was the report which the spies brought of these giant forms that chiefly daunted the people and made them plot a return to Egypt (Nb. 144) -° And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight' (Nb. 1311). But their bulk does not seem to have helped these people to survive in the struggle for existence. The Emiln, 'a people great and many and tall as the Anakim' (Dt. 21") were driven out by the Moabites; and the Zamzummim, who are similarly described, were in like manner dispossessed by the Ammonites (Dt. 22°~ n : cp. Gen. 14~ ; Og, the king of Bashan, notwithstanding the dimensions of his bedstead, fell an easy prey to the Israelites under Moses; and the children of Anak themselves, who dwelt about Hebron (Nb. 1222: Josh. 151-1, 21'1), were utterly destroyed by Joshua out of the land of the children of Israel.' I Only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod ' we are told in this context ° did some remain' (Josh. 111"). Of this stock evidently sprung Goliath and the others who 'were born to the giant in Gath' (ii S. 211).

In the account of the introduction of Saul to David it is more than usually manifest that two different narratives are mixed up. In the one David is known and loved of Saul before his combat with Goliath (i S. 16n), in the other Saul asks Abner who he is, when he sees him going forth against the Philistine (170) ; in the one David on his first introduction to Saul is already I a mighty man of valour and a man of war and prudent in speech' (161'), in the other he is a mere stripling (17 n; in the one he is Saul's armour-bearer (1621) and presumably on the field in that capacity, in the other he comes up unexpectedly from the country (17 n. The additional touch of

1 Josh, 11'1, The feat is ascribed to Caleb in lbl',



romance imparted to the story by the extreme youth of the hero has made the latter version predominate, not only in our minds, but in that of the Biblical editor, who seems to have adapted his language to it. Josephus attempts to harmonise the two by saying that, when the war broke out with the Philistines, Saul sent David back to his father Jesse, being content with the three sons of the latter whom he had in his army (Ant. VI 9 § 3). This however does not help us over the difficulty of Saul being represented as not knowing David at the time of the combat, which has had to be accounted for as a consequence of mental derangement.

'1'o us at present the matter is considerably simplified by the fact that the Seventy themselves (or, more properly, the translator of this book) seem to have made a bold essay at the work of higher criticism. The Vatican manuscript of the Septuagint contains the account of David being sent for to play on the harp to Saul, but it does not contain 16'2-l1, in which David is introduced as a new character making his first entry on the scene, nor does it contain 170-18°, which cohere with 16'21, but not with the story of the harp playing. Of course the reason why the Seventy give only one account may be that they had only one account to give: but there seems to be some reason to believe that they deliberately suppressed one version of the story with a view to consistency. But this question had better be left to the Higher Critics. This much however is evident to the least instructed intelligence, namely that the omission of 16'x' improves the sequence of the story as much as it impairs its picturesqueness. David was left in attendance on Saul in 1628 and can be made to speak to him in 1732 without further introduction. His words of encouragement follow suitably on the statement in 16'1 that Saul and all Israel were dismayed.

The omissions of the Vatican manuscript are supplied in the Alexandrian, but the translation presents the appearance of being by another hand from that of the rest of the book. Thus in v. 19 iv 7Y~ KoL"Sv rids 8pvos is used for IN r,q^ KowA 'MA of 218; in v. 23 again the strange expression av~p o d~xcQOaltos takes the place of dv~p 8uvaros in 174 (op. 0 BvvaTbs airru:v 1781); while 4~Jltartaios is employed, instead of aWOvXos as in 219.

The story of David and Goliath represents the battle of Ephes- Dammim as a mere rout of the Philistines after their champion had



been slain. Yet there are passages in the Bible which have been thought to set the matter in a different light. The Pas-Dammim of i Chr. 11'$ can hardly be any other place than the Ephes-Dammim of i S. 171, with which the margin of the Revised Version identifies it. Now at Pas-Dammim ° the Philistines were gathered together to battle, where was a plot of ground full of barley; and the people fled from before the Philistines' (i Chr. 113: cp. ii S. 231' iz). But David and his three mighty men ~ stood in the midst of the plot and defended it and slew the Philistines; and the Lord saved them by a great victory.' But, though the place of this incident is the same with that of the slaying of Goliath, the time seems altogether different, the battle of the barley-plot belonging to the period when David was I in the hold.' 1 The account of David's mighty men given in ii S. 28110 and in i Chr. 11'°-" looks like a fragment of genuine history, perhaps drawn from the records of Jehosaphat the son of Ahilud, who was official chronicler to David and Solomon (ii S. 8'e, 2014: i K. 43). A union of this with the story of David and Goliath seems illegitimate. The latter belongs to the realm of romance: its date is of all time and no time. David, the ruddy and comely youth, will remain for ever the slayer of Goliath, just as William Tell, in spite of the Reverend Baring-Gould, will always have shot the apple off his son's head. It is best to leave the matter so. Indeed, if we began to treat the story as sober history, we might be driven to the conclusion that David never slew Goliath at all. For in ii S: 1219 we have the statement that I Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam,' was slain by one El-hanan of Bethlehem. Professor Kirkpatrick in his commentary on this passage says-° There is no difficulty in supposing that another giant, beside the one slain by David, bore the name of Goliath.' St. Jerome however found so much difficulty about this that he boldly identified El-hanan with David. The passage in which this disconcerting statement is contained (ii S. 211~1zr~ has no connexion with its context and looks like another fragment of the official chronicle, from which we have supposed the list of David's mighty men to have been drawn. There are four giants mentioned, of whom Goliath is one, and each of these has his own slayer. Then the fragment concludes with these words-° These four were born to the giant in Gath; and

1 i. e. the cave of Adullam. i S. 221.4 : ii S. 231$· u,



they fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants.' David then, as a matter of fact, would seem to have slain Goliath not directly and in his own person, but on the principle of -Qui facit per alium facit per se, just as Caesar says that he cut to pieces the Tigurini on the banks of the Saone, whereas Plutarch and Appian let us know that it was his lieutenant Labienus who did so, or rather, if we are going to be exacts the soldiers under him.


1. dXX6*vXov: _ -DvXccrleca ; cp. Jdg. 141. Josephus tails them IiaAavcrivoc.-aapeWsoh4s: here armies. Jdg. 1325 n.-'ISovWafas: a mistake in the Greek text for 'IovBafar. R.V.

which belongeth to Judah. ' -'E+ep OW: a corruption for ° in Ephes-Dammim.' A has evaQreo3oppecv. The meaning of the name is I boundary of blood.'

2. airot: not a translation of a corresponding Hebrew pronoun, but due to a misreading of the word rendered in our version 4 of Elah.' The Vale of the Terebinth was a pass running up from the Philistine plain into the highlands of Judah.

3. 1wa"vAa . . . _YTa"v9a: a classical writer would have balanced these clauses by jdv and 89. Cp. Josh. 822 o5roc ivrevBev Kai 4-rot ivrevBev. Jdg. 1829 n. - KfrKacp Avd Ocov airriov : He-


brew ° and the valley between them.' A Kac o avXwv ava ,uevov avrwv. We may surmise that KfKaV is a corruption for Kai d adXwv.

4. &v;)p 8vvards: R.V. I a champion.' The word in the original seems to mean I man of the space between the two lines' (,ueralXpcov). - arapaTdjewS : aapctraE:r = Latin aciea occurs in Attic authors, but came into more frequent use in Hellenistic Greek.reco·d<pwv afjXewv KaL o-rm9aWfjs : a cubit is, roughly afoot and a half, and a span is half a cubit. According to this statement then Goliath would have been six feet nine inches high. Josephus (Ant. VI 9 § 1) agrees with the LXX -fiv ydp ai7yiuY revQdpwv Kai cavBapjs. But the Hebrew text raises his stature to six cubits and a spans which would make him nine feet nine inches.


5. srEpvKe~aXala: aHellenisticword used by 1'olybius and also by St. Paul (i Th. 5$: Eph. 81'). It occurs eleven times in the LXX. The words ° of brass' do not appear in the Greek, perhaps because they are implied by the use of 7mpIKE(p0.X0.1a, just as cassis in Latin implies that the helmet is of metal; but in verse 38 we have xaAK$vadded.-BJwci8wrbv: Es. 2822·24: i Mac. 635 TEBwpaKLO'lAevouS ev d4c9Ewrois. - abrds : not to be explained by any niceties of Greek scholarship, but due to the presence of the pronoun she' at this point in the Hebrew.arivTe XW 8&Es a'1KXwv : about 157 pounds avoirdupois. -o-1KJLwv: shekel is usually thus represented in the LXX, though it is not uncommon to find S18paXwov used for it, as in Gen. 2315 : Dt. 2229 : ii Esdr. 1516. 1lyaos is used by Xenophon (Anab. I b § 6 ) for a Persian coin of the value of 71 Attic obols.-Ka1 c%8fipov: not in the Hebrew, according to which the champion's defensive armour is of bronze and his spear-head only of iron. This closely agrees with the use of the metals as represented in the Iliad, where bronze is the material in common use for armour and weapons, while iron, though not unknown, is (at least in the

earlier strata of the Homeric poetry) rare and exceptional.

6. ao·ats XakKfj: this is intrinsically more probable than the Hebrew reading, which makes Goliath have a 'javelin' of brass between his shoulders, but it leaves his armour-bearer nothing to carry. What seems needed here, to complete the account of his equipment, is a mention of the sword which is referred to in verses 45 and bl. This, if he were armed in Homeric fashion, would be suspended by a strap passing over one shoulder. Cp. Il. lI 45 -

8poe 8' dp ymcw Pd,Aero tloos dpyv p5qXov.

7. Kovrds: this word in classical Greek means a punt-pole (called a qualat on the Norfolk Broads at this day), as in Ear. Ale. 254. In later Greek it means a spear-shaft. Cp. Ezk. 399. Vegetius speaks of conti sniasibiles (p. 140 1. 4, ed. Lang) and uses contati for horsemen armed with lances. - WfWaKXov : only here, at least in this form. See L. & S. The Hebrew is the same which is rendered elsewhere ~'as dvrfov uowaGvrwv ii K. 2119:1 Chr. 1128, 206. - 1JaKOWIwv PIKkwv : about nineteen pounds.-d alpwv: Gen. 4628 n.



8. &XXb+v)Los: Hebrew, `thePhilistine,' meaning that he stands for the Philistines. -'ESpaCov Kat 2aoOL: Hebrew, `servants to Saul.' YaodX may here be meant for the genitive. 'Eppaioa is the usual word for Israelites in the mouth of a foreigner. Ex. hB n. - lawoSS: § 13. - KaTapfjTao : quite classical, like the Latin in certamen descendere. -Ac-610a . . . Eis &o6kovs: § 90.

10. o-fjphpov Ev ri hp1p¢ ra4,^p : this amplification is not due to imitation of the Hebrew, which has simply ° this day: Ex. 614 n. It is not necessary to suppose that we have here a ° doublet? - povopaXAcropAv: in the L%X

povopaxeiv occurs only here and in the title of Psalm lbl, which has reference to this incident.

32. owmEO-lTw: used here like Latin concidere = collapse . -TO0 Kvptov Pwv: this represents a better Hebrew reading than that of the Massoretic text ` of a man.' ` My lord' is the usual form of address to a king and corresponds to `thy servant' in the next sentence.-he airrbv: upon him, a literal rendering of the Hebrew.

33. 6,v;ip wokEpwrlis: a poetical expression common in the L%%.

34. IIovp,afvwv jv: § 72.-gTav JpXvro : whenever there came. § 104. -6 Mwv Kal *i b,pKOS: a lion or a bear.


Generic use of the article, as in the Hebrew. § 44. -;i &pKOS: later form of dLpKros and one of those epicene nouns which use the feminine for both sexes.

35. +4pvyyos : throat, Hebrew, °beard' Josephus (Ant. VI 9 § 3) makes David take up the lion by the tail and dash him against the ground.

38. oLX1 vopefio-opw uTX.: the Greek here is much fuller than the Hebrew, as may be seen by a comparison with the English version.

37. K16PLOS KrX.: before this the Hebrew has the words I And David said,' which appear superfluous. On the other hand it may be maintained that they are in the Hebrew manner, giving the substance of what has been

already said, as in verse 10.-ilAetrai: § 21.

38. p,av8vav: according to L. & S. 1eav8vas is a Persian word meaning ° a woollen cloak,' but the word in the Hebrew text is very like the Greek, especially in the form used in ii K.104 i Chr.194. MavBGas is employed seven

times all together in the L%%. - KE+a w a4TOfi : after these words the Hebrew has ° and he clad him in a coat of mail.'

39. Kal $towEV . . . pav86ov abroiR.Y. ° And David girded his sword

upon his apparel.' - afrTOiY . . . a*ro4: probably both meant by the translator to refer to Saul as the subject of Itcu a-ev. - &OSrfacEV . . . Big: I he was wearied when he had walked once or


twice.' R. V. ' he essayed to go.' The Greek here seems to indicate a better Hebrew reading than that in our text. -d.+a.1,p0i?LV KTX.: the Hebrew has the verb in the singular, referring to David.

40. reksfovs: Hebrew, 'smooth.' Lucian's recension has XElovs, which is no doubt right. -XEVpAppov: XElpap pos is shortened from XEydppoos, Attic XE1Wdppovs. It is the proper word for a river-bed which is dry in summer. iii 8. 177 n.-Ka8LCP: diminutive of Kddos, Latin cadus. In the LXX only here and in 49. The Hebrew word which it represents is a very general one, like Greek cKEUOS or Latin vas. - rtp gwm airr4 its o-vkkoyfw: which he I&a_d for collecting things in. The word rendered ° scrip' in our version is derived from a verb meaning 'to collect' -Tav &XAd+v)Lov: after this comes verse 41 in the Hebrew, which is absent from the Greek.

42. Ka1 ECFEV K TA.: shorter than the Hebrew. Cp. R.V.-roXUfi8: in verse 4 roatdB. -srvppfiKqs: Gen. 262'

i K. 1612. The word is used by Artapanus in his description of Moses (Eus. Pr. Ev. IX 27 ad,>Zn.) and is found in Papyri of the latter half of the third century B.C.

43. 1v iS&S&p: § 91 . For the particular expression 4v pa#dW cp. i Cor. 421.-Kal Wovs: these words are not in the Hebrew, but they add point to the question of Goliath. - Kal EIsrEv . . . KVV69: this repartee of David's appears only in the Greek, but it seems not without bearing on the cursing which follows. Josephus (Ant. VIII 9 § 4) has also preserved it -M,y avrJv

dvrt d,vBpwaov KGva Elvat SoKEi; '0 d' odxl rotovrov d,Xad rcat XElptu Kvvds a6rav YO/.413'ELV I17rEKplvaTO. 44. K'r'IiYE?w : properly used of cattle which constituted wealth (Kr&cBae) in early times. Here put for


9,iplocr, which A has. The Hebrew word which it is used to translate originally meant ' dumb creatures,' and is used of beasts either tame or wild.

45. Iv AM,ri8L: Hebrew, c with a javelin.'- B.vpiov AEOfr KTX.: taken as they stand these words ought to mean of the LORD God of the hosts of the army of Israel.' But Beov and Pal3awB seem to have accidentally changed place. The passage should run-Kv pfou vapa&5B, Beou" rapar6.temr 'IQpahX. lapawB is a transliteration from the Hebrew and means ° of hosts.' It is thought to have referred originally to the hosts of heaven, but this passage is enough to show that it was not so understood in the writer's time. For other instances of transliteration in

place of translation cp. Jdg. 136 varetp, iii K. 194 paBAiv, iv K. 214 do¢ur, iv K. 1916 xepovl3etv.

46. cfjpepov: not in the Hebrew. -8~a3: § 21 .-Td K4M Qov Kat: not in the Hebrew. -rrapoWpohSis: Es. 149 n.-Arlptots: the Hebrew word here is different from that in verse 44 and means literally c living creatures.'

47. hA,Io-in : i. e. the assembled Israelites. Cp. 192° T~v iKKArfotav riw irpo¢7Tiuv.

48. Kai dcWv-q uTX. : the Greek in this verse is much shorter than the Hebrew; cp. R. V.

49. Wov Iva: § 2. - 8id rids wepvKEipaXafas : not in the Hebrew. -1irt ~rilv y5w : after this in the Hebrew comes verse 50, which is not in the Greek.


Sl. riv ISoW*atav afiro"v: after this the Hebrew has I and drew it out of the sheath thereof.'

52. 'IcpalX KaL 'IovSa: from this it may fairly be inferred that the writer lived after the separation of the two kingdoms. -TE9: Gath. The Hebrew here has Gal, the same word which is translated valley in 3. Here it is taken by the R. V. as a proper name, but no such place is otherwise known. It seems likely therefore that the LXX here has preserved the right reading. If the Philistines fled down the I Vale of the Terebinth,' the pass by which they had entered the highlands, Gath would lie straight before them; while some of the fugitives

may have diverged to the right and made for Ekron (Hb.) or continued their course to the gate of Askelon (LXX).-'AwKbXauvos: Hebrew Ekron, as in the LXX at the end of this verse. - EimPav: § 18. - rwv ,rvkaov

R. V. I to Shaaraim,' which means I the two gates.'

53. IKKXwoYTES 6vtow: turning aside from after. - K aTvic4TOVV r&s Wapep.sokds airrc3v : trod down their armies. R. V. ° spoiled their camp.'

1;4. eis 'IEpovo-a,kiW : Jerusalem was still a Jebusite stronghold, and was captured later by David himself. According to 211 s the sword of Goliath was deposited in the sanctuary at Nob, a few miles to the north of Jerusalem.



CCEL home page
This document is from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at
Calvin College. Last modified on 08/11/06. Contact the CCEL.
Calvin seal: My heart I offer you O Lord, promptly and sincerely