11. For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,
11 Apparuit enim gratia Dei salutaris omnibus hominibus
12. Teaching us, that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
12 erudiens nos ut abnegantes impietatem et saecularia desideria sobrie et iuste et pie vivamus in hoc saeculo
13. Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Savior Jesus Christ;
13 expectantes beatam spem et adventum gloriae magni Dei et salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi
14. Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.
14 qui dedit semet ipsum pro nobis ut nos redimeret ab omni iniquitate et mundaret sibi populum acceptabilem sectatorem bonorum operum
15. These things speak, and exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no man despise thee.
15 haec loquere et exhortare et argue cum omni imperio nemo to contemnat
"that we may serve him in holiness and righteousness
all the days of our life." (Luke 1:74, 75.)
For the same reason Paul says,
He adds, in this
It is uncertain whether these words should be read together thus, "the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, the great God and our Savior," or separately, as of the Father and the Son, "the glory of the great God, and of our Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ."6 The Arians, seizing on this latter sense, have endeavored to prove from it, that the Son is less than the Father, because here Paul calls the Father "the great God" by way of distinction from the Son. The orthodox teachers of the Church, for the purpose of shutting out this slander, eagerly contended that both are affirmed of Christ. But the Arians may be refuted in a few words and by solid argument; for Paul, having spoken of the revelation of the glory of "the great God," immediately added "Christ," in order to inform us, that that revelation of glory will be in his person; as if he had said that, when Christ shall appear, the greatness of the divine glory shall then be revealed to us.
Hence we learn, first, that there is nothing that ought to render us more active or cheerful in doing good than the hope of the future resurrection; and, secondly, that believers ought always to have their eyes fixed on it, that they may not grow weary in the right course; for, if we do not wholly depend upon it, we shall continually be carried away to the vanities of the world. But, since the coming of the Lord to judgment might excite terror in us, Christ is held out to us as our "Savior," who will also be our judge.
1 "We have seen that we ought to preach daily that grace which was declared at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. This is a wonderful mystery, that God was manifested in time flesh, and that, at the same time, he hath strewn to us his heavenly glory, that we may be united to it. In this manner all pastors ought to be employed; for when they shall unceasingly illustrate that wisdom which God hath declared to us in the person of his Son, it is certain that the time will not be lost. And this is what Paul says in another passage, (Ephesians 3:18,) that it is the height, and depth, and length, and breadth, and thickness of all knowledge. When we shall have extended our views to explore as far as possible-when we shall descend into the depth to search out all that is concealed from us-when we shall go beyond the length and breadth of the sea, we shall have a wisdom (he says) as high and as deep, as long and as broad as this. when we shall know the infinite love of God which God hath showed to Us in the person of his only begotten Son."--Fr. Ser.
2 "We now see why Paul speaks of all men, and thus we may judge of the folly of some who pretend to expound the Holy Scriptures, and do not understand their style, when they say, 'And God wishes that every person should be saved; the grace of God hath appeared for the salvation of every person; it follows, then, that there is free-will, that there is no election, that none have been predestinated to salvation.' If those men spoke it ought to be with a little more caution. Paul did not mean in this passage, or in 1 Timothy 2:6, anything else than that the great are called by God, though they are unworthy of it; that men of low condition, though they are despised, are nevertheless adopted by God, who stretches out his hand to receive them. At that time, because kings and magistrates were mortal enemies of the gospel, it might be thought that God had rejected them, and that they cannot obtain salvation. But Paul says that the door must not be shut against them, and that, eventually, God may choose some of this company, though their case appear to be desperate Thus, in this passage, after speaking of time poor slaves who were not reckoned to belong to the rank of men, he says that God did not fail, on that account, to show himself compassionate towards them, and that he wishes that the gospel should be preached to those to whom men do not deign to utter a word. Here is a poor man, who shall be rejected by us, we shall hardly say, God bless him! and God addresses him in an especial manner, and declares that he is his Father, and does not merely say a passing word, but stops him to say, 'Thou art of my flock, let my word be thy pasture, let it be the spiritual food of thy soul.' Thus we see that this word is highly significant, when it is said that the grace of God hath appeared fully to all men."--Fr. Ser.
3 "It presents us with the strongest motives to obedience. 'The grace of God teacheth us to deny ungodliness.' What chains bind faster and closer than love? Here is love to our nature in his incarnation, love to us, though enemies, in his death and passion: encouragements to obedience by the proffers of pardon for former rebellions. By the disobedience of man God introduces his redeeming grace, and engages his creature to more ingenuous and excellent returns than his innocent state could oblige him to. In his created state he had goodness to move him, he hath the same goodness now to oblige him as a creature, and a greater love and mercy to oblige him as a repaired creature; and the terror of justice is taken off, which might envenom his heart as a criminal. In his revolted state he had misery to discourage him; in his redeemed state he hath love to attract him. Without such a way, black despair had seized upon the creature exposed to a remediless misery, and God would have hail no returns of love from the best of his earthly works; but if any sparks of ingenuity be left, they will be excited by the efficacy of this argument."- Charnock.
4 "On the expression
5 "En ce present monde." "In this present world."
6 "Of these words the most natural sense, and that required by the 'proprietas linguae,'is, beyond all doubt, the one assigned by almost all the ancients from Clem. Alex. downwards, and by the early modern expositors, as Erasmus, Grotius, and Beza, and also by some eminent expositors and theologians of later times, as Bishops Pearson and Bull, Wolff, Matthaei, and Bishop Middleton, namely, 'Looking for (or rather, looking forward to; comp. Job 2:9, and see Grotius) the blessed hope, even the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ.' The cause of the ambiguity in our common version is ably pointed out, and the above version established on the surest grounds, by Bishop Middleton and Professor Scholefield. But, besides the argument founded on the 'propriety of language,' that of Beza, who urges that
7 "Christ expiated sin, not encouraged it; he died to make your peace, but he died to make you holy; 'to purify a people to himself,' (Titus 2:14.) The ends of Christ's death cannot be separated. He is no atoner, where he is not a refiner. It is as certain as any word the mouth of God hath spoken, that 'there is no peace to the wicked,' (Isaiah 48:22.) A guilty conscience, and an impure, will keep up the amity with Satan and enmity with God. He that allows himself in any sin deprives himself of the benefit of reconciliation. This reconciliation must be mutual; as God lays down his wrath against us, so we must throw down our arms against him. As there was a double enmity, one rooted in nature, another declared by wicked works; or rather, one enmity in its root, and another in its exercise, (Colossians 1:21,) so there must be an alteration of state, and an alteration of acts."-Charnock.