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12 “See, I am coming soon; my reward is with me, to repay according to everyone’s work. 13I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.”


14 Blessed are those who wash their robes, so that they will have the right to the tree of life and may enter the city by the gates. 15Outside are the dogs and sorcerers and fornicators and murderers and idolaters, and everyone who loves and practices falsehood.

16 “It is I, Jesus, who sent my angel to you with this testimony for the churches. I am the root and the descendant of David, the bright morning star.”

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12. And—in none of our manuscripts. But A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, Coptic, and Cyprian omit it.

behold, I come quickly—(Compare Re 22:7).

my reward is with me—(Isa 40:10; 62:11).

to giveGreek, "to render."

every manGreek, "to each."

shall be—so B in Mai. But B in Tischendorf, and A, Syriac, read, "is."

13. I am AlphaGreek, "… the Alpha and the Omega." A, B, Vulgate, Syriac, Origen, and Cyprian transpose thus, "the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End." Andreas supports English Version. Compare with these divine titles assumed here by the Lord Jesus, Re 1:8, 17; 21:6. At the winding up of the whole scheme of revelation He announces Himself as the One before whom and after whom there is no God.

14. do his commandments—so B, Syriac, Coptic, and Cyprian. But A, Aleph, and Vulgate read, "(Blessed are they that) wash their robes," namely, in the blood of the Lamb (compare Re 7:14). This reading takes away the pretext for the notion of salvation by works. But even English Version reading is quite compatible with salvation by grace; for God's first and grand Gospel "commandment" is to believe on Jesus. Thus our "right" to (Greek, "privilege" or "lawful authority over") the tree of life is due not to our doings, but to what He has done for us. The right, or privilege, is founded, not on our merits, but on God's grace.

throughGreek, "by the gates."

15. But—so Coptic. But A, B, Hippolytus, Andreas, and Cyprian omit.

dogsGreek, "the dogs"; the impure, filthy (Re 22:11; compare Php 3:2).

maketh—including also "whosoever practiceth a lie" [W. Kelly].

16. mine angel—for Jesus is Lord of the angels.

unto you—ministers and people in the seven representative churches, and, through you, to testify to Christians of all times and places.

root … offspring of David—appropriate title here where assuring His Church of "the sure mercies of David," secured to Israel first, and through Israel to the Gentiles. Root of David, as being Jehovah; the offspring of David as man. David's Lord, yet David's son (Mt 22:42-45).

the morning star—that ushered in the day of grace in the beginning of this dispensation and that shall usher in the everlasting day of glory at its close.