Romans 7:21-23

21. I find then a law, that, when I would do good, evil is present with me.

21. Reperio igitur Legem volenti mihi facere bonum quod mihi malum insideat. 1

22. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man:

22. Consentio enim Legi Dei secundum interiorem hominem.

23. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members,

23. Video autem alterum Legem in membris meis, repugnantem 2 legi mentis meæ, et captivum me reddentem legi peccati, quæ est in membris meis.

21. I find then, etc. Here Paul supposes a fourfold law. The first is the law of God, which alone is properly so called, which is the rule of righteousness, by which our life is rightly formed. To this he joins the law of the mind, and by this he means the prompt readiness of the faithful mind to render obedience to the divine law, it being a certain conformity on our part with the law of God. On the other hand, he sets in opposition to this the law of unrighteousness; and according to a certain kind of similarity, he gives this name to that dominion which iniquity exercises over a man not yet regenerated, as well as over the flesh of a regenerated man; for the laws even of tyrants, however iniquitous they may be, are called laws, though not properly. To correspond with this law of sin he makes the law of the members, that is, the lust which is in the members, on account of the concord it has with iniquity.

As to the first clause, many interpreters take the word law in its proper sense, and consider kata< or dia< to be understood; and so Erasmus renders it, "by the law;" as though Paul had said, that he, by the law of God as his teacher and guide, had found out that his sin was innate. But without supplying anything, the sentence would run better thus, "While the faithful strive after what is good, they find in themselves a certain law which exercises a tyrannical power; for a vicious propensity, adverse to and resisting the law of God, is implanted in their very marrow and bones."

22. For I consent 3 to the law of God, etc. Here then you see what sort of division there is in pious souls, from which arises that contest between the spirit and the flesh, which Augustine in some place calls the Christian struggle (luctam Christianam.) The law calls man to the rule of righteousness; iniquity, which is, as it were, the tyrannical law of Satan, instigates him to wickedness: the Spirit leads him to render obedience to the divine law; the flesh draws him back to what is of an opposite character. Man, thus impelled by contrary desires, is now in a manner a twofold being; but as the Spirit ought to possess the sovereignty, he deems and judges himself to be especially on that side. Paul says, that he was bound a captive by his flesh for this reason, because as he was still tempted and incited by evil lusts; he deemed this a coercion with respect to the spiritual desire, which was wholly opposed to them. 4

But we ought to notice carefully the meaning of the inner man and of the members; which many have not rightly understood, and have therefore stumbled at this stone. The inner man then is not simply the soul, but that spiritual part which has been regenerated by God; and the members signify the other remaining part; for as the soul is the superior, and the body the inferior part of man, so the spirit is superior to the flesh. Then as the spirit takes the place of the soul in man, and the flesh, which is the corrupt and polluted soul, that of the body, the former has the name of the inner man, and the latter has the name of members. The inner man has indeed a different meaning in 2 Corinthians 4:16; but the circumstances of this passage require the interpretation which I have given: and it is called the inner by way of excellency; for it possesses the heart and the secret feelings, while the desires of the flesh are vagrant, and are, as it were, on the outside of man. Doubtless it is the same thing as though one compared heaven to earth; for Paul by way of contempt designates whatever appears to be in man by the term members, that he might clearly show that the hidden renovation is concealed from and escapes our observation, except it be apprehended by faith.

Now since the law of the mind undoubtedly means a principle rightly formed, it is evident that this passage is very absurdly applied to men not yet regenerated; for such, as Paul teaches us, are destitute of mind, inasmuch as their soul has become degenerated from reason.

1 "Insideat," -- para>keitai>; the same verb in Romans 7:18, is rendered adest -- is present. It means, to lie near, to be at hand. -- Ed.

2 "Repugnantem, -- ajntistrateu>omenon, placing itself in battle array, fighting or warring against, taking the field or marching against an enemy. Then follows "taking" an enemy "captive," aijcmalwti>zonta. There are two sorts of captives, willing and unwilling. The latter is the case here; for the Apostle compares himself to captives of war, which are made so by force. The same is meant as by the expression, "sold under sin," verse 14, -- the constrained condition of being subject during life, to the annoyances, to the tempting, seducing, and deadening power of innate Corruption. -- Ed.

3 "Consentio," sunh>domai: it is not the same verb as in Romans 7:16; this signifies more than consent, for it includes gratification and delight. See Psalm 1:2. The verb is found only here. Macknight's version, "I am pleased with," is very feeble and inexpressive; Stuart's is better, "I take pleasure in;" but our common version is the best, "I delight in."

The ga<r here would be better rendered "indeed:" the Apostle makes declaration as to his higher principle; and then in the next verse he states more fully what he had said in Romans 7:21. This exactly Corresponds with his usual mode in treating subjects. He first states a thing generally, and afterwards more particularly, in more spedfic terms, and with something additional. -- Ed.

4 Some consider the conclusion of Romans 7:23, "to the law of sin which is in my members," as a paraphrase for "to itself;" as the Apostle describes it at the beginning as the law in his members: and the reason which may be assigned for the repetition is twofold, -- to preserve the distinction between it and "the law of the mind" in the preceding clause, -- and to give it a more distinctive character, by denominating it "the law of sin." We in fact find a gradation in the way in which it is set forth: in Romans 7:21, he calls it simply "a law;" in this verse he first calls it "another law in his members," and then, "the law of sin in his members."

The construction of Romans 7:21, is difficult. Pareus quotes Chrysostom as supposing su>mfhnai from Romans 7:16, to be understood after "law," so as to give this rendering, "I find then that the law assents to me desiring to do good," etc., that is, that the law of God was on his side, "though evil was present with him." He then gives his own view, it being essentially that of Augustine: he supposes o[ti kalo<v from Romans 7:16, to be understood after "law," and that o[ti, in the last clause, is to be construed "though:" the verse is then to be rendered thus, -- "I find then the law, that it is good to me desiring to do good, though evil is present with me;" The verse taken by itself may thus present a good meaning, but not one that harmonizes with the context, or that forms a part of the Apostle's argument. The only other construction that deserves notice is that of our own version, and of Calvin, and it is that alone which Corresponds with the context. It has been adopted by Beza, Grotius, Venema, Turrettin, Doddridge, and others.

This verse, and the two which follow, conclude the subject, and also explain what he had been saying about willing and doing. He in fact accounts here for the paradoxical statements which he had made, by mentioning the operation and working of two laws, which were directly contrary to one another. It seems to be a mistake that he alludes to four laws; for the law of the mind and the law of God are the same, under different names; it is that of the mind, because it belongs to and resides in the mind: and it is the law of God, because it comes from him, and is implanted by his Spirit. To the other law he also gives two names, the "law in his members," and the "law of sin." This view is confirmed by the last verse in the chapter, which contains a summary of the whole.

The latter part of Romans 7:23 is in character with the Hebraistic style, when the noun is stated instead of the pronoun; see Genesis 9:16; Psalm 50:23; and it is also agreeable to the same style to add the same sentiment with something more specific appended to it. This part then might be rendered thus, -- "and making me captive to itself, even to the law of sin, which is he my members." -- Ed.