2 Corinthians 4:13-18
13. We having the same spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; we also Believe, and therefore speak;
13. Habentes autem eundem Spiritum fidei, quemadmodum scriptum est (Psalm 116:10) Credidi, propterea loquutus sum: nos quoque credimus, ideo et loquimur:
14. Knowing that he which raised up the Lord Jesus, shall raise up us also by Jesus, and shall present us with you.
14. Scientes, quod qui suscitavit Dominum Iesum, nos etiam cum Iesu suscitabit, et constituet vobiscum.
15. For all things are for your sakes, that the abundant grace might, through the thanksgiving of many, redound to the glory of God.
15. Nam omnia propter vos, ut gratia qum(abundaverit propter gratiarum actionem, qu(a multis proficiscetur, abundet in gloriam Dei.
16. For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day.
16. quamobrem non deficimus: verum etsi externus homo noster corrumpitur, noster internus renovatur de die in diem.
17. For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory;
17. Levitas enim afflictionis nostrae supramodum momentanea, 1 mternum supramodum pondus glorim operatur in nobis (vel, motentatea levitas operatur in excellentia excellenter.)
18. While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.
18. Dum non spectamus ea qu(videntur, sed qu(non videntur: ham qut videntur, temporaria sunt: qu(autem non videntur, aeterna.
13. Having the same spirit. This is a correction of the foregoing irony. He had represented the condition of the Corinthians as widely different from his own, (not according to his own judgment, but according to their erroneous view,) inasmuch as they were desirous of a gospel that was pleasant and free from all molestation of the cross, and entertained less honorable views of him, because his condition was less renowned. Now, however, he associates himself with them in the hope of the same blessedness. "Though God spares you, and deals with you more indulgently, while he treats me with somewhat more severity, this diversity, nevertheless, will be no hinderance in the way of the like glorious resurrection awaiting both of us. For where there is oneness of faith, there will, also, there be one inheritance." It has been thought, that the Apostle speaks here of the holy fathers, who lived under the Old Testament, and represents them as partakers with us, in the same faith. This, indeed, is true, but it does not accord with the subject in hand. For it is not Abraham, or the rest of the fathers, that he associates with himself in a fellowship of faith, but rather the Corinthians, whereas they separated themselves from him by a perverse ambition. "However my condition," says he, "may appear to be the worse for the present, we shall, nevertheless, one day be alike participants in the same glory, for we are connected together by one faith." Whoever will examine the connection attentively, will perceive, that this is the true and proper interpretation. By metonymy, he gives the name of the spirit of faith 2 to faith itself, because it is a gift of the Holy Spirit.
As it is written. What has given occasion for the mistake 3 is, that he quotes the testimony of David. It ought, however, to be taken in connection with the confession -- not with the oneness of faith, or if you prefer it, it agrees with what follows -- not with what goes before, in this way: "Because we have an assured hope of a blessed resurrection, we are bold to speak and preach what we believe, as it is written, I believed, therefore have I spoken." Now, this is the commencement of Psalm 116, 4 where David acknowledges, that, when he had been reduced to the last extremity, he was so overpowered that he almost gave way, but, having soon afterwards regained confidence, he had overcome that temptation. Accordingly, he opens the Psalm thus: I believed, therefore will I speak. For faith is the mother 5 of confession. Paul, it is true, stirring himself up to imitate him, 6 exhorts the Corinthians to do the same, and, in accordance with the common Greek translation, has used the preterite instead of the future, but this is of no consequence 7 For he simply means to say, that believers ought to be magnanimous, and undaunted, in
confessing 8 what they have believed with their heart.
(Romans 10:9, 10.)
Let now our pretended followers of Nicodemus 9 mark, what sort of fiction they contrive for themselves in the place of faith, when they would have faith remain inwardly buried, and altogether silent, and glory in this wisdom -- that they utter, during their whole life, not a single word of right confession.
15. For all things are for your sakes. He now associates himself with the Corinthians, not merely in the hope of future blessedness, but also in these very afflictions, in which they might seem to differ from him most widely, for he lets them know, that, if he is afflicted, it is for their benefit. Hence it follows, that there was good reason why they should transfer part of them to themselves. What Paul states, depends first of all on that secret fellowship, which the members of Christ have with one another, but chiefly on that mutual connection and relationship, which required more especially to be manifested among them. Now this admonition was fraught with great utility to the Corinthians, and brought with it choice consolation. For what consolation there is in this -- that while God, sparing our weakness, deals with us more gently, those that are endowed with more distinguished excellence, are afflicted for the common advantage of all! They were also admonished, that, since they could not aid Paul otherwise, they should, at least, help him by their prayers and sympathy.
while he was weighed down, he was, nevertheless, not in anxiety: while oppressed with poverty, he was not left destitute, etc.,
(2 Corinthians 4:8, 9,)
and in fine, that he had a deliverance continually afforded him from every kind of evil 11 This grace, he says, overflows. By this he means, that it was not confined to himself personally, so that he alone enjoys it, but it extends itself farther -- namely, to the Corinthians, to whom it was of great advantage. When he makes the overflowing of God's gift consist in gratitude, tending to the glory of its Author, he admonishes us, that every blessing that God confers upon us perishes through our carelessness, if we are not prompt and active in rendering thanks.
16. For which cause we faint not. 12 He now, as having carried his point, rises to a higher confidence than before. "There is no cause," says he, "why we should lose heart, or sink down under the burden of the cross, the issue of which is not merely so desirable to myself, but is also salutary to others." Thus he exhorts the Corinthians to fortitude by his own example, should they happen at any time to be similarly afflicted. Farther, he beats down that insolence, in which they in no ordinary degree erred, inasmuch as under the influence of ambition, they held a man in higher estimation, the farther he was from the cross of Christ.
Though our outward man. The outward man, some improperly and ignorantly confound with the old man, for widely different from this is the old man, of which we have spoken in Romans 4:6. Chrysostom, too, and others restrict it entirely to the body; but it is a mistake, for the Apostle intended to comprehend, under this term, everything that relates to the present life. As he here sets before us
There is some degree of obscurity in Paul's words, for as he says, With hyperbole unto hyperbole, 17 so the Old Interpreter, and Erasmus 18 have thought that in both terms the magnitude of the heavenly glory, that awaits believers is extolled; or, at least, they have connected them with the verb worketh out. To this I have no objection, but as the distinction that I have made is also not unsuitable, I leave it to my readers to make their choice.
Worketh out an eternal weight. Paul does not mean, that this is the invariable effect of afflictions; for the great majority are most miserably weighed down here with evils of every kind, and yet that very circumstance is an occasion of their heavier destruction, rather than a help to their salvation. As, however, he is speaking of believers, we must restrict exclusively to them what is here stated; for this is a blessing from God that is peculiar to them -- that they are prepared for a blessed resurrection by the common miseries of mankind.
As to the circumstance, however, that Papists abuse this passage, to prove that afflictions are the causes of our salvation, it is exceedingly silly; 19 unless, perhaps, you choose to take causes in the sense of means, (as they commonly speak.) We, at least, cheerfully acknowledge, that
we must through many tribulations 20
enter into the kingdom of heaven, (Acts 14:22,)
and as to this there is no controversy. While, however, our doctrine is, that the momentary lightness of afflictions worketh out in us an eternal weight 21 of life, for this reason, that all the sons of God are
predestinated to be conformed to Christ, (Romans 8:29,)
in the endurance of the cross, and in this manner are prepared for the enjoyment of the heavenly inheritance, which they have through means of God's gracious adoption; Papists, on the other hand, imagine that they are meritorious works, 22 by which the heavenly kingdom is acquired.
I shall repeat it again in a few words. We do not deny that afflictions are the path by which the heavenly kingdom is arrived at, but we deny that by afflictions we merit the inheritance, 23 which comes to us in no other way than through means of God's gracious adoption. Papists, without consideration, seize hold of one little word, with the view of building upon it a tower of Babel, (Genesis 11:9,) -- that the kingdom of God is not an inheritance procured for us by Christ, but a reward that is due to our works. For a fuller solution, however, of this question, consult my Institutes. 24
While we look not. Mark what it is, that will make all the miseries of this world easy to be endured, -- if we carry forward our thoughts to the eternity of the heavenly kingdom. For a moment is long, if we look around us on this side and on that; but, when we have once raised our minds heavenward, a thousand years begin to appear to us to be like a moment. Farther, the Apostle's words intimate, that we are imposed upon by the view of present things, because there is nothing there that is not temporal; and that, consequently, there is nothing for us to rest upon but confidence in a future life. Observe the expression,
1 "Car nostre legere affliction qui est de peu de duree ... merueille, ou, qui ne fait que passer;" -- "For our light affliction, which is of marvellously short duration, or, which does but pass away."
2 Calvin adverts to this form of expression in the Institutes, (volume 2) as an evidence that faith is implanted by the Divine Spirit. -- Ed.
3 "Que i'ay dit;" -- "That I have mentioned." Calvin refers to the mistake of supposing that Paul alludes to the Old Testament believers. -- Ed.
4 "The Septuagint, and some other ancient versions, make the latter part of the 116th Psalm" (commencing with the Psalm 116:10 -- I believed, therefore have I spoken) "a distinct Psalm, separate from the former, and some have called it the Martyr's Psalm, I suppose for the sake of Psalm 116:15." -- Henry's Commentary. -- Ed.
5 "Comme la mere;" -- "As it were, the mother."
6 "S'accourageant ... imiter cest exemple de Dauid;" -- "Stirring himself up to imitate this example of David"
7 "I believed, for I did speak, (Psalm 116:10) -- which is a sure proof of the presence of faith. Confession and faith are inseparably connected. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:13. The Apostle places, after the example of the Septuagint, therefore instead of for: 'I believed, therefore I spake,' without any material alteration of the sense." -- Hengstenberg on the Psalms, (Edin. 1848,) volume 3 p. 372. -- Ed.
8 A faire confession de bouche;" -- "In making confession with the mouth.
9 "There were also at this time" (about the year 1540) "certain persons who, having renounced the Protestant faith through dread of persecution, flattered themselves, that there was no harm in remaining in the external communion of the Church of Rome, provided they embraced the true religion in their hearts. And because Calvin who condemned so pernicious a sentiment was considered by them as carrying his severity to an extreme, he showed clearly that his opinion was in unison, not only with those of the fathers of the Church, but also with the doctrine of the most learned theologians of the age, such as Melancthon, Bucer, and Martyr, as well as the ministers of Zurich; and so completely extinguished that error, that all pious persons censured the Nicodemites -- a name given to those who defended their dissimulation by the example of Nicodemus." -- Mackenzie's Life of Calvin, p. 59. See also Calvin on John, vol. 1. p. 317, Calvin on the Psalms, vol. 5. p. 481; and Calvin's Tracts, volume 1: -- Ed.
10 "Ceste vnite et consentemente mutuel;" -- "That unity and mutual agreement."
11 "De toutes sortes de maux desquels il estoit assailli;" -- "From all sorts of evils with which he was assailed."
12 "For which cause we faint not. (
13 "Autres aides et commoditez;" -- "Other helps and conveniences."
14 "De iour en iour;" -- "From day to day."
15 Il est vray que l'homme exterieur tend ... decadence aussi bien es reprouuez et infideles;" -- "It is true that the outward man tends to decay quite as much in reprobates and unbelievers."
16 "En ce sentiment des maux qui passent tontesfois auec le temps;" -- "In this feeling of evils, which nevertheless pass away with the occasion."
17 A outrance par outrance;" -- "From extreme to extreme." "It is not merely eminent, but it is eminent unto eminence; excess unto excess; a hyperbole unto hyperbole -- one hyperbole heaped on another; and the expression means, that it is exceeding exceedingly glorious; glorious in the highest possible degree. The expression is the Hebrew form of denoting the highest superlative, and it means, that all hyperboles fail of expressing that external glory which remains for the just. It is infinite and boundless. You may pass from one degree to another; from one sublime height to another; but still an infinity remains beyond. Nothing can describe the uppermost height of that glory, nothing can express its infinitude." -- Barnes. Chrysostom explains the words
18 The words of the Vulgate are, "Supra modum in sublimitate;" -- "Above measure in elevation." The rendering of Erasmus is, "Mire supra modum;" -- "Wonderfully above measure." -- Ed.
19 "C'est vn argument trop debile;" -- "It is an exceedingly weak argument."
20 "Per multas tribulationes;" -- "Par beaucoup de tribulations;" -- "By many tribulations." This is the literal rendering of the original words made use of,
21 "St. Paul in this expression --
22 "Que les afflictions sont oeuures meritoires;" -- "That afflictions are meritorious works."
23 "L'heritage eternel;" -- "The everlasting inheritance."
24 See Institutes, volume 2. -- Ed.
25 "The word which is here rendered look signifies to take aim at, (